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PROTECT AMERICA: Not Afraid and Fighting Back Developing Site Specific Antiterrorism/Home and Workplace Protection Programs

Roland Stewart


AuthorHouse™ 1663 Liberty Drive Bloomington, IN 47403 www.authorhouse.com Phone: 1-800-839-8640

Š 2010 Roland Stewart. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means without the written permission of the author. First published by AuthorHouse 4/27/2010 ISBN: 978-1-4490-2267-9 (e) ISBN: 978-1-4490-2265-5 (sc) ISBN: 978-1-4490-2266-2 (hc)

Library of Congress Control Number: 2010901170 Printed in the United States of America Bloomington, Indiana This book is printed on acid-free paper.


Dedications To the two people I love and admire most: my dear mother and father, Josephine and Roosevelt Stewart. Together they spent a lifetime mentoring, guiding, and encouraging me to do the right thing. Skillfully mentoring and guiding our family unit for over fifty years, my parents proudly provided the love, support, skills, and education enabling me to make a difference in the world today. Without their devotion, encouragement, and dedication to their four children and the drive and passion they instilled in us, this endeavor would hardly be possible, nor would I have had this opportunity to play a vital role in the fight against terrorism, crime, and violence. Dad, may you rest in peace! You knew one day I would do great things. I wish you were here to see me now. Somehow, I guess you are! Thank you and Mom for having the confidence in me, for it was you two who knew, one day, I would indeed fulfill my life’s goals. Both you and Mom knew I was far from perfect, and I slipped a few times along the way, but somehow, I guess with God’s help, it worked out okay. Thank you for helping me make a difference in the world today. If it weren’t for you, none of this would have ever been possible. I know you’re watching and guiding me. Mother Dear, thank you for the precious and valuable moments you’ve spent with us, carving your own very significant and special footprint. You are the matriarch who’s held this great family together for over nine decades. Your smile, strength, and kind words will live through me for an eternity. This book is also dedicated to the brave men and women who have honorably served in the United States Armed Forces throughout the world, and to those that continue to fight and serve in the defense of this great nation against threats, violence, and terrorism. It is also dedicated to my many armed forces friends, coworkers, U.S. Department of Defense employees, friends, v


and associates around the world. Without most of you, I wouldn’t have had the opportunity to practice and work so hard at what has become my passion. You do a job that requires a huge responsibility and an even larger sacrifice. Thank you for protecting our air, water, and ground defenses, for without you, we remain vulnerable every day. To members of all of the fraternal and Greek letter organizations who have become part of America’s fighting men and women, thank you and may God bless and protect you all who are involved in any way possible in the war against terrorism, crime, and violence. And this book is dedicated to our nation’s proud first responders all over the world for the work you so proudly do. No one really understands the job you do, day in and day out, unless they’ve walked in your shoes. Kudos! Last, but certainly never to be forgotten, this book is dedicated to those who lost their lives in the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and in other tragic shootings and rampages that have affected our nation and to the families and victims of the senseless crime and violence that continues to leave its nasty mark on this nation forever. These horrific tragedies will live in our nation’s memories for eternity; thus, we will never forget!

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Contents Dedications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Acknowledgments and Thanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi About the Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xvii In His Own Words ‌. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xx CHAPTER 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 What Is Site-SpecificAnti-Terrorism and Workplace Protection

CHAPTER 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Creating Site-Specific Anti-Terrorism and Workplace Protection Plans and Programs

CHAPTER 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Physical Security Inspections

CHAPTER 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Conducting the Physical Security Inspection(Administrative Review)

CHAPTER 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Conducting the Physical Security Inspection(Physical Walkthrough)

CHAPTER 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Leave No Stones Unturned (Get Nitpicky)

CHAPTER 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 The Anti-Terrorism and Workplace Protection Site-Specific Training Program (Initial and Continuous, or Follow-on, Training)

CHAPTER 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Developing Site-Specific Anti-Terrorism and Workplace Protection Training Exercises

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CHAPTER 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Developing Site-Specific Anti-Terrorism and Workplace Protection Checklists and Reports

CHAPTER 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Overview of Site-Specific Training Modules

CHAPTER 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Training Module 1: Terrorists Attacks, Workplace Violence, and Robbery

CHAPTER 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Training Module 2: Duress Procedures and Emergency Response Plans

CHAPTER 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Training Module 3: Bomb Threats and Suspicious Packages

CHAPTER 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Training Module 4: Identifying and Challenging Suspicious Personnel, or Circulation Control

CHAPTER 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Training Module 5: Personal, Home, and Family Security

CHAPTER 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Training Module 6: The Homeland Security Advisory System and Information Sharing

CHAPTER 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Training Module 7: Bloodborne Pathogens, CPR, and First Aid

CHAPTER 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 What Would You Do?

CHAPTER 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Anti-Terrorism and Workplace Protection Program Assessments

CHAPTER 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Making Smarter Eco Choices(Creating a Safer and Healthier Place to Live)

CHAPTER 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Lessons Learned

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CHAPTER 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Protect America: Fight Back

CHAPTER 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 I Salute and Honor Strength, Spirit, and Determination: Everyday People Doing the Right Thing

Glossary of Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Epilogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Notes/References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

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Acknowledgments and Thanks To my three brothers, Roosevelt Jr., Roell, and Rolando: you have spent a lifetime inspiring me to do great things. Thanks for your lifetime of support! Thanks to my entire family—nieces, nephews, cousins, aunts, uncles, in-laws, and grandparents—for their much-needed prayers, well wishes, and support. You all, in one way or another, have inspired me to do what I do. To the great men of Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity and women Zeta Phi Beta Sorority: bless you our founders for discovering and creating this great band of brothers and sisters. Thank you, my brothers and sisters, for the love you’ve shown me since my induction in 1978 and for giving me an opportunity to be a part of our “wondrous band.” “Fear not, fight on for in this wise, our cause speeds on its way.” Thank you, brothers of the graduate chapter of Iota Nu Sigma for welcoming me back to a new home after two decades. To the other Greek brothers, sisters, National Pan-Hellenic Council members, and friends, thank you for allowing me to be part of your lives. To the many dear friends, troops, co-workers, and associates I’ve come across throughout my lifetime: in high school, college, and throughout my military and world travels, you all too have reserved a special place in my heart and my life for showing me what true love and friendship are. To my many military bosses, supervisors, and commanders: you’ve provided me with the growth, tools, resources, guidance, leadership, and most of all, trust, by placing me in positions of responsibility, thus allowing me inevitably to do what I do. Thank you to all of my old schoolteachers, counselors, and principals, who along with my parents, helped to groom and shape me. I salute and honor each and every one of you. Thank you, Brother Terrence, for getting me on the right track and for providing me with the inspiration to write this book. Thank you all! I’ll never forget the times, travels, and experiences. You all made it all worthwhile! And last but not least, to my two beautiful baby labs, Poody and xi


Papa, whom I adopted to another family. My puppies will always be in my heart.

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About the Book Protect America: Not Afraid and Fighting Back is a practical guide to fighting back. It encourages people to foster smarter habits and attitudes when it comes to security, anti-terrorism, and workplace and home protection, possibly reducing the hazards of a terrorist assault, crime, and violence. Although the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks brought about new rules of engagement throughout this country to respond to these types of attacks, we must ask ourselves, are we as Americans any safer now than we were before 9/11? Are we any safer now as a result of newly implemented security protective measures? And are we as Americans trained and prepared to respond to another attack on our liberty and on our nation? Think about it! I’ll ask you the same question at the end. While conducting research to write this book, I conducted my own unofficial survey asking this question: other than emergency evacuation training, have you or anyone else you know of received any type of anti-terrorism or workplace protection training? A large percentage of the people I spoke with related that they had not received any type of formal training in either anti-terrorism or workplace protection, nor were they aware of anyone else receiving such training. When asked if they were concerned about future attacks on this country, most related they were not concerned about future attacks on this country and had little concern about themselves or their families becoming victims of terror or crime and violence. I still find the answers amazing! Newspapers, television, and the Internet are full of reports every day that appear to be becoming routine reporting. While it’s already clear that other people from other countries would resort to committing terrorists attacks against our country, it’s unclear why Americans living in our own country are willing commit terrorist attacks against fellow Americans. If Americans can be filled with such hate and xiii


disdain to hurt or kill people from their own country, you’ve got to really wonder what has become of this country and its people. But the bigger question is—what do we do about it? The threat of domestic terrorism and the steady rise in workplace violence, street violence, physical assaults, robberies, and home invasions force us to make certain choices. In the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, America’s families declared, “We’re not afraid; we’ll be ready.” Like Ralph Waldo Emerson’s phrase the “shot heard ’round the world,” the 9/11 phrase “we’re not afraid; we’ll be ready” should be the phrase today shouted all around the world. These words should not focus entirely on protection from terrorism but on protection from workplace, home, and street violence as well. This phrase adds credence to the need for both education and training in these targeted areas. The increased and more deadly incidents of crime, terror, and violence in this country should put us all on notice. Do we continue on the same old course without a map, depending solely on the already burdened U.S. government to prepare and protect us, and we still don’t know which way to go? Do we continue to keep ourselves, our families, and our nation at risk by practicing business as usual? Do we continue to bury our heads in the sand and continue to live in fear? Or do we show allegiance and faith to our fallen victims, our brave survivors, and our courageous fighters who came before us, who stood in harm’s way so that we could remain the home of the brave and land of the free. I’m afraid it’s a decision we can’t afford to wait to make. The United States’ position on terrorism is to deter terrorism in all its forms, wherever it takes place. The policy of the U.S. government is not to negotiate with terrorists, pay ransom, or release prisoners. This does not preclude communications with hostage takers on matters such as the welfare of the hostages or asking for their unconditional release. The U.S. government is opposed to domestic and international terrorism and is prepared to act in concert with other nations or unilaterally when necessary to prevent or respond to terrorist acts. xiv


The U.S. government considers the practice of terrorism by any person or group a potential threat to U.S. national security. It will resist the use of terrorism by all legal means available. If there is evidence that a state is mounting or intends to conduct an act of terrorism against this country, the United States will take measures to protect its citizens, property, and interests. Terrorists spread fear through intimidation. Most terrorists view themselves as legitimate soldiers at war. They’re motivated by many different causes: politics, religion, special interests, and so forth. They conduct their operations in many different ways: bombings, arson, armed assault, kidnapping and hostage taking, hijacking, skyjacking, assassinations, and now cyber crime. These organizations will use every available source to gather information on potential targets. They will try and identify where people spend the most time and when and where they appear most vulnerable. Terrorists blend in with ordinary people and will exploit areas or situations that allow them to remain anonymous. They conduct surveillance by many methods, which now include the Internet. Our nation is working tirelessly to ensure efforts are in place and to ensure our ability to identify and respond to terrorist threats. The country also has many aggressive initiatives to deal with incidents involving workplace violence. We know that criminals do not discriminate. The mere fact that you are American makes you a potential target for terrorists. And the mere fact that you work to earn a living, are retired, have families and friends, and want to achieve a certain amount of pride and success makes you a potential target for the bad guy. Terrorists and criminals may use any force necessary to reach their objectives. It is imperative that we make their job difficult if not impossible by putting in place efforts of our own to protect ourselves, our families, our resources, and most of all, our nation. Effective anti-terrorism and workplace protection plans and programs and stringent physical security deterrents combined with creative and xv


diverse training initiatives help to maintain a safe and secure operating environment. It’s time to change the way we live, work, and operate, because the face of America has changed. Terrorists and criminals don’t care about you, your family, or your principles. They are focused on destroying what this country stands for and tearing down our morality. They want what they want, when they want it, and will use any means necessary to get it.

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About the Author Roland J. Stewart was born and educated in Chicago, Illinois, and enlisted in the United States Air Force Security Police career field as a security specialist, where his leadership potential was first recognized. His career spans over twenty years, and he has held various positions, including Security Police Entry Controller; Security Police Fire Team, Security Police Response Team leader; Security Force Evaluator; Police Services Staff NCO, (Noncommissioned officer); and NCO in charge of Security Force Elite Gate Section, Security Force Resource Protection, Security Force Arms and Equipment, Security Force Trainer, and Security Force Plans and Programs. His medals and awards include the Air Force Commendation Medal with three oak leaf clusters (OLCs), the Air Force Achievement Medal with two OLCs, the Air Force Outstanding Unit with Valor with five OLCs, the Air Force Good Conduct Medal with six OLCs, the Air Force Outstanding Unit Award with Valor, the National Defense Service Medal, the Air Force Overseas Short Tour Ribbon, the Air Force Longevity Service Medal, the Air Force Small Arms (Rifle) Expert Marksmanship Ribbon, and the Air Force Training Ribbon. After graduating from the Security Police Academy in 1985, he was stationed with the 43rd Security Police Squadron, Anderson Air Force Base (AFB), Guam, where his performance directly contributed to the unit being named 15th Air Force Outstanding Security Police Large Unit. He then moved to the 836th Security Police Squadron, Davis-Monthan AFB, Arizona where he was selected as a member of the Elite Gate Guard and further appointed as a senior airman to the Anti-Terrorism and Plans and Programs Section. While serving in these positions, he was awarded the Veterans of Foreign Wars Law Enforcement Citizen of the Year Award. He was later reassigned to the 623rd SPS, Anderson AFB, Guam; he quickly earned the position of squadron administration monitor, where he revamped an ineffective paperwork trail of awards, decorations, and enxvii


listed and officer performance reports from a 67 percent late rate to a 100 percent on-time rate. Upon leaving Anderson AFB, he arrived at the 305th SPS, Grissom AFB, Indiana, where he was awarded the Airman Leadership School, John L. Levitow Honor Graduate Award. His next assignment took him to the 55th SPS, Offutt AFB, Nebraska, where once again his superior duty performance and leadership was instrumental in his appointment as NCO in charge of the Elite Gate Guard Section and Quality Control Evaluator. After leaving Offutt AFB, he moved on to the 48th SFS, Royal Air Force Lakenheath, United Kingdom, where his leadership and knowledge again earned him a position as staff NCO for the Force Protection program. While assigned to 48th SFS, he also earned the position of Police Services Staff NCO, where he worked in close harmony with the Ministry of Defense (MOD) Police, spearheading numerous high-profile projects, overhauled the Wing Traffic Safety Working Group, reducing and eliminating constant daily traffic and safety issues. He was later selected NCO in charge of Resource Protection, where he overhauled a defunct program and transformed it into a wing benchmark program. Roland was the functional expert Security Police and advised and managed sensitive and controlled areas. Finally, he arrived at the 28th SFS, Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota, his final active duty military duty station. Again he was quickly recognized for his leadership, managerial, and communication abilities and assumed a multitude of supervisory positions: Security Force Armory/Arms and Equipment, NCO in charge of Security Force Training, and lastly NCO in charge of Plans and Programs. His accomplishments at Ellsworth included heading up three Reserve Officers’ Training Corps encampments, training over thirty-six hundred students; spearheading the reception and integration of eighty-five U.S. Army National Guardsmen into unit operations, which was noted as the best integration air force wide; and lastly, overhauling a plans and program section and rewriting over sixty security and law enforcement checklists, numerous base memoxviii


randums of understanding, installation security plans, and unit operating instructions. Throughout his diverse career, Roland has written and edited numerous police training manuals that have become tools for success in the U.S. Air Force and the Security Forces career field. Today Roland has begun a second career as a licensed, independent antiterrorism and workplace protection consultant and author.

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In His Own Words … Throughout my adult life, and particularly throughout my military career, my passion has always been to teach and lead others. Although not always successful, I always felt a passion to be out front, to do something other than what my friends were doing. I was never quite sure what I wanted to do in life; I just knew it had to involve people and education in some form or fashion. My mom always tells the story of when I was a kid, although I was the youngest of three at that time, I was always placed in charge of carrying the house keys around my neck to let my two other brothers and me in the house after school. My other two brothers would frequently lose the keys, so Mom and Dad not only put me in charge of the keys but put me in charge of my two older brothers as well. My brothers didn’t seem to mind, and I think I always got a kick out of being the “older little brother.” As I grew up, I still seemed uncertain about what I wanted to do when I got older. It seemed that I had a flare for performing in front of our bedroom mirror. I had a pretend television show called the Roland Stewart Show, where I performed every night in front of the mirror. It lasted for a couple of seasons until my two older brothers finally pulled the plug and started kicking me out of the room. As I continued to grow, I found interest in a plethora of possible careers: medicine, acting, advertising, radio, television, and music. I did it all in high school and college: track, music, acting, radio, television, and a little security work. It appeared I was leaning toward one of these careers. After college, I began to realize my passion. I was always fascinated by medical, police, and war stories. CHIPs, Dragnet, Combat, and Marcus Welby, M.D., were my favorite TV shows. I did some security work in Chicago, which made me realize I wanted to do something in law enforcement. While I admired the Chicago cops, I just knew I wanted to do something different.

