The Grammar 4 Handbook (American English in Print Letters)

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10 ers er st ov ma th e Wi klin c la 0b

The Grammar 4 Handbook

A Handbook for Teaching Grammar, Spelling, and Punctuation in print letters

Sara Wernham and Sue Lloyd

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Contents PART 1

Introduction Teaching Ideas for Grammar Teaching Ideas for Spelling


Reproducible Material

Reproducible Section 1 Week


7 8 9 10 11 12

Schwa: Schwa: Schwa: Schwa: Schwa: Schwa:

1 2 3 4 5 6

13 14 15 16 17 18

19 20 21 22 23 24

1 3 21

Grammar and Spelling Lesson Sheets

‹ch›, ‹sh›, ‹th› Homophones ‹nch› ‹se› for /s/ ‹ve› for /v/ Plurals: ‹ves› ‹a› ‹o› ‹u› ‹ar› ‹or› ‹er›

‹or› for /er/ ‹ear› for /er/ ‹u› for long /oo/ ‹gh›, ‹ough›, ‹augh› ‹ive› for /iv/ Suffix: ‹-ic›

‹st› for /s/ Silent Letters Suffix: ‹-ically› Schwa: ‹al› Schwa: ‹el› Schwa: ‹il›


Verb Tenses Identifying Verb Tenses The Subject and Object of a Sentence Homophones: “Your” and “You’re” Antonyms Grammatical Agreement (1): Plural Nouns

Synonyms Concrete Nouns Abstract Nouns Possessive Nouns: Singular Present Participles as Adjectives Comparatives and Superlatives: “More,” “Less”

Changing Verb Tenses (1) Homophones: “Its” and “It’s” Grammatical Agreement (2): Subject and Verb Comparatives and Superlatives: “Good,” “Bad” Homophones: “To,” “Two,” and “Too” Homophones: “Where,” “Wear,” and “Were”

Suffix ‹-al›: Making Nouns into Adjectives Possessive Nouns: Plural Root Words, Prefixes, and Suffixes Grammatical Person Changing Grammatical Person Parsing Verbs

29 32 36 40 44 48 52

56 60 64 68 72 76

80 84 88 92 96 100

104 108 112 116 120 124

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Week 25 26 27 28 29 30

31 32 33 34 35 36




Suffix: Suffix: Suffix: Suffix: Suffix: Suffix:

Prefix: Prefix: Prefix: Prefix: Prefix: Prefix:


‹-ery› ‹-ary› ‹-ory› ‹-ant› ‹-ent› ‹-ist›

‹pre-› ‹sub-› ‹anti-› ‹trans-› ‹inter-› ‹tele-›

Reproducible Section 2 Reproducible Section 3

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– –

Questions and Statements Changing a Statement into a Question Simple and Compound Sentences More Homophone Mix-Ups (1) Noun Phrases Phrases, Clauses, and Sentences

Infinitives Onomatopoeia Hyphens Antonyms and Synonyms More Homophone Mix-Ups (2) Changing Verb Tenses (2) Spelling List Sheets Extension Activity Sheets

128 132 136 140 144 148

152 156 160 164 168 172

176 184

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Spelling 1 – ‹ch›, ‹sh›, ‹th› Review: Review the consonant digraphs: ng, ch, sh, th, qu; the vowel digraphs: or, oo, ou, oi, er, ar; the five vowel letters and the spelling of their short sounds, /a, e, i, o, u/; and the different spellings of the long vowel sounds: /ai/ ai, ay, a_e; /ee/ ee, ea, e_e; /ie/ ie, y, igh, i_e; /oa/ oa, ow, o_e; /ue/ ue, ew, u_e. Flash cards can be used for reading and sound dictation for spelling. These are sounds and spellings that the students should know well by now, so if anyone in the class is unsure about them, time should be taken during the week to go over the digraphs and how they are written.

Spelling/Ext . Sheet 1 Flash cards Colored pen cils


Spelling Sh eets GH1: 7, 13; GH3: 1 Grammar S heets GH3: 6 & 1 2

Builds on...

Main point: As well as knowing the sounds when they see or hear them, the students must be able to use them to read and write words correctly; review blending sounds to read words and sounding out words to spell them. Remind them how words can be broken down into syllables, which are units of sound containing a vowel sound, and explain that doing this can help them with their spelling, particularly of longer words. Write a few words on the board, including some with double consonants, ‹ck›, and ‹le›, and remind the students how to first identify the vowel sound(s) and then split the words into syllables with a line.

Spelling list: Read the spelling words with the students, go over the meaning of any words they may not know, and ask them to find and highlight any ‹ch›, ‹sh›, and ‹th› digraphs. It is also a good opportunity to reinforce the students’ phonic knowledge and go over anything they are unsure of: for example, make sure that they understand when to use ‹ck› and ‹k›, as in “backlash” and “benchmark” (see Spelling Rules, page 27), how the “magic” in a vowel can change the preceding short vowel sound into a long one, as in “anchovy” and “betrothed,” and the spelling rules for adding the suffixes in words like “squashed,” “betrothed,” “loathing,” “cheerless,” “bashful,” and “faithful” (see page 28). Remind them that when ‹y› is on the end of words like “thorny” and “anchovy” it says /ee/ and that the /ai/ sound on the end of a word is often spelled ‹ay›, as in “archway.” Point out the ‹ie› spelling of /ee/ in “achieve,” the soft ‹g› in “gibberish,” the ‹y› saying /i/ in “mythical,” and the ‹a› spelling of /o/ when it follows the /w/ sound in “squashed.” It is a good idea to blend and sound out the spelling words quickly every day with the students.

