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DISREGARD OF SINGAPORE’S BOUNDARIES ACADEMIC PORTFOLIO

Jonathan Chew 1900988 The Glasgow School of Arts 2020/2021


CONTENT PAGE

INTRODUCTION

2-9

PROJECT FRAMEWORK

10 - 13

PROJECT 1

14 - 57

PROJECT 2

58 - 97

PROJECT 3

98 - 139

CONCLUSION

140

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SINGAPORE’S EDUCATION

SINGAPORE’S INFLUENCES

Singapore students are taught to be forward thinking, problem solver and over achievers. It can be seen in how we were shown the former prime minister, Lee Kuan Yew, on how his guidance over Singapore has led to it being as sucessful as it is today. This has led us, Singaporean students to strive for economical development as we were brought up in a country which money holds value to us more than anything else. For starters, we were taught to set goals in our lives. Such as having the 3 ‘C’s, Car, Cash, Condo. Which are the mindset of the older generations of Singaporeans, but this does not differ to the younger crowd. We still set goals in our lives such as having a stable income, having a roof over our head, and having a family. But all this boils down to having the money to support all these goals. Hence, it can be seen that money is the ruler of all (evil).

The idea of how we were educated has influenced design in Singapore. Singapore design tend to be very pragamatic and problem solving. Even when in Singapore they are trying to show that the design mainly in architecture/interior space can be creative. But are still limited to a certain creativity. For myself as an aspiring designer, creavity is what i feel as free-form design. The space is a blank canvas and I create my design through being people oriented of the space and allow the form to flow through the people.

Fig 2. d’Leedon

Fig 3. HDB

Fig 1. Passengers in the MRT using phone With this, we can see that Singaporeans want to achieve money in a efficient manner and also having their own time to themselves. Time is money in Singapore, we tend to keep ourselves doing something that is to give ourselves “me-time” everywhere we go.

One of the project that i feel is free-form in Singapore is done by Zaha Hadid, d’Leedon, a Condominum designed by her.2 It seems different from what we know in Singapore. In Singapore, all we see are HDBs which are all linear. It feels like there is a lack of design on the exterior, the community can only vote on what colour they would like their HDBs to be painted over a period of time.

Money. Efficiency. Time.

1

Lee, K., 1998. The Singapore story. 1st ed. Singapore: Times Editions Pte Ltd.

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2 BURO. 2021. Remembering Zaha Hadid: 3 buildings in Singapore by the late architect and designer. [online] Available at: <https://www.buro247. sg/culture/buro-loves/remembering-zaha-hadid-singapore-2016.html?gallery=gallery-4320_6090e55fdd85c&slide=3> [Accessed 4 May 2021].

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WHY FREE FORM CAN BE THOUGHT OF CHOICE IN SINGAPORE? Free-form design has more flexibility and is irregular. It allows designer to express their creativity more. However, they will start to question themselves once the project has to become a reality. This is because straight design has more capability of being realised as compared to freeform design. But it should not be shoved aside. It should be encourage to use as a thought process or even ideation process. I will be using free-form as a thought process to make my design as realistic as possible.

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SINGAPORE, A PRAGMATIC SOCIETY Singapore was built to be a fast-developing country as seen by others.3 We were taught that our we were all born to be economic driven and should strive in that direction. In economical aspect, there was only right or wrong. There was no middle ground between the two. Similarly in design, Singapore’s design are based off problem solving and are restricted by guidelines in Singapore. In my series of projects, I’m trying to investigate the current Singapore Design Guidelines and how we can try to break off the limits or boundaries set by the Singapore standard. Furthermore, trying to showcase the pros and cons of these limits which aims to be a conversation starter between being on the fence of pragmatism and speculative ideas. These projects are all produced with key ideas in mind of how Singaporeans should appreciate being present in the moment and sometimes should let go of the fast-paced living/econmical driven life that they are living.

Problem

Solution

Cause

Effect

We tend to react to a problem with a solution as a natural reaction. This defeats the purpose of how we were educated previously on being forward-looking. The effect of the solutions is usually being seen as most valuable as compared to the cause of it. But if we tackle the cause of the problem, it will be more efficient.

3 Nichols, A., 2021. The role of Governments in shaping economic development in Singapore and Malaysia. [online] Geography.org.uk. Available at: <https://www.geography.org.uk/teaching-resources/singapore-malaysia/The-role-of-Governments-in-shaping-economic-development-in-Singapore-and-Malaysia> [Accessed 28 April 2021].

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PROJECT TYPES

Part 1: Disregard of Dead Spaces This project is to investigate the emotional aspect of space to see if it can be used to create a design for people to release their emotions. Through understanding the columbarium/cemetery spaces uses, the users of the space do not allow them to release their emotions fully due to the spatial qualities of the space. Using a void deck as a space to allow a user to release their emotions throughout it due to the idea of there being a lack of space in the future in Singapore.

PROJECT FRAMEWORK The projects are based off understanding the “problem” and looking into how it was “solved” through the Singapore guidelines and design. Applying the cause and effect through speculation into my speculative design and seeing how it can be further developed into an idea that seem feasible.

Part 2: Disregard of Journey Experience This project is to investigate the walking awareness of users within the space. There are two routes within the space, but one is deemed as invaluable as it takes a longer route. The design serves to allow the user to fully experience the walking journey from one place to another. By highlighting the apparent objects/qualities of space through the design, users will be intrigued to enter the journey while discovering things that seemed obscure. This might then lead to them being more aware of their surroundings in the future of their journey.

Part 3: Disregard of Functionality This project is to investigate the functional aspect of the boundaries within the spaces. It serves to highlight the non-functional aspect of the space with a series of images of the site inhabitation. By creating a single plane for pedestrians and cyclist to share, there will be two routes which allow users to adjust to their pace depending on the route taken. This design can be seen as an alternative for cyclist and pedestrians to share the space in the environment.

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SITE PLAN OF PROJECT SCOPE

1 DISREGARD OF DEAD SPACES 2 DISREGARD OF JOURNEY EXPERIENCE 3 DISREGARD OF FUNCTIONALITY

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PROJECT 1 DISREGARD OF DEAD & LIVING SPACES There is a demand of Living Spaces over Dead Spaces that can be seen from how the government plans out the spaces allocated in Singapore. There are pros and cons of having more of each spaces. But the main purpose to solve this issue is not to view the pros and cons but to understand why was the spaces built in the first place and how we can intergrate to our current lifestyle so that it will still exist even if the spaces does not.

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DISREGARD OF DEAD SPACES Fig 4. Yin Foh Kuan Cemetery Located within the hearts of HDB is a Hakka Cemetery that seems weird as it is a cemetery within a living space. However, this has been a peaceful settlement that has been in the residential space for decades.4

The Singapore Government has proposed to exhume around 4,000 graves in response to created a highway for efficent traffic. However, they did not understood the severity of this matter. To the people who uses bukit brown, it is a loss of space for history and their loved ones. But there is more to that. This shows that the government is more bias towards creating more space for living purposes. In this case, for efficient traffic flow. The value of traffic flow is much more valuable than the history of the place.

4 Time Out Singapore. 2021. 8 heritage graveyards and cemeteries to visit in Singapore. [online] Available at: <https://www.timeout.com/singapore/ things-to-do/heritage-cemeteries-in-singapore> [Accessed 4 May 2021].