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After years of wrestling with career decisions, I finally realized I wanted to work for the federal government. I considered the FBI, the CIA, and the U.S. Marshals. I wanted to do some extensive traveling at the same time. I looked at all of the branches of service—the U.S. Army, Navy, Marines, and Coast Guard—but finally realized I wanted that one thing— the United States Air Force. It didn’t take much coaxing from recruiters. I knew what I wanted. So in February of 1985, I finally told my parents that I wanted to go into the air force. While my mom took it hard, both Mom and Dad gave me their blessings, and in April 1985, I was off to U.S. Air Force basic training at Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas. The decision to join the air force was the best decision of my life and the best thing that could have ever happened to a guy like me. When I entered the Air Force, I enlisted in the Security Police career field. As a young airman growing up and maturing in the air force, I was starting to recognize my abilities. The air force had awakened my sense of development, responsibility, and maturity, and even qualified me on the .38 handgun, the M-16A1 rifle, and the M-60 machine gun. Along the way, I grasped what knowledge I could from some of the great old dogs of the great blue sky, obtained as much training and experience as I could, and spent a decade watching, learning from, and emulating some of my more impressive superiors. I was mentored and groomed by some of the air forces finest. After stumbling and making my share of mistakes as a young airman, these great leaders apparently saw something good in me. They groomed and shaped me into a competent, capable, and responsible young sergeant and taught me too how to be great leader. Finally, I was starting to recognize my own strengths and who I really was. As an air force cop, my bosses and co-workers spent years asking me, “Stew, why don’t you put in for a back office job?” Back office jobs typically referred to those personnel and functions responsible for setting and enforcing squadxxi


ron policy, procedure, and air force standards. They make the overall administrative and operational decisions for the Security Forces Squadron. Fortunately for me, I was lucky to get most back office jobs I applied for. Coming from a family of hard-working people, I was a hard worker in the air force and always tried to work hard with and for my co-workers and supervisors. My first back office job was a true test of my abilities. I was hired on staff to become part of the Security Now team. This team was responsible for evaluating and testing both air force and civilian personnel on job performance. Having enlisted at twenty-six, I was older than the typical airman and always took my job responsibilities very seriously. The majority of the jobs I held gave me the opportunity to talk to people and gauge how they felt about security, policies, programs, structure, and so forth. With the type of resources I worked with, a lackadaisical attitude just wasn’t an option. I often saw what happened as a result of a poor attitude and mediocre training. As a Security Now evaluator, my job was to initiate training exercises and test the reporting, reaction, and response capability of others. Conducting continuous and extensive air force testing, evaluations, and inspections was a tedious task. Our Security Now team held each troop, supervisor, and civilian accountable for weaknesses and gaps in security. Further, I as an individual was held accountable. I believed and still believe that all people, supervisors and subordinates everywhere, whether military or civilian, should be held responsible and accountable and are the keys to successful security education and motivation, awareness, intervention, and prevention. I believe that achieving success when it comes to good security awareness takes dedicated people, strong operational policies, and a dedicated physical security and training program. It is vital we give physical security and attention to detail the full measure of consideration they both deserve. The xxii


continued success of any good physical security program relies upon continuously emphasizing its importance to all personnel. People are the keys to doing the right thing all the time, making them/us the catalysts of our own successes. Teamwork promotes harmony. Harmony promotes confidence, and confidence promotes enthusiasm. Together, they all add to the success of any given program. Honor and integrity certifies it. As a seasoned professional with over two decades of physical security and law enforcement experience, I’ve seen the changes over time, and I am convinced that it is past time for us to take a new stance. It is time to do away with the outdated and failed policies and approaches of the past, which have proven ineffective, and time to move full speed ahead in a new direction. As the underhanded criminal element and terrorist tactics and techniques continue to change and challenge our way of life, so must we. As our government works continuously to find innovative ways to protect this nation and its people, we as a people must also make our own stake and do our part in the fight against terrorism and crime in this nation. It is for these reasons that I am both passionate and driven to offer the conventional training methods, information, and education I’ve learned and taught others throughout my many years. The information contained here is primarily based on previous military training and experience. Because the information here is based primarily on military training certainly doesn’t mean it can’t or doesn’t apply to other people. The information here is just that, conventional information people have used since the beginning of time. Anyone and everyone affected by the same worries and the same issues should warrant the same protective measures. Stringent physical security, early and smart planning, and clear and concise operations and training plans are all master keys to a successful anti-terrorism/workplace protection (AT/WP) program.

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If you’re in a position to establish, develop, and/or implement general policy at your place of business, I encourage you to assemble a team and take a hard look at implementing some form of anti-terrorism and workplace protection training and education. If policies and procedures already exist, conduct an assessment to measure how effective they are. After you’ve conducted the assessment, consider a serious reworking of the processes to ensure a safer working environment. First, examine day-to-day security. After that, do the same for emergencies, and finally, do the exact same for increased local or national threats. If policies and procedures appear fine to you, you’re ahead of the game, and keep up the good work. However, there’s always room for improvement. If physical security processes appear weak, leaving the workplace possibly vulnerable, it is time to take a serious look at the way business is conducted, and time to make some necessary changes for a safer workplace. Creating site-specific anti-terrorism and workplace protection programs provides the owner/user an opportunity to exercise a proactive role in the fight against terrorism, crime, and violence. It allows the owner/user to assess and implement policies, processes, and deterrents before an attack occurs. It allows for responsibility on the part of the individual and the owner/user, providing the opportunity to gauge when and how to react to situations affecting his or her facility and how to execute a proper response. Finally, it allows the owner/user to develop a range of early and smart options for the workplace and make important choices, avoiding rushed decisions during an emergency. Security rests on the shoulders of every person all the time for a safer and better-prepared America.

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CHAPTER 1 What Is Site-Specific Anti-Terrorism and Workplace Protection Site-specific AT/WP is designed or intended for a particular workplace or other distinct location. It encourages businesses and individual personnel to create supplemental anti-terrorism and workplace protection training policies and programs. The premise here is that personnel who work at a particular jobsite are considered the overall “functional experts� for that particular location and the type of work that comes out of that particular location. The functional experts at the particular location are the ones who do a particular job day in and day out. Reasonably, they know or should know the physical layout of that facility and the overall administrative and operational functions when it comes to securing and protecting that facility. So in most cases, one could reasonably determine that these are the people who should or could make administrative and operational decisions when it comes to operating and protecting that facility. Site-specific AT/WP is a responsibility that belongs to the people specifically and should not primarily be driven by federal government, city or state. It must include government, city, and state protection requirement information but must be driven primarily by site-specific protection requirements and directives. What’s required to implement site-specific AT/WP programs? It requires a bit of initiative, focus, and dedication on the part of people. When I speak of an owner/user, I mean those who physically own, work at, and/or operate a particular jobsite, work center, facility, and/or business during normal day-to-day and emergency conditions. They are the primary users of a facility and specifically responsible for the overall administrative and operational functions of that work center.

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Roland Stewart

The objective of a program of this nature is to encourage ordinary people (both public and private sector) to develop working security, anti-terrorism, and workplace protection training policies and programs. The intent is to increase overall personal responsibility, initiative, and security awareness on the part of people and develop smarter habits and attitudes in people. As said earlier, people’s involvement in a process allows a lesser role from government or other forces and puts the primary responsibility for protecting people back into the hands of the people, where it belongs.

What Type of Information Should a SiteSpecific AT/WP Program Include? A site-specific AT/WP program should include security and protection information unique to that particular jobsite or workplace, to include administrative and operational plans, programs and processes, as well as city, state, and federal government protective measures and information. All site-specific plans, programs, and processes should include administrative and operational measures for day-to-day security and AT/WP, as well as emergency and contingency plans for use during times of increased threats. They should always include local, state, and federal emergency planning and protection information but should also include specific action the owner/user is required to take in an incident or emergency affecting the particular jobsite or workplace. When developing and implementing programs of this nature, use Department of Homeland Security (DHS), emergency management, and state and local emergency management information advising citizens on actions to take in cases of emergency or disaster. A workforce places itself, its employees, and everyone else associated with the business at risk without clear, concise, and effective security protective measures, policies, and procedures. Site-specific AT/WP does not and must not take away from existing local, state, Federal Emergency Management 2


PROTECT AMERICA: Not Afraid and Fighting Back

Agency, or DHS policies and/or procedures. Together, the information is incorporated as one program to form the substance of the site-specific AT/WP program. Governmentestablished protection policies and programs should always take precedence over any site-specific program information. Site-specific protection policies should be considered as a supplementary program. If there are no site-specific protection policies or procedures already established, and you as the owner/user know or reasonably believe there should be, create them. Companies and private citizens choosing to implement the recommendations and suggestions in this book should choose measures that work best for them and do so at their own choosing, based on need, requirement, and desire. It is only fair to note that developing site-specific AT/WP plans and programs does not by any means suggest or guarantee that people, places, or things are or will be immune from terrorist activity, crime, or violence. No one can suggest that. It does suggest however, that proper planning, security education, motivation, and training, combined with sensible physical security measures and techniques, encourages smart habits and attitudes, enabling people to plan early and responsibly and react quickly and correctly to threats. Note: Names, dates, times, locations, agencies, businesses, or companies appearing on sample checklists, reports, and training aids are all exaggerated and therefore are not meant to be intentional. The information presented here should be used for as templates and learning tool examples. If you don’t have site-specific programs in place, now is the time to create them. If you do have existing or broken programs, now is the time to fine-tune, replace, or fix what’s already there. A successful AT/WP program starts with a good physical security and training program, strong and clear operational policies, and dedicated people. All Americans should feel compelled to employ aggressive security and AT/WP protective measures, not only based on past trends and threats, but because it is the right thing 3


Roland Stewart

to do in today’s world. Americans should be inspired to arm themselves with the necessary know-how to report and react correctly and quickly in cases of emergency or disaster. Let not our ignorance result in our failures. People don’t have to be scared to do the right thing. It is time for us to stop being afraid, and it’s time to act. If we don’t learn from past disasters, we’re destined to repeat them. Be inspired!

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CHAPTER 2 Creating Site-Specific Anti-Terrorism and Workplace Protection Plans and Programs In times of increased terrorism, threats of attacks, and violence throughout our nation, it becomes necessary to have a plan in place to deal with these types of incidents. You could be forced to act quickly in a dangerous situation when you least expect it. The best way to alleviate the damaging effects from emergencies is to have a well-developed action plan in working order when immediate action is necessary. A plan provides guidance to maximize potential, prioritize the mission at hand, and allow for preparation before an incident occurs. It is a necessary starting point to channel and focus efforts. Personnel at all levels should have the proper training to report, react, and respond correctly to emergency incidents. Plans are a valuable resource for businesses, as well as for personal use, and are used worldwide to govern or oversee workplace programs. Owner/user personnel are particularly encouraged to develop electronic AT/WP plans, avoiding the dreaded paperwork trail. Plans should be implemented in conjunction with checklists. This method ensures consistency and completeness in carrying out tasks and responsibilities. Write each part of the plan, assigning tasks to departments, sections, personnel, units, and so forth so the tasks and responsibilities become explicit and concise orders for the owner/user. Include introductory statements in the summary, explaining the purpose of the plan, its intended use, and its directive nature. Depending on the type of plan, it may be a separate entity or may be incorporated into existing plans. Create plans from unique site-specific needs and requirements, and as always, incorporate local, state, and federal laws and directives where applicable.

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The Operations Plan An operations plan, commonly called an ops plan, is a guideline. It describes the requirements necessary to implement the anti-terrorism and workplace protection program. Created and driven by owners/users, they are the ones who decide what security and AT/WP information should go into the plan, and the depth and scope of the plan should be based on the nature and sensitivity of the business, its people, and its requirements.

What’s included in an AT/WP Operations Plan? - A mission statement or vision; considered an owner/ user’s overall objective or goal, this area should describe what the owner/user would like to see overall as a result of implementing the plan (kind of like the “big picture”). - Legal considerations and authority; this is the area where an owner/user needs to be especially careful. Research local, state, and federal laws and DHS directives and policies as they relate to security of the workplace, protective measures, terrorism, and workplace protection before implementing a plan. The last thing any owner/user wants to do is to implement protection policies that directly conflict with established local, state, and federal protection laws and policies. - A detailed explanation of anti-terrorism and workplace protection site program directives, policies, and procedures. Explain who, what, where, how, when, why, and why not. The ops plan is the brains that hold the entire AT/WP program together. Make clear the rules for how the program will be governed, and how as a business, you will abide by them. 6


PROTECT AMERICA: Not Afraid and Fighting Back

- Identify specific tasks and specific actions for emergencies, shelter-in-place, and contingency actions. - An explanation of each AT/WP position, title, and job duties. - A description of the development, coordination, and tracking process of all new and existing AT/ WP-related plans and new, changed, or discontinued policies and/or directives. - An explanation of procedures for updating, implementing, and changing AT/WP instructions, policies, procedures, letters, duress processes, aids, and checklists. - A detailed explanation of the specific training plan, how it is to be implemented, and its necessity for the implementation of the overall training program. Do not discuss the specifics of the training program in the ops plan. The specific training plan should cover the training program and how it is to be executed. - An explanation of the importance of AT/WP training and how it relates to the operational necessity of the program. - A description of the process for developing and administering program-related tests and other evaluations. The individual training plan should cover these areas in detail. - A description of the process for developing and administering AT/WP program inspections and reviews. - A description of the process for developing and implementing AT/WP information-sharing procedures. - An explanation of terminology associated with the AT/WP program. - An explanation of the physical security inspection process. Explain the purpose of using a single person versus working groups or teams and their 7


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responsibilities when conducting inspections. Explain the differences and purposes behind both the administrative review and the physical walk-through inspections. Build your physical security policies and program in the ops plan before executing them. - A thorough discussion of how the security clearance and how the background investigation process is implemented, who it applies to, and the significance behind the program. - An explanation of the contingency planning process and the reason behind a contingency plan. - An explanation of the use of continuity and the importance to the process as it relates to organization and consistency. - A description of the deviations, exceptions, and compensatory measures process if any. Avoid creating a plan full of words no one understands. It’s a disaster from the start. Not every business will require a huge, detailed ops plan; however, for consistency and organizational purposes, I do recommend at least having one, however small it may be. The ops plan will help you and your company stay focused on its vision, mission statement, objectives, and goals. You decide how in depth it will be. Ops plans will vary according to the size, nature, and sensitivity of the business. Consider the plan a cover, so to speak; it directs, it advises, it explains, and is considered the meat that drives the entire AT/WP program. Once an ops plan has been created, it may only require modification and updating on a periodic or as-needed basis, when operational, administrative, or functional changes occur. While it is not necessary to make changes to the primary ops plan itself, consider a supplemental ops plan in addition to a primary ops plan. This supplemental plan should be a smaller version of the primary ops plan, and it should list additions, deletions, and/or deficiencies as they occur to the primary ops plan. There’s no limit to what information can go into a plan, whether supplemental or 8


PROTECT AMERICA: Not Afraid and Fighting Back

primary. All changes within the AT/WP program should be made in accordance with the primary ops plans. An owner/user may appoint a single plans coordinator or team to develop, coordinate, and implement the plan. The person having sole authority or ownership of a business (the owner, CEO, president), should make overall decisions governing the plan and AT/WP program. This person is free to delegate authority and responsibilities but for consistency and organization purposes should maintain overall command authority and responsibility for the program.

Deviations and Compensatory Measures Historically, people have had a tendency to stray away from written policies and procedures, traditionally known as standard operating procedures, and do their own thing. In AT/WP, as in a lot of other processes, “doing your own thing” is bad for business. Normally once a policy is set, it becomes the rule of thumb, and that’s the way things should be done. In AT/WP, if people stray from a policy, they’ve departed from the way things are normally done. This is called deviation. In cases where an owner/user may allow deviation from written policy, consider the use of compensatory measures. This measure allow modifications or substitution from normal written policy and criteria. Specifically, compensatory measures are those that allow personnel to change existing policies or procedures. The owner/user who decides to use deviations and compensatory measures must clearly write the process for doing so into the ops plan to avoid misconceptions and abuse. Keep it as simple as possible! No rule says you have to have deviations or compensatory measures. Keeping focused on the bottom line should help you organize and complete your plan. When you’ve completed writing he plan, go back, review your mission statement, and ask yourself, does the plan meet the intent of the mission statement? Have we as an organization met the objectives 9


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and goals according to our mission? Make sure the plan covers every aspect of the AT/WP program, from administration to operations. Create a process for final review of the plan once it’s completed. Each time someone reviews the plan, be sure they document that they reviewed it. Document each time the plan is distributed or destroyed. Conduct evaluations of the plan often: quarterly, semiannually, annually, or when the owner/user directs. All plans, once developed, should be evaluated and exercised to ensure their effectiveness and feasibility. Evaluate overall results to determine if and when additional strategies should be implemented. The plan should mirror the process, and the process should mirror the plan. In other words, everything the owner/user does related to security and AT/WP should be in accordance with (IAW) the ops plan. Avoid creating your own ways of doing things once policies and procedures have been written into the ops plan. Again, the plan is a guide. You own the process, so development and implementation is purely up to you. While it may not be necessary for private home owners and renters to have an operations plan, I do suggest creating some form of emergency plan for you and your family. When doing so, create it based on your own needs. My advice is, the larger the scope of operation is, have a plan.

The Training Plan It is the beginning of a new era of changes and challenges our nation must face as we continue to prepare ourselves to rally against threats against us. Traditionally, specific organizational skills, training, and performance were required to do a job. However, as the world changes, conventional training practices and performances must change in order for us to understand, prepare for, and confront the changes we face. A sound AT/WP program is built upon a comprehensive and concise operations plan, a stringent and effective physical 10


PROTECT AMERICA: Not Afraid and Fighting Back

security program, and a creative, desirable, and enthusiastic organizational training plan. Unlike most plans, the training plan is not a permanent plan. It is a plan developed by the owner/user and a guideline setting forth the objectives of anti-terrorism and workplace protection training. It changes IAW the training needs of the business and sets forth the new training objectives for the new year. It’s a road map from where you are to where you want to be. Like the operations plan, it should include a mission statement or vision, should set goals and expectations for the training, and should spell out the priorities and results the owner/ user expects to see upon completion of training.

What’s included in an AT/WP Training Plan? - Welcoming/Intent training letter - Introductory statements explaining the purpose of the plan and its directive nature - Mission statement or vision - Goal of training - Legal considerations and authority - A discussion of the purpose and uses of AT/WP checklists - Computer/Internet training policies and procedures - Explanation of terminology - Discussion of contingency training - Identification of specific training tasks or responsibilities - Training schedules (dates, times, locations, and required equipment) - A discussion of materials that may be needed for training - Training modules and a detailed description of their importance and how they relate to your specific

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business. The owner/user should include additional training topics IAW the needs of the business. - Procedures to respond to a terrorist attack - Violent workplace incident and anti-robbery procedures - Duress procedures - Emergency response, including include notification, response, and evacuation - Bomb threat and suspicious package procedures - Discussion of circulation control procedures— procedures dealing with the identification and/or challenge of suspicious people in and around the workplace - Discussion of personal and family security (where applicable) - Discussion of Department of Homeland Security threat advisories and information sharing - Discussion of bloodborne pathogens - Discussion of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) - Discussion of first aid - A discussion of the purpose and use of training exercises - A clear discussion of safety rules to follow during exercises - Clarification and explanation of how, if, and when training devices can and will be used. Always research legal considerations and authority for using training devices IAW local laws. - Discussion of specialized or technical training: What is it? Who is required to receive it, and who will conduct it? - Training for sensitive, restricted, or controlled areas (where applicable) - Training for weapons, explosives, and ammunition (where applicable) 12


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- Training for funds facilities (where applicable) - Process for using outside functional experts, consultants, or contractors - Procedures to evaluate the training plan to ensure it works

You Own the Process, You Own the Plan It’s not that important to stick to the plan for the sake of the plan. Don’t be concerned if the plan is perfect or not; few plans are. The plan will likely change as you go along, and as situations dictate. No problem! You own the process, you own the plan. It’s your plan, and there’s always room for improvement. Be flexible and keep it as simple as possible. Just get it done! As with an ops plan, not every business will require a training plan; however, for consistency and organizational purposes, I do recommend it. In designing your training plan, remember that it does not have to be too in-depth or too detailed. It’s just a general guide. You decide how in-depth. Don’t wait for the state, local, or federal government to tell you what to train on, how to do it or when to train. Chances are no one knows what you need but you. There are plenty of credible government Web sites, agencies, and consultants that can assist with assembling training plans and programs. And I do recommend the owner/user take the initiative to seek out what options are best for his or her specific business, and where possible, create training without depending on consultants or government agencies. Do the best you can do! I recommend business owners and managers take overall responsibility for oversight of all training processes. Management should be involved in most processes; however, managers in turn can delegate where necessary. As when developing the ops plan, depending on the size and nature of your business, appoint a coordinator that will be solely dedicated to developing, maintaining, reviewing, disseminating, and shredding training plans or materials. 13


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Document any time a plan is reviewed, disseminated to or from other locations, and shredded or otherwise destroyed. Documentation simply keeps tabs on the status and location of the plan; for instance, who had it in their possession last. Conduct reviews and evaluations of the plan often: quarterly, semiannually, annually, or when the owner/user directs. All plans, once developed, should be tested, to insure their effectiveness and feasibility. Evaluate overall results to determine if and when additional strategies should be implemented.