Spelling Sheet 1: The students decide whether the missing digraph in each of the words is ‹ch›, ‹sh›, or ‹th› and write it in. Then they look at the words in the logs, underline the letters making the vowel sounds, and separate the words into syllables with a line [out/land/ish, cheer/less, gib/ber/ish, fam/ish, bash/ful, thorn/y]. Finally, the students parse the sentence, underlining each part of speech in the correct color, and identify the subject [I]. Point out that “fishy” is an adjective made by adding the suffix ‹-y› to the noun “fish” and that “my” is a possessive adjective describing who the pizza belongs to. IP loatheV fishyAdj anchovyN onPre myAdj pizzaN.

NounN (black), VerbV (red), PronounP (pink), AdjectiveAdj (blue), AdverbAdv (orange), ConjunctionC (purple), PrepositionPre (green)

Dictation: Call out the sentences for the students to write down. Remind them that “Viking” is a proper adjective and needs a capital letter. 1. The chimpanzee was talking a lot of gibberish. 2. The Viking longship was vanishing into the distance. 3. Both of the girls wished for good weather.

Extension activity (page 185): The students complete the words by filling in the missing digraph, ‹ch›, ‹sh›, or ‹th›. They then write each word in the correct column, or cut up the words and paste them in, and add any more that they can think of. 32

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Spelling List 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

‹nch› winch drench quench stench hunch lunchbox scrunch rancher flinch wrench crunchy pinched launch franchise luncheon haunches henchmen enchantment

Unscramble the letters on the launches and add them to ‹nch› to make words from the Spelling List.

erd n c h rare n c h tes n c h

ueq n c h

iw n c h

ahesu n c h hu n c h

rew n c h


rucs n c h

n c h


uoxlb n c h

n c h

depi n c h

nemtante n c h

Trace over the dotted letters and then use the starting dots to practice writing ‹nch›.

The word “crunchy” is an adjective. Write the comparative and superlative in the elephants below.

crunchy A d j e c ti v e

C o m pa r a t iv e

Parse this sentence, identify the subject, and choose the correct tense.



I drenched the crunchy lettuce in my lunchbox in French dressing.

S u p e r l a ti v e simple past

simple present

simple future

past continuous

present continuous

future continuous

Spelling Sheet 3


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Verb Tenses


V er b s

Simple Past

Past Continuous

Simple Present

Present Continuous

Simple Future

Future Continuous

✃Match each sentence to its correct tense.



I cook lunch.

I will cook lunch.

I am cooking lunch.

I was cooking lunch.

I cooked lunch.

I will be cooking lunch. Grammar Sheet 1


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Hyphens a fa r - fl u n g destination

an e m e ra l d g re e n lizard

A hyphen is a small line that links words together.

Hyphens are used to join the compound numbers between 21 and 99, when they are written as words. Write these numbers as words.







a long

- t a i l e d kite

Hyphens are also used to join compound words when the first word is a letter. Write a sentence for each word below.

X-ray U-turn T-shirt Decide where these hyphenated words should go and complete each sentence.

life-size break-in left-handed check-in brother-in-law self-portrait






The artist sketched a small


Have you got some


We arrived at the


The exhibition had a


Dad installed new locks at home after the

a onee y e d ogre

is married to my sister. . scissors? desk just in time. model of an alien. .

Grammar Sheet 33


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The Grammar 4 Handbook is a comprehensive resource for teaching grammar, spelling, and punctuation The Grammar 4 Handbook is designed to follow The Phonics Handbook and the Handbooks for Grammar 1, 2, and 3. It provides extensive reproducible material and a wealth of practical advice for teaching students in their fifth school year. The Grammar 4 Handbook is intended to: • • • • • •

extend and refine the students’ understanding of the grammar already taught, introduce new elements of grammar, teach new spelling patterns systematically, develop dictionary and thesaurus skills, improve vocabulary and comprehension, and reinforce the teaching in The Grammar 3 Handbook.

As part of the Jolly Phonics program, the teaching is multisensory, active, and progresses at a challenging pace. It places emphasis on consolidating the students’ learning and helping them to apply their skills. Each part of speech is taught with its own action and color. The actions enliven the teaching and make the learning easier. The colors, which are useful for identifying parts of speech in sentences, match those used by Montessori Schools. Like The Phonics Handbook, the Handbooks for Grammar 1 to 4 provide all the essential teaching ideas. The pages are slightly wider than 81/2" x 11" so that copies can be made without showing the binding. The reproducible material uses Sassoon Sans, a typeface without joining tails. The Grammar 4 Handbook is part of the Jolly Phonics program. Outstanding results are achieved with Jolly Phonics around the world.

Jolly Learning Ltd

ISBN 978-1-844144-04-4

™xHSLIOEy14 04 z Reference: JL046

82 Winter Sport Lane, Williston, VT 05495, USA. Tel: +1-800-488-2665 Tailours House, High Road, Chigwell, Essex, IG7 6DL, UK. Tel: +44 20 8501 0405

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