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Collage of “Columbarium”, Library and Corridor Space Are there values that can be seen within the spaces in the collage put together? Are there only history that are of value to us. There should be more to that but we have to discover it.

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ROOT OF DISPUTE

IN DEPTH STUDY OF THE ISSUE Fig 5. Newspaper Article of Bukit Brown Demolition

In the year 2012, there was a commotion that sparked Singaporeans awareness towards Bukit Brown Cemetery and its rich history. The Singapore Government had planned to remove part of Bukit Brown for Lornie Highway in response for efficient traffic flow.4 This has angered some residents of Singapore as their ancesters were “resting” in the cemetery itself. In result, there was a petition that was brought up by the Singapore Bukit Brown Committee but has failed to stop this action by the Singapore Government.5 Could this be the start of the removal of dead spaces in response for living spaces? As Singapore’s population is steadily increasing yearly, there could be a demand for more spaces to live.6

4 TAI, J., 2021. First section of Lornie Highway, formerly Bukit Brown Road, opens to traffic. [online] The Straits Times. Available at: <https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/transport/first-section-of-lornie-highway-formerlybukit-brown-road-opens-to-traffic> [Accessed 28 April 2021]. 5 SOS Bukit Brown. 2021. Sign Our Open Letter. [online] Available at: <https://sosbukitbrown.wordpress.com/ action/sign-our-petition/> [Accessed 28 April 2021]. 6 Statista. 2021. Population of Singapore 2019-2024 | Statista. [online] Available at: <https://www.statista.com/ statistics/378558/total-population-of-singapore/> [Accessed 28 April 2021].

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CEMETERIES “Space Wasters”

UNDERSTANDING THE SPACES

Fig 6. Food Offerings in 1960s

The fast development of Singapore has resulted in the death of cemeteries. Singapore was filled with cemeteries in the past. These cemeteries were “space waster”, this resulted in the downfall of these cemeteries. To create more space for development, there was a policy implemented and enforced by National Environment Agency (NEA) in 1st Nov 1998 stating that there is a 15 year burial period for all bodies to be exhumed after and be housed in a columbarium.7 Which lead to the rise in the columbarium in Singapore. These “space waster” were replaced with space for the living, for the development of Singapore. In Fig 6, we can understand that the space is seen as a more intimate experience from resident to “user” of the space. The exchange seem more genuine because of the space being isolated to one per person.

7 National Environment Agency. 2020. Burial, Cremation And Ash Storage. [online] Available at: <https://www. nea.gov.sg/our-services/after-death/post-death-matters/burial-cremation-and-ash-storage> [Accessed 19 November 2020].

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VALUE OF CEMETERY SPACE IN COMPARISION TO COLUMBARIUM SPACE

Fig 7. People Burning Artefacts to deceased family in Kampong San Teng The value of a cemetery might not seem significant in the eyes of Singaporeans but to understand more we need to look back at some historical cemetery site. One example would be looking at the history of Bishan. Bishan originated from Kampong San Teng. In this village, the space that the cemeteries have taken were up to 324-acres (1.31km2) which is almost 180 football fields.8 The huge plot of space allows a huge space for display of burning artefacts which may seem to equates to a larger filial piety. The size of the land will result in the display of ritual to differ. A smaller land will result in a smaller display of ritual, but the ritual is still present. Does a smaller display of ritual shows that the significant value from the ritual is smaller? The value cannot be measured in any physical way, but only through understanding the meaning of these rites. In the “Doctrine of the Mean”, experiencing the something (ritual) will result in acquiring knowledge which in time will result in understanding the reason behind the ritual.9 This can only show that the environment only affects the display of ritual and the physical aspect of it. The significant value of the ritual (knowledge) is perceived to the person itself.

8 Singapore Kwong Wai Siew Peck San Theng .2010. 新加坡广惠肇碧山亭140周年纪念特刊.1st ed. Singapore: 新加坡广惠肇碧山亭, pg.84. 9 Legge, J., 1971. The Four Books. 1st ed. Hong Kong: The International Publication Society. pg. 21

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COLUMBARIUM INSIGHTS

Fig 8. Paying Respect at Mandai Columbarium There are tombstone or stone structures which hold certain meaning to it in a cemetery. In a columbarium, the plaques are informative rather than holding value. It shows the face of the deceased with the name and when they are born and died. If there is enough space on the plaque, some famous quotes or words by the person can be engraved on it in remembrance of him/her. It is shown that there is a standardized format that is replicated throughout the plaques in the columbarium. In a cemetery, the space for paying respect is bigger than compared to the ones in a Columbarium. It could be seen as a loss of respect as the housing for the dead body gets smaller in Singapore. However, the housing of the dead does not equate to the measurement of respect for the ancestor. The respect for the ancestor is usually related to the rituals and thought when doing the rituals. Such as treating the ancestor or deceased as if they were alive.10

10 Legge, J., 1971. The Four Books. 1st ed. Hong Kong: The International Publication Society. pg. 17

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KOREAN DRAMA CONTEXT

EMOTIONAL STUDY THROUGH DRAMA Fig 9. Hi Bye,Mama! Poster This drama “Hi Bye,Mama!” is used to study the understanding of one’s emotional feeling through the loss of someone while being in a columbarium setting. As korean drama is seen globally as one of the more dramatic experience within the drama scene. I’m using it as a baseline to understand more about how one expresses their emotions in the setting. Summary The main female lead. Cha Yu Ri, had died in car accident but remained as a ghost in the Earth Realm. She was able to see all their family members and feel their emotions. This was seen as a emotional drama to me. Hence, I have used it as a study for my project.

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DRAMA BREAKDOWN

Episode 1

Episode 1

Episode 6

Episode 6

3:05 - Apologising to the parents for the loss of daughter. In a state of denial & self-blame.

4:48 - Keeping himself busy to overcome grief In a state of acceptance & self-blame.

4:00 - Different type of grief (sadness) Still unable to fully let themselves out due to the nature of this place

4:02 - Different type of grief (sadness) Still unable to fully let themselves out due to the nature of this place

Episode 6

Episode 6

Episode 6

Episode 8

34:42 - Questioning the surgeon that caused the death of his wife In a state of anger & depression.

3:55- Different type of grief (upset) Showing that not everyone is can show sorrow through this space.

4:03 - Different type of grief (sadness) Still unable to fully let themselves out due to the nature of this place

20:27 - Different type of grief (emotionless) Still unable to fully let themselves out due to the nature of this place

He is living his life in a state of self-blame, stop being a surgeon due to the fact his wife died in a surgery.

Even with the drama being a very emotional drama, we are still able to see the actors holding back due to the space of the design. The users of the space are unable to cry out due to the reverberation quality of the space. It will also seem disturbing to the other users of the space as the dead “resting” in the space are located very close to one another. 28

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SINGAPORE DRAMA CONTEXT

SINGAPORE DRAMA

The two movies that i have attempted to use as a research are “Bring Back the Dead” and “I not Stupid Too”. I have attempted to use Singapore as a medium to understand more in a local context but there was some difficulty to look at emotional context through the idea of death in Singapore Drama. As Singapore drama is more catered to the general audience which are the younger crowd. Hence, the drama scene seems less emotional as compared to the ones in Korea.