Stick to the Basics and Keep It Simple! When designing your training plan, stick to the basics, but do ensure that you’ve covered all the bases. Make sure the plan is easy to understand. The last thing you want is a plan full of words and garble. Too many training plans contain words, titles, and acronyms no one understands. Training should be both educational and fun. Undesirable training leads to unhappy workers. Unhappy workers lead to unhappy results, and unhappy results lead to a failed anti-terrorism and workplace protection program. Keep a copy of the training plan in a central location for personnel to access and review. There’s no need to provide personnel with a personal copy of the training plan itself, unless it is a very small plan, and the owner/user decides differently. Personnel may be provided training manuals, pamphlets, wallet-sized cards, or computer-generated products with certain information deriving from the training plan itself. Like an ops plan, a training plan is the glue that holds the training program together. Training prepares people. All issues affecting security and AT/WP training should be referenced in this plan. Always reference the training plan when a training issue arises and the answer cannot be found elsewhere. If it affects training, it should be found in the training plan. Requirements will vary from business to busi14


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ness, depending on the type of facility you will be providing training for. Consider enrolling specially selected personnel in a local train-the-trainer course and use AT/WP consultants where necessary. All personnel should thoroughly understand site-specific AT/WP training policies, directives, and procedures. The training plan should be simple to design once the developmental process and policies are spelled out in the operations plan. Because of its nature and its potential to save lives, I encourage owners/users to keep the training plan separate from other workplace plans; however, as with every aspect of the program, the owner/user maintains specific authority to make it a stand-alone plan or incorporate it into existing company plans. This plan, along with sound and dedicated management, can help produce a great training program and maintain a safe, smart, and healthy work environment. You must decide what’s best for you and your business. The following is an example of an anti-terrorism and workplace protection training plan. The example reflects only a partial plan versus an entire training plan. I encourage the owner/user not to copy what’s here, but instead to understand the purpose for a training plan and get creative and design a training plan unique to the needs of the specific business. The first part of the training plan should be the welcoming letter. It is the cover letter that generally precedes the training plan. It welcomes employees to the initial AT/WP training course and includes an introductory statement explaining the purpose of the plan, its intended use, and its directive nature. In this case, Illinois Chemical Brand and Weapons Depot Division Company CEO John A. Jones welcome his employees to first-time training. He also informs them of his training goals and his intent for the training year.

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Example Training Welcome Letter ILLINOIS CHEMICAL BRAND AND WEAPONS DEPOT DIV

DATE XXXX MEMORANDUM FOR ALL ILLINOIS CHEMICAL BRAND AND WEAPONS DEPOT DIV. PERSONNEL FROM: JOHN A. JONES, CEO (ILLINOIS CHEMICAL BRAND AND WEAPONS DEPOT DIV.) SUBJECT: WELCOME LETTER As the owner and CEO of the Illinois Chemical Brand and Weapons Depot Div., I’d like to welcome you to the company’s Initial Training Phase orientation. In accordance with the Illinois Chemical Brand and Weapons Depot Div Operations Plan, the basis or objective of this program is to ensure everyone has a general knowledge of security vulnerabilities, deficiencies, and possible threats and how they apply to this business and areas of responsibility. Further, it is to ensure all personnel are informed on any new, current and/or revised AT/WP policy and/ or changes and ensure personnel are trained and prepared to handle any possible incident in the workplace, and can report, respond and react in accordance with what you will learn during phase training. Initial training is implemented for all newcomers, transient personnel, and temporary personnel in the workplace, whether personnel are working off site, at home, or in transit, and is administered to personnel on a one-time basis. It is directed toward site specific anti-terrorism, workplace protection and security procedures, requirements, and the job of each individual and his or her responsibilities as it relates to security or AT/WP. Initial training is administered promptly after an individual arrives on the job, and as CEO, I recommend it administered before normal on-the-job training duties. Continuous training is directed toward security procedures and requirements; the job of each individual as it relates to AT/WP is ongoing, is implemented throughout the year, and is conducted after the initial training. This training is designed to keep everyone apprised of any noted threats, review new and/or revised security policies and procedures, sharing relevant information, and any job changes etc as it relates to Site Specific AT/WP.

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PROTECT AMERICA: Not Afraid and Fighting Back This (initial training) indoctrination begins with a five-day classroom orientation. During the course, personnel will be involved in a number of training exercise scenarios testing the information taught each day. Employees will also be taken on a tour of the company and have access to our new state-of-the-art Workplace Emergency Control Center. The items required for this training course will consist of pen, pencil, notebook and/or laptop computer to take notes. In the event of a fire, personnel will follow the emergency escape route. The bathrooms are located……… Lunch breaks will be……… The break room is located……… If employees get tired, please stand up………. While in training, refer questions, concerns, or comments to trainers: Rolando Stewart, Roell Stewart, Roosevelt Jr., and Master Instructor Josephine Stewart. Once again, welcome to the Illinois Chemical Brand and Weapons Depot Div. Training Phase orientation. We look forward to working with you during your employment with us. Anti-terrorism and workplace protection is everyone’s business!

///ORIGINAL SIGNED/// JOHN A. JONES, CEO, ILLINOIS CHEMICAL BRAND AND WEAPONS DEPOT DIVISION

The responsibility must fall upon our shoulders.

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Example Training Plan ILLINOIS CHEMICAL BRAND AND WEAPONS DEPOT DIV

MEMORANDUM FOR ALL ILLINOIS CHEMICAL BRAND AND WEAPONS DEPOT DIV. PERSONNEL FROM: JOHN A. JONES, CEO (ILLINOIS CHEMICAL BRAND AND WEAPONS DEPOT DIV.) SUBJECT: 2010 TRAINING PLAN Attached is the Illinois Chemical Brand and Weapons Depot Div. Annual Training Plan for calendar year 2010. This plan was created in accordance with the goals and priorities I’ve set forth in my Company Intent Letter. I consider training to be vital to our ability to successfully carry out our work mission, and to meet our goals. We live and work in an unforgiving world, and if our workplace personnel are not properly trained, they are a potential liability to this company, themselves, and to the families. Anti-terrorism and workplace protection training provides the foundation you need to do an important part of your job to the best of your ability. It is a lifelong process of growth and knowledge. As the world changes, so must we. The threats this nation has fought against, the local threats we try so hard to protect ourselves from, and limited resources have forced us to focus our education and training efforts in those areas most critical to the protection and success of our company. This plan attempts to provide that focus; however, it is exactly that—a plan. The nature of our business often lends itself to more flexible ways of doing things. We adapt to the situation and move on. A plan of this sort is valuable and, unfortunately, necessary. It’s a starting point to prioritize and channel our security and anti-terrorism and workplace protection efforts. This plan provides guidance for all personnel, supervisors, and trainers to maximize their potential and work in a safe working environment. I expect each of you to take your training responsibilities seriously and both educate and prepare yourself. Make no mistake about it; times are changing. The reality of today’s world situation means our nation could be thrust into a hostile situation at a moment’s notice. We must all be prepared, and there are those who depend on us. Site-specific anti-terrorism and workplace training and education should be ongoing for as long as the American workforce exists.

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PROTECT AMERICA: Not Afraid and Fighting Back Each department of this company shall maintain a copy of this plan. Deviations from the plan will require my approval. ///ORIGINAL SIGNED/// JOHN A. JONES, CEO, ILLINOIS CHEMICAL BRAND AND WEAPONS DEPOT DIV.

The responsibility must fall upon our shoulders.

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Example Training Plan Continued 1 ILLINOIS CHEMICAL BRAND AND WEAPONS DEPOT DIV. TRAINING PLAN 2010

Anti-Terrorism and Workplace Protection Training Office of Primary Responsibility (OPR): The OPR for AT/WP training is Jon Brown of the Resource Security Department (RSD). All newly assigned personnel will begin their tour of duty in the Illinois Chemical Brand Weapons Depot Training Branch, AT/WP training section. Initial training will normally consist of one week (five days) of half-day sessions, from 8–12, and will be separate from any other job-related training. Employees are expected to report to their respective supervisors or section heads after training has ended for the day. No one will be allowed to leave the workplace until he or she has received permission from his or her immediate supervisor or section head. Continuous or follow-on training will consist of a three-day training course. All three days will be half-day sessions and will begin in the morning and last until noon. Employees are expected to report back to work after training has ended for the day, and report to their respective supervisors. No one will be allowed to leave the workplace until he or she has received permission from his or her immediate supervisor or section head. Training will be extended as the situation dictates. The training office will contact each section supervisor with a list of all personnel due in training at the beginning of each month. Newly assigned personnel will be contacted through their immediate supervisors and informed when to report to initial training. Personnel in training will not work or be assigned to normal or other duties until all AT/WP training requirements have been met and training has been documented in accordance with Operations Plan A, section 2e. Section supervisors need to plan accordingly during training. The goal of training is to ensure everyone has a general knowledge of security vulnerabilities, deficiencies, and possible threats and how they apply to his or her area of responsibility. Further, the goal is to ensure all personnel are informed on any new, current, and revised AT/WP policies and/or changes.

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PROTECT AMERICA: Not Afraid and Fighting Back Training Requirements Training will consist of the following topics: Bomb Threat Procedures Review Suspicious Package Procedures Review Entry Control Techniques Entry Control and Sensitive Area procedures Escorted and Unescorted Entry to Sensitive and/or Controlled Areas Visitor Entry Procedures Suspicious personnel procedures Sensitive/Controlled Area Badges Securing Doors and Windows During Emergencies Barrier Implementation Emergency Notification Procedures Emergency Response for First Responders Emergency Evacuation Procedures Emergency Situations Emergency Entry Procedures Emergency Numbers Blood Borne Pathogens Incident Reporting Prevention Preventing Pilferage Reducing and Controlling Pilferage Building Entry Controls Point locations Circulation Controls Duress Codes/Words/Alarms Protecting and Changing Duress Codes Violent Workplace Incidents Suicide Prevention CPR, First Aid Techniques Locations of Internal/External and Perimeter CCTV Physical Security Awareness Test

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Example Training Plan Continued 2 Escorted Entry Procedures During Increased Local Threats Review and Use AT/WP Checklists Managers/Supervisors/Owner/User and During Emergencies)

Responsibilities

(Day-to-Day

Immediate Visual Assessment Personnel (IVAP) Alarm Monitors Vegetation Control Securing Grills, Grates, and Other Openings Physical Security Checks Lighting Checks Training Exercises Types of Lighting Systems Warning Signs Intrusion Detection Equipment (IDE) Initial and Continuous Training Testing. All personnel will be administered the following tests while assigned to training, and before being released back to or to start work: 1.) Terrorist Attacks, Violent Workplace Incidents, and Anti-Robbery Procedures 2.) Duress Procedures, Emergency Response Plans to Include Notification, Response, and Emergency Evacuation 3.) Bomb Threat and Suspicious Package Procedures 4.) Circulation Control: Identify and/or Challenge Suspicious Personnel in and around the Workplace 5.) Personal and Family Security 6.) Homeland Security Threat Advisories/Information Sharing 7.) Bloodborne Pathogens, CPR, and First Aid Training 8.) AT/WP Checklists JAN 2010 Training Topics Bloodborne Pathogens Securing Facilities During Increased Threats Bomb Threat Procedures Identifying Suspicious Personnel in Work Areas

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Securing Work Areas after Hours Physical Security Inspection Procedures FEB 2010 Training Topics Entry Control Techniques Visitor Entry Procedures Local Threat Brief Emergency Evacuation Procedures Anti-Terrorism Tips for the Work Place Workplace Violence MAR 2010 Training Topics Suspicious Packages Suicide Prevention/Awareness Escort Procedures Workplace Violence Counseling Emergency Evacuation Procedures Threat Conditions and Associated Actions

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Lesson Plans Portions of this section are taken from a method referred to as the Madeline Hunter Seven Step Lesson Plan. Owners/ users should always develop a lesson plan before attempting to teach an AT/WP training module or topic. A lesson plan notes the method of delivery and the specific goals and timelines associated with the delivery of lesson content. It helps the instructor to know what to do or how to proceed in a class with specific activities. Instructors are encouraged to research information regarding complete lesson planning before a lesson is prepared. They should also have a clear understanding of what the teaching objectives are. - Think about broad objectives of the course, goals of the particular lesson, and what training employees should be able to achieve after the lesson. - Define what trainees will do to acquire further knowledge and skills and how they will be able to demonstrate or perform what they have learned. - Know what standards of performance are to be expected and hold trainees accountable for what is expected. - Prioritize the content of the lesson into material that trainees must know, should know, and could know. - Must-know material includes the key concepts you will be teaching. These are essential to the achievement of objectives. - Should-know information provides clarification of the key concepts, including the reasons behind them. - Could-know materials are items that are interesting but not essential to the learning process. These could include AT/WP lesson-learned examples or stories to support the key information. - Limit information to a manageable amount. Trying to cram too much material into a session decreases the ability of the participants to absorb it all.

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- Arrange the content into logical order. In order to do this, it is important to identify the current level of knowledge among trainees so that you can present the material in small sections, moving from what is already known to the unknown. - Select resources; this includes the training space you will be using, the equipment you need, and any support services that you bring into the session. - For each phase of the training, select the techniques you will use. Some options include discussing, telling, questioning, and role playing. - Estimate the time needed for each segment. This should be revised after each time you run the training. However, be sure that you don’t cut down on time to review the trainees’ understanding. If you don’t have time for these activities, you are trying to cover too much material in the allotted time. - A recommended method of capturing the actual content you want to teach is to create four columns, as follows: In the first column, write the time you plan to start each individual segment. The second column is for the technique you want to use for that segment. Use the third column to capture the main points you want to make, and include the ranking that you did during the planning stage. The fourth column is for any additional details you want to remember to say or do. While creating a lesson plan can be time-consuming, it should not be overlooked in the planning stages of training. Lesson plans help to ensure that you will be focused and cover the necessary material. If you are a new trainer, you may want to submit a few lesson plans to your supervisor

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for review before conducting the training so that you know you are headed in the right direction. Inform trainees about the standards of performance they are expected to adhere to while in AT/WP training and what they are expected to gain from the training. The instructor must create portions of lesson plans that are designed to grab the employees’ attention. - Talk about the most recent “lessons-learned� events involving terrorism and incidents of workplace violence. - Discuss the consequences of little or no training. - Make it personal; instructors must set the framework and put employees into the frame of mind where you want them. Once the material has been presented, the instructor uses it to show trainees examples of what is expected as an end result of training. Encourage employees to problem solve, engage in discussion and group scenarios, and summarize their discussions. Periodically, assess whether trainees understand what was taught before proceeding on to the next lesson, and by all means, ask questions: Do you understand? What did I mean? It is important that trainees understand the content before the instructor initiates practical exercise scenarios. If there is any reason for the instructor to believe the trainees do not understand, go over the lesson again. Without unnecessary pressure, embarrassment, or singling one particular person out, ask questions again: Do you understand? What did I mean? How does this relate to the topic? Allow appropriate time to process and develop a response to a question before moving on. Ask trainees on a frequent basis if they have questions. Give them time for thoughts and responses. Avoid asking a question of a person who you know cannot answer. If stu-

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dent appears confused or can’t answer the question, calmly repeat the same question or give a direct clue.

Barrier Plans A barrier is a structure, such as a fence, barricade, or concrete obstacle that is intended to block or delay access. A barrier used in anti-terrorism and workplace protection is a boundary or obstruction to protect human and physical resources as well as deny entry. Barriers may be necessary for some businesses, depending on the sensitivity of the business and the resources, equipment, and activities inside. A barrier plan is a plan to include drawings developed in advance; it outlines and describes the barrier planning process step by step. The plan should describe how and when barriers should be deployed; who will be required to assemble them; and location, placement, number of barriers required, and so forth. While barrier planning procedures do not have to be lengthy, they should address basic operational planning, day-to-day use, and use during emergencies and times of increased threats. The plan should discuss barrier training and determine when training should occur. Will it be implemented during both initial and continuous training? Discuss the barrier inspection process, lesson planning procedure, and process for training exercises involving barriers. Ensure that the plan includes a process for identifying primary and standby barrier team personnel and any special equipment and/or additional training. Decide what additional information (if required) should go into or be taken away from the plan. Determine when the plan should be reviewed, tested, and exercised, and ensure the entire barrier planning process is included in the ops, training, and contingency plans accordingly.

