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MAY 14, 2010 UW-MILWAUKEE GRADUATE THESIS

BY JOSEPH VRASPIR

PERMEATED REPARATION LOWER NINTH WARD TRANSITIONAL HOUSING


“New Orleans is my essence, my soul, my muse, and I can only dream that one day she will recapture her glory. “ Harry Connick Jr.

PERMEATED REPARATION: LOWER NINTH WARD TRANSITIONAL HOUSING

Joseph Vraspir Graduate level Thesis May 2010 UW-Milwaukee

Thesis Committee: Harry Van Oudenallen-chair Gerald Weisman Kevin Forseth

This project is dedicated to the men and women who lost their lives in New Orleans in 2005...2006...2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. May their story be told and their legacy live on...and to those who refuse to give up on their dream of living in the notorious Lower Ninth Ward

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

Concept

5

Background

9

Context

25

Analysis

37

Program

55

Precedent

63

Strategy

71

Works Cited

117

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

3


Permeate–verb (used with object) 1.to pass into or through every part of: Bright sunshine permeated the room. 2.to penetrate through the pores, interstices, etc., of. 3.to be diffused through; pervade; saturate: Cynicism permeated his report. –verb (used without object) 4.to become diffused; penetrate.

Reparation– noun 1.the making of amends for wrong or injury done: reparation for an injustice. 2.Usually, reparations. compensation in money, material, labor, etc., payable by a defeated country to another country or to an individual for loss suffered during or as a result of war. (Not Applicable) 3.restoration to good condition. 4.repair

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THESIS CONCEPT Provide Housing to the future residents of the Lower Ninth Ward for three different populations: 1. Former Residents of the Lower Ninth Ward who wish to return. 2. New People attempting to move to the Lower Ninth Ward. 3. Volunteers who visit the Lower Ninth Ward and stay for an average of 7 days.

Unlike conventional housing projects that focus on getting rent and cutting services, Permeated Reparation is meant to help not only transition residents back to the Lower Ninth, but also continue a cycle of renewal, reinvention, and revitalization. Transitional housing is not used very often, but its application to the problem in New Orleans is very relevant. Some former residents have saved up enough money to build a house in the Lower Ninth, but they

wish to live in the neighborhood while their house is built. Volunteers will be able to stay in the area when they visit, and by teaming up with a family in the transitional housing they will help the family move out and into their own home. By doing so, it will allow for another family to move back into the transitional housing. It is a ltering process that will hopefully represent a rebirth of the Lower Ninth and lead to further reinvestment.

*www.epodunk.com

The above map was based on more than 40,000 postings on Internet “safe lists” by Katrina survivors. ePodunk analyzed messages containing both the person’s hometown and the location after eeing the storm.

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

5


REMEMBERING

                                                     

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Every graphic symbol in the image to the left is representative of one person. Over 1800 people died as a result of Hurricane Katrina. 935 women and 953 men. Some deaths were immediate, but most came due to lack of food, shelter, and proper medical attention. The eur-de-lis long ago represented a symbol of heraldry. First used by royalty in France in the 1200s, it has been used by many organizations but generally it is used as a symbol of protection. Since becoming the symbol of New Orleans in 2007, the eurde-lis has come to be synonymous with unity and future prosperity. Permeated Reparation is an attempt to recapture the magnicent culture and atmosphere that dened New Orleans. The ltering of households, back to the community will occur through a site in the Lower Ninth Ward, where signicant efforts have been made to replenish the housing stock. To date however, few development projects have addressed the problem over time.


LOCAL INFLUENCE

Robert Green Katrina Memorial on Claiborne Ave

Gloria

CONCEPT

Ward “Mack” McClendon

Diamond and Diana Reynolds

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

7


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BACKGROUND


HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

*New Orleans US Army Corps of Engineers 1977

landowners.” (19).

*Craig E. Colten An Unnatural Metropolis

The New Orleans area was a poor place to begin a settlement, as it rests on the thin strip of highland between the Mississippi River and nearby Lake Ponchatrain.

the levee. “The French reaction to oods was to erect levees (from the French word lever, “to raise”), ridges of soil heaped up along the natural high ground to hold back high waters.

Over many years the banks of the Mississippi have built up a series of “natural levees” because every year more silt is deposited over the banks of the river and contributes to

By around 1727 a bulwark 4 feet high stretched about a mile along the waterfront, on top of the natural levee. This was a public project “and not nanced by private

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The problem with this solution, was that each individual owner’s levee was only as good as his neighbor’s. If the river were to ood its banks as it often did, upstream from the levees, the ensuing ood could then spread its way south and east, and back into the settlements. Another result of settling where they did, is the natural elevation of the center of New Orleans is actually about 10 feet below sea level.


REGIONAL WATERWAYS

*New Orleans US Army Corps of Engineers 1977

Industrial Canal Intercoastal Waterway MRGO Lower Ninth Ward

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

-Unnatural boundaries created by these man made waterways together with loss of wetlands combined to make a recipe for disaster on August 29, 2005.

The issue continues to be a national problem, as over 50% of the nation’s coastal wetlands are located along the Louisiana coast.

Since then considerable community and legislative effort have led to the closing of MRGO (Mississippi River Gulf Outlet). More permanent measures are still needed.

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

11


EXISTING TOPOGRAPHYNEW ORLEANS AREA

*Obtained through USGBC

*Obtained through USGBC

Having the river wrap around its east, south and west, and having the Metairie Ridge and Gentilly Ridge to the north essentially creates a bowl system. (as can be seen by the section above cut through the middle of New Orleans.) The elevation map on the right shows the higher ground in the orange color. The higher ground near the river is often called the “sliver by the river.� The shades of blue represent land that is currently below sea

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*Obtained through USGBC

level. One can see with the exception of the Metairie and Gentilly ridges mentioned, much of the New Orleans area is below sea level. When designing a project in this area of the country, signicant considerations of defense and evacuation plans are necessary. Neither of these was fully considered on the morning of August 29, 2009, and the results were catastrophic. A 25 foot wall of water came rushing down the Intercoastal Waterway, merging with a wave from the

shallow Lake Ponchatrain to the north. These forces met at the industrial canal and were able to penetrate to the top of the levee and inundate not only the Lower Ninth Ward, but many other parts of the city for extended periods of time.


NEW ORLEANS -FLOOD DEPTHS

EXISTING TOPOGRAPHY-LOWER NINTH WARD

(Estimated September 1st, 2005- 3 days after Katrina)

(Blue Color Refers to Below Sea Level)

-4’ -2’ 0’ 2’ 4’ 6’ 8’ 10’ 12’ 14’

*Obtained through USGBC

*Obtained through NORA

The above image indicates the ood depths 3 days after Hurricane Katrina. Comparing it to the previous image, the most ooded areas are basically an inverse to the lowest elevations. The sliver by the river is basically untouched in regards to ooding, only receiving wind damage. A zoomed in image of topography in the Lower Ninth Ward is on the right. Here again the story is the area adjacent to the Mississippi is higher ground, but on average

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

most of the St. Claude area is 6 ft above sea level sloping down to 0’ farther north. The lowest area shown in dark blue is along the Bayou. In the early morning of August 29th, before the worst of Katrina had made it to the New Orleans area, many of the residents of the Lower Ninth who had not evacuated were able to cross the canal and head west towards the Business District, where an emergency evacuation center had been set

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

up at the site of the Superdome. However, according to Robert Green and other residents, a handicapped-accessible entrance had not yet been set up and many were told to return at a later time. Hours later the levee wall collapsed and evacuation was no longer an option.

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

13


DAMAGE CONTROL

Although much has been made of the collapse of the levee wall on the east bank of the Industrial Canal, the true magnitude of Katrina’s devastation cannot be put into words. The two images in the upper left clearly show the overowing canal water pouring into much of the Lower Ninth Ward’s residential area. Speaking to some of the older residents of the area, one begins to grasp the level of distrust in the government, the Army Corps

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of Engineers and city ofcials. The lower left image is of the 900 ft. barge that some believe was deliberately left in the canal. After the “collapse” of the wall (although some will use the word “explosion”) this barge was pushed up and over the levee,plowing through ve blocks of homes before resting as shown in the picture. The Army was quick to remove the barge, cutting it into hundreds of pieces and moving the evidence to the salvage yard.


