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Josh Jung | z3351791 | Architectural Visual Communication Design ARCH 1393 Graduation Project | Bachelor of Architectural Computing Facult y of Built Envrionment | Universit y of New South Wales | Semester 2 | 2013



Faculty of Built Environment I would like to thank Stephen Peter, the Graduation Project course convenor and tutors Robert Walsh and Wesley Benn for their teaching throughout the semester for the Graduation Studio. College of Fine Arts Special Thanks to Tom Ellard and Jamil Miller, the lecturers from the School of Media Arts who spared their time to give me advice and feedback for my project. School of Arts and Media Special Thanks to Louise Ravelli, the Associate Professor from the School of Arts and Media, who taught me the concept and theory of visual communcation in her spare time.

Tzannes Associates I would like to thank Alec Tzanne, the Dean of the Faculty of Built Environment who did not hesitate to provide his time for discussion and help. Allsion Cronin, the senior architect from the Tzannes Associates who played a big role in the project. She supported me with her own time to make sure I was given all the information I needed for the project. Frasers Property I thank Scott and few other workers. The project manager from the Frasers Properties who spent his own time to guide me through the aspects of the site (from trigeneration plants to cooling towers) and demonstrate how the building is developing in detail.

Local Artist I give big thanks to Visual Artist Toby Knyvett, the Visual Artist. He taught me all sorts of interactive design techniques especially vvvv software. He spent a significant amount of time to teach me a range of different projection mapping methods and exhibition installation plannings. Colleagues I would like to thank my class mates who provided me with feedback and supported me throughout my project. Friends and Family I thank my family. They always supported me and cheered me up no matter what.






WHAT’S INSIDE 011 013 015 017 019

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Introduction Objectives Significance Background Rationale



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Wandering in Knowledge The Barangaroo Development IKEA Canal Isbael II Google H5

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Rendering Images Picturing Architecture Visual Thinking as Communication in Architecture Effective Presentation Design-Inspired Innovation Information Design

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Methodology Meeting Site Visit Storyboard Information Search Organising Information Visual Language Feedback Project Management








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Narrative Sounds Report Physical Model Projection Mapping Evaluation Conclusion Reference Biblography




introduction What is architectural visual communication design?

There are many problems that arise as a result of society’s understanding of the architectural profession. These issues stem from the inability of the public to grasp techinical concepts, which itself originates from a lack of architectural knowledge. I aim to bridge this gap, and both inform and educate the general public in relation to architectural language. Architectural information is intelligible only in drawings or text for architects to appreciate, which limits its accessability from the public. Miscommunication can create misunderstandings which further lead to disputes - resulting in a waste of time, money and energy.

These problems arise from a disparity between the specialised knowledge of architects (including language, communicative methods, illustrations and visualisation techniques) and the general knowledge of the public. It is my view that to alleviate these problems, a shift in communication techniques is needed. This project will address how architectural comunicative methods can be transformed in a way better suited for everyone. It will also look at how people receive (and perceive)visual information, and will investigate the techniques and materials used in the production of architecture to create a guideline for the general public.


objectives “ Designers can create normalcy out of chaos; they can clearly communicate ideas through the organizing and manipulating of words and pictures”

The primary objective of this project is to bridge the communication gap between the architectural field and the general community, by increasing understanding between professionals and the public. While information about proposals and current developments are publicly accessable, they are not always presented in a format that is easily understandable.

The specialised language, plans, designs, building reports and proposals – like every field – require specialised skills, knowledge and training for effective interpretation. It is neither necessary nor realistic for the public to stand on the same level as architects or designers in dialogue, but it is desirable that architects and designers will meet the public halfway. Although this may lead to information being technically incorrect, it will be more understandable and approachable to the public.

- Jeffery Veen

It is my aim to make the traditional communicative methods of architecture more inline with the methods of everyday communication by simplifying information and graphics. I will demonstrate this through the use of 3D models, landscaping and 2D drawings (including plan, elevation and section drawings).


rationale “Communication leads to community, that is, to understanding, intimacy and mutual valuing.� - Rollo May

I have chosen The Brewery Building to highlight the importance of bridging the communication divide between specialists in the architectural field and the public. Although a private development, the building is of great public importance.

As an iconic building still in the process of development, these communication channels are still open and negotiable. This makes the building of particular interest and significance.

It has too much history, and too much on offer, to not give just consideration to the communication channels between architectural specialists and the public.


background “Central Park represents an opportunity to blend new and old architecture – it is a brief from heaven.” - Alec Tzannes

As part of one of the biggest City of Sydney developments, The Brewery Building of The Central Park Development (Frasers Properties, 2005) is a heritage listed structure that is an important Sydney architectural icon – a rare surviving industrial site, demonstrating aspects of the building’s histrory from the 1890s to the present day. Standing on the outskirts of Sydney’s CBD for over 170 years, it has continually changed to suit the changes of its customers and the city as a whole.

It is expected that the adaptive reuse of the building will provide retail, commercial and community services (Heritage Interpretation Report, 2012), while still celebrating ‘the rich and robust character of the existing building through contemporary design’ (Environmental Assessment Report, 2012). The building complex’s 62m chimney flue will not only be preserved in it’s heritage listed form, but will become the centrepiece of the state-of-the-art tri-generation plant.


significance “ To design is to communicate clearly by whatever means you can control or master” - Milton Glaser

It is hoped that this project will impact on the industry and society by helping designers to create an “adaptable” visualisation platform. This will increase the effectiveness of the communicational impact into the marketing strategy of architects and designers.

Such changes will allow architects and designers to develop opportunities for more advanced creative and innovative design and present them more effectively, while creating a more understanding and architecturally satisfied public.




precedent studies how to respond to the continual challenges encountered previously

This chapter demonstrates a range of different precedent studies. In these precedent studies, media and communication examples in various professions were investigated in order to address new ideas and concepts in communicative visualisation. Visualisations such as animation, photography, diagrams and graphics are used in a way to provide informative presentations or a persuasive voice.

The precedent studies aim to look into the various advantages and disadvantages of the visual and communcative effectiveness. They also help us understand how society has been developing their communication methods with the influence of developments in technology. The works can be seen as great learning excercises in understanding: how ones intention is portrayed in visual contexts - that is, how we build our world through visuals .....


wandering in knowledge Wandering in Knowledge (2010) is a series of sculptures built from folded paper, on which digital data is projected.

The installation brings together traditional and modern academic materials and modes of research, serving to represent the flow of information and ideas that fills the exhibition space: The State and University Library Breman. The sculptures were created by students from the University of Arts Breman with the intention to o celebrate the 350th anniversary of the library by showing how the digital world’s search methods relate to that which has been traditionally accepted as natural.

Above the 15m high stairway, the sculpture fills the space with organic folds of paper, representing traditional sources of knowledge and communication methods - books. Projected onto the structure are an endless real-time bombardment of search terms and research topics flowing from the library server. The server captures random words searched by library users, then releases the data as both text and pictorial visualisations.

The sculptures create engagement and chances for interaction with the audience. The usually private researcher/research relationship is broken and makes the process public and shared. Information is there to be shared. The question is raised: as much as the methods of communication have changed over time, how has the information changed? It is clear that it is easier than ever to find information: 350 years of knowledge stored in the library are now accessible through the digital means of the database in a matter of seconds.


The audience’s interaction is one of literally ‘Wandering in Knowledge’, as the title of the work suggests. The work highlights the incredible amount of mental processes occurring in the library, in the moment, every moment. The material that Wandering in Knowledge sculpture made out of is an good example of an appreciation of traditional method of communication tools which are printed book and it also bridges the changes between traditional life style to modern digital life style.

Fortunately It was the best suitable space to fill in the stairway as it offers great dimly lit lighting effects where the projection lights can achieve a good outcome. The placement of the sculpture provides users of the library an engagement and an interactivity through various visual data presentation while one circulates the staircase. The most interesting achievement of this installation is how it summarises and simplifies data; the data of endless library resources and knowledge.

The installation presents data visually, which encourages users to appreciate the way in which information is conveniently collected. For example hashtags and tweets are used on the internet for users to track down specific topics they want to read conveniently. It was an inventive idea to dipslay the research history of users in a public library - systemically and simultaneiously collecting and organising keywords and ideas. The outcome (and observer) is a witnesses to how individual’s and their interests vary and differ.


Screenshot from In design live article “Barangaroo: Climate Positive�, Climate Positive Development Program Poster (2009).

barangaroo development The barangaroo Waterfront Greening Project is expected to be the second CBD in Sydney.