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Normal Day-to-Day (Real-World) Plans Workplace incidents and accidents can happen, and when they do, it is always smart to have a plan available. A day-to-day workplace plan is a procedural guide to ensure clarity and accuracy when dealing with specific situations. Unlike emergency and contingency plans, day-to-day plans and procedures should include strategies to deal with specific situations that could occur during normal operations, resulting in particular problems, generally considered as non-emergencies. They differ from emergency and contingency plans because day-to-day plans are designed to be used every day for any given situation that may occur in the workplace. Emergency plans are designed to be used in emergency situations, and contingency plans are backup plans. Have plans in place to handle any possible situation that can affect the workplace during routine day-to-day operations. Some examples of normal day-to-day (real world) plans include but are not limited to the following: - A plan describing the anti-terrorism/workplace protection physical security inspections process - A plan describing the anti-terrorism/workplace protection training program and/or training plan - A plan describing how/when to develop and use antiterrorism/workplace protection checklists - A plan describing the circulation control process - A plan discussing the Homeland Security Advisory System - A bloodborne pathogens plan - A plan discussing CPR and first aid techniques and when procedures can or cannot be used - A plan for theft/pilferage in the workplace - A plan for all non-emergency incidents

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There are hundreds, possibly thousands of other site-specific day-to-day plans an owner/user can establish to help bring consistency and order to a workplace. I again encourage you to seek out what’s best for your workplace and make it happen.

Emergency Response Plans (ERPs) Emergencies can happen at any time and at any place, so it’s best to prepared ahead of time. No one expects an emergency to strike, especially not one directly affecting your business, employees, or family. No one ever expects a terrorist attack to occur, but in the times in which we live, the unexpected can be expected. The purpose of an emergency response plan (ERP) is to establish an organizational structure and clear and concise procedures for response to emergencies. The ERP gives the owner/user an opportunity to assign roles and responsibilities for the implementation of the plan during an emergency, as well as to expedite entry for emergency personnel. The plan should address preparedness, reporting, response, evacuation, and recovery. While planning these areas, address as you see fit any other site-specific needs. Include procedures for restricted, sensitive, or controlled areas and include procedures for safeguarding, accountability, and destruction of sensitive information prior to any emergency evacuation. It’s your plan and you own it, so create it according to your own individual needs and requirements. Develop emergency response plans to handle any possible emergency situation that can affect the workplace. Following are some examples of possible emergencies: - Duress, i.e robberies, violent workplace incidents - Natural disasters (flooding, hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornadoes) - Bomb threats/suspicious packages 29


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- Terrorist attacks - Explosions - Cyber attacks - Bio-terrorism - Shelter-in-place - Power outage/failure - Utility interruption/outage - Workplace violence - Fire - Sabotage - Fuel spill - Chemical spill - Chemical release - Gas leak

Contingency Plans Contingency plans are often devised by governments or businesses who want to be prepared for anything that could happen. These readiness plans are created for situations that are likely to occur when things could go wrong. Contingency plans are sometimes known as plan B, alternate plans, and backup and/or worst-case scenario plans, and they include specific strategies and actions to deal with specific situations that could result in problems, stoppages, or emergencies. Contingency plans recognize that present conditions can change, and when they do, it is always smart to have a specific yet flexible backup plan to assist in recovery and restoration. As with any plan, practice and physically test all plans to determine implementation and response capabilities and to ensure the plan is feasible and effective. Evaluate overall results to determine if and when additional strategies should be implemented. The flexibility lies with the owner/ user. Write all planning processes into the ops plan. The ops 30


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plan should explain who, what, when, where, how, and why to implement the planning process. A contingency plan can cover any of the previously discussed plans. Remember, it’s just a backup plan in case something goes wrong with the original plan. Combine or keep contingency plans separate from other plans. Also, remember, the larger the scope, the more important it is to have a plan. Without a plan, in most cases, a program ceases to exist.

Continuity Plans An AT/WP continuity plan is a method to ensure that the show goes on; it is developed to ensure consistency and an uninterrupted business or function. In the event personnel can no longer function in a particular position, continuity information exists so that other personnel can access the same knowledge and experience and can do the job of the person who no longer functions in that position. It ensures a continuous and smooth flow of AT/WP operations.

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CHAPTER 3 Physical Security Inspections The next step in the AT/WP process is designed to safeguard personnel and to prevent or deter attackers from easily accessing a business or facility. This step assists in identifying and correcting vulnerabilities of a business that can lead to unauthorized or illegal entry or introduction of hazardous items into the workplace. Next, we’ll look at the physical security inspection process. It’s the second most critical step in the AT/WP program. The old way of conducting business as usual should be a thing of the past. It’s time to put the real threat in perspective, and it’s time for Americans to get serious about the threats. Because violence and crime can strike families and businesses, it becomes our responsibility to take countermeasures to help protect ourselves and our livelihoods. Protecting oneself and one’s livelihood certainly isn’t a new phenomenon. Man has protected himself, his family, and his home and trade since the beginning of time. Homeowners use burglar alarms to protect their homes. Business owners install physical security features to protect their investments.

Physical Security Physical security is that part of security concerned with physical measures designed to safeguard personnel. The overall purpose of physical security is to prevent or deter attackers from accessing a facility, resource, space, or information stored on physical media.

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What Is a Physical Security Inspection? A physical security inspection is a detailed inspection of workplace facilities, resources and equipment, locations, structures, and infrastructures for administrative and operational functionality, discrepancies, tampering, deterioration, or malfunction. It demands a thorough hands-on, eyes-on approach of the internal and external functions of all air, water, ground, and other systems to ensure a safe and secure operating environment. The inspection should reveal compliance or noncompliance with security and AT/ WP policies, directives, and procedures. Owners/users, in-house security services, building security managers, and so forth are highly encouraged to conduct physical security inspections as soon as possible (ASAP) and initiate the necessary countermeasures and corrective actions to repair weak and vulnerable areas of the workplace. Past threats, attacks, shootings, thefts, burglaries, robberies, and so forth have shown that no one is immune from crime and violence. In times of increased terrorism and threats of attacks and violence in our nation’s workplaces, owners/users must take every necessary precaution to ensure a facility and its people are safe from unwanted intruders and crime. This process must become a critical step in security and AT/WP. The two types of physical security inspections associated with the AT/WP program are the administrative review and the walk-through inspection. Inspections are conducted either on a routine or a first-time basis. Initial inspections are inspections that have never been conducted before. Routine inspections are those conducted quarterly, annually, year round, whenever a change in threat conditions occurs, or when significant changes are made to a facility affecting its layout or design. The administrative review is a hands-on, eyes-on, touch, examine, gauge, and determine type of inspection of the entire workplace’s administrative security and AT/WP policies and procedures, including off-site and satellite loca33


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tions. Further, it is a detailed review/purge of all security and AT/WP instructions, policies, and procedures, and administrative, testing, and training processes as they relate to the overall operational capability and functioning of the workplace. If it relates to security and AT/WP, it should be checked and thoroughly examined for accuracy, effectiveness, currency, clarity, usefulness, need, efficiency and feasibility. When conducting the review, ask questions: Are these procedures necessary? Are they required? Can we/ should we get rid of them? Do they still apply? How effective are they? Do we need more? Do we need less? Should we rewrite procedures? Do away with them? This review gives the inspector/owner/user the opportunity to identify nonphysical, written, media, interactive, and Internet administrative vulnerabilities. Once weaknesses are identified, the owner/user assembles a plan to replace or update outdated, useless security and AT/WP-related paperwork, policies, procedures, and instructions. The walk-through inspection is a hands-on, eyes-on, touch, examine, measure, weigh, and gauge physical determination type of security and AT/WP inspection of the entire workplace’s physical and operational functions, including off-site and satellite locations. The walk-through inspection gives the owner/user the opportunity to identify and correct physical and operational vulnerabilities and to test the overall security and AT/WP integrity of a workplace. Once weaknesses are identified, the owner/user assembles a plan to replace or update security and AT/WP-related operational and physical security functions.

Notifying Personnel of Inspections Notifying personnel of a physical security inspection is the responsibility of the owner/user. A routine form letter designed by the owner/user or a simple reminder letter can suffice. However you notify personnel, always do it in writ-

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ing. See Chapter 9, Developing Site-Specific Anti-Terrorism and Workplace Protection Checklists and Reports. Once the owner/user decides who will conduct the inspection (a single person, team, or trusted agent) he or she should, as a courtesy, and in advance, notify in writing the department being inspected of the following: - Who will conduct the inspections, including information on names, departments, or titles where possible - Reason or type of inspection: initial, routine, or annual - Time and date of inspection - How long the inspection is expected to last (if known) - Location of inspection - Whether any special equipment or special instructions will be involved

What Areas Require a Physical Security Inspection? If an agency, facility, business, organization, unit, domain, or location houses people or things, public or private, and performs a service and exists as a structure or infrastructure, a physical security inspection should be conducted. Inspections should be conducted IAW a business’s antiterrorism and workplace protection operations plan. Owners/users are responsible for selecting persons to conduct the inspection for their facilities. Inspectors should be selected based on known capabilities to be trustworthy and reliable. What this simply means is that physical security inspectors must be aggressive and clear in their search for problem areas in a workplace. Aggressive and clear means inspectors must be honest and forthright in documenting results and not hiding them. Sweeping problems under the 35


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rug does no one any good. In fact, it severely harms the workplace and the entire AT/WP process by placing safety and everyone associated with the workplace in jeopardy. The owner/user appoints a single person or team to develop, coordinate, and implement physical security inspections. Appointed personnel are charged with ensuring that an appropriate level of physical security exists for the facility and ensuring that owners/users are in compliance with all applicable directives as they relate to security and AT/ WP. A single person may be sufficient for covering small areas, while teams or groups can provide wider coverage for larger areas. Note: The owner/user may select personnel within the organization or personnel from outside the business (a trusted agent or disinterested party) to conduct inspections. A trusted agent or disinterested party is a person chosen by the owner/user and not usually affiliated with the workplace, and, however, has or will obtain the necessary knowledge to conduct such inspections or has or will be trained by the owner/user to conduct AT/WP inspections. A trusted agent is sometimes used when in-house personnel are not available, to ensure inspections are not prejudiced, and to ensure that accurate information is revealed. Trusted agents may be selected from wherever the owner/user decides. When choosing a trusted agent, as when using in-house personnel, the agent should be selected based on known capabilities to be trustworthy and reliable. Finding many discrepancies during an inspection certainly does not make a bad business. The more discrepancies found, the more that are corrected, making the business more secure than it was before the inspection. Sweeping issues under the rug or turning your head away from a problem does make you worse off by far and continues to keep a business in jeopardy. The purpose here is to find the vulnerabilities before the bad guy does. Conduct physical security inspections for all public and private air, ground, and water facilities, locations, and equipment, including but not limited to emergency/early warning 36


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and communications systems, lighting, alarms, cameras, and backup systems.

Inspections should also include the following: - All designated high-risk, sensitive, restricted, and controlled area facilities to include those storing or possessing classified, secret, top secret, controlled, and sensitive information, to include facilities and transportation. - All hazmat facilities, refineries, electrical power, water treatment plants, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and other resources and transportation associated with these areas. - All communication technology and information network systems, including audio/video media, computer, radio, telephone—including land-line and cell phones, mobile signals, and towers— transportation, repair, storage, and other associated areas. - All ground, water, and air emergency and firstresponse facilities and health-care facilities, to include hospitals, clinics, specialty practices, research laboratories, pharmacies and off-site satellite facilities, behavioral medicine clinics, safety shelters, assisted living homes, rehabilitation facilities, nursing homes, senior living centers, retirement centers, and other resources and transportation associated with these areas. - All arms, ammunition, and explosives (AAE) depots, facilities, bunkers, storage spaces, stores, shows, transportation, warehouses, and related locations, items and equipment, including communications, lighting, alarms, cameras, and backup generator systems and other resources and transportation associated with these areas. 37


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- Funds facilities (any facility containing large sums of money), safes, vaults, cashier cages, banks, and other resources and transportation associated with these areas. The owner/user determines what large sums of money require inspection/protection IAW needs and requirements. - Aviation systems including space launch facilities, air transport, airports, aircraft, tour balloons, blimps, runways, flight lines, control towers, satellite and radar sites, and flight, preflight schools and other resources and transportation associated with these areas. - All ground, underground, water, elevated, and associated transportation systems and facilities to include trains, rails, railway yards, tracks, housing, equipment, stations, depots, tunnels, trucks, trailers, boats, ships, ports, docks, and associated facilities. Also taxis; automobile manufacturers; auto sales, rental, lease, maintenance and repair facilities; trolleys; people carriers; limos; buses; stations; and transport using animals. Also bridges, toll roads, roadways, highways, expressways, alleyways, neighborhood streets, car parks, hills, trenches, mountainous and associated areas leading to or near surrounding workplaces, facilities, or equipment. Also, mining areas, construction sites and associated equipment, lifts, elevators, and associated systems. - All public, private, local, state, and federal businesses, schools, universities, day-care centers, libraries, office buildings, warehouses, storage buildings, factories, loading docks, food processing facilities, hotels, motels, apartment buildings, cabins, condos, town homes, recreational vehicle parks, campgrounds, military bases and related resources, training areas, parks, canteens, rest areas, and associated sites and locations. - All indoor/outdoor social gathering places, including theaters, night clubs and bars, stores, restaurants, coffee houses, churches, shopping malls, farms, 38


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zoos, labs and other locations housing animals, amusement parks, aquatic parks, museums, swimming pools, water parks, beaches, resorts, spas, vacation and holiday spots, parade routes, sporting event venues, health and fitness facilities, stadiums, and arenas.

Physical Security Inspections for Private Citizens and Residences Private citizens may conduct similar inspections upon purchasing or leasing a new residence. A routine move-in checklist may suffice as an inspection checklist. If you’re concerned about other areas not listed on a move-in checklist, attach your own list with additional concerns and address concerns to management, if you’re a renter. If you’re in a gated housing type of community or association, address your concerns to management. Change door locks if moving into a domain that was previously occupied. Work together as a team to clear unresolved issues to ensure a safe and secure living environment year round. If you’re a homeowner and you find areas of concern where you live, correct the issues as best you can for the safety, security, and comfort of your family. Assemble block clubs and neighborhood watch groups, and address security issues year round. I would encourage anyone requiring assistance in conducting physical security inspections to do your homework first and avoid retaining just anyone who claims to be a security or terrorist expert. Look for a credible agency with a proven track record and background in anti-terrorism, resource protection, and/or force protection. If I were in need of an expert, I’d hire someone with a military/anti-terrorism background. Contact functional experts to purge the computer, information, personnel, and industrial security process. If your business is concerned about cyber issues, listening and communications devices, or if you suspect compromise, damage, espionage, or sabotage of your business’s

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computer, information, or phone systems, contact local or government experts knowledgeable in that area. Now that we’ve examined the physical security inspection process and how it works, let’s prepare to conduct the physical security administrative review and the physical walk-through inspections.

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CHAPTER 4 Conducting the Physical Security Inspection (Administrative Review) The owner/user is responsible for conducting the physical security administrative review inspection for his or her respective facility. Reasons for conducting an inspection may include the following: - Initial inspection - Annual or routine inspection - Reinspection due to a burglary of the facility - Reinspection due to a rise in threat conditions - As required IAW the ops plan - Other reasons decided by the owner/user Note: All facilities will not warrant a reinspection simply because of a change in threat conditions. If a reinspection is conducted, it will most likely take place when the threat condition has reached the highest level IAW the actions required per threat level. The decision to conduct a reinspection will be decided by the owner/user and may depend on the nature and sensitivity of the business and resources contained inside. Owners, management, supervisors, and staff should all work together with inspectors to ensure an efficient, accurate, and complete administrative review. Arrange in advance a comfortable and quiet area where personnel conducting reviews may not be disturbed. The administrative review is the perfect time to fine-tune the security and AT/ WP process. During the administrative review, it becomes the job of the inspecting official to ensure all checks and balances are in place regarding all security and AT/WP issues. Inspectors 41


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should ensure all administrative processes receive a complete scrub from top to bottom and inside and out. Conduct a careful and thorough review of all existing security, emergency, and anti-terrorism and workplace protection–related administrative materials, instructions, directives, policies, procedures, checklists, training aids, and so forth. Look at all training CDs, DVDs, interactive materials, Internet and computer-related materials, tests, exercise procedures, and so forth. Use checklists to document what areas need to be discarded, updated, replaced, added, corrected, and so forth. The administrative team may or may not be a member of the facility, business, or organization they’re inspecting. The owner/user chooses who will conduct the inspection and correct discrepancies. The owner/user sets forth all the rules to follow. If the owner/user decides there will be a time limit to conduct the review, he or she should notify the department or unit to be inspected. A timeline simply ensures that areas requiring corrective action can be corrected and the plan posted back to its original location in a timely manner. “Posted” indicates the required documents should be returned to their original placement and ready for use by the originating office. The following materials are optional when conducting the administrative review: writing materials, computer, audio/video recording devices, twoway radios, cellular, and land-line phones. Always use the physical security checklist when conducting inspections. Prior to the inspection, all pertinent security and AT/WP administrative materials, that is, existing policies and procedures, books, checklists and security aids that are to be inspected should be placed in a separate area or room and ready for inspection. Department heads should be on hand or readily available to answer any questions inspectors may have about security policies and procedures. Plans should be made in advance to gain access to locked or off-limit areas. The owner/user is responsible for solving any issues involving the inspection before the inspection. Personnel owning, responsible for, or associated with sen42


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sitive, restricted, and controlled areas; cashier cages and vaults; weapons or computer facilities; and so forth may conduct inspections of their own areas. However, the owner/ user still maintains the overall decision. The bottom line is that the inspection must be conducted, and discrepancies must be identified. Before, during, and after the inspection, keep in mind that business as usual no longer applies. Ask important questions and think like the bad guy!

The following are questions an inspector should consider asking: - Is the facility safe with the current procedures and training already in place? - Are the current policies effective? Prove it! - Where do the vulnerabilities lie? Show me. Now show me how we can fix them. - Are entry and identification procedures effective? - Are there state and local laws in place regarding warning signs for this facility? - Do the present warning signs need replacing? Show me the location of all the warning signs. - Other than an emergency evacuation exercise, when is the last time the business had a bomb threat/ suspicious package exercise? What were the results? - When is the last time we had an exercise testing circulation control procedures? What were the results? - Have we ever had an exercise testing workplace violence procedures? What were the results? - When is the last time we had an anti-robbery exercise? What were the results?