RESCUE/EVACUATION

Many, like those shown above, were stranded on rooftops. Others were not fortunate enough to make it to their roofs as they were trapped in attics they never imagined would be reached by the rising water.

Destruction and heartache were not isolated to the Lower Ninth Ward. The images on this page show other confusion and disarray throughout the greater New Orleans area. Many jails and prisons were also ooded and the resulting conundrum spilled into the streets. Lines into the Superdome or to

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

board buses headed to Houston stretched on for blocks. A city already with high poverty rates waited for help to arrive from state and federal programs. A number of deaths included in the estimated 1800 lives lost came in the days and weeks following Katrina, when conditions resulted in severe shortages of food and clean water.

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

15


CLEAN UP EFFORTS

volunteer organizations to act as places to reuse building materials that might have otherwise been thrown out. The amount of homes to be gutted continued to rise, but a trip to the Lower Ninth today will still reveal deserted homes, their owners present location unknown.

Imagine an area the size of Milwaukee’s East Side with hundreds and hundreds of homes, trees, business and commercial buildings, not to mention a huge barge, all a total loss. Most of the debris and waste was sent to a conveniently located salvage yard located at 4801 Florida Avenue. (Shown in the upper left). Southern recycling does have a site here, but only a small amount of the material was able to be recycled.

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In the months and even years that followed people were allowed back slowly to their land. The houses were unlivable. The houses were in ooded waters for extended periods of time and developed mold and rot. With over 80% of homes constructed being of wood construction, there was widespread rotting and mold issues. Stations like the one pictured above were set up, often by

Part of the outcry of home owners (The Lower Ninth, pre-Katrina, had the highest percentage of home ownership) was in response to the treatment given to them shortly after the storm. Although Hurricane Rita , which followed three weeks after Katrina, caused the temporarily repaired levee to collapse yet again, residents were still not allowed back to the Lower Ninth Ward for a period of about three months. Even then, it was only from the seat on a bus that home owners were able to see their property, forbidden to look through any belongings or salvage anything from their homes. An aerial photograph taken less than a year after Katrina shows not only the widespread destruction, but the many piles of rubble that remained, as the number of homes gutted continued. Again, the work of thousands of


CLEAN UP EFFORTS volunteers was mostly responsible for the large clean up efforts. Any assistance from state, federal, and especially city government was limited and scattered. In fact much of the lack of response can be tied to the fact that many ofcials within New Orleans and others outside the city questioned whether of not the Lower Ninth Ward should be rebuilt at all. Some argued that it should be restored to what it was historically, a ood plain. However, the fact remains that 2/3 of the area is, in fact, above sea level. Moreover, a similar rise in water level would cause destruction in a number of other coastal cities in the US, including, San Francisco, Miami, and even New York. Proposals for offering residents in the Lower Ninth land elsewhere in New Orleans seem senseless when many families have called the Lower Ninth home for four or ve generations. Even ve years after Katrina, people continue to trickle back to the Lower Ninth. Many of them have reservations about bringing families back to an area with no real schools remaining and limited resources, but still the effort continues. Half the battle remains locating displaced victims and bringing an awareness to others that there is still reason to come back and that yes, people do want to come back, but may lack the funds or knowledge to do so. Transitional Housing in the Lower Ninth Ward is an effort to allow those looking to return to live in the neighborhood, while their new homes are being constructed, and then ’transition’ back into everyday life again.

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

17


DIRECT IMPACT IMMEDIATELY AFTER KATRINA

2000 2006

Area shown in the two gure grounds is in the Lower Ninth Ward just east of the Industrial Canal

The two images to the right show the conditions that existed just east of the Industrial Canal and the conditions that followed the devastating storm that was Hurricane Katrina. One of the common misconceptions about the disaster is that it was a “natural disaster.” In reality, there were many manmade mistakes along the way that caused there to be so much damage. Had the necessary precautions been made, and more consideration of evacuation plans been made much of the devastation could have been avoided. The sad irony to Katrina’s damage,

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specically in the Lower Ninth Ward, is that the portion of the levee wall that collapsed was the same portion that went down after Hurricane Betsy in 1965. In 1920, 1927, and 1965, there have been documented reports describing how the City of New Orleans had the levee alongside the Industrial Canal deliberately collapse (essentially using dynamite to explode the wall). One will nd many residents to this day who swear that the same was done in 2005. Scientically, there is no evidence to support this, but what we do know is that a 900 foot barge had been parked in the canal for months leading up to Katrina. While dredging the canal, the ship had clearance to

park here, but during bad weather, the ship had instructions to leave the canal and secure itself in the river port. Tragically on August 29, 2005, this very barge was the rst thing to slam against the inundated levee wall, eventually rising up and over the wall. The combination of the barge barreling through homes like tinker toys, along with a ow of water that could sweep homes right off their foundations led to the empty and skewed shape of the 2006 gure ground on the right.


PERCENT OF RESIDENTS RETURNEDNEW ORLEANS (Based off residents currently receiving mail compared to pre-Katrina)

Based off data from GNOCDC

% OF RESIDENTS RETURNED-LOWER NINTH WARD (Based off residents currently receiving mail compared to pre-Katrina)

Based off data from GNOCDC

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

19


SO WHAT NOW- HOW TO REBUILD AFTER A DISASTER Ideas on how to Rebuild Urban Places After Disaster Opportunities • Tourist Enterprise • Available land • Job creation through construction • Reinvent public infrastructure • Learning about new technologies • Innovation • Structural research • Drainage • Reclaiming wetlands • Talent exchange • Sustainable community • Community involvement • Specialty stores • Sustainable community / architecture • Community center / gathering place • Riverfront Park – bayou / levee • Community involvement • Build amenities • Start over – blank slate • Opening businesses • New families • Institutions – reconciliation • Sustainability • Urban farming • Incorporation of natural levees • Cultural development • New building material • Innovation architecture • Green architecture • Commercial corridor • Community center • Updating levee protection • Medical center • Sustainable housing technology • Schools

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*Courtesy of JOUD

The chart above gives an indication of all the organizations that are involved in the rebuilding effort in New Orleans. It also sorts

them based on their ties to government and where their funding is provided from.


LARGE SCALE URBAN EXAMPLES When discussing the future of rebuilding the devastated areas of New Orleans, it is helpful to examine previous example of large scale urban areas that were overwhelmed by disaster. Two such examples studied are Greensburg, Kansas and Dresden, Germany. Each of these areas had experienced a large scale catastrophe that resulted in widespread devastation. As a result they were forced to develop master plans of how to rebuild the city.

Greensburg, Kansas

-GREENSBURG, KANSAS

In Greensburg a massive tornado wiped out 95% of the buildings in the downtown area. Their master plan evolves around many “green” sustainable features such as a “green corridor” that will stretch around the city’s exterior and increase density in the city’s “downtown core.” Although Dresden’s destruction came from a much different source, their rebuilding process represents an even bigger challenge. Much of the city’s progress following WWII was slowed by communist rule that did not place rebuilding as a priority. Very meticulous care in the reconstruction was made and after the transfer of power in 1991, more progress was made.

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

Dresden Germany

-DRESDEN, GERMANY

Positive Features

Positive Features

-Building Zoning -Downtown core -First ring residential (two family) -Second ring residential (single family homes -Variety of housing options -Green trails/ corridors were added -Technology of material/sustainability -design competition added interest and media attention

-Original pieces of brick and stone etc. were able to be reused on such buildings as the Frauenkirche -A similar road system and location was used when building the new streets -In addition to the historical grid, new bridges and nodes were added

Negative Features

Negative Features

-Functionality to residents -Opportunity for tornado damage to happen again -Location in Tornado Alley -Lack of transportation plans

-Length of rebuilding time (much of the reconstruction was stretched out over a long period -A renewed building agenda occurred after 1990, when the GDR was nally overturned.