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BRING BACK THE DEAD

In this movie, the particular scene that I’m using as a study is the funeral transition to the cemetery scene. The movie was rated PG13 which could be the reason why it does not have much emotional release moment in this. However, in Singapore, most of the scene has less to none very emotional moments for topics regarding death. In the scene where the mother looks into the coffin of the child’s dead body, I could sense the despair from the actress. It then transition into the next scene where she looked at the tombstone while trying to express sense of remorse as she did not pay attention to the child’s safety.

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I NOT STUPID TOO

In this movie, the particular scene that I’m using as a study is the death to funeraltransition. In the scene, the father is at his deathbed talking to another character with his son present at the moment. The transition after that is to show that the father has passed on, immediately followed by his son expressing remorse for not being a filial son to his father. However, it is difficult to understand how the person is feeling as the actor is not in the setting of a columbarium or cemetery which i would like to study on.

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UNDERSTANDING MORE ABOUT GRIEF

EXHAUSTION THROUGH GRIEF

Reaction to close one’s death Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Exhaustion There are two types of exhaustion which are physical and mental. They are connected but require different quality of space.

PHYSICAL GRIEF Hollowness in stomach Tightness in chest Tightness in throat Oversensitivity to noise/ image/smell Lack of energy Sense of depersonalization Breathlessness, feeling short of breath Weakness in muscles Dry mouth

EMOTIONS GRIEF Sadness Anger Guilt & self-blame Anxiety Loneliness Fatigue Helplessness Shock Yearning Liberation Relief Numbness

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Physical If there is just a wall they will lean on it. If not they will just collapse on the floor and use their hand as a support. These are some of the ways they can overcome physical exhaustion.

Mental There is a need for peaceful space, when someone is mentally tired they do not care about their appearance. But there should be some privacy which allow them to rest within.

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DESIGN THINKING PROCESS Through the protest from Bukit Brown, we can learn that there will always be a constant change in the environment for dead spaces as it is not as valuable (economically) as living spaces. Could this be the start of a change for dead spaces in Singapore? Could there be a design that showcase the new typology of dead spaces in Singapore? From the drama study, we can learn that the emotional release stages towards the loved ones are mainly in the dead spaces. However, the spaces does not allow the user to release their emotions fully. Could there be something in my design that allows the user to know that there is a space dedicated to them releasing their emotions. From these Studies of the process of griefing and how it affects people. We can understand that griefing does not affect one emotionally but physically as well. Hence, there should be a need for people to respite in the space in addition to its main purpose.

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NEIGHBOURHOOD OF CHOA CHU KANG

SITE CONTEXT

Located along Block 560, the void deck is unused as residents just walk along the blue path that is highlighted in the picture

FUTILE VOID DECK There are many interesting things that can be noticed at the site itself. Firstly, the void deck is unused due to the location of this void deck. There are other ways that residents walk that does not interact with this Void Deck as compared to other void deck that is used as a transitional space.

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Inside the void deck is a platform space that is used for birthday celebration in the past but is not in use now.

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Conversation Transition Resting Ideation Embrace and privacy are the two components my design would consist of.

Embrace

Site Analysis The site comprises of two main component. It is a transit space and a resting space. There is a sub component which is the activities that exist there which are conversations.

To show embrace of emotional release for user to feel that it is an experiential space for emotions.

Privacy

Openings There are two main openings which shows the direction towards the Mass Rapid Transport (MRT) and a lift lobby.

To allow user to release emotions, the space has to have a sense of privacy for them.

Performance There is a raised platform which had been the main stage for the birthday person in the past.

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IDEATION MODELS

Using a series of panels to create privacy and pockets where the user can seep into. Imagining if the sound will fade out once it goes through the panels

Using a series of panels to create privacy and using height to further inform the user’s action to hide at the pockets of spaces which covers them fully.

Using a series of sticks to create a privacy that has a flow. Allowing the user to lean into the curvature formed. This shows a language which influences the user to use the design in a certain programme such as sitting,leaning and lying.

Using a linen form to create a free form structure which allows privacy and influence the user to use the design in a certain programme such as sitting and hiding within.

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IDENTIFYING KEY SPACES OF THE SITE

DESIGN PROCESS Using grid as a baseline to. Each box within the grid allows the user to be inside of it. Using it as a planning method for design.

Isolated Spaces People feels comfortable to isolate themselves away without being in the line of sight of other people.

Emotional Spaces Similiarly, this could be seen as spaces that can be used as emotional release space in the design

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Creating sense of privacy through panels that could allow user to hide within the space.

Panels are too linear in the space. Trying out to see if curvature panels could lessen the use of the space. It looked better as it felt that the void deck was transformed into something of a newer typology.

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DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

TESTING OUT PANEL ORIENTATION

Using the idea of panels being able to provide privacy to further develop into the free form design that I intended. I have created forms that allow people to seep into and release their emotions.

Located 3 of the main key areas of the space which are used to design the space. The panels are then developed into design which further allow programmes such as resting, leaning and lying on.

As I’m more into free-form design expressing my creativity. I have attempted to transform the linear panels to curvature form.

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As the space of the void deck is known to be empty, the design seem too strong in this space. Hence, I have lowered the height of the design to make it seem less intimidating.

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BREAKING DOWN THE FUNCTIONALITY (SEATING)

Chair

Stool

Seating is the an act that can only be achieve when something allows the user to be seated on such as a chair or stool.

MATERIALITY OF DESIGN Using the design process to develop the design so that it can be suitable to the site. Transforming the design from a solid to a more porous form to fit the site.

Less

More Comfort Level Breaking down the chair into it’s skeletonal form help to understand how porous the chair can be with retaining its functionality. The different form of thickness will affect how the user is able to interact with the chair. A different posture for each type. Different intensity of lines between the seating will affect how comfortable the user sit and rest. 48

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BREAKING DOWN THE FUNCTIONALITY (PRIVACY)

Less

Privacy Level Using the same study as the figure previous to this, I have attempted to use only horizontal strings. This seems more natural as it looked like window grills that allow the user to peek through only when needed.

More

More

Less

Privacy Level

Less

Privacy Level

Using the same study as the figure previous to this, I have attempted to use only vertical strings. This seems more man-made as it looked like jail cells which might result the design to look very cold.

More

Breaking down the panels into its function which is privacy. The forms shows the privacy being reduces depending on the intensity of the weaving strings between the panels.

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ITERATION PROCESS Using the materiality study to further develop the design to make it seem feastible in the environment.

Using vertical strings to provide privacy but also create seatings for the users to seat.

From this design to develop into a more feasiable design.

Replicating to all the design. Tested out with solid and porous form for part of the design. But does not seem comfortable and look like an eye sore in the space.

Creating frames that are pole liked features that structures the strings so that it can be weaved through and also supported.