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- Do all of our duress buttons work? What’s the procedure if one is broken? Is there a log? - When is the last time we had an exercise testing our emergency response procedures? What were the results? - Are employees aware of actions to take regarding the threat levels of the Homeland Security Advisory System? How? Give me some examples. - Do we have procedures regarding bloodborne pathogens, first aid, and CPR? Are they up-to-date? How often are they updated? - Is there an emergency response plan? Do the employees know where to find this information if they need it? - How do we create AT/WP policies when we’ve never had any? - Is this difficult to do? - Will they work? - Do current policies and procedures allow for easy access either during duty hours or after hours? How do we know? - Do we have effective circulation control procedures? Show me. - Check bloodborne pathogens kits and policy. Are there accountability procedures? Show me! - Are all employees trained in responding to workplace violence? Are there written procedures? Please explain them. Show me employees training record. - What are the procedures for security clearances and background checks? Show me the procedures. Am I authorized to know? Why or why not? - How effective is AT/WP training? How is training designed? - What’s the policy on tabletop exercises? Are there checklists? Are they used? How?

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- Can our current security procedures be compromised? How do we know? - What else can we do to ensure our personnel, resources, and customers are protected? Explain - Have we done enough? As an employee, what do you think we can do better? Use checklists to conduct inspections and ensure checklists correspond and are in compliance with the operations plan and local, state, and federal protective measures and directives. When inspecting, consider the need and requirement versus convenience. Avoid the “we’ve done it this way ever since I can remember, so why change now” mentality. Inspectors together with the owner/user should decide where necessary security changes need implementing. If a process is outdated, get rid of it. If it’s required or needed, make it happen. Only share inspection information or results with those having a need to know. Work together as an organization, assemble functional experts, and use credible licensed consultants qualified to help with security and AT/WP related issues. If security and AT/WP policies and procedures already exist but require mostly updating, the owner/user chooses the best process to make that happen. If new policies or procedures are created, workplace personnel should be trained on the new policies or procedures before they are implemented. Inspect the security background investigation and security clearance process carefully and thoroughly. Ensure all personnel are fully trained in the job they’re hired for before granting clearance to work

No one can afford to slip through the cracks! In this post-9/11 era, it is vital to conduct thorough and complete security background investigations be45


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fore granting work clearance. This process should be closely scrutinized during the administrative inspection. The owner/user should also ensure before a person is hired for a position that the person is fully trained for that prospective job (where applicable) before granting any security clearances for that person. If a business uses a background investigation or security clearance process, scrutinize the process carefully to ensure it doesn’t contain any gray, unknown, or unwritten policy areas. If a business doesn’t use this process, I encourage the owner/user to consider it immediately. If the background investigations process is weak, incomplete, or unclear, it leaves room for misuse, abuse, misinterpretation, and possible compromise of the process, or worse yet, the business as a whole. The background investigation process should have zero tolerance when it comes to uncertainties and mistakes. Zero tolerance is necessary to ensure personnel working within a business or an organization is trustworthy, capable, and operationally safe. The Department of Homeland Security has put in place processes that allow enrolled employers to confirm the legal status of all new hires. This system operated by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services in partnership with the Social Security Administration is considered an electronic employment eligibility verification system. Even though a system such as this exists, the owner/user is highly encouraged to conduct additional, thorough in-house, hands-on background investigations, visa checks, and prior training verification for all personnel. Pay special attention to personnel in flight and preflight schools and public and private ground, water, and air transportation systems, including but not limited to owners and users, renters, drivers, assistants, attendants, security personnel, and messengers. Positions designated as high risk and positions posing even a minimal possible threat to our national security should go through a thorough and meticulous vetting and verification process. I’m not saying make it impossible for people to

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come to work for you; I am saying make it safe for people to come to work with you. Pay close attention to issuance of ID badges, driving permits, certificates, and water, air and ground transportation and courier licenses. Verify Real or National identification cards (where applicable). An employee’s trustworthiness and capability is important to the success and operationally safe working environment of a company, its people, and inevitably, the nation. No one should be excluded. Establishing trustworthiness includes a background investigation; physical, mental, and psychological qualifications check; behavioral observation; and voluntary and continuing assessments. Capability addresses education, experience, and training. Recruiting and screening trustworthy, capable, and safe individuals to work within a company in these changing times is crucial. No one can be allowed to slip through the cracks! When writing this procedure into your ops plan, be sure to include strict guidelines on the review, evaluation, and screening processes of all employees. Repeat the administrative review annually, IAW the ops plan, when significant administrative or operational changes have affected the facility, or as needed. Replace current or previous AT/WP physical security inspection written reports when a report has been superseded by a new or updated report. All procedures should be written into the ops plan, leaving zero tolerance for misunderstanding. While the administrative review process is in gear, another team may conduct the physical walk-through inspection. These two inspections do not have to take place at the same time or the same day. They can take place on different days and times, after hours, after closing, or on weekends, holidays, and so forth. That decision is solely placed on the owner/user, and all procedures and processes must be driven by the ops plan. If a business, organization, or facility does not have security and AT/WP policies and procedures, and you as the 47


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owner/user know or reasonably believe it should have, put together an action plan to institute policies immediately. Start with an operations plan. Today it is essential that all workplaces have stringent security and AT/WP policies and procedures in place. Workplaces worldwide are working with outdated security policies and procedures, and most workplaces have none at all. Some may require only a slight dusting, while most require a complete overhaul. Too many American institutions have fallen victim to terrorism, crime, and violence for a host of reasons. Weak security policies or lack of protective measures should not be one of them.

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CHAPTER 5 Conducting the Physical Security Inspection (Physical Walk-through) Same basic principles and procedures apply for both the administrative review and walk-through inspections. Once the owner/user decides who will conduct the inspection, he or she should notify in advance those personnel to be inspected of the reason for inspection, the time and date of the inspection, and areas to be inspected. Owners, management, supervisors, and functional experts should all work together with inspectors to conduct the inspection and ensure all checks and balances are in place. Open all fences, gates, doors, and windows, including offices, closets, storage areas, warehouses, sheds and shelters. Areas normally locked and considered off limits or private should be made available to inspectors. Inspectors should have access to applicable master keys and codes if access is required. If necessary, the owner/user can change the locks and/or combinations after the inspection. Responsible personnel should have knowledge of alarms, surveillance, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), backup, emergency and early warning systems, or any other associated equipment items and materials. They should also be prepared to answer any questions inspectors may have concerning physical security. If need be, the owner/user may bring in functional experts to check alarms, cameras and HVAC systems. If a location is off-site, the owner/user and inspectors must make arrangements in advance with off-site personnel for access. Usually physical security inspections are conducted by trustworthy and reliable in-house personnel; however, as with the administrative review, the owner/user may choose to select a trusted agent or disinterested party to conduct the inspection. This again gives the opportunity for a person who has little or no interest in the business or facility 49


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to look at everything without prejudice and conduct a clear and thorough inspection. The owner/user may contract for security/AT/WP specialists or functional experts to assist in conducting this inspection. I do, however, encourage owners/users to become functional experts for the business before contracting out. Conducting a physical security inspection does not necessarily require expertise. It does, however, require a bit of focus and dedicated people with the desire to protect people and things. The following materials are optional when conducting the physical walk-through: writing materials, computer, audio/ video recording devices, two-way radios, cellular and landline phones, tape measure, and master keys and/or codes. Always use the physical security checklist when conducting inspections.

What are inspectors looking for during this inspection? Remember—business as usual no longer applies. Before starting the inspection, inspectors should assemble a list of questions. Ask lots of questions. Test the owner/ user’s knowledge. Think like a criminal! - Are there hidden areas where a person could gain access after hours? - Are the windows and doors strong enough to withstand an explosion? How do we know that? - Check the roof and basement. Who has keys or codes? How is the process for issuing keys or codes maintained? - Check parking garages. Who has access codes? How is the process maintained? - Is the area patrolled or monitored by cameras? Where? How often? Who monitors the cameras? Who checks on those monitoring cameras? 50


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- Check stairwells. Are they checked often? By whom? How often? - Check all paneled ceilings to determine where they lead. Can entry be gained? How do we know? Have we ever performed tests or exercises to see if a person can gain entry to the facility through the roof? - Check bathrooms: wall and ceiling panels, floors, closets - Does the business have entry control procedures, and are they effective? Have the procedures been tested? What were the results? - Does current security allow for easy access either during duty hours or after hours? Have the procedures been tested? What were the results? Prepare for an exercise to test the procedures. - Can security procedures be compromised with the procedures we currently have in place? How do know? Have they been tested? Have they been reviewed for currency and accuracy? - Do surveillance cameras really work, or are they just there for deterrence? Show me. - Test all cameras. Review logs. - Submit immediate work orders where necessary. - Does the facility have alarm procedures to guard the resources? Are they tested? Are there logs for testing? How current are the procedures? - Test all alarms. Review logs. - Is there a plan to replace burned-out lights around the facility? Who replaces the lights? - Are warning signs used? Are they effective? Show me locations. - Ensure that the owner/user trims vegetation around the facility. Are procedures written in the ops plan? Review the plan for accuracy and relevancy.

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- Check storage areas and loading docks. Can personnel gain access to these areas without proper authority? Test the procedure. - What are procedures for entering sensitive areas? Show me how they work. - Are there escort procedures? Walk me through them. - How does circulation control work? Show me. Conduct or schedule a penetration exercise to test procedures. - Check outside fencing. Can access be gained after hours? Are there holes in or under the fence? - Check outside entry points. - Check windows and doors from the outside. Are they strong enough to withstand an attempted break-in or explosion? - Is there a barrier plan? Is it needed? Has it been tested? - What else can we do to ensure our personnel, resources, and customers are safe and protected? - Are anti-robbery procedures tested? When was the last time? - Bring in experts to assess HVAC. - Are we susceptible to cyber terrorism? Bring in experts to assess computer security. - Test and replace duress buttons. Review and test procedures. - Check behind walls and doors. - Check safes and vaults. - Test key and lock procedures. - Who all has keys, codes, master keys, and master codes? - Have the locks ever been changed? What is the procedure? Show me. - Have we done enough? Is there more we can do?

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- Check/test procedures for circulation control. - Check/test procedures for workplace violence. - Check/test anti-robbery procedures. - Physically test duress procedures. - Physically test emergency response procedures. - Check/test the Homeland Security Advisory System procedures. - Check all bloodborne pathogens, first aid, and CPR kits. Show accountability procedures. - Test the emergency response plan. If you’re inspecting a building with several offices and floors, start inside, going from the front to the rear and from bottom to top or top to bottom. Or start at the rear, working your way to the front, bottom to top, or top to bottom. You decide! It really doesn’t matter as long as you physically cover all of the internal and external areas of the facility. Physically check doors, windows, entry points, paneled ceilings, floors, walls, basements, and roofs that could be easily accessed by the bad guy. Physically check elevators, stairwells, alarms, cameras, and warning signs. Visually and physically check areas for tampering, deterioration, corrosion, cracks, holes and worn/ torn parts. Determine need, requirement, effectiveness, feasibility, usefulness, operation and function. Consider if door buzzers, two-way mirrors, duress procedures, additional warning signs, cameras, and alarms are needed or required. Observe, touch, shake, record, measure, weigh, test, ask plenty of questions, and make notes. Check to see if items or areas you’re inspecting are in compliance with current local, state, and/or federal security and protection requirements (if any). Don’t hide issues under the rug. Check HVAC systems, equipment and areas where people could hide out or place explosive devices. Secure equipment and areas not in use. Place wire screening over open HVAC areas (where applicable). Physically test emergency

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backup generators, alarms, and early warning procedures and systems. Recommend removing any material that could act as an igniter to a proper storage location. Move trash bins, smoking containers, and barbecue grills away from the outside of a facility. Where applicable, consider replacing outside trash bins with cement barriers or concrete planters instead. Check gates, fencing, and outriggers for appropriate height, length, locks, chains, and warning signs. When checking off-site resources, as with on-site locations, look for cracks, corrosion, holes, leaks, worn and torn parts, and rusting, broken, and malfunctioning equipment and hardware. Test the structural integrity of bridges, large or heavy equipment, and other large or massive structures. Purge perimeters to ensure there are no easy access points that could lead into the facility or related resources. Trim tall shrubbery, trees, and other vegetation that appear to be growing out of control. Decide whether hills, mounds, and shrubbery present blind spots. These areas can act as hiding places or obstruct vigilance. Physically check sewers, manholes, and grates near or around the facility and place locks on manholes and sewers wherever possible. Ensure these areas cannot be accessed. Check construction sites for safety and inspection procedures and heavy equipment and security procedures. Ensure security procedures highlight areas where security would be a concern during hours of darkness and when workers are not present. Ensure that construction sites are well lit after dark. Depending on the site and resources and equipment contained therein, decide whether heavy equipment and storage facilities should be patrolled by security personnel, closed-circuit television (CCTV), or guard dogs, especially after dark and during inclement weather. Check processes that involve the use of specialized tools and equipment and wearing of specialized uniforms, badges, or other clothing. Ensure checks and balances are in place to

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secure special IDs, badges, uniforms, other clothing, and work equipment when they are not in use. Document all discrepancies observed during the inspection. Covering up issues hurts rather than helps. At the end of the day, the only ones profiting from hidden issues are the bad guys. No one should lose a job over an inspection. Vulnerabilities in workplace physical security need to be brought to light and fixed. No one should fall victim because of something you didn’t do. Keep in mind that business as usual no longer applies. Personnel owning, responsible for, or associated with sensitive, restricted, and controlled areas may conduct inspections of their own areas; however, the owner/user still makes overall decisions on the inspection. Bottom line: the inspection must be conducted, and discrepancies must be identified.

The Physical Security Checklist A physical security checklist is a streamlined, step-by-step, chronological list of events or actions to ensure consistency and completeness in carrying out security and AT/WP tasks and responsibilities. It is designed to assist in completing certain assigned responsibilities. It is also effective so that the information you need to be aware of, and be reminded of, is available immediately and efficiently. Owners/users design their own checklists to meet the purpose of their program. Checklist procedures should be written clearly into the ops plan. See Chapter 9, Developing Site-Specific Anti-Terrorism and Workplace Protection Checklists and Reports.

The Written Discrepancy Report After inspectors have completed the physical security inspection, they should notify the owner/user of the results via a written discrepancy report. The written report should 55


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include a list or summary of all discrepancies, write-ups, and vulnerabilities that were found during the inspection. Inspectors should disseminate the report through internal channels to top management and should review the report together with management to decide on the appropriate corrective actions. Correcting deficiencies and instituting a timeline to get things fixed is the decision of the owner/user. See Chapter 9, Developing Site-Specific Anti-Terrorism and Workplace Protection Checklists and Reports. Note: The end result of both the physical security administrative and walk-through inspections should be clear, current, and effective security and AT/WP administrative and physical security policies and procedures for the workplace.

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CHAPTER 6 Leave No Stones Unturned (Get Nitpicky)

Leaving no stones unturned (getting nitpicky) equates to the owner/user taking every necessary step to safeguard and protect personnel and property and ensure his or her business does not become an easy target of opportunity. Getting nitpicky indicates getting specific. Getting nitpicky is the way to discover security weaknesses within a workplace. While it all may sound quite tedious and repetitious, airtight security procedures are well worth the extra effort. Thoroughly check and see what’s behind windows, curtains, and walls. Tug on and test doors and windows for strength and sturdiness. Can they be removed, compromised, or penetrated by outsiders? If a person gains access through a window, can access be gained to the rest of the building? Test weak and worn areas to see if they require reinforcement or replacement. Reinforced windows with shatterresistant glass afford great protection. Do doors require a 57


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peephole, double-pane glass, or two-way mirrors? Are the HVAC system and areas over the ceiling and under the floor spaces open or accessible? Are the spaces large enough for a human to crawl through? If so, how do you fix the problem? Consider using bars, grates, or wire, metal, or mesh screening to cover certain areas and keep outsiders out. Note the design, strength, and thickness of walls and doors. If need be, retain outside physical security and construction contractors, consultants, or designers to reassess areas and/or reinforce vulnerable and weak areas. Are cages and storage areas with high-value items and equipment secured, and do those areas allow for only authorized personnel? Evaluate processes and how they’re being maintained? Ensure areas can be secured well enough that when unattended, entry still cannot be gained. Test cameras and alarms. Are they sufficient for what they’ve been designed for? Are they effective when monitoring designated areas? Is the lighting sufficient in and around the facility? Test backup and emergency generators and ensure written procedures have been developed and are current. Can weapons, funds facilities, computer, and high-value or sensitive areas be easily accessed? Are there procedures for these facilities? Are they current? Are they effective? Do they require updating? Are the procedures tested? Do these areas have—or do they require—duress and/or emergency procedures? Have the emergency procedures been tested to see if they work? Inspect procedures to protect structures, gates, weapons, and funds containers. Review exercise and alarm test logs and dates of the last exercise/test. For weapons facilities, do procedures exist regarding spare weapons parts? Are there weapons accountability procedures? Are proper procedures followed regarding the sale or purchase of weapons? Are weapons racks and parts discarded IAW state law? Define and make clear policy and procedure regarding electronic key card systems, safes, and combinations. Do key, lock, code, and electronic access control system and entry control procedures exist? Are they clear and effective? Can they be 58


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compromised? Who developed the process, has keys, and has access to electronic key codes, and how is the process maintained? Determine who actually need keys or codes. The number of keys and codes should always be kept to an absolute minimum needed. Do finance vaults and cashier cages have up-to-date anti-robbery procedures IAW local and state law and the organization’s ops plan, and are the facilities equipped with proper alarms and cameras? Are there parking and unattended vehicle procedures, and are they effective? Does the owner/user use valet parking? Does he or she need a valet? Can these procedures be compromised? Have security and background checks been conducted on all employees? Have records been verified? Do parking areas require additional security, surveillance, fencing, lighting, or warning signs? Can anyone gain easy access to loading docks and service entrances? Are doors and windows equipped with necessary locks, buzzers and motion sensors (where necessary)? Are doors, windows, gates, and fencing left propped open while not attended? Check cable vaults, junction boxes, and facilities housing primary, alternate, and emergency power sources. Check petroleum, power and water filtration facilities. Ensure proper security signs, fencing, alarms, cameras, locks, keys, and accountability procedures exist for these critical areas. Do cameras work? Do alarms work? How often are they tested? Prove it! Are alarm logs kept current? Prove it! Take this opportunity to thoroughly measure, review, test, exercise, and scrutinize everything as it relates to security and AT/WP. A complete scrub of all security policies must be conducted. Consider it spring cleaning for the workplace. Again, while it may appear that most of the inspection procedures are repetitious and a lot of work, once owners/users have taken the necessary steps to develop the necessary plans and implement a strong and effective physical security inspection program, they should rest easy knowing that they’ve implemented some of the more critical and essential elements of the site-specific anti-terrorism 59


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and workplace protection program. The greatest casualty is doing nothing.