The Barangaroo Waterfront Greening Project is to provide foreshore parkland for the people of Sydney and to enhance the growth and positioning of Sydney as a growing hub of working, cultural and as a viable living centre. The Barangaroo plan has been redeveloped from the initial plan in 2003, and an amendment to the Concept Plan made by the Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority was approved in 2007. The Barangaroo project may be one of the most ambitious projects that Australia has attempted with a six billion dollar plan to renovate Barangaroo Precinct along the Sydney Harbour Waterfront.

Barangaroo South aims to extend Sydney’s Central Business District to the waterfront, potentially attracting global corporations. It is an attmept to raise the city’s standing as a key financial hub in the Asia Pacific region. Barangaroo Central aims to provide a mix of public domain, commercial and residential buildings.

The announcement of the Barangaroo project has created an enormous amout of local and global attention: the ideas; the six billion dollar budget; expansion of Central Business District in Sydney, and the design timer line up from the competition winner firms - Hill Thalis Architecture + Urban Projects, Paul Berkemeier Architects and Jane Irwin Landscape Architecture.

Headland Park is to bring the shoreline area of the pre-settlement environment in 1836 back to life with picnic areas, cultural centres, pools, walking paths and a floral design.


Unsurprisingly for a project the size of Bangaroo, the development has, and continues to, cause controversy. This has focused on the debate between community versus commercial use, questioning the purpose of the casino-hotel plan and the resignation of one of major design firm, Jan Gehl. One can argue that the cause of controversy was born from the communication failure with the public.

There has been displayed a “strong urge to build as much as possible while concerns for the people landscape have gradually evaporated” (Jan Gehl, 2013). The main website of the Barangaroo project has only shown a small piece of the project, mostly written in words advertising the project and marred by accusations of a serious lack of transparency. There isn’t any significant data effectively presented for the general public to understand and view the finished vision. It can be argued that it has lost the public’s interest by arrogantly treating them as ignorant.

The multitude of views, voices and agendas must exist and reframe through the contract between a movement and its diverse constituents. At a basic level, the public seeks (and can benefit from) illustrative presentations that show the building completely transparent, with all its facilities and accompanying information on display. On a deeper level, much controversy could be avoided if the business transactions and puposes were equally transparent.


Screenshot from Johnny Holland Posts “A parody on the infamous Ikea instruction manual.”, Learning Styles: The Cognitive Side of Content (2011).

ikea IKEA is known as a communication strategic company on the basis of research and creative thinking.

IKEA purposefully crafted a universal language system to stimulate communication between the IKEA brand and its existing customer base. “At IKEA our vision is to create a better everyday life for many people. Our business idea supports this vision by offering a wide range of well-designed, functional home furnishing products at prices so low that as many people as possible will be able to afford them. (“Our Business Idea”, 2011)”.

As a marketing strategy, IKEA counts on a language system that was created to enforce its brand identity. Firstly, the IKEA repurposes Scandinavian common names and places to give every item a unique single word according to their naming system. For example, all bookcases are named after occupations, chairs and desks have men’s names and fabrics and curtains have women’s names. This system effectively produces items with quirky, memorable, and identifiably Swedish names. This creates a visual iconography throughout the store’s signage, catalogues and advertisements.

The principle of the brand has always followed Heavy Bauhaus and modernist aesthetics to produce simple and easily assembled furniture parts for the everyday consumer. That principle has been an influence on their visual communication methods, especially the most important part of information for the consumers: Instructions. Instructions can be seen as messages that guide people to perform procedural tasks.


Screenshot from Johnny Holland Posts “A parody on the infamous Ikea instruction manual.”, Learning Styles: The Cognitive Side of Content (2011).

Instructions to assemble furniture can be confusingly complicated. IKEA started producing assembly instructions in videos that look significantly easier to follow than its printed manuals. Now there is a “How To Build” section on Ikea’s YouTube channel, the company intends to add assembly instruction videos on a weekly basis, with guides for some of their more popular or challenging pieces. Having an instructional video tutorial effectively assists IKEA customers - they can pause, rewind and fast forward to the parts on which they need clarification. The more IKEA releases these videos, the more users will also be able to see ahead of time how a particular piece of furniture is assembled before deciding if they will be able to take on the challenge. IKEA has focused on creating a universal language – humanised, guided visual content which has helped to reach IKEA’s international customers. This has helped support users who need more descriptive communication besides their visual content. It is well know that there are barely any words in IKEA’s assembly instructions.

The IKEA design team has maximised the level of communication with its effectiveness in graphics. Firstly, their organising method of visual information for instructions is efficient. Drawings for tools, parts, actions and even cautions have been placed in groups on the instruction layout. The IKEA instructions seem to be designed more for an initial performance than a lesson/ study. It uses examples, and ensures that instructions and description resemble the task in as much visual detail as possible while remaining visually appealing. The simple line drawings use most appropriate light weights. The 2D/3D black and white drawings bring you concentration in comfort. Despite the effectiveness and intention towards the use of simplicity as a communication method, issues may arise among non-visual learners or anyone who is more comfortable with verbal rather than visual instructions.

The wordless instructions seem to be sufficient for the majority of their customers while the company doesn’t have to waste time or resources composing language-specific instructions. The IKEA communication strategy is a prime example of how a global company effectively communicates and controls information to its public through simple visual cues. These simple means of communication show how the company can deliver the primary purpose of its information in both a visually appealing manner, as well as primarily connecting with the consumer. Through these means they are creating new ways of communicating with a large global community. This concept can be incorporated into the architectural field, by developing a new visual language that bypasses traditional language barriers, and connects society on a global level. This allows for more public feedback and open dialogue between society and architects, building mutual respect, and understanding. This could be potentially translated from complex concepts, to wordless architectural development proposal, as an alternate, replacing traditional methods. This allows for a mutually beneficial outcome.


Screenshots from Canal Isabell II - El ciclo Del agua video on Vimeo (Binalogue2011)

canal de isabell II The public body responsible for managing the comprehensive water cycle in the Community of Madrid.

Canal de Isabell II has a significantly strong link to the history of Madrid. As a result of completion of the project, water could be supplied to the capital. The canal and its water mark the beginning of a new, modern and advanced Madrid. This innovation has directly increased the population as well as industrial and commercial activities.

With more than 2300 employees, CYII provides drinking water and sanitation services to almost six million people (TRUST Target Audience Analysis Report). Madrid’s water supply system depends on surface water reservoirs. It is therefore vulnerable to reduced rainwater and confronted with increased water shortage. Water reuse will progressively play a role in the deliverable portfolio, be it as service water for public green irrigation and street cleaning or as alternative water resource for agriculture as Canal de Isabell II’s.

The company has more than three decades of experience in the organization of communications campaigns to encourage the public to save water and give attention to the environment. These campaigns are valued by communications professionals and by the public to whom they are addressed.


Screenshot from Anuncio del Canal de Isabel II Danza video on Vimeo (Puente Aereo Prouccinones 2011)

Canal de Isabell II management believes that knowledge, tools and technologies must be available to a wide range of professional and lay communities. “Each audience and local bodies are different, and they need appropriately formatted materials and communicative information that is effective in delivering the right message for each user and condition.� (TRUST Target Audience Analysis Report)

The relevance of Canal de Isabell management to my project is the application of communication strategies which require clear objectives and target audiences and expecting impact from the target audiences. It is important to remember that the communication strategy should be present in all deliverables of the project in order to provide consistency in communication. As a result, the project cannot be understood through a vague media production that aims at uncertain target groups.

It can be learnt from Canal de Isabell II management that deliverables should be aimed at precise target audiences. The contents of any communcation should be made and adapted consequently. Deliverables for the project are designed and intended to target specific groups (the general public, even more specifically neighborhood and students). The various use of media production that Canal de Isabell II is producing is a great way of entertaining the audience - this also helps raise their engagement.


Screenshot from the google webtsite (Google, 2013)

google The technology that powers Google’s search engine is, of course, anything but simple

Google achieved its collosal market share in part with the approach the company took to developing its search engine product. “When we started, explained Sergey Brin, google co-founder, we didn’t have a webmaster. The result was a nice, simple interface. And we stayed true to that because we realised it helps people get their searches done faster. They don’t want to hang out on a home page when they want to get information quickly.” What makes the Google appliance especially effective is that it works like the consumer version – the Web’s most popular search engine – right down to a Google

branded search window on the company intranet. The tool’s power is clear: since Bank One went live with the system in September, the number of employee searches per day rose from about 4,000 to nearly 7,000 (Information Week, January 20, 2003). Google’s simplicity and reliability has allowed the company to achieve an amazingly large share of the US web search industry. Google’s simplicity is not only in its user interface, but also has to do with the company’s technology and business model. Everything has been designed with one thing in mind: the customer is looking for precise information and fast.