Tested out with a series of full solid and full porous form but seemed like a playground which spoils the intention of the design. 52

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Respite Area

Performance Area

Section 1

Section 2

Section 1 (Sectional Perspective)

REST3

DESIGN FOR EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL REST This project aims to serve as an provocation to the Singapore’s idea of protizing the living spaces over the dead spaces. Using the void deck as a dead space to create a space in response of the living people to grief into. Keeping the special quality of this void deck to further utilize it in the future. Section 2 (Sectional Perspective)

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REST3 By Jonathan Chew This project was done in response to the diminishing amount of dead spaces in Singapore such as cemetery and columbarium spaces. These spaces are deem as useless spaces and are replaced with living spaces. This showcases what could be a possible outcome that might replace the void deck in the case of no space for people to grief. The free form structure showcases the limitless possiblity of form that can create seatings/privacy for the user to inhabit in. Understanding that the emotional aspect of people within a site and design context is as important as the design itself. Alot of time was spent into understanding the thought process of the user and the topic of death in Singapore. But the topic of death is singapore is nonexistant as it is a taboo subject to even speak about. However, this project is deem to be a speculative design as the space chosen to put the design into is still not seen upon in Singapore. As the void deck has a larger role in a HDB estate. It is used widely as a transitional space. While only in this case, the void deck chosen is NOT used as a transitional space, hence, deemed as a underutilized space. 56

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PROJECT 2 DISREGARD OF JOURNEY EXPERIENCE Singapore is a fast-paced country, as time is precious to us, we tend to take the more time-efficient route. Hence, we might miss out an experience within a journey path that was already available at the present moment but we are not utilizing it due to it being a longer route to get to where we want to. Sometimes we have switched onto our “auto walking” mechanism which also prevents us from noticing these routes.

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WALKING JOURNEY

WALKING AWARENESS

There is always an experience through out walking journey when we go from one destination to another. But we are too accustom to this mudance feeling that we do not even notice it. We have this auto mechanism that allows us to walk without even the thought of it. My aim is to look into the journey that we take from home to work and back. To see if there could be an experiencial intervention that can happen to invoke this sense of normality.

Fig 10. People crossing the road near Paya Lebar MRT

Home

Experience

Work

From this image we can see that we are all too accustom too the walking path that we do not need to even see where we walk. We use the focus onto the phone. Hence, this is what I feel that is the cause of what we are lacking in our everyday life. The attention spent in using the phone while walking could be used to observe the places we walk. The small steps that we take. This skillset could be seen as less valuable for a designer as the normal things could be too normal to even used.

11 The Straits Times. 2021. Forum: Gatherings of maids must comply with regulations. [online] Available at: <https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/forum/gatherings-of-maids-must-comply-with-regulations> [Accessed 6 May 2021].

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MARTIN HEIDEGGER’S THEORY Phenomenology

BEING PRESENT IN THE MOMENT Fig 11. Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger is seen as the a key person in the ontology study. He has a few different beliefs on his understanding of human’s exisitance. He highlighted the importance of thinking as an existential being. Thinking is to imagine yourself walking within the forest. There is eventually find the exit in the woods and it will never be a linear path but there are always ups and down. The method of thinking felt interesting as we were to keep questioning the questions until it there are no more questions to be questioned. This is because questioning will lead to more clarity in the source of problem. Or in this case, the source of normality. Dissecting the normality even though it seem like a mindless question or observation.

We have to be present in the time to experience this normality in the world. From the understanding Heidegger’s concept, I believe that this is applicable to Singaporeans. With the nature of how fast Singapore is, we all are too involved with our jobs. We feel that this normal experience is something that is non valuable as we as Singaporeans measure everything with money. How much will this experience bring us? How valuable is this experience in comparision to the current experience in terms of efficiency?

By Questioning, we will be able to think and question like Heidegger and we could find out something out of the normality that already seem normal to us. By understanding “Being”, the term used by Heidegger, we will be able to understand more about our exisitance in this world. There are many made up word in the book “Being & Time” by Heidegger. 12 Words such as “Being-in-time”, “Being-present”, “There-being” all suggests the importance of understanding one’s exisitance.

12 Heidegger, M. (1962). Being and time. 1st ed. Oxford: Blackwell

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NEIGHBOURHOOD OF CHOA CHU KANG

USING MYSELF AS A STUDY As I’ve been a user of this walkway for two decades, everything within the space is very normal to me. Hence, I am using myself as a study in Heidegger’s concept of understanding one existence. Removing my selfthoughts such as the idea of understanding the normality is being silly as why would we question what is already understood or that we think we understand.

FUTILE WALKING EXPERIENCE This site is chosen as an walking journey because it is a pathway that I’ve been using for two decades. It is a very normal experience to me. But what is normal to me and normal to other I will never know, until I dissect it out which is what I will be trying to do throughout this whole project.

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The entrance of the designated pathway which I have walked everyday.

The shelted walkway

The bus shelter and the sheltered walkway does not touch and seem like two different shelters although to me it is just a shelter that provides shade from the sun or from the rain. The gradient of the slope looks as if we are climbing into the HDB neighbourhood.

Each column demarcates the space boundary by producing the same orange colour to the floor in forms of lines. Each boxes are painted in grey which shows the differences in spacial features if in comparision to concrete flooring. It shows the space that one is suppose to step onto.

Sheltered of Pathways

Shadow of Shelter

The shelters of the different pathways does not connect with one another. The reason for that is so that it will be understood that the Bus Shelter is individual, the Walkway from the Void Deck is individual, and the shelter to the grass area is individual.

The shadow of the shelter shows the detailing of the roof which is interesting as to me it is only a roof. I do not care much about the detailing as the roof ’s function is to provide me shelter from the sun and the rain. Noticing the small details.

Tree & Lamps The trees looks as if it was trying to frame something. While the lamp post are camoflauged into being as tall as the trees. The lamp was not noticable to me in the day as compared to the night due to it lighting up

Skeleton of Shelter Could the shelter still provide it’s function even when its made into the skeletonal form? Could the experience of going through the shelter still remain? 66

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The grass patch area which is used for leisure activities Activities such as chatting, smoking and even gaming there is done around that area. Why do people use this area? Because it has seating and provides shade. It has a very airy location. The trees provides additional shade to the space with seatings. Tree as Shelter The tree can be seen as a nature shelter from the sun and rain but not as efficient as the man-made shelter. However, this should not be dismissed of. Shade from Trees The trees provide shade that can be seen by the shadows on the floor. The shadows from the trees can only be seen at night. While the tree moves, the shadow moves as well. Making the space a more lively experience if walked among.

Ray from Natural Shelter The natural shelter can be seen weaving through the man-made building. Showing its dominance of natural over man-made. The light and shadow from the tree can be seen as something more interesting to myself as I’m more into the free-form design. Hence, I feel that the nature has more influence over my design context.

Tree porousity If we walked the path and look up we will be able to see the tree leaves and in between them we will be able to see the sky. We can appreciate the beauty of nature. 68

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CIRULATION PATH

SITE UNDERSTANDING The man-made quality features such as building and shelters are too plentiful in the residential estate. But this can’t be avoided as the residential estate is meant to be man-made forms so that the residents will be able to live in it. The man-made structures is understood by the residents but also still overlooked by the residents as they only appreciate its functionality only when it is removed. For example, one will only feel the heat from the sun when the shelter/shade is being removed from the space. Similiary to how the tree’s secondary function is to shelter.

Typical Circulation Proposed Circulation

But how can we understand more about the man-made creation when we dont even appreciate the understanding of nature forms around the space. The trees provide shade and keep the humidity levels low so that the residential estate feel less humid. The tree/landscape provides so much more than it is being used for. Why do we shy away from appreciating the treeness of the tree? Why does the tree leaves look like its the cloud of the land? I would like for the users of the space to interact more with the pathway that is located within the space into the landscape. It just takes them an additional one to two minutes of their journey back home. However, it should not be forced upon them but left to chance upon. Giving this sense of wandering in order for them to be intrigued and understanding more about what it is meant to be. They could then look up into the sky and think about what life is in this world.