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

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REBUILDING AFTER A DISASTERPRECEDENTS

JET STR

EA

M

-Greensburg, Kansas

COOL DRY AIR

TORNADO ALLEY

Rodeo/State Fishing Lake Downtown Streetscape

DRY HOT AIR

Trail Network

Memorial Park

Green Corridors Network

New Davis Park

HUMID HOT AIR

Park Space Potential Restoration Zones

Trail Network

This diagram shows how tornados are formed and how tornado alley is defined.

Restoration Zone Proposed Trail Flood Zone

This diagram shows how tornados are formed and how tornado alley is dened

Main elements proposed in the Greensburg Masterplan *Courtesy of City of Greensburg Planning Commission

Greensburg Green Corridor Network *Courtesy of City of Greensburg Planning Commission

*An EF-5 tornado 1.7 miles wide touched down for 22 miles on May 4, 2007. *Ninety-ve percent of the city was conrmed destroyed.

Town Homes like these in Richmond, Virginia are appropriate housing types near the downtown core.

*After, the city council passed a resolution stating all city building would be built to LEED - platinum standards. *The city’s power will be supplied by ten 1.25 MW wind-turbines.

A variety of modest single family homes of a higher density are also appropriate near the downtown core.

T

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t

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fh

i

t

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t d i t th

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Larger homes with large lots are appropriate on the perimeter of town, furthest from the downtown core.

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REBUILDING AFTER A DISASTERPRECEDENTS -Dresden, Germany

Plan of Dresden showing the scale of destruction in 1945. Courtesy of the Stadplanungsamt, Dresden

Dresden’s pre-war street plan (yellow) and its 1991 street plan (black). *Courtesy of the Stadplanungsamt, Dresden

The original Orb and Cross being salvaged from the ruins of the Frauenkirche (1994)

* From Feb. 13-14, 2005 8,000 lb of high explosives and hundreds of 4,000 lb bombs in three waves of attacks — approximately one bomb for every two people. *Many important historic buildings were rebuilt including the Semper Opera House, Zwinger Palace, and the Frauenkirche. *Unlike West Germany, many of the older buildings were rebuilt. Main elements of new building lines proposed for Central Dresden. *Courtesy of Anthony Clayton

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

Following the German reunication, these were the rst city center proposals. They represented a return to more traditional concepts and values. *Courtesy of Anthony Clayton

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

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L9 SPECTRUM OF URBAN PLANNING STRATEGIES

*Courtesy of JOUD

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CONTEXT


LOWER NINTH WARD ECONOMIC VIABILITY The rst thing to be mentioned when discussing the New Orleans economy is its well documented past in maritime industry. Although it used to be an even greater port city, today New Orleans remains the 5th largest port in the United Stated based on volume. The Port of South Louisiana, is nearby, and is the largest in the Western Hemisphere. Historically many jobs have centered on the shipyard industry as well as the other transportation and lodging industries that came with the cargo ships.

fuel tanks used on the space shuttles. The Janke Shipyard, shown on the next page in the far lower right, existed into the 1950s, and provided many jobs to the Lower Ninth Ward. Today the site still operates as a shipping and temporary storage facility, but does not offer many jobs. Other sites along the Industrial Canal also offered employment opportunities. Somewhat different from the greater New Orleans area as a whole, the current employment market in the Lower Ninth shows the highest percentages of employment types to be Healthcare, Food Service, and Construction.

Another industry that helps New Orleans’ economy and in many ways denes the city, is tourism. Each year, more than $5.5 billion is made through tourism- enough to account for 40 percent of the New Orleans tax revenue. Another staple of the economy can be found in the aeronautics industry. NASA has the Michoud Assembly Facility located in New Orleans East. This facility is operated by Lockheed Martin and produces the external

While there are a variety of sources of income in the area, the average income is lower in the Lower Ninth. Over 30% of income is typically spent on housing. Compared to New Orleans and the US overall, the average gross rent is low, at $444/month.

Income Type *US Census Bureau

Average Household Income * US Census Bureau

L9 Employment Type (by Industry) Health care and social assistance Retail trade Accommodation and food services Educational services Construction Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing, and utilities Other services (except public administration) Administrative and support and waste management services Public administration Finance, insurance, real estate and rental and leasing Wholesale trade Professional, scientific, and technical Arts, entertainment, and recreation Information Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining Management of companies and enterprises

Length of Resdidency *US Census Bureau

Rental Costs *US Census Bureau 0.0%

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2.0%

4.0%

6.0%

8.0%

10.0%

12.0%

14.0%

16.0%


LOWER NINTH WARD HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT The Lower Ninth Ward was among the very last of the city’s neighborhoods to be developed. Bordered by the Industrial Canal to the west, the Southern Railway railroad and Florida Avenue Canal to the north, the parish line to the east and St. Claude Avenue to the south, isolation from the rest of the city and lack of adequate drainage systems contributed to its slow growth. Originally a cypress swamp, the area was the lower portion of plantations that stretched from the river to the lake. Poor African Americans were the rst to settle. The following are quotes from an interview done by Nilima Mwendo and Allison Plyer of the Greater New Orleans Community Data Center in regards to L9 history and why it has such a high home ownership rate (59%): “This was one of the rst subdivisions that was designated for African Americans. The idea was just so wonderful to be able to buy a lot for $250, to build a house and be a homeowner. When my family rst came here, we cut a street, a path really, to get back to this lot. In the Ninth Ward, you’ve got a group of people who have stayed because we wanted to - because we’ve got an investment in this community.” — 75 year old African American social worker (Fall 2003) “A lot of people who live here moved down here when this area was undeveloped and established the community itself. Particular groups of people who had certain incomes were offered an opportunity to buy tracts of land for cheap. You had jobs at

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

*Times-Picayune Publishing Company, 1919

Kaiser, sugar reneries, Teneco. The money was good. The community was prosperous.” — 53 year old African American laborer (Fall 2003)

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

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LOWER NINTH WARD LOCATION

The Lower Ninth Neighborhood is shown in yellow and the Holy Cross Neighborhood is in grey (right). Together, they both make up the Lower Ninth Ward.

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The Lower Ninth Ward is approximately a 1.5 miles east to west and 1.25 miles north to south.


LOWER NINTH WARD AREA COMPARISON When studying an entire district such as the Lower Ninth in New Orleans, getting a grasp on how large an area spans is essential. To the left are two maps, both at the same scale, showing how the Lower Ninth compares to the Upper East Side of Milwaukee, an area most of us know and understand. With a distance of about 1.8 miles north to south and 1.3 miles east to west, the Lower Ninth is actually pretty walkable. However, in the warmer months walking this distance would seem a bit challenging. It is fairly common to see bicycles being used, even in the warmest part of the year.

1.8 M iles

1.3 M iles

Lower Ninth Ward, New Orleans

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

Upper East Side, Milwaukee

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

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PRESENT CONDITIONS

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PRESENT CONDITIONS

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

31


PRESENT HOUSING CONDITIONS

The present housing conditions in the Lower Ninth Ward are quite troubling. To say they are the worst they have ever been would be misleading however. Even since we visited New Orleans for the rst time, in August of 2009, there has been improvement. However, as these pictures clearly show, the housing stock has taken a huge hit since Katrina. Some lots are left vacant and completely empty. These are perhaps the easiest to look at. Other lots have six feet of grass and shrubs throughout the lot, almost like a jungle. However, the lots that are most difcult to experience are the ones with front steps remaining. Often the foundation and the steps leading up to the porch were the only parts of a house remaining. In some cases, as with Robert Green pictured to the right, property owners also chose to keep the front steps as a reminder of what happened.

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MAKE IT RIGHT FOUNDATION

One area, discussed earlier as being the most hard hit, is the area just east of the levee wall break. It was here that Brad Pitt chose to start building, in a location where he felt he would make the most impact. In a move that was highly criticized by even his supporters, Pitt’s organization, Make It Right, set a goal of 150 homes to be built in the most devastated area of the Lower Ninth Ward. Many of the homes built for Make It Right have been designed by internationally renowned architects, such as William McDonough, Frank Gehry, Thomas Payne of Morphosis, David Adjaye of the UK, Shigeru Ban of Tokyo, Joe Osae-Addo from West Africa and MVRDV of the Netherlands. One concern is that having so many ‘star-chitects’ will tend to overshadow the people actually living in the homes. Many of the residents we interviewed could care less about the ultra modern look and space craft-like shading devices. They were just happy to have four walls and a roof.