Google’s aesthetic can be used as a guide to how one can translate architectural visualisation through an element of simplicity, providing precise information and fulfilling viewers’ wants quickly. It is recommended that a developed system with imposed, tight restriction upon what can and can not be added to a visualisation be created. Such a system should focus on simplicity, be easy-to-understand, and most of all intuitive with its communication of information. Innovation and simplicity are often the best way to solve complex problems - this can be delivered by translating architectural information into simple, powerful, flexible and highly scalable language.


Screenshots from youtube,Rรถyksopp - Remind Me (youtube, 2009)

H5 H5 is a graphic studio and film-making team working with visual identities and graphics - logos, magazines, TV shows in different domains, e.g. fashion, music, TV and retail

Royksopp - Remind Me H5 is a Paris based graphics and animation company started in 1996. They have built a reputation primarily on their work with commercials, music videos and short films. They can also be seen as a collective of directors. They made their first animated clips for Röyksopp’s “Remind Me”. Other examples include Alex Gopher’s “The Child” and the short film ‘Logorama’. One of their design principles is to convey meaningful information through visuals. 2D graphic designs contain information and animated scenes deliver its meaning.

The animation begins with informing the viewer that the visual data-rate is high. The storyline in the video is set in a north-east London suburb which can be recognised by timezones, weather symbols, UK major routes and the construction methods used in building a 1930s semi-detached house. The animation follows a day in the life of a cosmopolitan young woman and the complexity of the world and its information. The animation is stylishly directed with 2D graphics that showcase the endless everyday information such as products, processes and corporate advertising messages.

This animation can be seen as info-graphic animation that reinforces the educative aspect of the information and data of everday life at a macro level. Each graphic is displayed on a screen for a short time to convey information in a fraction of a second. Even humorous infomation is presented to engage the viewer and create a dramatic storyline rich in information. The graphics visually convey “easy to understand” cultural anchors of information in a format that is familiar to the viewer.


Screenshots from youtube, Alex Gopher - The Child (youtube, 2007)

Alex Gopher - The Child This music video is directed by Antoine Bardou-Jacquet in 1999. The idea of using typography and words to convey more meaning through visual means is not new. However Bardou-Jacquet was the first able to implement this concept with a music video - for French Artist Alex Gopher’s song “The child”. The animation set in New York follows a young couple rushing through the city to reach the hospital to have their baby delivered. The streets, buildings, people, vehicles and the couple themselves are represented by type which allows the viewer to personally interpret the meaning of these words.

It is an example of a designer attempting to tweak the viewer’s mind through the communication method. It takes viewers’ imagination to another place where they must interpret information and its ‘reading’. This is a gradual process. This unordinary representation of a world of typography impacts on ones mindset as the viewer interacts with the work. This is a simultaneous process. The use of the word in its base form is balanced by the use of descriptors allowing the viewer to make meaning. The background sounds and voiceover assist in the understanding. This video proves that typography can convey its visual meaning effectively while keeping viewers’ attention.

Screenshots from youtube, Logorama (youtube, 2009)

Logorama This 16 minute short film was directed by H5/ François Alaux, Hervé de Crécy and Ludovic Houplain in 2009. The film is an experiment acting on the idea of consumerism - which led the idea of building a city made entirely of logos. The film begins with a panorama of Los Anageles and reveals a city where all of the buildings and inhabitants are constituted of some form of commercial branding, for example birds in the form of Bentley logos, Microsoft’s butterfly, and pedestrians in the shape of the AIM icon. Logorama explores the extent to which logos are embedded in our daily existence.

“Logotypes are used in Logorama to describe an alarming universe similar to the one that we are living in, with all the graphic signs that accompany us everyday in our lives.” (Alaux, 2009). This short-film portrays how logotpyes can be characterised and brought to life by visually moving like a living thing. It can be seen as a new way to visualise logo graphics with emotions or humanity - personalising them. It is a great example of how graphics can be transformed into something new, and to create new way of looking at things.




research What is architectural visual communication design?

This chapter undertakes further research and study of the principles of architectural visualisation and visual communication. It aims to gain deeper meaning of different concepts and theories and their techniques. These can be seen in architectural presentations, visual design, information design and visual perception. Principle research will provide a good understanding of how to integrate various techniques to maximise their effectiveness and to create innovative and excellent output.



reading images written by Guther Kress & Theo van Leeuwen, published in 1990 by Deakin University Press

Kress and van Leeuwen’s work provides a range of analytical demostrations of verbal texts, facial expressions, gestures, images, movies and so with the focus on visual communication. The book illustrates the relationship between semiotics and communication studies through visual images such as maps, diagrams, newspapers and magazines. It distinguishes between an image-text relation, how the verbal text extends the meaning of the image, and how the verbal text elaborates the image (and vice versa).

The main discussion from this book that is relevant to the present project was the visual representation. The author points out that a major distinction in the visual representation system is the distinction between CONCEPTUAL and PRESENTATIONAL processes. Conceptual images serve to explain what things are like and teach about the order of things. They are meant to be studied carefully. Examples of conceptual images can be found in textbooks, scientific papers, instruction manuals and so on.

On the other hand, presentational images serve to tell stories; to entertain. They are meant to be understood naturally and unconsciously, rather than intellectually. Examples of presentational images can be found in reports, magazines, photography, journals and so on.


The elements of a conceptual image.

Analytical descriptive processes. Analytical descriptive processes consist of part and whole relations. In principle, the main target is represented as the ‘whole’ and the supporting types represented as the ‘parts’. It can either be structured or unstructured. The characteristics of analytical descriptive processes are best presented when the main targets are shown against a neutral flat background, shown at eye level and front on with even lighting, and when textural elements are labelled for visuals.

Classificational descriptive processes Classificational descriptive processes represent the main targets as a ‘kind of’ rather than a ‘part/ whole’. They have the same characteristics as analytical descriptive processes but are placed on the page in a uniform manner - equal size, equal distance from one another, equal orientation to portray classifications of a kind.

Symbolic processes. Symbolic processes concern the meaning of the main target. They can be seen through placement - foreground vs background, size - exaggerated size, focus - soft vs sharp focus, lighting - well lit vs dimly lit, or through colour or tone - conspicuous colour or natural filters. These processes do not exist in a binary relationship, but on a spectrum. This is best illustrated by the fact that gestures and values can be interpreted as symbolic processes.

The elements of presentational images.

Actional processes. Actional processes are about an action which relates to the main target when it’s represented. The action can be interpreted in various ways depending on size, place in the composition, contrast against background, colour saturation or conspicuousness, sharpness of focus, vectors and directional movement.

Reactional processes. Reactional processes refer to the reactions of offer and acceptance by the main target - either with another participant or object in the visual, or with the audience. They can be found in the relationship between the participants and the reader, and the participants with each other. Examples of reactional processes include the direction of the main target’s glance, facial expression, eye contact, gestures and postures.

‘Reading Images’ makes a strong argument in showing how different information serves different purposes. It is also clear that one needn’t have all information to understand the meaning of a text. Kress and van Leeuwen provide comprehensive analysis of methods of representing visual and written language in the most effective ways. It clearly explains how visual communication forms a system that is related to human perception, which has been ‘naturalised’ in communication.



‘Reading Images’ makes a strong argument in showing how different information serves different purposes. It is also clear that one needn’t have all information to understand the meaning of a text. Kress and van Leeuwen provide comprehensive analysis of methods of representing visual and written language in the most effective ways. It clearly explains how visual communication forms a system that is related to human perception, which has been ‘naturalised’ in communication.

The principles of representation in the book have the ability to reshape how one perceives information. Rather than receiving information passively, Kress and van Leeuwen’s conceptual theories can transform readers into active participants of a text. Texts become two-way roads of communication. These techniques of analysis can be used both ways, in both receiving and presenting texts. Knowing these concepts of visual communication analysis and techniques help build processing and organisational skills in producing visualisations in a more effective and efficient manner.

In regard to architectural visualisation, an understanding of this system of analysis can help bridge the communication gap between architects and the general public: in how they receive information, how they present information, how they react to information. It is expected that these principles can maximise the understanding between parties, while influencing the perception and reaction of the reader (including counsel, the general public and the educational field).



picturing architecture written by Desley Luscombe & Anne Peden, published in 1992 by Thames and Hudson, Australia

Showcasing different graphic images used in the production of Australian Architechture, Luscombe focuses on architectural drawings such as perspective, axonometric drawings and orthogonal images. He goes on to examine different techniques and materials used in the production of final work. This book provides the importance of understanding the aesthetic values and the techniques of a final artwork, rather than a technical drawing manual, and it raises some thoughts of focusing on qualities as representations of a future reality. Lusecombe and Peden points out that the nature of any visual culture for Australian architectural profession can be seen as a state of unstable definition. It can’t be defined simply.