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Residents of this space, including myself takes the blue path instead of the yellow path as the blue path brings us home more efficiently. The yellow path just seem like a waste of time to us. But I would like them to enter the space and see the beauty of this normal experience.

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DESIGN INTENTION

DESIGN IDEATION By further dissecting the man-made shelter, I would like to replicate the shelter experience of being in the shelter. Although I’m trying to showcase the natural experience through walking, there is a need to understand what is currently exisiting and what perks does it give at the current moment. Since it’s already accepted by the resident, the closest i can get to the man-made structure would be the most feasible. I have removed the functionality of the shelter from my thought process as if the resident wants to get shade from the sun or rain they could use the exisiting shelters and walkways to get to their destination. Using the current pathway that is already existing to create a flowy form to intrigue the user to experience the space that already exist. The design is to allow the user to wander into the space out of curiousity. Using the advantages of the nature landscape and natural tree shelters to keep the space cool and shady. The design’s main aim is to attract more people into the space and showcase a free-form design. The tree’s height could be used as a way to camoflauge the design when seen at different angle or height.

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SERPENTINE PAVILION - JUNYA ISHIGAMI

CASE STUDY Using the Serpentine Pavilion annual showcase as a study subject, as the pavilion within the space are all having similiar qualities to what I feel is needed within the residential estate so that the users of the space will feel more of the normality within the space. There were so many good examples of Serpentine Pavilions that I would like to include in my case study but all had different thought process. So I chose the one closest to my ideal design process. Which would be the Serpentine Pavilion by Junya Ishigami. He challenges the norm of the pavilions made throughout the years. His pavilion is not porous and it actually feels very solid. It is not the look I am going for but his thought process is the closest to what I’m trying to express. Materiality and Imagination is an important aspect of his design. All of the pavilions had qualities such as being open so that they allow the user to see through the space into the park/garden environment so that the environment could be the focal point.

The architectural form designed by the Japanese Architect Junya Ishigami challenges the materials on many levels. He wanted to showcase that stone can be seen as an aesthetic material as well. He would like the user of the space to imagine the form as “a black bird against the sky. The roof of the pavilion becomes a pair of wings with slate feathers.” as quoted by him. 13 However, what intrigues me is that he dares to challenge the norm of a pavilion. A pavilion to me is similar to what is a function of a shelter which is to provide a shelter for rest. Usually in a park/ garden landscape. Which is similar to the site context of what I’m trying to achieve. But, the material that he use is too heavy for the site context of my residential estate. This is due to the large amount of man-made structure within the residential estate such as concrete, bricks, stones and etc. Which I would like to introduce a new type of material as an aesthetic value which is not seen before like how Junya Ishigami uses stone as a new aesthetic material for building.

13 Jordahn, S., 2021. Serpentine Pavilion designed to be “part of the surrounding landscape”. [online] Dezeen. Available at: <https://www.dezeen. com/2019/06/19/serpentine-pavilion-2019-junya-ishigami-interview-video/> [Accessed 7 May 2021].

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REIMAGINING SHELTER EXPERIENCE

1: Shelter Drop

2 : Shelter Collapse

5 : Echo Shelter

3 : Shelter Cave

6 : Cross Shelter

REIMAGINING SHELTER FORMS

4 : Shelter Curve

7: Cross Drop Shelter

1: Single Curve

2 : Double Curve

4 : Pipe Fall

3 : Double Oval Curve

5 : Pipe Curve

EXPERIENCE

FORM

To further understand more about the spatial quality of a shelter. I have created a few different iteration of models. Shelter Drop and Shelter Collapse were to see if there were any experiential quality if I changed the form of the current exisiting shelter. It will make the user feel that the space is not stable. Shelter Cave and Shelter Curve were to see if there are alternative while retaining the functionality but exploring curvature forms. Echo Shelter, Cross Shelter and Cross Drop Shelter were to understand more about the experience of the space as the functionality of the shelter is removed. Hence, this will heighen the experience of the space. This also provides more vision for the user to look around the space.

To further understand more about how form will affect the structures of the space. And also how a “shelter” can be more than just a shelter. Maybe the form that goes over the head can come down onto the floor and up to make a seating form. Single,Double and Double Oval Curves were to see if the curvature form could form a new typology of shelter that not only acts as a structure of a singular form. But also act as a seating as a secondary function. Pipe Fall and Pipe Curve both seek to challenge the 2D to 3D form of a shelter. The form could be seen as different thickness as to a plane form.

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REIMAGINING FLOW EXPERIENCE

1 : Single Spiral

2 : Double Spiral

3 : Single Spiral Diminish

2.1 : Double Spiral

3.1 : Single Spiral Diminish

FLOW Using paper material to create a trapezium shape and roll it so that it creates a spiral form. The form can be imagined as a space tunnel that allow the user to seep into and inhabit the space. However, it still feels too solid for the users to appreciate the natural experience which i was trying to showcase in the space.

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FLOW INTENSITY

1 : 15o Spiral Form

2 : 30o Spiral Form

3 : 45o Spiral Form

3 : 60o Spiral Form

3 : 90o Spiral Form

X : Spiral Forms

INTENSITY I liked the spiral form that was created. I further developed a series of models ranging from the difference in angle from 15o to 90o. This has allowed me to understand that there was some limitation to using paper as a material. As the more you twirl the form, the smaller the opening will be causing the space to feel more confined. From the spiral forms, I understood that the shelter experience can be more than just a shelter. It can act as a shelter to a seating or leaning experience.

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REIMAGINING THE FORM Further experimented with the design to see if it could be placed into the residential context but it felt too forceful. This could be because of the choice of material which is concrete. The concrete showcases the man-made structures which already exist. This causes the emphasis to be on the structure instead of the natural form that I was trying to invoke through the walking experience. Hence, once again, this is used as a learning experience that the materiality of my design should be less disruptive to the environment as it will only move the attention from the users to the design itself instead of the nature. As I felt that i was restricted from the paper model, I attempted to recreate what I wanted to showcase through the trapezium form. But i got carried away with the functionality of the design and making it to seem very playful.

The form was to provide a sense of discovering and uncovering different functionality of the space such as hiding beneath the structure and also using the curvature of the structure to provide shade from the sun. This seemed too solid and crazy for something in a residential setting. Hence, I have put this aside as a crazy thought.

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POROUS FORM ITERATION

Follow the path

Bend

Crazy Bend

Soften Bend

POROUS FORM VIEW

Just a crazy thought of using porousity as the key form to attract the user from the man-made structure. The porous form allow the trees to seep into the design so that it can get the sunlight that it needs. This will not work in the residential setting as it seems too overwhelming in the space. It feels like a parasite of the space. Like a monster trying to overtake the whole city.