Now is the perfect opportunity to discover security weaknesses. - The physical security inspection process is the perfect opportunity to discover that the security clearance and background check process developed in the 1970s just doesn’t apply to today’s standards. Now it’s time to do something. - Now is the perfect opportunity to discover inactive security files, policies, and paperwork. - Now is the perfect opportunity to discover outdated processes, procedures, and equipment items that should’ve been dumped in the 1960s. - Now is the perfect opportunity to realize the workplace has never had anti-terrorism or emergency evacuation procedures. Now it’s time to do something. - Now is the perfect time to finally do something about your cashiers. Your business has been robbed several times over the past year. Maybe it’s time to install bullet-resistant glass and doors. Maybe it’s time to develop anti-robbery procedures. - Now is the perfect time to discover that large crawl space behind a facade wall in your bank’s finance vault. - Now is the perfect time to discover that large crawl space behind a wall built in 1973 adjacent to the company’s weapons vault. - Now is the perfect time to discover that it appears that someone has intentionally removed the door hinges to the main doors leading to the Information Security Section.

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- Now is the perfect time to discover that the policy regarding removing items from the workplace isn’t a policy at all. - Now is the perfect time to discover that the camera system installed in 1987 hasn’t worked since 1988. Now it’s time to do something. - Your company supposedly had a security contract with Iron Mike’s Security and Condos just after September 11, 2001. After thorough investigation, no contract is found; in fact, the finance department discovers that Iron Mike gets paid a nominal security fee once a month for staffing guards that don’t exist. Now it’s time to do something. - Now is the perfect time to discover that employees have never had bomb threat or suspicious package training. - Now is the perfect time to discover that a red truck with two males and one female appears to have been casing the weapons depot since last summer, and no one has mentioned it until today’s inspection. - Now is the perfect time to discover the company has no circulation control procedures. - Now is the perfect time to create physical security checklists you’ve never had. - Now is the perfect time to discover that no one really knows who all has keys or entry codes to the weapons depot. Further investigation reveals that out of the 120 employees who supposedly have codes, 112 admit they’re not sure what the code is and use other employees’ keys for entry. - Now is the perfect time to discover that the weapons depot does not have procedures for locks, keys, and codes. - Now is the perfect time to discover that armory personnel have outdated weapons and ammunition procedures. Once you’ve completed a weapons inventory, you realize that thirty-two weapons, twelve cans of 5.56-millimeter armor-piercing 61


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rounds, an unknown number of binoculars and second-chance vests, and volumes of white phosphorous grenades are missing. No one knows anything about it: how or when they disappeared. Now it’s time to do something.

Where you have no control, take some initiative. If you are the user of a business or facility (renting or leasing a space) and not the sole owner and/or you work within a larger business or facility or in close physical proximity to a building where you have little or no control over operating procedures, where possible, encourage the owner/user to consider implementing some form of security protection program. Regardless of what kind of inspection the owner/user conducts, the idea of leaving no stones unturned (getting nitpicky) applies to the entire inspection process. If there were ever a time to get fussy, this is it. Look at every possible file from A through Z; examine every document, policy, and procedure and physical area and item associated with the workplace as it relates to security and AT/WP. Examine all forms of deterrence; look at securing all unused spaces and monitoring frequently used areas. Again, this is the time and opportunity to identify all possible vulnerabilities and weaknesses one can possibly uncover.

Forms of Deterrence Lighting is often used as a preventive and corrective measure against intrusions or other criminal activity on a physical piece of property. Security lighting may aid in the detection of intruders, deter intruders, or in some cases simply increase the feeling of safety. When adequate lighting around a physical structure is deployed to reduce the risk of an intrusion, it is critical that the lighting be designed 62


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carefully, as poorly arranged lighting can create glare, which can actually obstruct vision. Ensure that lighting is distributed evenly in and around the workplace, including the exterior. Ensure that controls to light switches are inside and in a secure location so they cannot be accessed by vandals. Affecting a major light source can be a major factor during an emergency or disaster. Identify all burned-out lights and have a process to replace lighting, including emergency, warning, entry, exit, area, and all-purpose lighting. Go outside and see what the criminal sees. Bad guys don’t like lights getting in their way when they are trying to make your lives miserable. Walk around the facility. Walk around the perimeter. If there are dark areas that employees and visitors use, light them up. Closed-circuit television, or CCTV, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may employ point-to-point wireless links. Historically, CCTV has been used for surveillance in areas such as banks, casinos, airports, military installations, and convenience stores. Increasingly, CCTV is being used in more public places due to a rise in criminal activity. Surveillance cameras are vital to the success of protecting public safety and affecting public stupidity. The face of America has changed, and I sincerely believe that because of those changes, we should maintain the ability to monitor critical resources, infrastructure, and public areas on a 24/7 basis. I’m a huge advocate of surveillance cameras and believe that America needs an aggressive national campaign for nationwide surveillance cameras. I believe surveillance cameras should be installed on every street corner, public highway, expressway, roadway, intersection, alley, field, farm, building, and on all public air, ground and rail, water spaces and transportation and storage areas in the nation. I’ve heard the arguments that, not only would these systems be expensive to fund and staff, they would also infringe on the privacy of Americans. Cities and towns across the nation are using a variety of surveil63


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lance cameras to monitor weather and traffic. If we have the ability to use monitoring enforcement to monitor weather and bad drivers, then surely as nation, we can make a grave effort to monitor criminals and terrorists. What a difference we can make. Can surveillance cameras prevent crime? I don’t know the answer to that; however, I do believe it’s sure worth the effort to at least try and make a grave attempt to deter it. If surveillance cameras have even a slim chance of deterring crime or most important, saving a life, then in my opinion, I believe we should consider using them much more aggressively than we are now. If surveillance cameras have even a slim chance of protecting one innocent person who works hard to have and provide for their loved ones, then in my opinion, we should consider using them much more aggressively than we are now. And if these cameras have even a slim chance of identifying and bringing to justice criminals or a possible terror suspect, then in my opinion, the controversy is very well worth it, and it’s time to close the door on this outdated perspective. It’s my opinion that if people do the right thing, especially while in the public eye, why worry about who’s looking. It’s my opinion that if people aren’t violating the law or committing crimes, why worry about who’s looking. It’s my opinion that if people aren’t doing things in public to bring disgrace to themselves and to others, why worry about who’s looking. I know, I know: “It’s still an infringement of people’s rights, we don’t want Big Brother watching us, and it becomes an invasion of our privacy.” It’s past time to put to rest those same old tired arguments. If a person preparing to commit a crime is aware that he or she is being monitored or suspects he or she is being monitored, I believe chances are that person will rethink committing that crime and probably be less likely to do it. If a person’s face has a likely chance of appearing on some surveillance tape or the nightly news for committing a crime in a public place, is it likely that person would think three times before performing the act? People need to be 64


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held accountable for their actions. If terrorists know that Americans, like their European counterparts, have gotten aggressive with CCTV, is it possible that it can deter another terror attack in this country? There should not be a public crime committed without the availability to document it via video evidence and bring possible charges against the people who committed it. Every aspect of criminal behavior should be caught on cameras in this nation. Every business should have surveillance with 360-degree coverage, not only to protect the business, but to identify and bring to light the arrogance and terror criminals try and force among decent, hard-working people. Cameras should be placed inside and out. In instances when an attack has already occurred and a camera is in place at the point of attack, the recorded video can be reviewed. Use CCTV to observe people, places, resources, and activities from a control room, manned or unmanned security station, police department, private company, or location where the environment is not comfortable for humans. CCTV systems may operate continuously or only as required to monitor a particular event. Examine carefully and make important decisions about using CCTV or other camera systems. As with most processes, review and test procedures concerning usage, design, placement, effectiveness, security, feasibility, and other site-specific criteria during the physical security inspection. Purge CCTV administrative procedures to ensure that they’re in sync with operational procedures. Once again, I’m aware that financing, staffing and the right to privacy will always be a concern when it comes to CCTV; however, I think because of crime and terror in the world, we’re twenty years past due when it comes to protection of our cities, states, and towns, and I think it’s time to stop making excuses and time to make it happen. I’ll leave the lengthy discussions and debates to the naysayers, who I know will continue to have much to say about this controversy. Meanwhile, considering the times in which we’re liv65


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ing, what is needed is an aggressive surveillance campaign in America to protect Americans. The discussion needs to stop, and aggressive action needs to start. If we don’t act now, tomorrow may be too late. Giant Eye/Voice System is a system designed to alert personnel of a problem situation. It is called by many other names: eye in the sky, giant eye, giant voice, and Big Brother. This system may consist of audio, video, and warning signals and can be used in various ways. Unlike CCTV, this system is capable of communication and surveillance, and can be installed high atop poles, buildings and towers to watch critical resources and/or infrastructure. Inspection procedures should be similar to CCTV and alarm inspection procedures. Purge all testing, activation, and inspection procedures as well as documentation logs. Look at placement, effectiveness, usage, and location. Alarms: intrusion detection equipment (IDE)—Carefully examine and make important decisions concerning the use of alarm systems, that is, sensors, motion detectors and burglar alarms. Look at placement, effectiveness, location, sensitivity, and feasibility of IDE. In making a decision to use IDE, the owner/user should take into consideration the following: known capabilities and limitations, facility design, areas to be protected, and effects of weather, air conditioning systems, and air and ground traffic. Consider the effects of the system on day-to-day operations as well as during emergencies and times of increased threats. Consider whether the system will be effective against any undetected intrusion from any reasonable approach into the facility or location. Examine procedures for when IDE fails; determine who provides surveillance when this happens. When IDE malfunctions, where does the fault message transmit to? Examine procedures to test, repair, and replace IDE. The equipment should lend itself to protection from tampering and should be capable of prompt detection in the area it is designed for. Wherever IDE is deployed, the unit should have a protected backup independent power source

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with automatic switchover capability to allow for continuous emergency operation. Also called volumetric or space detection, motion sensors detect a person inside a protected area. This is an intermediate level of protection that is very effective against the stay-behind intruder: the person who hides during hours of operation and carries out a crime after a room or facility has been secured. This alarm provides backup protection to penetration sensors. It may be connected to an internal burglar alarm that is used to alert the business, homeowner, or security personnel after it has been activated. Burglar alarms have become standard in stores and businesses and are common in private residences. Most systems are built around the same basic design concepts. Inspectors should examine the procedure to log and document all alarm tests and temporary or long-term activations and deactivations. Examine and test all alarm operational policies and procedures and other associated alarm paperwork. A warning sign is a form of a deterrence or denial strategy. Warning signs are normally displayed at the entrances of certain facilities, such as sensitive, restricted, and controlled areas where caution should be used. Signs should be posted so they can be easily read by persons approaching on foot or in a vehicle. Post warning signs IAW local laws. Concrete or water-filled barriers are quite common in the area of resource protection. Concrete barriers are well suited to protect sensitive areas, such as propane or other above-ground fuel tanks, from being struck by vehicles and are perfect for deterring unwanted traffic from entering facilities or other access points. Similar to concrete barriers, steel bollards (posts restricting access) are used to protect valuable property from being rammed or damaged. Steel bollards are a suitable alternative to concrete barriers when concrete barriers are impractical. Unlike concrete barriers, bollards can be constructed in such a manner that they can be easily removed to allow traffic through an access point and then replaced when access is no longer desired. Bollards can also be permanent concrete or removable and 67


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collapsible. Like barriers, bollards can be used to protect utility and light poles, propane tanks, or other above-ground fuel tanks from being struck by vehicles. Fencing, bollards, concrete planters, barbed wire, and other obstacles can all be considered barriers. Some barriers can be left in place permanently all year round. This ensures continuous protection of facilities and resources and ensures that no one can drive directly up to the facility or resource. Physically inspect barriers for wear and tear, strength and effectiveness. Inspect the reinforced anchoring and reinforced fence posts. Inspect the barrier implementation process to ensure it is effective. Security safes, combinations, cabinets, and vaults are all effective deterrents against unauthorized personnel. Check procedures ensuring all applicable security files, safes, combinations, cabinets, and vaults are kept locked and secured at all times when authorized persons aren’t present. Check daily inspection logs ensuring all materials are safeguarded and located in their proper places. Examine the location of safes and vaults and be familiar with how they are protected. If the process is ineffective, now is the time to identify that and fix it. Ensure portable-type safes are properly secured to a fixed position and determine who has combinations to safes and vaults. Determine who needs combinations and how often combinations are changed. Determine safeguard procedures and if locks and/or combinations can be compromised. Determine how effective safes or vaults are against theft and burglary. Determine what needs there are for alarms, cameras, and warning signs to protect safes and vaults. What access controls are used, and are levels of authorization required for access to the areas? What other procedural safeguards are taken? After the inspection is complete and the owner/user has been notified of the discrepancy results, the owner/user must now be prepared to correct discrepancies, no matter how small or large. If an owner/user has incorporated a waiver system into the program, he or she must still resolve weaknesses in security one way or another. Brainstorm what must be done to correct the weaknesses and make it 68


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happen. If budgeting or financing is a problem, troubleshoot to resolve the issues. Again, as mentioned in the beginning of the chapter, leaving no stones unturned (getting nitpicky) equates to the owner/user taking every necessary step to protect personnel and property and ensure the business does not become an easy target of opportunity for terrorist and criminals. Up to this point, I’ve discussed building AT/WP plans and the physical security inspection process. To meet the challenges of a changing world, past conventional practices and performances must also change to help us understand, prepare for, and confront the changes we face, paving the way for a new generation. The AT/WP training and education program is the next spark to keep the fire going. Chapter 7 discusses the process to prepare us for the changing world, as we understand the anti-terrorism and workplace protection site-specific training program.

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CHAPTER 7 The Anti-Terrorism and Workplace Protection Site-Specific Training Program (Initial and Continuous, or Follow-on, Training) This chapter examines both the initial and continuous, or follow-on, training phases. Initial training is that which is implemented for all newcomers and transient and temporary employees and is administered on a one-time basis. Training should be directed toward site-specific security and anti-terrorism and workplace protection policies, procedures, and requirements and the job of each individual and his or her responsibilities as they relate to security and AT/WP. Initial training is administered promptly after an individual arrives on the job and is usually administered before regular on-the-job training. The length of training should be determined by the size and nature of the business, the owner/user, and the ops and training plans. The second phase of anti-terrorism and workplace protection training is called continuous or follow-on training. Like initial training, this training is directed toward procedures and requirements and the job of each individual as it relates to security and AT/WP. Additionally, it’s designed to keep everyone apprised of any noted threats, to review new or revised security policies and procedures, to share relevant information, and to keep personnel up to speed on any changes related to security and AT/WP. Continuous training continues throughout the employees’ work tenure, and because of concerns such as terrorism, threats against the United States, and increased violence in our nation’s workplaces, individual owners/users should implement their own timeline as to how often and how long training should be conducted. Base training on the nature 70


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and sensitivity of the business, the need for training, the current threat level, and IAW the ops and training plans. The owner/user is always the determining factor for all training, and training should always be driven by both the ops and training plans. Management may delegate to training instructors the authority to add, change, or delete any information used in training, but keep in mind that all training and training-related directives, programs, and so forth must be driven by the ops and training plans. Training may be held anywhere people can go, that is, classrooms, lecture halls, conference or break rooms, outside the workplace, or any other location that meets the needs of the owner/user and trainers. Training should consist of classroom instruction and practical, hands-on experience. Show examples, communicate, demonstrate, analyze, problem solve, and require participation. Give trainees the opportunity to touch it, demonstrate it, work it, explain it, and understand the meaning behind whatever subject is being taught. Instructors should explain any special terminology or acronyms. Don’t go off the cuff and just do your own thing. Teach according to lesson plans, instructions, policy, procedure, and directives. Ensure that employees understand what’s being taught. Use checklists to keep track of what tasks should be taught and what tasks that have been completed. Ensure that personnel on assignment or deployment from the workplace receive training IAW written AT/ WP procedures. Checklists are an invaluable tool; use checklists to ensure all training tasks are completed IAW the ops plan, training plan, and any other AT/WP policy or directive. Use checklists to ensure the instructor or owner/user meets intended goals for training and to conduct reviews or program assessments. Using a lesson plan, go into detail on each specific training module or topic. Ensure that employees in training un-

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derstand the significance of the training modules being taught. - Explain why it is important that employees are trained on terrorist attacks and violent workplace incidents and how this topic relates to the workplace. - Explain why it is important to have anti-robbery procedures. Conduct performance exercises. Ask questions. - Where applicable, explain the duress system: its primary purpose and uses. Explain what a duress alarm is, and why we use duress words. - Explain the significance of an emergency response plan. - Explain circulation control: what it is and how vital it is to the AT/WP process. Explain day-to-day usage and use during emergencies and times of increased threats. - Where applicable, explain and explore each category as it relates to personal and home security. - Go into detail and ensure employees understand the Homeland Security Advisory System and the actions each person is required to take associated with each threat level. - Explain and make clear each employee’s responsibility when it comes to bloodborne pathogens and the importance of knowing CPR and first aid techniques. - Where applicable, explain the necessity of having a barrier plan and a contingency plan and how they relate to the business and associated threats. Protect America: Not Afraid and Fighting Back explores a host of significant security and AT/WP issues we face as a nation and as a world. I know I have not explored every single security or AT/WP issue here; however, that is not my objective. Workplaces are different in nature and design, 72


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bringing to light many unique security and AT/WP concerns. Although AT/WP can consist of significantly more topics, here I’ve created basic target areas I consider essential and significant. The owner/user is encouraged to explore the modules listed here and add other unique or site-specific topics as they relate to the type of work you do. 1. Terrorist attacks, violent workplace incidents, and anti-robbery procedures 2. Duress procedures, emergency response 3. Bomb threat and suspicious package procedures 4. Identification and/or challenge of suspicious personnel in and around the workplace, or circulation control 5. Personal and family security 6. Homeland Security Advisory System/information sharing 7. Bloodborne pathogens, CPR, and first aid 8. Barrier planning

AT/WP Tests, Evaluations, Quizzes Develop pretests, evaluations, and quizzes, including evaluations to be implemented before, during, or after training. Create materials during the developmental phase of the training plan. Testing materials should be designed to test employees on local, state, federal, and site-specific antiterrorism and workplace protection information, policies, and procedures. - Implement verbal and written tests from local, state, and DHS policies, directives, and procedures, as well as site-specific AT/WP policies and procedures. - Create questions and computer test banks and develop questions based on local, state, DHS, and site-specific protection measures. - If using hard copy testing materials, remember to secure all test materials in a locked drawer or filing cabinet and control who has access. If using 73


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a computer to test, ensure personnel designing the procedure include a process where access to the master database cannot be gained and the database not compromised or manipulated. - Review and test all lesson plans and course content before implementation to ensure the content is relevant, correct, consistent, and easily understood by training employees. - Where possible, set up a separate training room, study center, or library complete with audio/visual equipment, computers and Internet access, and security and AT/WP study materials. Limit access to these areas to workplace personnel only.