However it embodies the characteristics of authoritative positions for the practice of architecture as a tool. The book describes that the foundations to architectural rendering and drawings have been based on techniques of mechanical drawings. It also provides some indication of the recent profession is seeking to develop representation by using drawing techniques from the contemporary and past uses close focus and meticulous rendering of architectural details through orthographic projection and abstract images which have their source in technical drawing sand representation with reconfiguration of these images in an abstract composition.

Lusecombe and Peden delivers the significance of understanding the nature of drawing techniques in architectural representation. They examine a range of different drawing techniques to maximise the effectiveness of its purpose for representation. The most misunderstood architectural drawing techniques with its purpose are Orthographic projections, perspective and Axonometry.


Orthographic projections



Orthographics can be seen as plan, elevation and section which controls over the documentary process of architectural production. It provides the pictorial, mathematical and geometric foundation of built form. Orthographics can change process of the function in the documentary production throughout the conceptual sketches, theoretical examinations of complex architectural ideas, design explanation and working drawings. Orthographics tends to be guided by artistic will, which lead the technique and graphic media, experimentation and professional appeal to be significant variance in mathematical accuracy and graphic technique.

Perspective is the dominant type of technical drawing for representing threedimensional built form in perspective. It can be defined as “ the distortion of shape, size and distance in the aspect of the seen objects according to the view’s eye-point. It enables the complexity of the multi dimentional visual world to be accurately codified into two dimensions. Paradoxically, perspective preserves the identity of shapes and relationships by agreeing to warp them systemically. “

The axonometry plots three-dimensional form from a parallel projection. It maintains abstract qualities of line and shapes within its images in a similar geographical location to that proposed for the building it represents. It retains the parallelism and measurability of the orthographic plan and elevation while overcoming the distortion of perspectives foreshortening.

Perspective provides a continuity of its visuality through its systematic characteristics. 1. the separation of viewers from the object - perspectives rely on geometric rules of distancing and stabilising the viewer 2. perspective is geometrically and mathematically defined 3. Perspective comes a notion of the frontally of objects pictured.

‘PicturingArchitecture’ contains a range of important statments of how drawing techniques has been used in Australian architecture profession and what influenced these drawing techniques to be predominant in the architecture field. Luscombe and Peden provides constructive analysis of effectiveness of past and current drawing techniques in Australian architecture profession. They also demonstrate the importance of the value of aesthetics and techniques in representation of architecture.

The representation in drawing techniques Luscombe and Peden illustrate, can construct ones foundation of drawing techniques for architecture or can be absorbed as an architectural representation guide. The principles of representation in the book have the ability to reshape how one perceives information. Rather than receiving information passively, Kress and van Leeuwen’s conceptual theories can transform readers into active participants of a text. Texts become two-way roads of communication. These techniques of analysis can be used both ways, in both receiving and presenting texts.

This book showcases how drawing techniques have been used and how they were developed as the society changes with new technologies and new ways of living. The understanding of these changes throughout the history teaches how human expresses built forms in various way, not only delivering the mechanical meanings but aesthetically employing ideals of picturing and the compositing of subject matter. It has provided new way of analysing peoples representation methods especially in drawing techniques and individuals uniqueness in depicting built forms into graphics.


visual thinking communiation written by Jenny J Watt, Thesis for Bachelor Degree of Architecture UNSW, 1979

Watt points out that vision dominates our thought processes because vision is the primary medium of thought. ‘In forming an abstract picture of a problem, graphics has the unique attribute of promoting a dialogue between the image and ourselves. Graphic makes possible the consideration of many variables and, at the same time the interrelation of those variables’ (Watt p24). The need to communicate architectural ideas began with architect-builder communication in the form of working drawings. This was originally most critical and sophisticated in its detail, its symbolic conventions and degree of abstraction.

The demand for client communication, perhaps always present has strengthened with the move away from traditional styles and the consequent expansion of client options. Client communication tends to centre too much at the level of style or taste which needs to be vral public has historically been delivered by the building itself. Modern public relations have put much greater emphasis on increased public awareness of activities in the building sector. Consider that the construction of most buildings is a job-producing, economy boosting activity.

Common forms of communication with the public rarely extend beyond perspectives and models. Watt reminds us that graphic methods do not have to be elaborate and glossy - the simpler and more basic a method is, the more useful it can be. Problem solving is most efficient when problems are simplified and abstracted. This implies a correspondingly simple representation. Effective communication should try to avoid both giving too much information (thus obscuring the message), or over-simplifying (so that no message is conveyed)


The communication at every stage of the design process is critical. It requires a graphic representation which can be interpreted and evaluated by all parties involved. The simpler the design, the more people can be involved. Furthermore, by using a clear graphic language, the architect lays bare his process and the goal of those processes. Communication in the visual world is a constant fluid process, as is with visual thinking. It involves the image, the eye, the brain and the hand. “Its potential lies in the exercise of a continuous cycling of information that undergoes transformation at each communication point,” Watt argues. Depending on background, experience, disposition and objective, a designer will ‘see’ different things to another person. This has led to a situation in which many architects have developed unique styles for their conceptual sketches - a personal ‘shorthand’.

Although this can produce efficiencies when communicating internally - with ourselves, a consistent use of conventional symbols is essential to the sharing of effective abstraction among groups. Graphic diagrams can depict the principle of 1. Concepts (ideas, processes, events) 2. Objects (physical elements varying in scale) By applying these principles of graphic communication when designing, efficiency can be maximised and the possibility of error can be minimised. The suggestions of all relevant factors, expressed in a clear graphic language can be examined thoroughly by the designer, members of their design team, consultants, the client and other affected members of the community.

The act of diagramming aspects of an architectural idea enables designers to investigate and communicate at different levels. A graphic portrayal of a building’s organisation through diagrams can be helpful not only in enhancing and keying the viewer’s understanding of the normal architectural presentation drawings but also in enabling the designer to keep sight of their original intention during the design process. Watt uses examples of the effectiveness of graphic diagrams in expressing: functional zoning; zoning of degrees of privacy; circulation; site conditions and context; spatial hierarchy and relationships; geometric properties; lighting conditions; structure and enclosure.


effective presentations written by Jon Thomas,, 2011

The reason why learning how to present well is important, because one’s life is one big presentation. Every human being is presenting all the time and they are defined by presentations. The term “Death by Powerpoint” refers to creating and delivering such a bad Powerpoint presentation that the audience is bored to death, Thomas explains. All presentations have the potential of being excruciatingly boring, dry, and useless. The presentation can get worse if the presenter or designer makes no effort to keep the audience interested, help them understand the material or create anything worth looking at.

The presentation can be engaging if the presenter is vibrant. This will raise the effectiveness and help get the message through to each audience member. Jon Thomas outlines a number of tips for an effective presentation through a three-stageprocess. Firstly, the design stage can initialise the effectiveness of the presentation. A welldesigned presentation delivers not only effective and engaging visuals but an understanding of standard design principles and the willingness to break the mould.

Keep it simple. Thomas points out that ‘simplicity’ is a theory, not a technique. Simplicity means a lot things. It can be seen as a single image or a single world when it is used in a presentation. It could mean to clearly express a message. Leonardo De Vinci ‘Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication ‘


Cognitive load theory. The cognitive load theory states that the amount of information presented to the brain must be at a minimum during the learning process. Thomas argues that people simply can’t read and listen at the same time. It is important to minimise information when its delivered both verbally and in written form, otherwise the result will be information which is both uninteresting and impossible to remember.

Use effective imagery. Imagery can be the most effective material to convey themes and ideas. Do not use images for their own sake. That does not do justice to their value.

Choose the font wisely. Use of non-default font can personalise the presentation with its visual uniqueness . This can help provide more interesting and memorably messages.

Connect with the audience. A presentation is a two-way conversation. It is important to make sure that the presentation speaks with an audience, not at them.

Planning. Planning requires being brutal and revising the information. It must be conveyed in an appropriate manner that can be delivered in a limited time.

Throughout a presentation, the audience is connecting with its message on a certain level. Jon Thomas’ principles of effective presentation are considered as part of post-production of the project. It will emphasise the presentation impact as part of the communication method. The most important finding from this study was the work on cognitive load theory. It is important to realise that there is a maximum amount of information that can be conveyed to the audience at any time, as a consideration to the audience’s ability to receive and remember .



design-inspired innovation written by Utterback, Vedin, Alvarez, Ekman, Walsh Sanderson, Tether & Verganti, published by World Scientific publishing, 2006

A design-inspired product gives pleasure to the customer. This is done in several ways: by emphasising sophisticated simplicity and economy of means and low impact. If a product’s use is apparent, simple and clear it will stand out from all others competing for our attention. Such a line of argument is at the core of ‘Design-Inspired Innovation’. The authors (Utterback, et al.) are a group of academics and designers working in the field.