Stretch

Stretch x2

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MATERIAL STUDY

Type 1. Nylon Mesh Cloth

Type 2. Nylon Mesh Netting

Type 3. Nylon Mesh Fabric

MATERIAL CHOICE

Lightness

Type 1

Type 2

Form Integrate

Type 3

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I have chosen for Type 2 to be used as my material for the flowy spiral form that i would showcase through my site. The material has it’s ability to hold a certain form in comparision to Type 1. Type 2 has more porousity as compared to Type 3, which heightens the site context more when used. The porousity allows the user to see more of the site instead of the design. The reason for the choice of Nylon Fabric/Cloth/Mesh is because Nylon has the porous quality that I was trying to seek to showcase the natural setting. It also has a quality that I feel is applicable to all the residents as nylon is a widely known material for clothes. This could be an additional relativity from the design to the user.

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THE GATES - CHRISTO AND JEANNE-CLAUDE

CASE STUDY Using “The Gates” as a case study even though it is an art installation. The expression the artist want to express is similiar to what I’m trying to express throughout my design and the site context. They were trying to not destroy the landscape feature of the site. As it felt important to them, and throughout the whole process of the art installation they were very thoughtful of the installation process to the demolishion process of the installation to the environment. There were no drills into the ground of the floor which is quite intriguing as it felt very stable as an installation. This is because the artist was very concern with the environment. When the installation was completed, the installation was brought down and recycled. The Gates is an installation in the 2005 were made in response to showcase that an installation in the park can be less impact to the environment. The materials from the structures made were recycled after the installation of 16 days was removed.14 The design was done to the flow of the park which follows the pathway that was already created. The people were meant to use the installation as per normal and to treat the gates as going into a new experience. The fabric materials can be seen as a golden ceiling which creates a warmer shadow. But when seen from afar, the golden-orange fabric can be seen as a golden river which emerges from the river below. The installation was done in February as it was the time where it was less crowded. The artists wanted the installation to be an experience where the viewers go through instead of the common static installation. It was suppose to be felt and not looked as though it was an art experience.¹⁵ I’m trying to use the artist installation to show that the pathway and environment that was already in place is as valuable as the walking experience that we should appreciate.

14 Christojeanneclaude.net. 2021. Christo and Jeanne-Claude. [online] Available at: <https://christojeanneclaude.net/artworks/the-gates/> [Accessed 7 May 2021]. 15 Khan Academy. 2021. Christo and Jeanne-Claude, The Gates (article) | Khan Academy. [online] Available at: <https://www.khanacademy.org/ humanities/ap-art-history/global-contemporary-apah/20th-century-apah/a/christo-and-jeanne-claude-the-gates> [Accessed 7 May 2021].

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MATERIAL TO FORM

COLOUR MATERIAL

Using Type 2 to create forms to showcase the spiral design. I realise that this material has it’s potential to showcase a free-form curve .

Continuing the form through out the sticks to create this flowy form that can mimic the shelter experience but is subtle so that the site context will be hieghten over the design. Using this form as my final outcome as it showcases the elegance of the material.

I have attempted to seek different colours for the material choice but i feel that the colour should not play a part in my design as of now. As I would like to heighten the environment, the colour might distract the intention of my design. Hence, I have put away the thought of using colour. Although, colour is very important in a design and it showcases a certain aesthetic quality within the design. Using Type 1,2 & 3 to confirm my choice for the form and will be sticking to Type 2 as it can hold a certain form but still look natural as a free-form curvature design. 88

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DESIGN INTERVENTION Using the case study of “Serpentine Pavilion” done by Junya Ishigami & “The Gates” by Christo and Jeanne-Claude. I have created a flowy form throughout the path that I have chosen. The design is to heighten the environment state of the area and also to attract the attention of the resident so that they might discover this new intervention in their residential neighbourhood. From my ideation process, I have also included the form to be able to fit programmes for the user to seat and lean down on. But all these are not demarcated for the user to know but for them to discover and use the design.

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Using the circulation that was already planned in.

The spiral form will be not as obvious within the setting of the environment due to the nature of the material. Aligning Lighting poles to support the structure and light up the space.

The lighting poles will be slightly shorter than the trees but as slim as them to camouflage them within the environment.

This allows the user to continue walking their own path or wander and discover into the path that already existed. The linen nylon will be then weaved through the support poles to provide this spiral free-form. 92

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INTERVENTION VISION I have attempted to render the design to see how it looks. But with 3D rendering software it was hard to replicate the flowy material that I want to produce in my site context. I had to use red as the flowy material because it was hard to see throughout my modeling phase of creating this project. The 3D flowy structure felt too rigid and cold in my design. I wasn’t able to replicate the wind blowing onto the material which can be seen through my physical models. Hence, I felt that rendering wasn’t the medium for this project. I decided to stick with physical model for my final intervention as it felt more realistic to my suit to my design.

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WANDERFLOW By Jonathan Chew

This project was done in response to appreciate the existence of the natural space and the human existence measured against it. The title is a combination of “wandering” and “flow” which can be read as “wonderful” as it shows that the experience should be a wonderful experience for the user who uses it. By understanding walking experience to questioning more about the experience and how it should be. Most of the time was to question the normality of this project and how valuable this “normal” experience could be measured to other projects and whether there was a point to even point out this experience. The linen material could be removed at a certain point of time once the designer feel that the experience has been fully utilized.

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PROJECT 3 DISREGARD OF FUNCTIONALITY Boundaries in Singapore are usually planned through Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA), their motto is to allow Singapore to be a great city to live, work and play.16 However, as a Singaporean, I feel that the residential spaces in Singapore are planned well for safety, not for work or even play. From my experience as a resident of Singapore, I observe that Singaporeans do not keep to the boundaries set for them. Which is interesting as it can be seen as their own freedom of boundary. Because in Singapore, we are all restricted in the things that we do. We are set within our housing space, our housing room. We look as if we have the freedom to choose what we want to live within. But the reality is that we are set between the walls, this is why I feel that the Singaporeans want to set their own boundaries in the public spaces. We feel more comfort in our own boundaries, different people’s comfort varies. But how can we as a designer design something when the boundaries varies? Should we just leave it as an empty piece of land and tell the users what this space is zoned for? For this project, I’m trying to investigate the functionality of the spacial boundaries. To see if there could be a middle ground for the functionality and non-functional aspect of design

16 Urban Redevelopment Authority. 2021. Urban Redevelopment Authority. [online] Available at: <https:// www.ura.gov.sg/Corporate> [Accessed 7 May 2021].

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LINEARITY IN SINGAPORE

CIRCULATION PATH IN SINGAPORE End

End

Start Start

Design in Singapore are very linear, which make it seem like a strong-headed design. Which is a normal sighting in Singapore, as everywhere we go we will be met with straight building, straight pathways, straight shelters, straight roads, etc. Everything that is designed in Singapore pragmatically will go into the straight realm. Which I feel delimits the creavity of a young aspiring designer as myself. We were taught to keep design into this straight path as it is the most safe and common method used. Even with curved features of design in Singapore will be met with strong opinion on why the curve was made. This makes a good point as curvature should be created not on random but also with good decision making. What is of interest to me are the small narrow pathways that are around the residential settings. We are accustom to this fact as it is something that we can’t change. But as we feel more comfortable with the space we might create our own pathway/circulation.

In Singapore, the circulation paths should be design accordingly, to be clear and unobstructed and to follow the shortest distance between two points. However, I feel that sometimes the rules of circulation paths can be bent to fit more to the community. With observations in Singapore, with the straight circulation path that is planned, it still will be overrun by Singaporeans over time. Singaporeans will find their own way around this circulation path to their own liking. As it is part of our inhabitation, we will try our best to abide with the circulation but still find the shortest way to get to our destination. I will be investigating more about curved paths in consideration to Singaporeans using it. And also to circulation pathway, I would need to understand more about the humans that uses it through the mobility devices and on foot.