Training Exercises Conduct both real-world and simulated training scenarios using the training modules. Refrain from using tabletop exercises during the initial phase where possible. Tabletop exercises involve discussions, charts, graphs, and models and should be used when employees are more advanced in training. Tabletops provide valuable training without major disruptions to normal operations and should be used primarily during the continuous or follow-on phase. During the initial phase, employees should have hands-on training. Tabletops do not allow the hands-on knowledge needed for new employees learning a new job. See Chapter 8, Developing Site-Specific Anti-Terrorism and Workplace Protection Training Exercises.

Specialized or Technical Training Specialized or technical training is that which involves additional and/or special job skills, judgment, and experience. Base site-specific specialized training IAW the needs of the business. Some examples of specialized training areas as they relate to AT/WP are vehicle inspections, security sys74


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tem programming, computer security, security control, and automatic emergency defibrillation training. Specialized training should only be taught by personnel considered functional experts in the specialized area. Functional experts should have documentation/certification available to prove their certification. Training courses for these types of positions have historical roots in security, law enforcement, and the military. Training for certain specialized positions may be available in some areas and not others. The owner/user is responsible for identifying specialized training positions and technical training needs and requirements. He or she should identify them during the initial training phase and identify personnel to fill the positions. The owner/user should assemble and make available a list of agencies that provide specialized training and personnel on the job who have been trained or who require specialized training. The owner/user may provide certificates, licenses, letters and pins, after successful completion of the training for the specialized function or task. When documenting training, annotate dates trained, location of training, certificate or license numbers, and/or any other information the owner/user wishes to use to track and document specialized training. Test and evaluate specially trained personnel IAW ops and training plans to ensure personnel maintain knowledge commensurate with specialized positions. Always research state, local, and federal policies, laws, and directives for your specific area before implementing any type of site-specific training program.

Barrier Training As mentioned earlier, barrier training may be necessary for some businesses, depending on the nature of the business, and not for others. Barrier training should be conducted during both training phases, and training plans should outline requirements for the training, that is, dates, times, locations, and personnel. Ensure that training procedures in75


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clude a process to identify primary and alternate or standby barrier team personnel and any special equipment required and/or additional training. When designing training exercises, be sure to include a process requiring both primary and alternate teams (where applicable) to physically set up barriers or simulate setting up barriers where physically setting up barriers isn’t practical. If weather is a factor, have teams simulate and explain the procedure step by step. Ensure that barrier roster contacts or standby telephone numbers are up-to-date. Test the roster to ensure the roster is current. Testing procedures saves time during an actual emergency. During training, cover the history of barriers and obstacles to ensure the trainee understands and can relate barriers with protection of resources and lives. Physically erecting barriers should be a relatively smooth and orderly process if effective procedures exist in the barrier plan.

Make training interesting (fun and unique)—organize yourself with plenty of options Training in whatever form it’s presented can be boring and tedious, and trainees could miss out on important and necessary information. I’ve always believed that when training is fun and interesting, personnel have a tendency to retain information better and for longer periods. Instructors can use various methods to conduct training. It is important to remember that the training plan should dictate the training methods instructors will use. The specific lesson plan should be derived from the training plan and other directives associated with the program. Provide flexibility in assembling lesson plans and delivery methods. Make training fun and interesting. Below are just a few great ideas that are widely used in training programs today.

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PowerPoint Presentation A PowerPoint presentation is a complete computerized slide presentation graphics package. It gives you everything you need to produce a professional-looking presentation. The slides that you create using PowerPoint can also be presented as overhead transparencies or 35-millimeter slides. Instructors may also use handouts, outlines, and speaker’s notes to follow along with the PowerPoint presentation. PowerPoint also offers outlining, drawing, graphing, and presentation management tools, all designed to be easy to use and learn. You can keep your entire presentation in a single file or import what you’ve created in other computer products into any of your slides. Don’t limit yourselves!

Instructor-Led Training This style of training is considered by most to be the most effective. It is generally classroom-based training and allows classroom interaction and direct response to questions. This type of training can be taught to individuals, small groups, large groups, or in lecture halls. It’s one of the best styles of training in my opinion to get your message across.

Train the Trainer Under this method, certified training instructors are tasked with training other personnel to become trainers. Generally, this training method is designed for managers, supervisors, new training professionals, and nonprofessional trainers who are tasked with developing and conducting training sessions. After the trainer is trained, he or she in most cases becomes certified to instruct others. This is best for large groups and quick turnovers.

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Internet-Based/Interactive and ComputerBased Training This training is defined as delivery of content via the Internet. It often provides links to other learning resources, such as references, e-mail, bulletin boards, and discussion groups. Here the student and the teacher use online technology to interact and participate.

Computer Database Training Different from Internet-based training, training databases are created by the owner/user and both the trainer and trainee can log in to the database and take and review computer-based AT/WP tests. The owner/user is responsible for overall maintenance and updates.

Other Fun and Interesting Ways to Train - Guest speakers - Exhibits - Training manuals - Pamphlets - Videos - CDs and DVDs - Flash cards - Index cards - Wallet-size laminate cards - Question-and-answer sessions - Games and exercises - Talking points - Libraries 78


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Where possible, provide a separate training room, study area, or library for employees to study and take tests when necessary. Limit access to these areas to designated personnel only. Equip these learning areas with computers, AT/ WP manuals, policies, checklists, and so forth, and control distribution and access. Regulate where the Internet is involved. Discuss lessons-learned incidents and any known local, national, and international incidents involving terrorism and workplace violence. Engage in discussions of what could happen as a result of apathy and little or poor training as well as positive results of an energetic and enthusiastic training program. Encourage employee participation in all discussions and use role playing as part of training. Optimize all available resources possible. Training instructors should ensure that personnel understand all training objectives and ensure that training information is presented in a clear and concise format, leaving little room for misunderstanding or confusion. Ask engaging questions. Discuss what the mission statement means and make clear to your audience what you, the instructor, and the company would like to see as an end result of AT/WP training. It is important that training instructors as well as owners/users conduct proper research and become familiar with state, local, and federal anti-terrorism and workplace protection policies and directives before attempting to instruct others. Engage experts where necessary. In the event the owner/user cannot hold regularly scheduled training classes, training may be conducted in other ways. Instructors can e-mail training information to employees, use computer-based training, issue pamphlets, have staff lectures or meetings, have conference calls and so forth, or use quick reference cards (QRCs). QRCs are a great way of having the information available when you need it. Create QRCs from company security and AT/WP policies and procedures; initial and continuous training information; threat level and emergency action plans; and ops, training, and contingency plans. 79


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In a busy workplace with other day-to-day business, sometimes it may seem nearly impossible to squeeze in all of the required security and AT/WP training. Sending out information electronically and using pamphlets or conference calls certainly isn’t the preferred method of training; however, in this unpredictable, unstable, and cyber world of ours, things happen, and AT/WP training must go on. I consider security and AT/WP training to be an invaluable tool, and we must do what we can to ensure our personnel receive the information and are informed and prepared. There are no limitations to the training options you can develop. You own the process, you own procedure: create whatever you desire. Decide whether personnel should be required to have a general knowledge of security vulnerabilities, deficiencies, and corrective actions found during the physical security inspections. Sometimes we can burden ourselves with TMI, or too much information, and sometimes not enough. Focus on the training information employees really need to know. Bottom line: get the information out! Conduct quarterly, semiannual, or annual evaluations of the overall AT/WP training program. During the evaluation, review the training and contingency plans and the training program to ensure they are meeting the needs of the organization. Make any necessary changes to plans and programs, and ensure employees have been briefed and retrained on any changes you make. Consider security and AT/WP seminars and refresher courses. These courses ensure that personnel are up-to-date on protection and emergency response training and information. Maintain training records for one to two years or IAW the ops and training plans. Shred or otherwise destroy the information before discarding. The more creative an owner/user or instructor is, the more interested, involved, and knowledgeable employees become. The more interested, involved, and knowledgeable employees become, the more prepared they are to handle 80


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unknown situations. Knowledgeable, smart, and well-trained employees translate into a safe and secure working environment. A safe and secure working environment produces assured and productive employees. Productive employees produce positive and tangible results for a company. As the world changes, so must we.

Human Behavior (Know Your People) Some people may ask “What does human behavior have to do with security or anti-terrorism and workplace protection?� Human behavior has everything to do with every subject and relationship in the world. Knowing your people helps to rule out uncertainty. Knowing how to identify unusual or suspicious behavior in people can possibly affect a situation before it happens. Like continuous training, knowing your people is a continuous process and should never stop.

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Example Training Quick Reference Cards Illinois Chemical Brand and Weapons Depot BOMB THREAT/SUSPICIOUS PACKAGE QUICK REF. CARD Use pocket-reference laminated cards as quick references during any kind of incidents affecting the workplace. Keep cards in wallets, purses, desks, etc. The cards can be issued during training or during normal work phases.

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Example Written Test ILLINOIS CHEMICAL BRAND AND WEAPONS DEPOT DIV WRITTEN TEST INSTRUCTOR COPY Nov 2010 Test Instructions: DO NOT MARK ON THIS TEST! Your instructor will provide you with an answer sheet. There are XX questions on this test, worth XX points each. You have XX minutes to complete this test. Select the BEST answer for each question and record it on your answer sheet. Give the test and your answer sheet to your instructor when you are finished. 1.

Where is the primary entry control point located in our building? A. B. C. D.

2.

Which of the bomb threat notification procedures are correct? A. B. C. D.

3.

Bomb threat code will be announced via loudspeaker. When evacuating, take personals with you, follow route and evacuate to rally point Evacuate to hallway and stand by Wait until section supervisor gives the order; it’s probably just a joke Run through building shouting “Bomb threat,” evacuate facility, and assemble directly outside the building

What is circulation control? A. B. C. D.

4.

On the first-, second-, and third-floor main entrances Only on the second floor At the entry point as you enter the courtyard, and on the first-floor west side There are no entry control points in this building

To quell rumors circulating throughout the workplace The process in which personnel are allowed to move freely throughout work area The process in which only workplace personnel are immediately removed from the workplace for not displaying the proper ID The control of outdated paperwork, policies, or procedures throughout a work zone

Where is the emergency evacuation point for the east end of the Weapons Depot?

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A. B. C. D. 5.

On the west end of the building on the C Campus Hallway There are no evacuation points. The supervisor of each section will let you know when to evacuate South side of the building

Where is the rally point location for the west end Chemical Brand personnel? A. B. C. D.

On the west side of North Campus The mid-courtyard quad near the big white statue At the entry point as you enter the court yard North side of Manchester Center near the large, open field

Above is an example of an instructor’s answer key copy with the answer outlined in a specific color. Create a student copy with the same questions and format, but do not outline the answers.

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CHAPTER 8 Developing Site-Specific Anti-Terrorism and Workplace Protection Training Exercises

Anti-terrorism and workplace protection training exercises are simulated or physically acted-out scenarios designed to test personnel on policies and procedures by imitating real-world situations. They measure and evaluate security and AT/WP procedures, actions, tasks, reporting, reaction, and response capabilities. Exercises may be announced or unannounced and should be performed on a routine basis IAW an owner/user’s ops and training plans. Announced exercises are those planned and coordinated in advance by selected personnel, and all workplace personnel are aware that the exercise will take place. Announced exercises give people the opportunity to plan, prepare, and coordinate accordingly.

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Unannounced exercises are planned and initiated by selected personnel without the mainstream personnel having any advance knowledge. These exercises are conducted to test reporting, reaction, and response to an unplanned event. While an announced exercise gives people time to plan, prepare, and coordinate, the unannounced exercise does not. The unannounced exercise tests the ability to report, react, and respond without prior notice, as in real life. When people know or expect something to happen, they have a tendency to prepare for, anticipate, and/or rehearse the event. In reality, we know that’s not how life works. Life’s not a rehearsal, a practice run, or a script. We all know situations, accidents, and incidents happen as they happen, and people generally don’t have the opportunity to prepare. People do, however, have the opportunity to plan and prepare for an unplanned event with an effective workplace training program in place and personnel practice on a routine basis. During my career as an air force cop and exercise evaluator, the unplanned exercises were the most telling signs of readiness, or in most cases, non-readiness. We called non-readiness a pre-9/11 state of mind. This state of mind constituted an unconcerned, indifferent, and relaxed attitude toward security. While the ops plan should explain the overall purpose of the AT/WP exercise program, the training plan should actually break down the specific training exercise process in detail. When discussing the purpose of exercises in the ops plan, define the word exercise and discuss why exercises are necessary and how they relate to a workplace’s overall mission statement and the success of the anti-terrorism and workplace protection program. The training plan should define specifics: when exercises may take place, how procedures are to be followed, what equipment will be required, personnel involvement, dates, and times. It may also list tentative exercise dates and times.

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Exercise Scenarios Exercise scenarios are simulated, rehearsed situations depicting real-world incidents. Look at it as a sort of role play. The objective of an exercise scenario generally is to set the stage to test participants’ reporting, reaction, and response capabilities in a given situation. Owners/users are encouraged to create a wide range of exercise scenarios to cover any possible incident that could affect the workplace.

Example Scenario The owners of Joe’s Gun Shop wish to test gun shop employees on anti-robbery/duress procedures. The test will evaluate employees’ understanding of gun shop anti-robbery policies and procedures. The test will also evaluate whether employees implement proper procedures learned during a newly implemented AT/WP training program. Neighboring businesses have been advised in advanced that Joe’s Gun Shop will be conducting a preplanned or announced AT/WP training exercise sometime during the day. Employees of the gun shop have been advised that an exercise will take place sometime before closing. Employees have been advised to implement anti-robbery/ duress procedures IAW recent training. They’ve also been advised to physically go through the motions of an actual holdup, but not to initiate actual duress buttons and not to physically call police. Simulate all actions instead. Customers of the gun shop have also been advised of the exercise. Two off-duty employees will act as robbers, and on-duty local law enforcement personnel have been advised of the exercise in advance. Because the gun shop has actual weapons, on-duty police will stand by near the store but will not physically participate in the exercise. As a precaution, and for safety reasons, the local top cop has dispatched a second patrol car to stand by outside the gun shop until the exercise has terminated. 87


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Exercise Scenario: At 12:00pm two men enter Joe’s Gun Shop, points an M-16 rifle at cashiers, announces a hold- up, force customers to lie on the floor, and advise employees to empty all drawers of money and place all weapons into a green duffel bag. Cashiers do as they are told (IAW gun shop training) and place the money and weapons into the bag. Unknown to the robbers, and IAW training, employees place a small dye-pack mini-explosive (used during robberies to help identify robbers), a small GPS unit (to track robbers after their departure from the scene), and all weapons into the duffel bag as well. Employees have also simulated depressing a duress foot pedal behind the counter, alerting police immediately of the holdup. As the robbers leave, IAW training, cashiers quickly lock doors behind them, observe the robbers’ direction of travel and immediately start to secure the crime scene. The dye packs explode, and police arrive as the smoke clears and arrest the two suspects.

Exercise Inputs Exercise inputs are contributions, additions, or suggestions integrated into an exercise scenario (usually initiated by an exercise evaluator, training instructor, owner/user, or personnel trained in advance) to simulate realism, excitement, action, and drama in the exercise. While owners/users are always encouraged to get creative when developing scenarios and inputs, they’re also encouraged to keep the exercise as realistic as possible. Limiting oneself often means cheating oneself. And limitation brings uncertainty, meaning if you haven’t practiced it, how do you know if it works? Note: Owners/users and instructors/evaluators implementing exercises are encouraged to carefully screen scenarios and inputs in advance to avoid wasting time and avoid lengthy, unnecessary, and useless exercise results. Refrain from getting ridiculous.

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Following is an example of getting ridiculous: Exercise Input: Be advised that twenty spacemen just landed on the north campus and are preparing to attack the weapons depot. Two of the spacemen are on horseback, and the others appear to be wearing jet packs. Local police contacted the governor to recall National Guard troops; however, dispatch related the governor wasn’t home. I think you get the point! Used in addition to routine exercises, penetration exercises are designed to test the owner/user’s ability to detect unauthorized entry or presence in and around a workplace. An example of a penetration exercise is as follows: Perpetrators attempt to gain entry into a workplace by using stolen, false credentials. They attempt to penetrate secure work areas without being observed or challenged. The perpetrators can blend in with regular employees, hide, place hidden explosive devices throughout the workplace, and/or kidnap or harm personnel. If the perpetrators are successful, they may have full rein of the workplace until employees detect and eliminate the threat by initiating proper circulation control and security procedures IAW operational and training plans. Don’t punish personnel who make mistakes and blunders during exercises. Exercises are designed to uncover weak and vulnerable areas before the bad guy does, and improve upon them. There will almost always be mistakes. Try not to interfere with or affect other businesses or personnel during exercises unless they are part of the exercise or unless a joint exercise is in play. Joint exercises are exercises involving multiple agencies or businesses and may involve multiple first responders. It’s a great learning tool to give other businesses the opportunity to work together, share information, and plan and practice for a real emergency.