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

While the designs of many of the homes can be criticized for many reasons, Make It Right was building homes here at a time when no one else was. The organization is very grass roots and has no government funding or support. Many of the construction techniques are eco-friendly. While issues still remain about who gets hired to do the labor and just how expensive the homes will be to own, Make It Right insists that costs will go down in the near future as prototype designs are replicated. While the organization has set a clear boundary of the area it is concentrating on, that doesn’t mean every lot within the area is taking up MIR on its offer. For example, the home on Tennessee Street just north of Claiborne Avenue, pictured in the lower right was built without assistance from any outside programs. The result is a wide variety of traditional construction mixed with modern techniques, both with mixed degrees of sustainability.

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

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HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE

Louis Armstrong Elementary School

The school desegregation movement marked New Orleans as the rst deep-South school district to open its all-white doors to black children. One of those rst schools was McDonogh #19, now called Louis D. Armstrong Elementary, on St. Claude Avenue. (shown above right). This 1960 historical event spurred violent white protest and attracted media attention from around the world. Fats Domino Residence

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Widely recognized as the rst rock and roll

artist to sell over a million copies of a single song, renowned pianist and songwriter Antoine Dominique “Fats� Domino also has residence right around the corner from Louis Armstrong School. His presence in the Lower Ninth Ward is a signicant source of pride among residents.


DISPLACEMENT DATA AND MEDIA

Mack McClendon

Where Is Your Neighbor?

Lower Ninth Ward Village

Only 5 percent of elderly and disabled citizens have returned to the Holy Cross Neighborhood. With that in mind, the Village Center just started the “Where’s your neighbor?” program. Volunteers compiled data on every abandoned home still standing in the Lower Ninth Ward. They plan to use that information to begin renovations on homes where the elderly want to come back, but simply can’t afford to. They made up a whopping 65 percent of the neighborhood before the storm, but only 5 percent have actually returned.

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

Besides focusing on older residents, the program is also meant to shine as an example of the human spirit wishing to rectify itself. McClendon is setting out to disprove the myth that residents of the Ninth Ward who were displaced no longer want to return to their home. By showing graphically the number of residents either coming back or wanting to come back, he hopes to put the stereotype to rest.

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

35


HOLY CROSS HISTORIC NEIGHBORHOOD (USGBC potential green historic properties in yellow)

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ANALYSIS


A. VISUAL CHARACTER OF CONTEXT *Images courtesy of Vogt, Lloyd. Historic Buildings of the French Quarter French Colonial Plantation House

Creole Cottage

Creole Townhouse

Porte-Cochere Townhouse

1700s to 1800s

1790s to 1850s

1788s to mid 1800s

1790s to 1850s

*Gallery

*Four Symmetrical Rooms

*Arched openings on ground oor

Double-Gallery House

Shotgun House

Shotgun Double

Camelback

1820s to 1850

1850 to 1910

1840 to 1900s

1860s to early 1900s

*Second oor hidden (storage)

38

*Consists of three to ve rooms in a row

L9 PERMEATED REPARATION

*Variation of shotgun with double occupancy

*Carriageway Entrance

*Second oor only in the rear, to avoid upgraded tax bracket


A. VISUAL CHARACTER OF CONTEXTPORCH ARCHITECTURE From some of the images on the previous pages, one can start to see the beginning of the Lower Ninth Ward with the beginning of the shotgun style house. 85% of the housing stock currently in the Lower Ninth remains shotgun style houses. However the main feature of the shotgun house that truly denes the atmosphere of the Lower Ninth is the front porch. Being able to use their porches daily is a way to interact for residents of the Lower Ninth

Ward. Prior to Katrina many of the facades had the same set back from the street, as well as the same elevation from the ground level. This allowed for conversations and interactions to happen with one’s neighbor to the left or to the right. Furthermore the relatively close elevation to the ground allowed for a natural comfort zone among residents and friends walking by. This porch culture architecture is an aspect that should be preserved for the future Lower Ninth, but currently is not being replicated.

*Images courtesy of Vogt, Lloyd. Historic Buildings of the French Quarter

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

39


B. CIRCULATION NOLA AREA TRAFFIC PASSING THROUGH THE LOWER NINTH

Transportation Routes with the Lower Ninth Ward shown in yellow

*New Orleans Railroad Co. 1904

The main interstate running through and around new Orleans is interstate 10 (Highways are shown in orange). The street car system has historically been the main form of transportation. However currently there are only 5% of the tracks in service compared to its peak in the 1950s. One main route still in service (street car routes shown in brown) is the St. Charles

40

L9 PERMEATED REPARATION

Avenue Streetcar line. This is shown in the thick brown line. Currently plans are either to extend a streetcar down St. Claude where there once was one, or to create a light rail system along the same route with 3-4 stops in the Lower Ninth Ward. Besides the main trafc artery of St. Claude Avenue, only two other streets cross the Industrial Canal into the Lower Ninth Ward.

Clairborne Avenue (5 blocks north of St. Claude) is shown in red. The other, Florida Avenue, at the far north edge, is not shown because it is not heavily traveled.


B. CIRCULATION Circulation is a very important part of daily life in the Lower Ninth Ward. Because there are so few jobs available in the area, many residents rely on public transportation to get them to their places of employment. The graph at the bottom shows the high percentage of Lower Ninth residents who spend more than 60 minutes getting to work. Another huge barrier to residents here is that there are only three bridges linking to the main part of New Orleans, one of which is mostly industrial. Nilima Mwendo and Allison Plyer of the Greater New Orleans Community Data Center conducted interviews to get community reaction. The following is from a 75 year old African American social worker: “We’ve got three bridges, with one working sometimes, one that’s in repair and we don’t know how that’s going to end. This cuts us off from the city. And many of the people who live here have to go to Lakeside or Clearview for their jobs. There are no jobs here.” However due to historical patterns, today many of the commercial and retail areas are on St. Claude. This is the main reason why St. Claude has always been the busiest route in the neighborhood. For many years a streetcar route passed the Industrial Canal and ran along St. Claude Avenue, but like many streetcar routes, it has since been removed.

Lower Ninth Ward Transportation Plan- 2006

Average Transportation Time to Work 45% 40% 35% 30%

LowerNinthWard

25%

OrleansParish Louisiana

20%

US 15%

Future plans of transportation, like the one shown top right, from the City Planning Commission, suggest a series of bus routes looping through the northern part of the Lower Ninth, while introducing a streetcar or light rail system along St. Claude Avenue.

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

10% 5% 0%

CONTEXT

Lessthan30min

30to44min

45to59min

60ormoremin

*GNOCDC

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

41


B. CIRCULATION

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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION


B. CIRCULATION -THESIS PROPOSAL FOR RESTORATION OF DESIRE LINE- 2009

Streetcar Relinking the Lower Ninth to Central New Orleans

Option 2- Continue to St. Bernard

Option 1- End two lane track at Forstall and continue as one lane until Alabo St.

Option 3- Loop around Chartres

To the left is the city of New Orleans’ Potential 2030 Transit map. Of note, is the dashed red line that crosses the Industrial Canal on St. Claude Avenue and continue into the heart of the Lower Ninth Ward. This line represents a proposed street car line. As discussed earlier, the line would actually be reintroducing a previous route taken out of service.

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

So while this has already been proposed, my proposal takes it a step further. While my options two and three both accomplish a similar result, the preferred option for my thesis is option 1, shown above. By limiting the track to one lane from Forstall Street and terminating at Alabo Street, a larger number of trees can stay. Furthermore, to a certain degree a spectacle

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

can be created by the passing of the streetcar. Hearing the sound of the streetcar approaching will stimulate an exciting arrival and anticipation for the return trip back to the French Quarter. Alabo Crossing, as the intersection will be known as, will become a destination for the surrounding neighborhood.

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

43


C. ENVIRONMENT The image below shows proposals for protecting New Orleans from future storm threats. One idea is to shut down the Canal link to Lake Ponchatrain. The other, which has already been realized is the closing of MRGO. However many feel the pile of rocks used to close it, is only a temporary x. Climate conditions are important in considering the architectural style and material use. Wind is generally from the south during March and June, but switches to the north in September and December.