Their work suggests that great products are those that have grown in meaning and value over time. They capture our needs and make our lives easier, better or more interesting. Design inspired innovation requires creativity of a higher order, whether the products are professional tools, machinery for production, consumer goods, or services. The book’s research shows that users remember an experience of the entire package, not whether that experience was provided or enabled by any particular aspect of the design.

People today hunger for products that offer more than sufficient function, high quality and low cost. To achieve inspired designs and innovations, the aspiration must be for excellence and elegance. An elegance and tasteful richness in a design is achieved when a product is neat and simple. This philosophy is mirrored in the Precedent Studies of this project (see Google and IKEA).


A design must create an emotional response and tell a story. So many new products appear and disappear. It needs to have a strong, coherent, all-comprehending identity. Identity is not just for the product or service, but also for the customer and user. The IKEA Precedent Study is a good example of this.

A design must create an emotional response and tell a story. So many new products appear and disappear. It needs to have a strong, coherent, all-comprehending identity. Identity is not just for the product or service, but also for the customer and user. The IKEA Precedent Study is a good example of this.

An interesting theory posited by Utterack et al. is that there are three types of knowledge essential to the innovative process - knowledge about user needs, technological opportunities and product languages.

An interesting theory posited by Utterack et al. is that there are three types of knowledge essential to the innovative process - knowledge about user needs, technological opportunities and product languages.

The last component concerns the signs that can be used to deliver a message to the user and the cultural context in which the user will give meaning to those sign. In direct relation to the present project, Utterback et al. suggest that focus could be broadened beyond sketching to include other possibilities: prototyping; modelling; and manipulation of physical artefacts. This could be both helpful and profitable.



information design Edited by Robert Jacobson. the MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts, London England. 1999

Humanity has systematically designed and delivered information in order to share their perceptions of the world and persuade others to get the same information. How this is done is compellingly described in Information Design. Information design is defined as the art and science of preparing information so that it can be used by human beings with efficiency and effectiveness. Its aims are threefold:

2. To design interactions with equipment that is easy, natural and as pleasant as possible. This involves solving many problems in the design of the human-computer interface. 3. To enable people to find their way in threedimensional space with comfort and easeespecially urban space, but also given recent development, virtual space. Jacobson explains the distinction between two interrelated concepts: edification and commutativity.

Edification is the process of personal enlightenment, while commutativity is the process of mutual change. Information designers tend to educate users with information more than persuade, to exchange ideas rather than force them on us. He examines how the powerful technologies of communication and media highlight and shorten the links between those who generate information designs and those who receive and act on designed information.

1. To develop documents that is comprehensible, rapidly and accurately retrievable, and easy to translate into effective action.


Jacobson cautions the reader: ‘the fact that information design is so pervasive reminds us to be careful and deliberate in the way we apply the power inherent to this new process’ (p2). This book is both cautionary and hopeful in offering us visions of how information design can be practiced diligently and ethically for the benefit of consumers and producers alike (p7). If the information is poorly designed, the users can not operate efficiently and their organisations are not as effective as they could be. It can increase costs related to time management, technical and professional. On the other hand, well designed information can have positive impacts.

The best information design acknowledges and uses the interactive nature of communication to convey meaning and heighten understanding among all parties involved in an activity or event. Designing with information is human centred, and as such, a delicate matter. The quickly relevant constraints pertain mainly to our finite human sensory and cognitive capacities. All too quickly information design can degenerate into chaotic, abstract and unintelligible messages (p5). The author’s work on what he calls ‘Universalists’ is of particular relevance to this project. Universalists work towards a purely visual communication without the use of words, which could become an international auxiliary language (p19).

They argue that a purely iconic language could substitute in certain situations, such as travel, for normal spoken language. There is no reason why this philosophy could not be extended to architecture. ‘Information design can be thought of as the professionalisation of another communication phenomenon: the emergence of new language. Visual language is defined as the tight coupling of a words, images and shapes into a unified communication unit’ (Horn 1998, in Jacobson, 1999, p27). “Tight coupling” refers to the fact that some elements can not be taken away without losing the original meaning. In diagrams, for example you cannot remove the boxes or arrows without removing the intended meaning.

As information serves a specific function (filling in forms, way finding, warnings, etc), understanding the function is probably the single most important aspect of efficient information design. Take for example the concept of way finding. Most decisions are actually based on information of an architectural nature - entrances to buildings, transition posing from on zone to another, exits, paths, stairs, escalators, elevators, as well as information about overall spatial features - layout of a building or the pattern of a street system (Arther & Passini, 1992). For this reason, content of way finding information should not be limited to signs but should also include such architectural and spatial features as above. While this is not an example of ‘tight coupling’, it can be considered what will be referred to as ‘loose coupling’.

The meaning is not totally lost, but more meaning can be gained when coupled. This book presents a cross-section of the art, science, and personalities involved in representing information effectively. It makes a case for the idea that what we need is not more information but the ability to present the right information to the right people at the right time, in the most effective and efficient form. Such an idea is an influential philosophy directly relevant to this project.

It is also interesting that the same display, sign, headline or placement can have different effects in different settings for different users creating different messages. The many mediums employed by architects in their communication with others could benefit from such an approach. A universal language could save trouble and create mutual satisfaction in transaction between architects and their clients, not to mention the general public.

Designers summarise some of the primary components of the communication process. This applies to many mediums: exhibitions; signs; posters; and so on, as they are used in various settings: museums; malls; and parks.





how to respond to the continual challenges that is proposed previously

This chapter is to demonstrate a range of different precedent studies. For the precedent studies, media and communication examples in various professions were investigated in order to address new ideas and concepts in communicative visualisation. Visualisation such as animations, photographs, diagrams, graphics are used in a way to provide informative presentations or to persuasive voice.

The precedent studies aim to look into the variations of advantages and disadvantages of its visual and communcative effectiveness. Also the precedent studies is to understand how the society has been developing their communication methods with the influences of developments of technology in the past and now. It can be seena s a great learning excercise of understanding how ones intention has portrayed in their visual contexts.


methodology The Kent Brewery Development is a part of one of City of Sydney’s major developments - Central Park Sydney Development. Tzannes Associates have proposed to create 2681 square meters of commercial floor space across levels 1 to 5; 1077 square meters of retail space on level 1 and 2; and 440 square meters of Community space across levels 1 to 5. Currently the site is actively undergoing construction for Tri-generation and cooling towers on the basement and roof. Through the elimination of unnecessary information, we can effectively summarise, and educate the public on the architectural processes.

The organisation of the information in the present project has taken an experimental approach. The principles of effectively designing this information has been derived from other theorists who have been influential on the design process. (Wurman, R. S. Information Anxiety, 1989) The information will be then presented in a format that is both easily accessible and visually appealing, which allows it to be absorbed and understood in an accessable, user friendly format. The evaluation process was tested on the public. The feedback was then received: while it was considerably mixed, the majority consisted of positive reviews. The feedback was an insight into how people perceived the project. I was able to make changes, and tweak the design, based on the reactions, in order to maximise the effectiveness of the visual communication which was projected.

While the project was underway, the process development was simultaneously monitored, with public reaction being noted. The report helped visualise, organise, and create the design principles, as well as evaluate multiple methods in shaping the outcome, and critically examine which methods were best. The analysis of the design, was a reminder on how to emphasise the way that information is received by the public, and how to utilize that effectively in the project. As the feedback filtered in, the design was molded towards potential improvements, and created a visually appealing and publicly agreeable example of architectural visual communication design.


From the left, Senior Architect, Allison Cronin (Tzannes Associate), Project Manager, Scott (Frasers Properties) and two engineers from WSP

meeting Followed by few weeks of researching for clients, it was privileged to meet up with Alec Tzannes, the director of Tzannes Associates, who is also the dean of Faculty of Built Environment at UNSW. Tzannes Associates stands as one of the architectural firms that involved in the Central Park Sydney Development. During the meeting with Alec Tzannes, few discussions and negotiations of the project ideas were discussed, focusing on the Kent Brewery Building in the Central Park Sydney Development. Then a meeting with the senior architect from Tzannes Associates was organised. Allison Cronin has actually been working on the Kent Brewery Project for over 5 years. Allison Cronin has provided me useful data of the Kent Brewery Building Project including the 3D model of the Brewery Building and the Heritage reports for the Brewery Building.

The rest of other information such as the Brewery Building Proposal, architectural drawings, building assessments and more were found on Department of Planning and Infrastructure’s website. Allison advised that documentations such as Original Cox/ATA Joint Venture Concept Plan for Fosters Australia, Subsequent Foster and Partners Modified Concept Plan for Frasers Property and the Concept Plan by Frasers would be the first information to explore. After meetings, it was pointed out that Brewery Building has so much to offer to the Central Park site and to neighbourhood through its heritage significance and high technology development - the tri-generation. It was noted that maximising and highlighting those key values are urgently required.


site visit Kent Brewey Building Development Site 2013 Setpember



audience who is the audience - general public.