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CURVE VS STRAIGHT PATH

CURVE VS STRAIGHT PACING

B

A B

A 2D Path

3D Path

Linear path has a sense of order and a looks that brittle that is easily broken. And also, it also feels more formal and justified as it is commonly used everywhere, it’s the basis of all path. On the other hand, curved pathways seem to have lesser sense of order and looks stretchy which allows user to feel less constrainted. However, if we do want to look at lines, we should also look at it in a 3D perspective. This is because lines from 2D could have a different outlook than of a 3D.18 In this case of 2D to 3D, the linear line in the 3D looks soothing which creates this sense of stablity. While the curved line feels like a loop that could bring this sense of playfulness.

1⁷

D

C

Circulation Pace

Linear path has a straightforward pathway. It is the fastest and efficient route. Which is why it is commonly seen in Singapore. Singapore is known for it being efficient, hence, all the pathway are straight. However, straight lines feels very sharp and directive in order to lead where you can or cannot go. Curved path has a complex pathway. It takes a longer time getting from one destination to another. However, this gives opportunity for rest or pause to happen within the journey. As shown in the diagram above, there could be rest/pause at point B and D. In addition, curved path feels more playful and less directive to the user. Could curved path be better for Singaporeans as they feel restricted in their circulation path?

Ching, F., 2007. Architecture: Form, Space & Order. 3rd ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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UNDERSTANDING SINGAPORE DESIGN SOLUTION People

Mobility Devices

All images from URA Booklet “Walking & Cycling Design Guide” 17.

Fig 12. Cyclist Study

Fig 12. Pedestrian Study 2.0m

Using the studies that are done by URA to understand why the current pathways are as such. The pathway that was created was all done in consideration to the non-cyclist and cyclist’s dimensions. This is the most fundamental way to do create a path for them.

2.0m

Considering Wheelchair and Cyclist

Wheelchair

Using wheelchair as the basis of non-cyclist as they have a larger pathway needed for them. And cyclist as they are part of the people using the pathway. Using 2m as the base guide for individual path and 4m as path for more people to use

Cyclist

18 Urban Redevelopment Authority. 2021. Urban Redevelopment Authority. [online] Available at: <https://www.ura.gov.sg/Corporate/Guidelines/Active-Mobility> [Accessed 7 May 2021].

18 Urban Redevelopment Authority. 2021. Urban Redevelopment Authority. [online] Available at: <https://www.ura.gov.sg/Corporate/Guidelines/Active-Mobility> [Accessed 7 May 2021].

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UNDERSTANDING SINGAPORE DESIGN SOLUTION

Design 1

Shelter

Design 2 All images from URA Booklet “Walking & Cycling Design Guide” 17.

Safety Buffer 0.25m

Height of Cyclist 1.83m

Shelter Design From floor to pedal 0.33m Shelter Experience Understanding the mobility devices and walking experience of a shelter. The height of the shelter will affect how the user interacts with the space. The minimum shelter height should be 2400mm as shown in the diagram.

These are the two design of walkway shelter design. There look like there is no difference but there is a slight curve at the roof of the shelter. This is what i meant by Singapore’s design not having enough creativity. It is not because the designer of Singapore has no creativity but it is because they are being limited by the limitation of the government. The government wants everything to be safe and efficient.

18 Urban Redevelopment Authority. 2021. Urban Redevelopment Authority. [online] Available at: <https://www.ura.gov.sg/Corporate/Guidelines/Active-Mobility> [Accessed 7 May 2021].

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NEIGHBOURHOOD OF CHOA CHU KANG

Cyclist Pathway The 2000mm wide pathway is being blocked by motorbikes. As the motorbikes are usually delivery riders that park for a short while and run to get the delivery and back to their motorbikes.

There is a sharp turn right after you reach the bend which is blocked by the bicycle parking lots.

Peaceful Pedestrian & Cyclist Crossing The pedestrian has the most walking power within this space as they are not binded down by the law which states that bicycle/certain mobility devices will not be able to ride onto the walkway that is located nearby the mall. The cyclist can only go to a single pathway that is only less than 2m wide.

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Then there is a larger space which allows the cyclist to ride faster as there is no obstacle. 109


OBSERVATIONS FROM SITE

Rest through Bicycle Lots

Privacy through Bicycle Lots

Within the bicycle lots, there is a empty space. It is used as a resting spot for some and a smoking spot for others. It is an interesting understanding between the community, as this kind of boundary is not set in place but just known by the community.

The bicycle lots not only just provide a resting spot but also acts as an privacy barrier so that the people resting within some privacy to give them their alone time. The bicycles that people park also don’t abide to the parking lots given. Which is something interesting to take note as mentioned earlier on how Singaporeans demarcate their own spaces

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BICYCLE PARKING DESIGN IN RESIDENTIAL SPACE

Parking Lot Space These type of parking lots are mainly used for sharing bicycle as they have their own locking mechanism. Hence, there is no need for putting on a bicycle lock.

Sheffield Bicycle Rack

Wheel Rack

Double-Tier Parking

This can be commonly seen in the residential estates. The front wheel is being locked by a bicycle lock. Making the front wheel locked to the rack.

This is the most widely used parking for bicycle as it is the most efficient space way to park a bike. This allows the space to be utilized more.

Similar to the wheel rack, it is an individual pole that stands on its own rather than attached to the wall.

Bicycle Parking Design Fence The fence lock is a common sight in Singapore, as anything that has a bar can be used as a pole to lock the bicycle to it. 112

I feel that the bicycle parking designs are good but should we take efficiency over the experience of the circulation space? Maybe removing a few bicycle parking space could be beneficial to the experience of the circulation. 113


UNDERSTANDING BICYCLE LOT DESIGN

Sheffield Bicycle Rack

Double-Tier Parking

All images from URA Booklet “Walking & Cycling Design Guide” 17.

Circulation Allowance There is 1500mm space circulation for the sheffield bicycle rack so that the bicycle can be removed easily. While there is a need for 650mm distance between each u-bar in the sheffield bicycle rack in order for the bicycle to be parked safely. There is 2500mm space circulation for the double-tier parking so that the bicycle can be removed easily. This is slightly more than the sheffield bicycle rack as the top-tier needs to be pulled down and placed onto the floor so the bicycle can be removed. The space between each rack remains as 650mm.

18 Urban Redevelopment Authority. 2021. Urban Redevelopment Authority. [online] Available at: <https://www.ura.gov.sg/Corporate/Guidelines/Active-Mobility> [Accessed 7 May 2021].

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ELEPHANT & CASTLE BY MARTHA SCHWARTZ

CASE STUDY Using “Elephant & Castle” by Martha Schwartz even though its a playground landscape. The interesting thing about this is the circulation that is designed by the landscape architect. The design of the red circular form provided this sense of activity within the boundary given. Even though if the red boundary is 2D or 3D, people seem to walk around it. Which is what I’m trying to design without forcing the people to walk on the path given. People can still walk through the red boundaries but they rather not as it will feel like they are rebels who spoil the playground. The landscape architect designed for a playground with red hills that allow user to climb up and down. Even with the small and large hills being similar, they have different experience in them. The shades of reddish to orange varies depending on the size of the hill. This hills seems to fit the landscape around it but also stands out as it is red/orange. The hills affects how the user uses the circulation which is interesting as if the user feels playful they can climb up the hill to walk their “straight” path.