Using this information , it may make sense to build a barrier to the wind along St. Claude Avenue. This would represent a build up of the northern part of the plaza or market space, shielding the open area from wind in the colder parts of the year. Furthermore, an emphasis should be put on building minimal structures to the southern edge to allow for breezes during the summer months. Existing and proposed buildings are shown to estimate where shadows will be during spring, summer, fall, and winter. New

Proposed Flood and Storm water Protection Plan

March Sun and Wind

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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION

June Sun and Wind

September Sun and Wind


C. ENVIRONMENT Orleans has a very tropical climate with high temperatures averaging over 90° in the summer and low temperatures averaging in the low 40s in January.

Average Temperature (°F) 100 90 80

Rainfall is another important consideration. With an average of over 5” every month, there is an opportunity to collect and reuse storm water. The idea of reintroducing cisterns have already spread in the more dense agricultural communities.

70 60 50

LowTemp

40

HighTemp

30 20 J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

Average Rainfall (Inches) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

December Sun and Wind

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

45


D. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITY

Proposed Areas of Rebuilding Emphasis

Early Draft Proposal for Lower Ninth Ward MasterplanUniversity of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

As can be seen from the image in the upper left, following Hurricane Katrina, the City Planning Commission declared certain areas of the city “Immediate Opportunity Areas.� Shown in yellow, this area enclosed the southern half of the Lower Ninth Ward, including all of the St. Claude area and the proposed thesis area. Other areas shown in pink represent Neighborhood Planning Areas. Also shown Existing Land Use and Zoning Pre-Katrina (1999) City of New Orleans plans for the Mississippi Riverfront.

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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION

Final Proposal for Lower Ninth Ward Master PlanUniversity of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

below are existing land use and proposed future use for the riverfront portion of the area. Shown in red is the commercial land use that lines St. Claude Avenue. Many other master plans have been proposed for the Lower Ninth. Shown above are the proposal drafts and nal master plans for the UW-Milwaukee New Orleans Studio, 2009.


D. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITY

One of the other schools that have done studies of the Lower Ninth Ward and New Orleans in general was Columbia University. To emphasize the areas of need, they focused on certain “target areas� (outlined in red and green). What is especially interesting is the data that they compared in layers and how they overlap the Lower Ninth in particular. The rst graphic in the upper left is showing median household income, where the Lower Ninth ranks very low. Next is the poverty level by %, where the Lower Ninth ranks very high. The graphic in the lower left is a map showing the % of residents who are African American. Although the numbers have been different historically, before Katrina hit, 95 % of the Lower Ninth was African American.

*Information provided by BNOBC and GNOCDC 2006, 2004

The last statistic is the one that goes the least noticed, but is perhaps the most important. The image in the lower right shows % of homes that are owned. Citywide, the Lower Ninth had the highest percentage of homeowners, near 65%. This number is tumbling quickly however; many homeowners either lose their property or are having it bought out.

*Information provided by BNOBC and GNOCDC 2006, 2004

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

47


PREVIOUS L9 MASTERPLANS Proposed Master Plan (University of Pennsylvania) Another school that has submitted plans on how to rebuild is the University of Pennsylvania. One of their designs focuses on how to rebuild the Lower Ninth in a way that focuses on consolidating all resources and residences to islands of refuge. The socalled islands would merely be ground that has been raised.

48

L9 PERMEATED REPARATION

Through a series of lters based on past density, paths of travel and other factors, the project proposes grouping together pockets of buildings. A possible conguration of these raised areas in shown in the center, while an example of how the islands would be broken down by use is shown at the bottom right


PREVIOUS L9 MASTERPLANS Proposed Rebuilding Plan (University of Michigan)

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

49


UNCOVERING THE LAYERS

Thesis Site Outline

Vacant Lots Pre-Katrina Vacant Buildings After Katrina

Vacant Lots Pre Katrina

The site chosen for my thesis has many layers of information that make it a prime location for a relocation center for the Lower Ninth Ward. The main transportation route of the Lower Ninth (discussed earlier) St Claude comes to an intersection with Alabo Street where the historical Louis Armstrong School is on one corner and the lively Lower Ninth Ward Village community center (LNWV) is on the same block. A study of vacant lots (upper center) and buildings shows conditions before Katrina, but the next image shows the signicant increase in vacant buildings after Katrina.

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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION

Vacant Buildings After Katrina


UNCOVERING THE LAYERS

Conditions

Vacant Lots Pre-Katrina Vacant Buildings After Katrina Housing Stock- Poor Condition Housing Stock- Fair Cvon Housing Stock- Good Condition

Also as a result of Katrina, a survey has been done to report the physical condition of buildings remaining after the storm in 2005. The buildings in poor condition are shown in red, fair condition in yellow, and the ones in good condition are in green. When you overlay the buildings that remain vacant after

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

Conditions with Vacancy

Figure Ground

Katrina with the conditions report (upper middle) one can see the majority of red and yellow buildings turn blue (vacant). While there used to be a row of houses along the east side of Alabo Street (where my site will be), following Katrina, all of these buildings were demolished. There also used to be a gas station on the south west corner of Alabo and St. Claude (where the rest of my site is planned to be.) All of the land I am proposing to build on is currently empty. There is a possibility to spread further, due to the large number of nearby vacant buildings.

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

51


UNCOVERING THE LAYERS

Land Use

Existing Built Environment

Construction Type

Land Use- Residential Land Use- Commercial Land Use- Civic

Building Height- One Story Building Height- 2 Stories Building height- 3 Stories

Construction- Metal Frame Construction- Masonry Structure Construction- Wood Frame

Besides the conditions of nearby buildings to my site, a study can also be done of the existing land use. Like mentioned earlier, sites along St. Claude Avenue have been heavily commercial. Also of note are the civic institutions represented by Louis Armstrong School and the LNWV. Although the school is currently closed there are proposals to have the inside remodeled to be opened for trade schooling. The LNWV is active among

community members and has a large role in the repopulation of the neighborhood and the Lower Ninth as a whole.

Surprisingly a signicant number of buildings were built with a masonry structure, while the majority is still wood frame construction. Only two buildings used a metal frame structure (LNWV and its neighbor to the north, which used to be a community skating rink.)

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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION

From the existing built environment image it is clear that the majority of structures built in this area are one story, while a few commercial venues are two stories (shown in orange.


UNCOVERING THE LAYERS

Existing Green Infrastructure UWM Proposed Canal System Existing Railroad Line Existing Sidewalk Layout Proposed Light Rail System Roads Most Used- Vehicular Trafc Another reason that this site was chosen is that historically there used to be a railroad line (besides the streetcar) that ran along St. Claude Avenue. At Charbonnet Street the track would split and curve to the south to run along Alabo Street until it eventually met at the shipyard along the Mississippi River. While it is no long used, it represents an opportunity for an urban park or trail to honor the history of the area.

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

Other infrastructure of note is the large boulevard present on St. Claude as well as Tupelo, the existing sidewalk system, and the proposed canal system.

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

53


UNCOVERING THE LAYERS

Existing Green Infrastructure UWM Proposed Canal System Existing Sidewalk Layout Proposed Pedestrian Trafc 2 Minute Walking Radius Proposed Light Rail System Roads Most Used- Vehicular Trafc

Along with existing sidewalks, highlighted in yellow are the proposed pedestrian trafc routes. Also of note, the existing rail line is converted to a pedestrian pathway as it curves to meet Alabo St. The dashed red line represents all of the area that is included in a 2 minute walking zone. Commercial and civic buildings within this range are again shown. (upper middle) As mentioned earlier, there are also plans for a light rail system that includes a stop on the corner of Alabo and St. Claude. These, along with all previous layers are shown on the upper right diagram.

54

L9 PERMEATED REPARATION


PROGRAM


UNIT TYPES

Single- orientation unit

Whether it’s in regards to a apartment or a row house, there are really only three types of orientation possible. The rst, singleorientation, is seen frequently in apartment buildings, where there is only sunlight available from one side of the unit. Next is the double- orientation unit 90, where the

56

L9 PERMEATED REPARATION

Double- orientation unit- 90°

unit is laid out on a corner. This pattern may be repeated or mixed with the singleorientation. Lastly, there is also the doubleorientation, open-ended unit. This is often the case when designing row house units that extend the length of the building, offering sunlight on two sides.