In the architecture profession, as an architect, communication with the client is critical. Their feedback is necessary to the development of the project. It seems that two-dimensional representations are difficult for most of untrained people to understand due to the unfamiliarity of the conventions of architectural drawing language. Typically, the most challenging representations for clients to grasp are the orthographic projections like plan and section because of their abstract quality. It is noted throughout the project that some people have difficulties of translating information from two-dimensional lines to three-dimensional space.

So it is imperative to learn how to communicate with client in a matter that is transparent and understandable to them. With this general difficulties, one of many intentions through this project was to develop and to educate the general public with basic architectural language. It is crucial or may be seemed to be a mystery in humanity to have an universal language that everyone is able to understand. With the high speed of developing digital technology in architectural field, the architectural language is shaping into another level of complicity.

This project attempts to explain architectural representation methods to untrained individuals with architectural knowledge. It could evoke confusion, and possibly instant dismissal of arguments or design. What is needed in this ongoing issue, is to educate the public so that they are able to visualise some of the architectural abstract qualities, to distinguish between two dimensional lines, to three dimensional space. This method can be transferred as a strategy to allow the society to connect to the beauty of detail and complexity of the architectural design, in a simple format, rather than be overwhelmed in its complexity.


A image of Kent Brewery Building Information list

information research Information research has been an important and significant part of the design process. However, this project required even further research skills, such as education to distinguish which information is current and relevant and which information is valid and invalid, even to able to find considerable general information that is created by the public, and apply it to the design process. In the architectural field, it is essential to analyse the entire aspect of potential factors for any developing project, and must be approved by the council in order to process the proposal.

The concept plans, scoping papers, directors reports, building service reports, public domain plans are examples of consideration matters to be taken into account.Most of the information was listed and available on the Planning of Infrastructure NSW Government website. In order to understand the content of the development from the architects and developers perspective, we delve into most of their documents and seemed the best way which has followed by collecting all the information.


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organising information Organising information and correct structuring, simply narrows it down the designers intention of the development. Richard Saul Wurman proposed the organising of information by alphabet, category, continuum, location and time. These simple classifications form the structure of most information designs which we experience at work, home or leisure. They bring order to volumes of data. The methods are not mutually exclusive and the data can be organised using a combination of methods. These methods include; The alphabetic is applied to organising content based on an established alphanumeral system, e.g. Dewey system (library), dictionaries and directories, and indexes.

The continuum method is often applied to visualise economic data where variables are mapped and compared quantitatively over time, e.g. charts and graphs.

Category is a very broad classification method which can be applied to very specific characteristics e.g. colour, ethnicity, form, material, and species.

As stated by Wurman, R. S. (1989) Information Anxiety.

Location as a method for organising data based on geography and space. It can be diverse including acupuncture charts, assembly diagrams for furniture, architectural plans and elevations, astronomy charts, and maps and transport diagrams. Time as a method for organising data is exemplified in chronologies, choreography notations, design of timetables, historical exhibition displays, and step-by-step instructions.

These methods were used as a guideline to effectively organise information. For example, as a part of Central Park Sydney, information on Brewery Building was spread out and gathered with the main proposals. Wurman’s Location method has taken by collecting Brewery Building information by its Location, in other words it’s name. Furthermore, within Brewery Building information, category method was used to organise information - Architectural drawings which consists of plan, elevation, section drawings, Significance analysis which consists of historical, heritage and archeology, Design objectives with building uses, public domain and etc. The use of minimum vocabulary assisted the design process in terms of organising information. As a result, the out come provides instantaneous retrieval of information in its effectiveness.


Screenshots from Concept plan modification EA Part 1 - 4, NSW Department of Planning, JBA Urban planning, 2008

visual language “Architects give their ideas physically though drawings. They employ a variety of different drawing types, typically selected based on the criteria of design intention and the audience� (Thomas p.20)

In the Brewery Building proposal, the architects used various types of drawings such as two-dimensional drawings (referred as orthographic projections), three-dimensional drawings and collage, which were mainly to represent the architect’s design ideas. Twodimensional drawings consist of plans, sections and elevation. Three-dimensional drawings consist of perspectives and axonometrics. Collage is referred to the drawings that overlap or combine line work with photographs, colour or some other graphic materials.

Any of these drawing can be constructed digitally by using computer aided design software or as freehand drawings. In the Brewery Building proposal, they have separated the drawings into two distinctive styles which are technical drawings and visualisation drawings. Their technical drawings constructed mostly of twodimensional drawings digitally and the visualisation drawings mostly threedimensional drawings with the collage method, combining photographs, colours and textures.


A simply modified plan drawing from the original drawing.

A simply modified elevation drawings from the original drawing.

Architectural Drawings

Plan is a horizontal cut through an object, building or space, directed down. Imagine the cut as a plane, parallel to the ground plane, intersecting a building or object. Floor plan is means to convey architectural space.It includes doors and windows for spatial clarity. A site plan is drawn above all of the building including the new design and the surrounding context and it is to demonstrate the relationship between the interior and exterior spaces.

A section is a vertical cut through an object, building or space. Sections describe vertical relationships and help define the spatial characteristics relationships of the building An elevation is a vertical section cut outside of an object loping back at its face. Imagine the cut as a plane, perpendicular to the ground, that does not intersect with the building or object.

All of architectural drawings have taken a part of experiments. They have been simlified outstandingly by reducing the complexity of architectural information, details drawings, textures and by eliminating unnessary drawings such as hidden lines, indications and symbols. It is also realised what are the effectiveness from each architectural drawing and how to emphasise its effect and increase viewers reading skill.

A building elevation gives an impression of hose one face of the building will look from the outside. (Thomas p.20)


Graphic logo for each chapter; Architecture, message, location, history, heritage, building use, circulation, landscaping and technology.

Graphic Design

Tufte describes that the result of envisioning information is about working at the intersection of image, word, number, art. The instruments are those of writing and typography, of managing large data sets and statistical analysis, of line and layout and colour. (Tufte, pp.9-10.). Quality graphic design is essential to the effectiveness of any visual communication.

Graphic design is the process and art of combining text and graphics and communicating an effective message in the design through such mediums, as pages in a publication, a poster, sign, brochure, or website. Design elements include symbols, images, shapes, photographs, colours, textures, illustrations, and type. (

brewery building - building use info graphic

Info graphics

It is described that design strategies for enhancing the dimensionality and density of portrayals of information techniques can be exemplified in maps, the manuscripts of Galileo, timetables, notation describing dance movements, aerial photographs and Vietnam Veterans Memorials. (Tufte, p.9-10) General principles of how to identify and to explain design excellence can be seen through the process of focusing on specific visual consequences, governing the design, editing, analysis and critique of data representations. These processes can be used effectively in Info graphics.

Charts, diagrams, graphs, tables, guides, instructions, directories are made out of an enormous accumulation of material. (Tufte, p.12.) The infographics were studied and designed simultaneously. Organising information effectively reinforced the efficiency of using data and its values for designing. It was used to explain facts and figurers in graphics and in diagrams to for the audience in a visually appealing manner.


A typography design of Brewery building Interpretation.


Typography is the way a font is used within a design. This includes type size and style. When used appropriately, typography is a tool that can help set the tone of the design. If used improperly, it can detract from the message by making the piece look bland and uninteresting, or messy and hard to read. (Pennisi, 2011)

Brewery Building proposal contains uncountable words which most likely lose one’s interests easily. The director’s design objectives and interpretation were transformed into typography formatt which is hope to increase the effectiveness of communication.

3D render of the Brewery building and the site.


3Ds studio Computer-aided design software was used to improve the qaulity of the design. Basic model of Brewery building was received. Then it was coated with realistic textures in order to create a sense of realism. The site was modelled using screenshots of Google Maps and Google Earth to idenitify approximate the height of buildings. Main considerations in the modeling process were materiality, surrounding context and lighting with V-ray set up.

After the modeling process, and after few testing of rendering with textures and lighting, a series of rendered images and rendering animations were produced. Using cameras in the scenes, the camera movement, duration, distance were controlled and managed in detailed.