1⁹ landscape architect’s pages. 2021. St Mary’s Churchyard – landscape architect’s pages. [online] Available at: <https://davisla.wordpress.com/category/stmarys-churchyard/> [Accessed 8 May 2021].

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CURRENT CIRCULATION PATH The current circulation path are all linear lines which are safe and efficient to use but where is the playfulness in the space where URA has highlighted as their motto?

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ATTEMPT WITH CIRCLE BICYCLE PARKING LOTS

Usage of Site Context Tried to use current site context of division between pedestrian and cyclist to make different path circulation types. But it failed because it is still divided. The only way to make it not divided is to open up the space. And remove all types of ground boundary that show that only that certain activitiy can be at this place. Such as the bicycle parking space can only be for cyclist and bicycle owners.

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PROPSED CIRCULATION PATH To open up the space into a larger plot of land so that there will be no division between the two groups of user in this space. The introduction of curved circulation path can be considered as an alternative. Although it is less efficient as the linear path, there could be two different paths that allows the user to walk depending how how rush or efficient they want to be. And if they feel like taking a slower pace they can use the other route.

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IDEATION PHASE

TESTING PHASE

As I would like the space to be filled with pause and resting spots for the users as per observation. But also retaining it’s spot as a bicycle parking lot. The resting spots could propose interactions between pedestrians and cyclist. Or even just resting spots for cyclist to take a break before going to their next destination.

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Parking + Resting

Playful Rest

Using 650mm clearance from each parking slot to another as from the research, I have came up with a circular design for resting and also for parking the bicycle. As the seating feature has to allow the user to seat, the Dodecagon is used as a reference for the Seating + Parking design.

Tested out to see if this parking design will work. But as I was doing this circulation design I felt that the design was a waste of space even though the space is being enlargen to allow the pedestrians/ cyclist to move as they want. Giving them a sense of freedom. I didn’t like this design but I liked the process of getting to this. Designing around the acitivites and circulation to get to this. However, in this design I did not plan out acitvity boundaries as per how Martha Schwartz did. In the next part, I’m trying to use boundaries and spacial allowance to test out a new typology.

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MAGIC BREEZE LANDSCAPE BY PENDA

CASE STUDY Using “Magic Breeze Landscape” by Penda, I have learn that the spaces between each circulation will make a huge difference for the users of the space. The larger the space the slower the pace of circulation. While the smaller the space, it will feel confine and user will want to get out of there quicky. But some smaller spaces which lead to a certain spots can be seen as a pause in circulation as well. These set of interior designers used nature as their environment to their advantage.20 The set of leveled steps create seating spaces. While the trees create shade and also privacy from one circulation to another. However, the circulation that they use are linear paths but similar to the curved path that I’m trying to use within my design. The linear path that they use looks too abrupt to be a continous flow in my opinion.

20 Archdaily.com. 2021. Magic Breeze Landscape | Tag | ArchDaily. [online] Available at: <https://www.archdaily.com/tag/ magic-breeze-landscape> [Accessed 8 May 2021].

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SETTING BOUNDARIES

Each boundaries are set in consideration to per activity. Keeping the path circulation of fast and slow path as per to the design prior to this.

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Rotated the oval at the top end to make it all look similiar in form. Using the case study of “Magic Breeze Landscape”, i made the fast pace lane to be 2000mm while the slow pace to be 4000mm.

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ADDING PROGRAMMES

Parking + Seating Parking

Seating/Resting

Seating/Resting

Design in consideration to how I could encourage users to communicate with one another by making the seating facing each other. But leaving it with no backrest allows the freedom of the user to face out or in.

Parking + Seating Using the parking of the bicycle as privacy barrier as observed through my site observation. The location of the bicycle lots also provides this blockage so that the user on the fast path will not be able to go into the resting area.

Parking Added in activities but it stills seems as that the boundaries are still set very clearly. Each activities are within the boundaries. This was not what I was intending to do. I was intending to break the boundaries so that the circulation path can be set by the user instead of me setting so clearly for them. I have to blur the boundaries and activities more and making it more random

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The parking lots are placed at the sides to allow the cyclist to find parking lots and park their bicycle.

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FREE FORM CURVATURE

As I like to use free form to express my creativity, I’ve used it to create a curvature form that allows 3 different pathways to happen at the same time. When I did this, it happened to look like a shelter that allows user to park their bicycle beneath it. The form became more playful and looks like there were opportunities for activities to happen beneath each “shelter”. With this I’ve develop to make the structure less free-form liked and more curvature that fits to the theme of ovals which I had used throughout my circulation.

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PROPOSED DESIGN Parking + Seating

Parking

Seating

Using the ovals that are throughout the design to create a shelter feature to allow activities to be inside of the boundaries. Retaining the essence of the bicycle lots but making it more random so that the cyclist can wander around and find a bicycle lot that they prefer.

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PROPOSED DESIGN Shelter Tree

Tree Bridge

Sheffield Bicycle Rack Tree

Wheel Rack

Parking Fence

Editting the oval structure to allow more space for coverage. And planning space for greenery to be planted.

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PEACEFUL TRANSITION By Jonathan Chew This project was made in response to the high amount of linearity in Singapore’s Design. Using Curvature in the circulation path, the shelter and the bicycle lots. There are many different types of bicycle lots that allows the users the freedom of choice. They are all placed far apart so that they would need to explore to find a parking spot in comparision to now. The lighted platforms are all seating spots for the users. While the non-lighted platform are used for bicycle parking. The oval design from bridge to shelter showcases that oval can be both a bridge and a shelter depending on the height of it and the steepness of it. This project aims to show that there could be possibility of curved circulation and making it still green like the current context. Lesser trees makes the trees stand out more in the environment. 138

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CONCLUSION

Design is a very subjective topic. Within my three projects that I have done over the year, I have questioned myself as an interior designer. From Project One, It was difficult to get across the message that I would like to present as the topic of death was difficult to convince the users of the space. And as an interior designer, I had to try to fit my design into the site condition of a void deck. Being mindful of the residents and the spatial quality of the void deck. This made me understand more about how emptyness of the void deck is very powerful throughout Singapore. While as of Project Two, I had questioned myself whether what I was doing was an artist impression of work or was I still doing it as a interior designer. I realised that an artist do what they feel like doing while an Interior Designer has to consider the site condition and understand the people involved with the design. There were similar qualities between an artist and an interior designer. The understanding of the walking awareness also made me questioned more about being an interior designer within this huge world. What was my part in this world? In Project Three, I tried to create a space that had huge spatial consideration and opportunity but I think I have failed to unleash the potential of my design. With the bridge and shelter, I have questioned myself if I should have done that as I was not a civil engineer and might not be able to make it look realistic as possible. But what I was trying to showcase is that the oval shape could act as both a bridge and shelter. While retaining the essence of the space involved. Design is a process that should be taught to everyone regardless whether they are a designer or not. The process itself makes you question about everything you do and will be applicable to all the industry you are in.

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