Double- orientation unit, open ended

*Courtesy of Sherwood, Roger. Modern Housing Prototypes


CORRIDOR BUILDINGS Single-Loaded Corridor Systems

Double-Loaded Corridor Systems

Corridor Every Floor

Double-Loaded Split Level Systems

Corridor Every Floor Corridor Every Second Floor, Alternating Position

Corridor Every Second Floor

Corridor Every Second Floor

Corridor Every Third Floor

Corridor Every Third Floor

Together with orientation, the selection of a corridor system is another important consideration. Single loaded corridor systems are often seen in ofces or libraries where direct access to light is not as important for the larger area, but allows it to lter through the corridor. It is not efcient to use in an

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

Corridor Every Third Floor

apartment complex. The double- loaded corridor system can also be grouped every oor, every second oor, or every third oor. Lastly, the double-loaded split-level system allows you the same options, but results in a variety of different sized and congured spaces.

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

Corridor Every Third Floor Alternating Position *Courtesy of Sherwood, Roger. Modern Housing Prototypes

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

57


UNIT DIMENSIONS

SROs or single room occupancy will be discussed further in the next section, Precedents. SRO units come in a variety of sizes with, 8’, 10’, and 12’ being the most common. To the right are common layouts for these modules. 16’ by 8’ is also typically seen, according to Michael Mostoller. While in New Orleans over spring break I stayed at a volunteer camp called “Camp Hope.” Spaces shown to the right are ideas easily adopted into any planned volunteer housing. The SRO conguration makes the most sense for the volunteer housing portion of my thesis. In addition these units could be combined in such a way that non load bearing walls could be removed and the resulting spaces made into classrooms. Another possibility for future use, once the need for volunteer housing has been exhausted is conversion into a hotel. Another possibility besides small apartments and SRO units is row housing. These three types can all be thought of in standardized sizes, for the simplicity of site organization. The dimensions I will use for row housing will be 12’. wide with a 40’ long option and a 48’ long option. Row housing would make the most sense for the transitional housing portion of my proposal, offering maximum exposure to natural light and efciency along common walls.

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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION

8 ft. SRO options


UNIT DIMENSIONS

12 ft. SRO options

16 x 8 ft. SRO options

32 x 32 ft. apartment (single or double)

Lastly, the apartment dimension I will use will be on average 32’ wide and 32’ long, probably arranged with a single orientation in a double corridor, which will be discussed next. Emphasis will be placed on efciency, so most likely apartments will stack or mirror each other. Moving forward, it may make more sense for both apartment and row housing oor plans to be closer to 30’ wide and 20’ long. Keeping the non-common wall longer and in the east west orientation allows for the greatest exibility in regards to light and accessibility. The resulting unit oor plan would be around 600 SF. While this is on the small side, the ‘transitional’ nature of this portion of housing works better with such numbers.

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

59


KATRINA COTTAGES- FLOOR PLAN PRECEDENTS As discussed on the previous page, the individual unit dimensions providing optimum results for my project will be roughly 20’ by 30’ or around 600 SF. Some excellent precedents designed with a similar intent as transitional housing are the ‘Katrina Cottages’ designed by Marianne Cusato. The models were initially designed as an alternative to the FEMA trailers that lacked authenticity and functionality, and in many causes caused health problems. After the eventual success of the Katrina Cottages, Cusato was able to introduce a line available from Home Depot, similar to the homes once available from Sears years ago.

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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION


KATRINA COTTAGES- FLOOR PLAN PRECEDENTS One reason that Cusato’s layouts are so successful is because they are extremely efcient and offer exibility depending on how many bedrooms are desired. The KC 612 is a model particularly well suited for a family with one or two children. I will use this oor plan as a good example of how the living space should be oriented to the entrance. In addition, the open concept surrounding the shared space of the kitchen, living room and potential dining area is well suited for a space that after all, is intended to be temporary. Future home owners can use their time spent in their transitional houses to nalize any nal layout requests for their new house in the Lower Ninth area.

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

61


TYPOLOGY STUDY- HYBRID HOUSING SHERRY AHRENZEN

When designing the spaces meant for returning or new residents, it is also necessary to consider the variety of uses the space may process. Especially since square footage may be cut from such typical spaces as the private ofce or extra den, identity of space may have to be exible and multiuse. For this type of alteration, a study of Sherry Ahrenzen’s hybrid housing types will be helpful. Her argument in identifying different types of hybrid housing is that even spaces such

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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION

as attics, foyers, bedrooms, and garages can be thought of as potential workspace arrangements. With the proper alterations, any of these spaces can become a functional space that serves two purposes.


PRECEDENT


TYPOLOGY STUDY- SMALL SPACE DESIGN

For both returning residents and those looking to move to the Lower Ninth for the rst time, they will undoubtedly have preconceived ideas of the space and furniture in their new homes. However, the idea is that while living in the transitional housing they will have to slightly compromise comfort for affordability and efciency. Due to limits of the site, limits of funds, and the desire to maximize returnees, most units will be economy size apartments. The second type of housing will be for the volunteers who come to the Lower Ninth each year. Since there are also expected to be large numbers, space will also be of concern, and due to meals being prepared in a separate facility, most units will not be expected to have kitchens. In fact, the volunteer portion of the housing is planned to be single room occupancy housing. Considering the nature of the two types of spaces I will be designing, small space design will be of great importance. Spaces like the ones shown to the left will need to be incorporated into the design. Wherever possible, furniture should have two functions. For example, the desk numbered “6� also slides out to serve as a dining room table.

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TYPOLOGY STUDY- ROW HOUSES

Row houses or similarly town houses are a type of housing that began in Britain. When brought to the US, it was primarily used on the east coast due to the higher density. It is advantageous when the lot sizes are very narrow and the objective is to have double orientation units. They are also unique in the fact that the tenant occupies a portion of the building complete from front to back. The rst image in the upper left is of a group of attached homes in Den Haag, Netherlands. The axonometric in the far right and the elevation below is of row houses in Ichinomiya, Japan. It shows how row houses can be incorporated as part of a small village or group of buildings, while also mixing in garden or park areas.

Den Haag, Netherlands

Row houses in Ichinomiya, Japan

Most row houses maximize space in the longitudinal direction, so that the maximum number of units can be built along the street edge. Row houses may also occupy two or even three stories with stairways placed within the units. Due to restrictions in stairway width and circulation, the narrowest and most efcient width is usually 12’.

Row houses in Ichinomiya, Japan

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

65


TYPOLOGY STUDY- APARTMENTS

Apartment living offers many advantages. Most often the space is rented out on a monthly basis. A typical one bedroom apartment might be in the range of blank to blank square feet. Since many of the occupants of this project may be families, a two bedroom apartment typically could be from blank to blank square feet. Because the objective is to encourage the residents

*Images courtesy of Brad Collins

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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION

to move out when their home is built, these apartments will be towards the lower range of sizing. Most apartment buildings are maintained by a management company who typically takes care of repairs, maintenance, gas, electrical, and water bills. To start with, leases may typically take the form of 12 month term.

*Images courtesy of Brad Collins

*Images courtesy of Mildred F. Schmertz


TYPOLOGY STUDY- CO-OPERATIVE STRUCTURE Another type of housing is known as the Co-operative Housing structure. Beginning in the 1800s, co-operative housing rst got its start in Britain as a way to “increase the supply of lower and moderately priced housing” (Chris Scotthanson). It began as an alternative to the typical landlord-tenant living. The main difference with co-operative housing is a transfer in ownership. However, members in a co-operative don’t actually own their housing, but they own a share in the cooperative as a while. There also is no management to run and maintain the property. Issues such as gas, electricity, post ofce, telephone, and repairs and maintenance are all handled by the local housing co-operative. Co-operatives can be multiple dwelling units, townhouses, or single family homes.