UNSW Landscape Architecture Easy to follow, The site model is great. Maybe a touch longer for the History animation. didnt get enough time to finish reading it. UNSW Architecture Student Very comprehensive, clean slick and quite easy to understand. Be more consistent with where your information appears in the layout. UNSW Interior Architecture Student The little corner map is very good, colour coding the plan is very effective, great illustrative animations. The Heritage part needs more engaging elements. NIDA Admin Assistant It needs to move faster, and be more engaging. Most people won’t watch for more than 2 or 3 minutes. Aesthethically its very good and informative. COFA Art History Student Love The History Animation, very well illustrated. Overall the video is quite educative, entertaining and nicely put together. Real Estate Officer Great to experience a different way of looking at architectural information. It’s a well throught out storyboard, It’s taking us through all these visually dynamic and rich information. IMAX Woker Clear graphics, smooth editing. Plan drawings can be more clear but overall very good level of simplicity for people aren’t accustomed to architectural drawings. Surry Hill Baker This video helped me how to read architectural information that I used to ignore and misunderstand. The video is quite long, it could be shorten and focus on the simplicity. Feedback that has received and simply designed in a “Facebook Comment box”

feedback As the project was being completed, I was receiving continuous feedback from the public, in regards to changes, how they received the design, and any comments they had. Looking at how well the design fits the needs of the people who use it. Thus making my project both challenging and rewarding. It concentrates on one component in particular - making things that are understandable and usable to the public. It is crucial to understand that technology changes rapidly, and people change slowly. The emphasis is on people, on how we, as human beings interact with physical things in the world. This allowed the foundation to be built, on the information design to be easily accessible and interpreted without any misunderstanding. An individuals ability to associate, and remember detail and design, is imperative to being able to easily understand the

information being presented. The more they can grasp a concept, the more likely they are to remember it for future reference. This link between memory, and the architectural process is an important part to the education process.

The final stage, is nurturing their new found awareness, and slowly introducing more complex processes. They are then able to communicate effectively with their basic knowledge and build upon their foundation to another level of understanding.

This process can be simplified into 4 stages;

All these stages can be monitored by constant interaction with the user, and gaining feedback which potentially shorten the language barrier gap.

The first stage is to present the information in an easily understandable format. The second stage is to make sure they understand information correctly, through a presentation process. The third stage is to make sure the information has value, that the audience can relate to, which will then result in obtaining the knowledge required to grasp a particular concept.

This feedback can create an open dialogue between designers and the general public, where they can negotiate their needs and wants. Then the feedback can take a part of evaluation, which can produce a result leaning toward the perfect in-between balance.


Wk1 Wk2 Wk3 Wk4 Wk5 Wk6 Wk7 Wk8 Wk9 Wk10 Wk11 Wk12 Wk13 Wk14 Wk15 Wk16 W17

Proposal Client Researching Precedent Studies Techniques Analysis 3D models Drawings Animation Editing Master Editing Report Showreel Portfolio Previous Graduation Project Idea A timeline of the project management

Current Graduation Project Idea

project management Initially the project idea was based on the projection mapping and multi-media techniques which not only maximises visual and interactive connections between users and the designers but also to provide a new way of experiencing informative visualisation with its effective power of media. However the outcome of that project idea wasn’t clear and that led into a big decision for a change. The concept of the project idea was re-defined and shifted from week 9.

Research and study of the building have taken a big part of the project timeline, for example building analysis, proposed development, site context and surrounding context. After the collecting information stage, organising information stage has taken considerable time. It was important to structure and plan how to organise information, and identify which information is going to be used while communication design and architectural visualisation were studied.

Overall the graduation project began with research, the research of past and current projects which is related to one’s interest, especially in visualisation and communication design fields. Client research was followed. Few architectural firms, the City of Sydney council, UNSW academy were approached and contacted. Fortunately it was confirmed with Tzannes Associates thats currently working on the Kent Brewery Building, a part of Central Park Development.

Most of architectural visualisation information were investigated and re-organised. Those visual information then translated appropriately to be used in an effective visualisation presentation. As a main submission, the animations were undertaken in the Computer Aided Design software such as 3Ds Max, they were then directed and produced in a

short film through media software for example After Effects and Premiere. After producing draft outcomes, feedback and evaluations were made in order to deliver a sense of excellence towards production work. While the outcome was getting developed, the report and other submission requirements were also worked on simulaniously. Since the late change of project idea, significant level of time management and organising skills were required. Due to the limited time, it was realised that research and evaluation needed to be managed constantly through out the semester which potentially could lead to a result of producing a master piece.




short - film Throughout the project, it was identified that animation has the most effective impact in regard to presentation. Other media was included, such as websites, interactive PDF and booklets. All 2D and 3D graphics outcomes have been re-designed in an animation format. This short-film (animation) consists of 9 chapters; architecture, message, location, history, heritage, building use, circulation, landscaping and technology. Not only does it present the Kent Brewery building, it explores various visual techniques to demonstrate the effectiveness in visual communication for architectural information.

This short-film can be interpreted as an attempt to translate architectural information into a simple solution that can be understood by the general public without any difficulty. One of the many benefits of producing a short-film is that the size is flexible; it can be lengthened or shortened depending on the target audience and the purpose of the presentation. Another benefit is that it is easily attached to media platforms (including shared media: Youtube; Vimeo, websites, blogs or digital documents; interactive PDF, Powerpoints, etc).







post-production how to maximise the quality of the design performance

This chapter demonstrates a range of different additional elements that have been involved in the project. Those postproduction elements aim to increase the level of excellence and effective. This stage finishes with research on professional production works such as film productions, installation and publishing.


narrative The most critical part of narrative is development of the character in the video that can deliver highly descriptive language. The narrative should draw audience in and deliver messages. It helps them visualise. The narrative that is used in this video aims to provide the audience with verbal information that is easier to catch the audiences attention. The narrative intends to be used with appropriate voice tone and its persuasive matter in order to interact with the audiences’ thinking process.

Narrative: Architectural Visual Communication Design. Introducing the Kent Brewery Development a part of Central Park Sydney Development in Chippendale. It aims to make the traditional communicative methods of architecture more inline with the methods of everyday communication by simplifying information and graphics.




Plans plan is a horizontal cut through an object, building or space, directed down. Imagine the cut as a plane, parallel to the ground plane, intersecting a building or object.

1835 John Tooth and his brother in-law, Charles Newnham established Kent Brewery. 1843 John’s brother, Robert Tooth purchased Kent Brewery and Rober’s son, Robert Jr and Edwin received the lease. 1888 Became a public company, producing 580 Barrels of beer each day, with a workforce of 206 men and boys. 1912 Liquor Act. Reducing licences for premises supplying alcohol. 1916 Liquor Act. 6 o’clock closing clause. 1935 Business Booming. Employed 1800 men. The war year. A shortage of material. supplied the armed forced with beer.

Elevation An elevation is a vertical section cut outside of an object loping back at its face. Imagine the cut as a plane, perpendicular to the ground, that does not intersect with the building or object. Site Plan a site plan is drawn above all of the building including the new design and the surrounding context and it is to demonstrate the relationship between the interior and exterior spaces.

1976 Trade Practices Comission ruled tiedhouse arrangements were illegal. 70% of NSW beer market dropped to 50%. 1980s Tooth & co sold Breweries to Carlton and United Breweries. 2002 The cose of Kent Brewery’s operation was reviewed. Too high to be sustained. 2005 Closed for the last time. 2007 Kent Brewery site sold to Frasers for $208 million dollars. 2013 Brewery building development by Tzannes Associate.


Sounds can bridge dynamic through motivational qualities; rhythm response, musicality, cultural impact and association. AccordingtoCostasKarageorghisintheJournalofSportandExercisePsychology,30subjectssynchronisedtheirpacetothetempoofthemusic which was 125 bpm. Before the experiment, a pool of music was rated using a questionnaire tool (the Brunel Music Rating Inventory) which then selected the most motivational pieces for the treadmill test.

sounds Sounds can bridge dynamic through motivational qualities; rhythm response, musicality, cultural impact and association. According to Costas Karageorghis in the Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 30 subjects synchronised their pace to the tempo of the music which was 125 bpm. Before the experiment, a pool of music was rated using a questionnaire tool (the Brunel Music Rating Inventory) which then selected the most motivational pieces for the treadmill test.

Compared to a no-music trial, the motivational synchoised music led to a 15 percent improvement in endurance a sports psychologist at Britain’s University. 84% of shoppers say they like shops that play in-store music and of that percentage 23% claim they would be prepared to pay 5% more for goods if music was being played. (Source:

Sounds are carefully selected out of those researched. Use of sounds have a purpose of keeping the audience interested and entertained through out the duration of the video. It will create dynamic emotions through its rhythms and various sound quality. Use of sounds is expected to bring the maximum level of liveliness and illustration especially in the History and Heritage segments where it can be seen as boring without any sound effects.


An image of lasercut hard covers and book cover materials - book clothes, mole, end papers and leather.

report It is appears that many of the written communicative methods such as documents, books and reports have a disadvantage - they struggle to keep the reader’s attention and focus for barely enough time to finish reading. The rich information must utilise all means to make the project more agreeable. From the use of different levels of font size, use of nuetral tones (White to Black) and vivid colours, even the size of text blocks were considered and re-designed constantly.

Designing the front cover and report style was taken some special thoughts and to link with the project idea which is “Architectural Visual Communication Design�. The use of vibrant colours and typography were intended to create communicative indication of some information. Lastly the packaging was considered. Carefully designed and sophisticatedly lasercut cardboard were handcrafted with the bookcloth to be used as hardcovers. It aims to deliver the excellence in communication and to attract readers even just from the cover.


Images of lasercutting drawing process in Adobe Illustrator and actual parts.

physical model To express architectural ideas and concepts, to provide a three-dimensional abstraction of space and form, it was recommended to use a physical model as a presentation platform. The physical model was created in CAD software, specifically in Rhinos. Then it was re-designed in 2D drawing format in order to be used for lasercutting machine. During the 2D drawing transformation process, slot joints and cable tie holes were created in advanced. It will help assemble the model clean and solid.

The physical model is made essentially to be used as a projection mapping screen during the exhibition - Luminocity exhibition, as an exhibition installation. The physical model aims to provide the audiences an impression; a celebration of the transition from the traditional method of communication to the modern digital method of communication with its concept of spatial augmented reality.


An image of the installation testing - projection mapping on to lasercutted model.

projection mapping Projection mapping can be defined as spatial augmented reality. It is to wrap and blend projected images to fit perfectly on irregular-shaped “screens�. The surface can be masked to become a dynamic video display of 2D and 3D images. It can transform what is reality for the audience into illusions and images of infinite possiblities which ideally used for advertising, branding, entertinment, public art and showcase presentations. The visual impact of projection mapping transcends ordinary video to deliver memorable experiences for any audience. Cost effective transformation can be seen as its biggest advantage. It can display many visuals easily on any surface or structure.

Projection mapping has chosen as an additional presentation technique for the exhibition LuminoCity 2013. It aims to increase interactivity and engagement between the visitors and the installation. The short-film that consists of 9 chapters will be divided into 6 segments which then projected on to the 6 facades (sides) of the physical model. These videos then will be played simulaneously which will give the audiences a privilege to choose which video they interests to watch. The simulation of projection mapping will then have the control of managing multi-ple users at the same time, which will provide effective and interactive presentation performance.


An image of the vvvv script - projection mapping scripts to play multiple videos at the same time.

An image of the projection mapping illustration

VVVV is a software that allows users to produce a complicated projection mapping. It requires some research on scripting and tutorials. This script has been tested and built for the LuminoCity 2013 exhibition installation. This script shows that Projector A and Projector B will be playing mapped videos, 4 videos and 2 videos each. Each video has a title; East1, East2, South1, South2, North and West. This video is linked to a texture control which is a cropped out black space. There are also some button system. C = Seek to start Space = Play and Pause V = Fade In and Out.



The attempt to bridge the gap between two different groups - the professionals and the general public, by creating a new way of visually communicating was unique and innovative. The project succesfully made inroads towards how an architectural language could be created and used within the global visual language. Feedback was mostly positive and encouraging, which reinforced the notion that architectural visual communication design has a potential to connect the public and the professionals in a universally understood language. It was welcomed and accepted as an attempt to address the project’s objectives, and demonstrates the transition of traditional

architectural communicative language to a universal, wordless visual language.

to translate technical practices into a simpler format for the general public.

The original concept for this graduation project was to explore projection mapping techniques. Due to the lack of perceived significance and interest shown towards the previous idea, the change was made to encompass a broader, further reaching topic. This led to the present project.

Communication issues between different parties were identified through investigation. This included examples involving local councils, the general public, developers, an architect and a constructor, to name a few.

The depth of research required was not anticipated before the project was started. However, the research undertaken helped build knowledge of the architectural field, with a focus on topics of visual communication, information design and how

With these identification and analysis studies, knowledge was gained regarding how to bridge the communication gap by translating the professional language of the field, in order to draw it into a global visual language.


conclusion The processes and work regarding the consequences and affects of specific visuals, governing the design, editing, analysis and critique of data representations were conducted to identify and to explain design excellence. The writing, typography, managing large data sets and statistical analysis, not to mention the layout, formatting and colouring were undertaken to work at the intersection of image, word, number and drawings. The principle of envisioning information was used in order to maximise the level of effectiveness to communicate, document, and preserve knowledge. This study outlined the importance of understanding the characteristics of a user, and certain factors must be taken into consideration such as the level of engagement toward architectural design. However, due to the constant interference by outside stimuli, they may not be able to give their full attention to the archictual language.

It is important to make the information available easily understandable and accessible, to coincide with their limited time frames. The level of clarity and simplicity must be maximised in the design to increase the engagement level. It is also vital to create and maintain a connection and open dialogue between a user and the designer.

Visual experiences are universal, rooted in human information processing capacities in everyday perceptions.

The complexity of a design should be considered, in relation to how a user would perceive and interpret it. The aesthetic should be effectively communicated, through this new visual communicative language. There should be a balance between the simplicity and complexity, in order to maximise and command the attention of the user, and to allow them to understand and enjoy the beauty of the detail. This will deliver the freedom of choice to compare and sort through details for the user.

This project allowed me to create and experiment a new globally recognised and visually appealing, informative language, that erode the traditional communicative methods. There is room for further development, which could potentially lead to a breakthrough in the professional sphere, and allow for effective communication in any profession. It is not only limited to the architectural field, but can be applied between any two parties.

Through this project the aim is to design and report immense detail, organising complexity through multiple and hierarchical layers of contextual reading and avoid clutter and confusion.


references Tufte, Edward. 1983. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Cheshire, Conn.; Graphics Press. Arther, P., and Passini, R. 1992. Wayfinding, People, Signs and Architecture. Toronto: McGraw-Hill. Horn, Robert E. 1989. Mapping Hypertext: Display of knowledge for the next Generation of On-line Text and Graphics. 300 Third Avenue, Waltham, MA. Lopes, D. 2010. A Philosophy of Computer Art. London: Routledege Chapman & Hall. Luscombe, D. 1992. Picturing Architecture: Graphic Presentation Techniques in Australian Architecture Practice. Roseville East, NSW: Craftsman House. Zell, M. 2008. The architectural drawing course: understand the principles and master the practices. London: Thames & Hudson. Tufte, R. 1990. Envisioning Information. Cheshire: Graphics Press. Koutamanis, A., and Vermeulen, I. 1995. Visual Database In Architecture: Recent Advances In Design and Decision Making. Brookfiled: Avebury. Ehrenkrantz, E. 1989. Architectural Systems: A Needs, Resources and Design Approach. New Tork: McGraw-Hill. Norman, D. 1988. The Design of Everythings. London: MIT. Utterback, J. 2006. Design-Inspired Innovation. New Jersey: World Scientific Publishing. Cooper, A. 2007. About face 3: The Essentials of Interaction Design. Indianapolis: Wiley Pub. 139

Manovich, L. 2001. The Language of New Media. Cambridge: MIT Press. Jacobson, R. 1948. Information Design. Cambridge: MIT Press. Edmonds, E. 2011. Interacting: Art, Research and the Creative Practitioner. Oxfrdshire: Libri. Klanten, R. 2011. A Touch of Code: Interactive Installations and Experiences. Berlin: Die Gestalten Verlag. Frascara, J. 2004. Communication Design: Principles, Methods, and Practice. New York: Allworth Press. Apperly, R. 1989. A Pictural Guide to Identifying Australian Architecture: Styles and Terms from 1788 to the Presents, Angus and Robertson, Crosby, A. 1970. A Sign System Manual. New York: Praeger Publishers. Bonsiepe, G. 1999. Interface: An Approach to Design. Maastricht, Netherlands: Jan van Eyck Akademie. Cross, N. 1975. A Design Methods Manual. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University. Easterby, R. 1981. Evaluation of Public Information Symbols. Birmingham, UK: University of Aston. Frascara, J. 1979. Pattern Design and Literacy for the Retarded. Icographic. Gorb, P. 1978. Using Desig: Living by Design. London: Lund Humphries. Heller, S. 2001. Graphic Design History. Newyork: Allworth Press. Mijksenaar, U. 1974. Signposting and Communication Media. Icographic. Monica, P. 2001. Design as a Social Practice. University of Alberta. Tufte, E. 1983. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Cheshire, Conn: Graphic Press. Wildbur, P. 1998. Information Graphics. London: Thames & Hudson


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Profile for Josh Jay

Architectural Visual Communication Design  

Architectural Visual Communication Design - Introducing Brewery Yard Sydney | Graduation Project - Bachelor of Architectural Comp...

Architectural Visual Communication Design  

Architectural Visual Communication Design - Introducing Brewery Yard Sydney | Graduation Project - Bachelor of Architectural Comp...

Profile for joshi.jay