*Images courtesy of John Hand

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

67


TYPOLOGY STUDY- CO HOUSING Also originating in Europe, co housing is another type option of housing. The four main design features of co housing are: 1.Seperation of public from private environment/residence 2. Designating pedestrian pathways. 3. Locating the active area of each home (kitchen) on the pedestrian pathway side. 4. A centrally located common house. Unlike shared living where all functions and units are under one roof, all units are their own building in co-housing. It emphasizes the individuality of single units while providing common spaces that are shared by all. Initially construction costs are less because each unit is actually smaller with reduced kitchen sizes. However, once the common house and other shared areas (sometimes quite lavish) are built, costs tend to be at or a little above typical apartment costs. Due to the added costs, and also the nature of the organization of such a structure, co housing tends to favor well-to-do people who have the funds and determination to make such a venture work.

View of common courtyard

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Cohousing: Jystrup Savvaerket (Denmark)-First Floor Plan

Section


TYPOLOGY STUDY- CO HOUSING Often many years of planning is necessary to rst raise money to buy the land, and then to build the community. Most important however, is to get a group of people that share similar ideals about how a community should work and what functions should be shared. It is difcult but necessary to select members who trust each other enough to watch their children for an extended amount of time. These and other features are the main reasons that make cohousing such an attractive alternative.

Cohousing: Trudeslund Community - Site Plan

Community effort construction

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

Dinner time at Trudeslund’s common house

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

69


SRO, HOSTEL, BOARDING HOUSE

The Florence Hotel- Second Floor Plan

University Gardens (San Diego) The Florence Hotel- First Floor Plan

Urban Innovations Group, Architects

SROs or single room occupancy housing is designed to house one or two individuals in a privately furnished room. The advantages to such a system are affordable rents, maximum density, and certain functions are shared. In most SROs, common facilities such as bathrooms and kitchens are shared among tenants (Franck 245). The US has used SRO housing dating back to the 17th century, where they were rst used in what was known as a lodging house “referring to single rooms rented out for

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residence in a building that was neither an inn nor a hotel.� SRO housing occurs in many categories including lodging houses, boarding houses, rooming houses, residences for single men and women, and also SRO hotels (like the one shown above right). SRO hotels were quite popular in fact in many large cities in the US including New York, Chicago, San Francisco, and San Diego. Beginning in the mid 1970s, the number

of SRO hotels began to decline. This was partially due to heavy tax incentives that encouraged landlords to convert their SRO hotels to renovate their buildings. Often this meant high end apartments. As a result, many people who previously had been able to afford a one-room accomodation found themselves on the street. For my purposes on this project, a study of SROs will help in designing the volunteer housing portion which will most likely not have a need for private bathrooms or kitchens.


STRATEGY


VAC 14%

The strategy for Permeated Reparation revolves around the notion of a long term solution for a long term problem. The time line pictured above is an calculated estimation of how the number of occupied households has changed over the last ten years, and how it might change over the next

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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION

twenty years. Although certain assumptions were made about vacancy rates and length of time to full capacity, current numbers of population and households can be estimated through the number of houses receiving mail. The gures shown refer to the number of

2078 27% VAC >50%

5922 30%

year:2015

19, 500

year:2010

6802

year:2005

year:2000

CHANGE OVER TIME

households in the Lower Ninth and every ten years after, the number as a percentage of the 2000 amount. The same was done for population. The vacancy rate assumed is listed for each ten year increment.


BACKGROUND

year:2030

VAC 15%

year:2025

year:2020 CONCEPT

4942 14085 65% 72%

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

7603 21670 100% 111% VAC 5%

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

73


CURRENT ON SITE CONDITIONSST. CLAUDE AVENUE Being the main thoroughfare in the Lower Ninth, St. Claude historically has been the cultural and economic center of the neighborhood. The rst image here gives an indication of the large boulevard that spans the middle of the four lane road (plus parking lane.) Although the street car line is no longer active, at one time it represented a convenient way for residents to cross the canal and get to New Orleans. The lower two images are from the southeast lot at the intersection of Alabo and St. Claude Avenue. Recently the buildings were demolished, but the foundation wall still remains and serves a different purpose as a parking lot curb.

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CURRENT ON SITE CONDITIONSLNWV AND SKATING RINK Discussed earlier, the Lower Ninth Ward represents signicant progress in the area and will remain an integral partner in the repopulation of the Lower Ninth. Its proximity to my thesis site is advantageous due to the direct relationship in its goals and strong relationship to current and future residents. The two middle images are of the rear of LNWV looking east towards Alabo Street. Lastly, the lower right image is a glimpse inside of the building to the north of LNWV, the former skating rink. Consideration of converting this building to a bowling alley or other function needs to be coordinated with the primary design intent.

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

75


CURRENT ON SITE CONDITIONSDEMOLISHED RESIDENTIAL LOTS The largest piece of my site is the part on the western half of the block just east of Alabo St. between St. Claude and Rampart. Previously this area had been a shotgun row, made up of a series of small shotgun houses. After Hurricane Katrina the ood damage was so great that the homes were a complete loss. The cleanup on such a massive scale with such limited resources is a daunting task. When we visited in August of 2009, there were still large piles of waste along the sides of the road.

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CURRENT ON SITE CONDITIONSDORMANT RAILROAD PATH The other large piece of infrastructure that intersects my site is the branch of railroad that splits off south from St. Claude Avenue and heads to the river. Although no longer in use, it potentially has a use as a pedestrian or bike pathway. By highlighting this strip as an attraction for people to use on a daily routine, more trafc could be brought to the commercial portions of my project. On a conceptual level, the trail splitting off and weaving with the rest of the Lower Ninth, is another way that the project could spread and permeate throughout the district.

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

77


SITE ORGANIZATION- OPTION 1 When organizing the site, emphasis was placed on maintaining a consistent street facade. While doing so, there will also be an effort to provide shaded areas and paths. Furthermore the scale of the individual unit is favored in the massing of major elements. Historically, 85% of the homes in the Lower Ninth were single shotgun houses with porches, so the design will try to emulate that in concept. Where the units meet the street, greater attention will be paid to the human scale and chances for interaction, even if the majority of the tenants will only be living in the property temporarily. The street level views are showing the view down Alabo Street. While there used to be an active railroad track down the center of this street, I am proposing taking this track out and placing emphasis on bike and pedestrian paths ltering through from St. Claude Avenue.

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SITE ORGANIZATION- OPTION 2

As mentioned before, the building with the arched roof is the Lower Ninth Ward Village. The rear portion of this lot (eastern edge on Alabo St) has an opportunity to create an outdoor urban space that would capitalize on the large stage recently built by the Make it Right Foundation. Also under consideration is the vacant building to the north of LNWV, which used to be the skating rink building. Although it is not in very good condition, it is for lease and could be altered to improve the surrounding area. The south west view of this option reveals how the design introduces a variety of massing elements. While the porch areas maintain the porch architecture present in the area, the recessed masses could potentially be 2-3 stories tall.

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

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79


SITE ORGANIZATION- OPTION 3 In an option not shown, raising four or possibly ve stories, these structures could be big enough to hold 8 SRO units per oor. Possible disadvantages would be construction costs and lack of consistency with the surrounding neighborhood. By creating two symmetrical walls of building (shown here) on the eastern side of Alabo Street, massing can be functionally interwoven with the opposite side of the street. Here the existing skating building (possibly turned bowling alley) and the LNWV factory building present signicant challenges to blend with. Again, the strategy is to provide a rhythm and undulation to the facades that both creates shade and allows recessed areas to occupy.

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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION


SITE ORGANIZATION- OPTION 4

Although it is not visible in the perspective to the left, the overhead view shown below left shows a series of porches on both sides of the building to the north. Once more the strategy is to split the large portion of apartments or SROs into two masses to coordinate with buildings across the street. Here though, one begins to see the opportunity presented by an interaction zone in both the front and rear of the building. Where the units meet the street, greater attention will be paid to the human scale and chances for interaction, even if the majority of the tenants will only be living in the property temporarily.

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

81


ALABO CROSSING- SITE ORGANIZATION- FINAL ITERATION

Permanent Housing Transitional Housing Temporary Housing

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ALABO CROSSING SITE ORGANIZATION- LARGE SCALE MODEL My physical model shown here was a working model throughout the semester and at a scale of 1/8” = 1’-0” is able to show human scale effectively. The remaining pages will have a variety of perspectives both at the human level and aerial level.

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

83


URBAN AGRICULTURE: CASE STUDY/ PREVIOUS STUDENT WORK Growing Power Milwaukee Headquarters: 5500 W. Silver Spring Drive, Milwaukee, WI

Student Project: Emily Kleiber Lower Ninth Ward Market Urban Agriculture

Lower Ninth Ward Producers

Vacant Lots

Backyard Gardens

Community Gardens

Aquiculture and Floating Gardens

Urban Agriculture is a concept that blends well with the history of the Lower Ninth Ward. As mentioned earlier historically, the area was predominantly agriculture, and much of the produce was sent to the French Market for sale. A good example of how strategies of

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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION

urban agriculture can be implemented into a community is Growing Power, located on the north side of Milwaukee. Perhaps their most well known feature is the aquaponics system shown above. Using the waste from sh to grow plants that in turn clean the water is a process I’d like to replicate at Alabo Crossing.


URBAN AGRICULTURE: GREEN HOUSE/ AQUAPONICS SYSTEM

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

85


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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION


PERMEATED REPARATION SITE PLAN

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

87


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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION


TRANSIONAL HOUSING- FLOOR PLANS PARKING LAYOUT

Room Legend Parking Area

My parking plan is shown below and to the right. Due to the low elevation as discussed before, very few buildings in New Orleans actually have a basement. As a result, my level of parking will have to be on grade. With the conguration of the row housing, I was able to tuck the parking underneath in a large U-shape. By using one way trafc circulation and parking at a 60 degree angle, I was able to minimize the dimensions and t 34 parking spots. This gives the development as a whole about 1.5 spots per unit.

UP

UP

48' - 0"

Parking Area 10950 SF

Parking Area 10950 SF

Another reason, parking at the Transitional Housing at Alabo Crossing will be above ground in a covered structure is the FEMA code recently issued, that all living areas must be 3’ above existing grade.

UP DN UP

DN

UP

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

UP

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

89


TRANSIONAL HOUSING- UNIT/STREET NAMES

ustr

ial C an

al

Viavant/Venetian Isles

Mis

sis

90

sip

pi

Riv er

L9 PERMEATED REPARATION

Jac kso nB arr ack s

Jac kso nB arr ack s

Ind

Bywater


TRANSIONAL HOUSING- FLOOR PLANS Unit Layout and Area (First Floor)

First Level

SF

Unit 1: Florida

616

2

Unit 2: Law

526

2

Unit 3: Dorgenois

699

3

Unit 4: Rocheblave 862

3

Unit 5: Tonti

2

575

#BR

Unit 6: Miro

437

1

Unit 7: Galvez

777

3

Unit 8: Johnson

431

1

Unit 9: Prieur

686

3

Unit 10: Roman

699

3

Unit 11: Derbigny

526

2

Unit 12: Claiborne

616

2

12 10

11

9

8

7

6

Second Level (same layout) Unit 13: Robertson Unit 14: Villere

4

5

Unit 15: Urquhart Unit 16: Marais Unit 17: St. Claude Unit 18: Rampart Unit 19: Burgundy Unit 20: Dauphine

3

2 1

Unit 21: Royal Unit 22: Chartres Unit 23: Douglas Unit 24: Peters

CONCEPT

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CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

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STRATEGY

91


TRANSIONAL HOUSING- FLOOR PLANS

Unit 6: Miro

Unit 3: Dorgenois

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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION

699 SF w/ 3 BR

437 SF w/ 1 BR


TRANSIONAL HOUSING- FLOOR PLANS First Floor Plan

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

93


CONTEXTUAL RENDERING LOOKING NORTH ON ALABO STREET

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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION


SITE PLAN VIEW LOCATER

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

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STRATEGY

95


CONTEXTUAL RENDERING MIDBLOCK LOOKING EAST

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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION


SITE PLAN VIEW LOCATER

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

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STRATEGY

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RELATED PHYSICAL MODEL IMAGES

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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION


SITE PLAN VIEW LOCATER LOOKING SOUTH ACROSS ST. CLAUDE AVENUE

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

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RELATED PHYSICAL MODEL IMAGES

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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION


SITE PLAN VIEW LOCATER TRACKS SPLITTING ON ST. CLAUDE AVENUE

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

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RELATED PHYSICAL MODEL IMAGES

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SITE PLAN VIEW LOCATER PEDESTRIAN PATH LEADING INTO OPEN PLAZA/MARKET SPACE

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

103


RELATED PHYSICAL MODEL IMAGES

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SITE PLAN VIEW LOCATER OPEN PLAZA/MARKET SPACE AT ALABO CROSSING

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

105


RELATED PHYSICAL MODEL IMAGES

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SITE PLAN VIEW LOCATER APPROACHING TRANSITIONAL HOUSING... VOLUNTEER HOUSING BEYOND

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

107


RELATED PHYSICAL MODEL IMAGES

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SITE PLAN VIEW LOCATER CENTER / MAIN ENTRANCE OF TRANSITIONAL HOUSING

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

109


RELATED PHYSICAL MODEL IMAGES

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SITE PLAN VIEW LOCATER COURTYARD SPACE FROM ALABO STREET

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

111


RELATED PHYSICAL MODEL IMAGES

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L9 PERMEATED REPARATION


PEDESTRIAN POINT OF VIEW Courtyard Perspective Looking North

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

113


RELATED PHYSICAL MODEL IMAGES

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PEDESTRIAN POINT OF VIEW Courtyard Perspective Looking West

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

115


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WORKS CITED

Aalto, Alvar. “From Doorstep to Living Room.” (1926)Print. “Cohousing.”Web. <http://www.cohousing. org/>.

McCamant, Kathryn, and Charles Durrett. Cohousing: A Contemporary Approach to Housing Ourselves. Berkeley, Calif: Ten Speed Press, 1994. Print.

Colquhoun, Ian. Design Out Crime: Creating Safe and Sustainable Communities. Oxford: Architectural Press 2004, 2004. Print.

“New Orleans Archiectural Styles.”Web. <http://www.neworleansonline.com/ neworleans/architecture/archtypes.html.>.

“Cooperative Housing.” The Encyclopedia of Housing. Ed. Willem Van Vliet. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage, 1998. 89-94. Print.

Scotthanson, Chris and Scotthanson, Kelly. The Cohousing Handbook: Building a Place for Community. New Society Publishers, 2005. Print.

Franck, Karen, and Sherry Ahrentzen. New Households, New Housing. New York: Van Nostrand, 1989. Print. Hands, John. Housing Co-Operatives. London: Society for Co-operative Dwellings, 1975. Print.

Sherwood, Roger. Modern Housing Prototypes. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1978. Print. Sprague, Joan Forrester. More than Housing: Lifeboats for Women and Children. Boston: Butterworth Architecture, 1991. Print.

Hemmens, George C., Charles J. Hoch, and Jana Carp. Under One Roof: Issues and Innovations in Shared Housing. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996. Print.

Towers, G. An Introduction to Urban Housing Design at Home in the City. Burlington, MA: Architectural Press, 2005. Print.

Jones, Tom. Good Neighbors: Affordable Family Housing. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995. Print.

Vogt, Lloyd. Historic Buildings of the French Quarter. Gretna Louisiana: Pelican Publishing company, 2002. Print.

Lewis, Sally. Front to Back: A Design Agenda for Urban Housing. Oxford; Burlington, MA: Architectural Press, 2005. Print.

CONCEPT

BACKGROUND

CONTEXT

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

PRECEDENT

STRATEGY

117


THANK YOU!! Thesis Committee: Harry Van Oudenallen-chair Gerald Weisman Kevin Forseth Fellow Students: Alex Fortney Emily Fournier Adams Holly Baukin Claire Gillis Shelly Sang Alex McEathron Fall 2009 New Orleans Studio Mack McClendon

Transitional Housing Sectional Aerial View


UWM Thesis - Permeated Reparation: Lower Ninth Ward Transitional Housing