The Organization Exercise Event or OEE There are two types of exercises I am associating the AT/WP program with. The first is the organization exercise event 89


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(OEE). This exercise involves an entire business or organization as a whole, including personnel in training. Training instructors, personnel in management positions, and those designated by the owner/user may implement an OEE. All workplace exercises, scenarios, and inputs must be approved by the owner/user or his or her designee. Conduct OEEs during normal work or after hours, during periods of increased threats, and IAW the ops and training plans. The following is an example of an OEE: The OEE is being initiated by the owner/user of the Illinois Chemical Brand and Weapons Depot Division. It involves the AT/WP barrier plan and is designed to test employees’ reporting, reaction, and response capabilities to a given situation. Exercise Scenario: The Illinois Chemical Brand and Weapons Depot Division (ICBWD) owners have had several concerns: 1. The company has received numerous threatening phone calls from a person who stated on numerous occasions that he “has complained about the rotten-egg-like smell coming from the company’s chemical division, but it appears nothing has been done about it.” This person also stated he was tired of complaining and was “coming by to deal with the big boys.” 2. The company has also had a few attempted breakins to the chemical division. 3. A recent incident was reported involving a woman in a red late-model pickup seen speeding away from the chemical division after she was approached by security. Security noted she appeared to be using binoculars to peer into the weapons depot. 4. Prior to that incident, the same woman had been seen asking lots of questions of employees leaving the depot.

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Because of the recent activity, company owners were concerned enough that they felt they should at least test company employees with an unannounced OEE. The exercise input comes over the company’s internal communication system (ICS). Company policy is that whenever a message comes over the ICS, all employees are trained to stop what they are doing, listen intently, and report, react, and respond to the given situation IAW training. Illinois Chemical Brand and Weapons Depot Division personnel have practiced this type of scenario on numerous occasions, and each individual, office, and department has an integral role to play. Every office, cubicle, and department has day-to-day and emergency AT/WP checklists posted nearby, and each employee has in his or her possession a Quick Reference Card (QRC) containing important training information on actions to take in certain situations.

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Example Exercise Input 1

The exercise input is as follows…. ATTENTION COMPANY PERSONNEL ATTENTION COMPANY PERSONNEL ATTENTION COMPANY PERSONNEL EXERCISE, EXERCISE, EXERCISE I REPEAT, THIS IS AN EXERCISE, EXERCISE, EXERCISE [Any information coming over an Internal Communications System (ICS) (e.g., speakers, radios, etc.) should be repeated to ensure all personnel understand the message] [Over the PA] The following is an Organization Exercise Event, or OEE. I repeat this is an Organization Exercise Event. 1243p: EXERCISE SCENARIO/INPUT [Over the PA] The Illinois Chemical Brand and Weapons Depot Division was just notified by local law enforcement personnel that at 1200 local, a red pick-up truck, unknown make and model, containing a middle-aged man and a woman, both dressed in militarystyle, urban, gray and white battle dress uniforms, was stopped by highway patrolmen for going at an excessive rate of speed north on Highway 55. 1246p: EXERCISE INPUT CON’T [Over the PA] When officers approached the truck, they observed three wooden crates in the bed of the truck. The crates were labeled “White Phosphorous Grenades,” another labeled “M203 Grenades,” and another labeled “5.56 High Velocity Tracer.” When officers ordered the pair to turn off the engine and throw the keys out, the man yelled, “The weapons depot is history!” The truck took off at a high rate of speed and was last seen driving north on Highway 55 toward the Illinois Weapons Depot near downtown Chicago.

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PROTECT AMERICA: Not Afraid and Fighting Back 1248p: EXERCISE INPUT [From evaluators] The Illinois Chemical Brand and Weapons Depot Division company’s Primary Barrier Team is currently on a road trip to South Dakota and is unable to respond to initiate barriers. At this time, we’re initiating our Emergency Response Checklist and all associated emergency actions. 1:50p: EXERCISE INPUT [Over the PA] Highway patrol notified this office that the truck has been stopped and the suspects arrested for possession of dangerous and illegal high explosives and fleeing from police. Further investigation revealed the couple had a vengeance out for the company and was headed to the depot to “settle a score.” No further information is available at this time. EXERCISE, EXERCISE, EXERCISE 2:52p: Exercise terminated by evaluators.

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Employees responsible for installing barriers know from training classes that if and when the primary barrier team cannot respond, procedures state that IAW an immediate timeline, on-site employees will start assembling barriers until the alternate team arrives on scene. The company’s barrier plan and its procedures are well written. All employees—from owners, secretaries, interns, messengers, delivery personnel, food preparation workers, and custodians to security—are supposedly well versed and aware of their individual roles and responsibilities. Personnel responsible for initiating a recall for the alternate barrier team have already started making notifications. Each department has a specific job to do to protect its personnel and resources. Owners/users are always hopeful that the exercise will go like clockwork, but it rarely does. Meanwhile, IAW site-specific AT/WP emergency checklists, the following should be occurring simultaneously: ICBWD immediately implements the site-specific emergency response plan IAW the ICBWD ops plan. Normal day-to-day business does not come to a halt, and business continues as normal with the exception of the following: - Personnel are advised to remain vigilant until the threat has passed. - The weapon vaults and chemical storage area are secured and alarmed. Security is in full alert. - Barriers are initiated by on-site workers. - Members of the alternate barrier team arrive. - CCTV is assessed to ensure 360-degree coverage. - Workplace operators are in constant contact with local law enforcement. - Security workers and owner/user have fanned out to ensure doors and parking areas are secured. - All personnel from every department have implemented an aggressive and positive circulation control. 94


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- No visitors or contractors are allowed in until the allclear signal has sounded. - Visitors and contractors already in the workplace are free to leave immediately if the situation warrants it. If not, they are taken to a secure location until the possible threat has passed and briefed by the owner/ user. - Local law enforcement personnel have implemented their own emergency plan for assisting the weapons depot in emergency situations. - Top bosses and owners are notified of the threat immediately. These smart owners/users have implemented an aggressive anti-terrorism and workplace protection program that appears to work. They’ve received the exercise message, initiated the appropriate checklists, and responded accordingly. Evaluators are continuously assessing response actions, and AT/WP checklists are used to note all actions, add comments, and later debrief the owners/users after the exercise. As the exercise continues, evaluators can include as many additional inputs into the scenario as necessary until they’re satisfied the exercise is a success or a failure. Evaluators can terminate the exercise when it’s gone on long enough to determine whether they are satisfied with the results.

The Training Exercise (TE) The second type of exercise I’m associating with AT/WP is the training exercise, or TE. This exercise is usually initiated by a training instructor, involves personnel in the initial or continuous training phase, and evaluates their reporting, reaction, and response actions to a given situation. Training exercise scenarios and inputs should be approved by a training instructor and conducted IAW the ops and training plans. TEs may be conducted during training hours, after hours, or IAW the ops and training plans. 95


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The following is an example of a TE: ICBWD recently hired twenty-five new employees. The company’s policy is that ICBWD employees will not be allowed to conduct actual job duties until they’ve been indoctrinated through a five-day AT/WP initial training. During the training, these twentyfive employees have been instructed on bomb threats and suspicious packages, duress, weapons accountability and inventory, circulation control, the Homeland Security threat advisories, and emergency response procedures. The TE is being initiated by ICBWD training instructors during the initial training phase on Day 5. Exercise Scenario: The exercise involves an explosive device placed outside a door near a training classroom. The TE, like the OEE, is designed to test the training personnel’s reporting, reaction, and response capabilities to a suspicious package scenario. Seven training personnel left the training classroom on a fifteen-minute break. One of the seven noticed a mediumsized cardboard box in the hallway, against the wall just outside of the training classroom. She thought it was rather suspicious because, as part of their morning routines, trainees are supposed to conduct a purge of the entire training area, to include hallways, bathrooms, classrooms, closets and storage areas for suspicious activity, personnel, lost items, trash etc before entering class. In addition, there are warning signs posted throughout the entire facility that clearly say, “Warning, do not leave unattended packages, boxes, or parcels, anywhere in this facility. Unattended items will be discarded immediately by security personnel.” All employees are trained, and all visitors are thoroughly briefed not to leave unattended packages within the workplace. This particular cardboard box had a strong odor of gasoline emitting from it and had no other wrappings, tags, names, or addresses. The employees immediately notify instructors of the suspicious package. IAW the ops and training plans, training instructors immediately make an announcement over the company’s internal emergency communication system that a suspicious package has been discovered 96


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and its location. When a message comes over the ICS, again all employees have been trained to stop what they are doing, listen intently, and report, react, and respond IAW training.

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Example Exercise Input 2 The TE exercise scenario and input is as follows…. ATTENTION ALL PERSONNEL ATTENTION ALL PERSONNEL ATTENTION ALL PERSONNEL EXERCISE, EXERCISE, EXERCISE I REPEAT, THIS IS AN EXERCISE, EXERCISE, EXERCISE [Over the PA] The following is a Training Exercise, TE, only. I repeat this is a training exercise only. 1110a: EXERCISE SCENARIO/ INPUT [Over the PA] Training instructors just notified local law enforcement of a suspicious package outside Classroom B in the South End Training Wing. The package was discovered by training personnel, and the package appeared to have a strong gasoline-type smell emanating from it. Implement Bomb Threat/Suspicious Package Checklist. 1115a: EXERCISE INPUT [From training instructors] The Illinois Chemical Brand and Weapons Depot Division is currently being simulated evacuated to include the Control Center IAW ops plan and the fire service. 1230p:EXERCISE INPUT [From training instructors] Further investigation revealed the box contained a car battery that a member of the HR section left in the hallway while in the men’s room and forgot about. 1232p: Evacuation terminated by training instructors; employees may resume normal operations. EXERCISE, EXERCISE, EXERCISE End Scenario

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The employees put into action all of what they’ve learned during the last five days. Training personnel have practiced this type of scenario on numerous occasions while in training. By the fifth day of training, personnel should have obtained basic knowledge of bomb threat/suspicious package policies and procedures. In addition, each trainee has been given QRCs containing bomb threat and suspicious package immediate actions. Since trainees will simulate all actions, they must verbally explain and demonstrate to instructors their actions and why they did what they did so that instructors can assess training employees’ knowledge of bomb threat/suspicious package actions. Trainee Holt advises instructors that “if this had been an actual bomb threat or suspicious package situation, we would immediately notify security and implement the bomb threat/suspicious package checklist.” Trainee Stanford explains, “Next we would use our QRCs and/or from memory note description, characteristics, and location of the package.” Trainee Simmons explains, “We would also warn everyone in close proximity not to attempt to touch or handle the package in any way, and to evacuate the area immediately.” Stanford notes, “The decision to evacuate the facility would be made by supervisors/management/fire department IAW state and local laws and procedures.” He further explains, “Security personnel will notify police, and provide information from the bomb threat checklist/aid or the suspected device that they were able to ascertain.” Trainee Starling notes that “bombs may be hidden in a box or covered up in another way.” She demonstrates how bombs could be carried in other ways, such as in a purse or briefcase. Starling explains that “bombs may be hidden in cars, trucks, or any motorized vehicle and can even be funneled through the U.S. mail.” 99


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Trainees walk instructors through the process of how to evacuate to a rally point or safe distance as determined by supervisors/management/fire or police department and IAW the ops and training plans. They explain what a rally point is and its purpose. Training instructors may also add additional exercise inputs or may terminate the exercise when they can determine whether they are satisfied or dissatisfied with the results. Once the exercise has been officially terminated, all involved should assemble for an exercise debrief. The person who originally initiated the exercise or those designated by the ops and training plans may officially terminate an exercise or incident. Owners/users and trainers should not only ensure that trainees are knowledgeable and prepared to deal with any situation affecting the workplace, but should also ensure that everyone in the workplace is aware of his or her individual assigned roles when it comes to security and AT/ WP. Owners, managers, secretaries, interns, messengers, delivery personnel, food preparation workers, custodians, and security personnel should all be properly trained and ready to deal with any issue as it affects the workplace security and AT/WP. An exercise debrief (which I’ll discuss a bit later) gives the owner/user the opportunity to discuss and assess what areas require improvement. It provides an opportunity to uncover mistakes and identify strengths and weaknesses of the exercise. The owner/user and all personnel involved should assemble for an exercise debrief after the exercise has terminated.

Tabletop Exercises A tabletop exercise is a rehearsal of security and AT/WP events, actions, or tasks. It is often conducted with the use of models, displays, briefings, graphs, charts, slide shows, and so forth. Tabletops are designed to assess. They 100


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may be conducted inside or out and can take the place of regular exercises during inclement weather or when other things are going on in the workplace and time may be of concern. Tabletops will not interfere with other day-to-day business and can be conducted anywhere there is space. Use tabletops during continuous or follow-on training versus initial training. Initial training requires hands-on training, and tabletops do not always provide this.

Training Props and Devices (Keep It Real, but Keep It Smart) Typically during security and AT/WP training exercises, realism is added by using an assortment of training props and devices. Training props and devices aren’t real devices but often facsimiles of the real thing. For example, toy weapons, fake currency, and phony explosive devices can be considered as training props. In my past years as a Security Forces evaluator, my training exercises often involved a plethora of training props: fake entry credentials; uniforms; and toy weapons wrapped in red tape, colored red, and/or marked with the words “For Training Use Only.” The toy guns often had a red tip or a red plug inserted into the muzzle to distinguish them from actual weapons. Caution: I strongly advise against the use of toy weapons, ammunition, explosives, or any other devices than can be mistaken for actual weapons or explosive devices. These items can be mistaken for the real thing, which could lead to serious consequences and/or deadly results. Check your local and state laws and policies concerning use of these types of training devices. Some areas may outlaw the use of such devices.

Safety During exercises, people have a natural tendency to get nervous and/or excited. When that happens, accidents can 101


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happen. While a sense of realism is encouraged during training exercises, do not hurry or rush to the extent that an accident is waiting to happen. Urgency should always be required as part of any exercise; however, take enough time to get it right without hurting yourself or someone else. When evacuating a facility during exercises, if not simulating, require personnel to physically leave the workplace and walk the evacuation route to the pre-designated area or rally point. Always ensure caution along an evacuation route, especially if it is dark, the weather is bad, or large crowds of people are evacuating at the same time. Schedule walk-through rehearsals and no-notice drills where personnel can physically participate and practice the procedure, always keeping safety in mind. Ask questions during the evacuations: Why are we doing this? Why is it important? Avoid rough, aggressive horseplay, goofing off, and unsafe actions, especially when using exercise props. If someone gets injured, immediately cease all exercises and contact medical personnel. Avoid conducting exercises in inclement weather if it appears likely that weather conditions will make it unsafe. Develop keywords in the event of unsafe actions or if someone gets hurt. For example, the words safety, safety, safety used three times in succession advises participants to cease all exercise activities because an unsafe action has occurred or someone has been hurt. Anyone observing an unsafe act should be allowed to use the safety keywords. Develop your own keywords according to your own site-specific needs. Develop exercise safety procedures and briefings and encourage employees to conduct safety briefings before exercises, during routine training, and during regular work hours. Always consider safety first during real-world and exercise events.

Evaluations/Reevaluations Evaluations are assessments designed to measure results of personnel readiness and effectiveness in exercise and realworld security and AT/WP events or incidents. Evaluators 102


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are those tasked with conducting the assessments. As few or as many evaluators as necessary may be involved. They develop, initiate, and provide oversight of training exercises and real-world scenarios, inputs, and events. Evaluators should always use checklists to evaluate from start to finish and terminate events upon completion or satisfaction with the results. Exercises and real-world events may be evaluated and reevaluated by using an eyes-on scoring/grading system, a pass/fail system, or another comparable system designed by the owner/user. After an exercise or real-world event has been terminated and evaluation and debrief has been conducted, depending on the outcome or results of the event, the owner/user and evaluators may wish to conduct a reevaluation. Reevaluations give the owner/user the opportunity to assess the results of an exercise, incident, or event. They provide an opportunity to assess what went wrong the first time, debrief or implement constructive criticism about how to fix it, and with guidance and oversight, provide an opportunity to get it right a second time. When reevaluating, monitor weak areas or those areas requiring further training and always document results. Implement refresher training where necessary IAW both ops and training plans. Exercises, getting it right, and refresher training combined provide the opportunity for employees to clearly understand objectives and feel confident when dealing with issues affecting AT/WP. When conducting exercise reevaluations decide whether the exercise will be a continuance from the original scenario or a new scenario; then decide whether additional training will be required. Always attempt to conduct the reevaluation ASAP so that the event and the importance of the event remain fresh in the minds of those being reevaluated. Putting off or extending reevaluations tends to diminish the significance behind the idea.

Debriefs An AT/WP debrief is a discussion, information, or constructive criticism concerning exercises and real-world events 103


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and is normally conducted at the conclusion of an event. Debriefs give an owner/user the opportunity to assess what actually happened and determine what areas require additional training, improvement, or attention. A debrief allows for two-way communications between the briefer and the participants and allows an opportunity to identify strengths and weaknesses. Debriefs should allow discussion of negatives as well as the positives, to include reporting, reaction, and response.

Example Debrief Discussion: Did ambulance A respond on time? Did the ambulance team respond to the correct location? Employees from the weapons sector were not aware they needed to evacuate during the bomb threat scenario, and when they finally realized it, they weren’t sure where the rally point was. Why did that happen, and as an organization, what can we do to correct the problem? Employees from the North Point were exceptionally knowledgeable when asked about bomb threat procedures and evacuated immediately to the rally point. Everyone involved in exercises or real-world events should be present at debrief. Use briefing areas large enough to accommodate all involved. If conducting debriefs with multiple agencies (considered a joint debrief), it is recommended that department heads from all participating agencies assemble beforehand or immediately after an event to determine who will lead debriefs. There’s no rule of thumb limiting the number of exercises, scenarios, inputs, safety briefs, evaluations, reevaluations, or debriefs. Don’t wait for state or local government-sponsored exercises, and encourage joint exercises with other agencies. Use employees and nonemployees as perpetrators, suspects, and victims for training exercises. Exercises should 104


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be conducted during normal work hours, after work hours, weekends, and holidays. When terrorists and criminals attack, they don’t care if it is a weekend, weekday, or whether you’re too busy. They won’t wait until it’s convenient for you. In fact, they hit when you least expect it. They’ll hit when there is a ton of activity going on or in the dead of the night. Their purpose is to cause as much upheaval, confusion, and tragedy as possible. So do keep that in mind when setting up exercises. Consult with local emergency responders (fire, rescue, medical, and bomb squads) and city, state, and federal government agencies to participate in joint exercises. Communicate with other local businesses and agencies if exercises are likely to affect them or the public. Use trusted agents and evaluators from other agencies to help monitor, evaluate, debrief, and control events. Conduct exercises often, develop a variety of scenarios, and encourage participation from all personnel. Don’t be afraid to get creative. Always use the key words exercise, exercise, exercise before initiating any exercise, throughout any exercise, and at the conclusion of an exercise. This ensures that everyone knows that it’s only an exercise and not the real thing. Developing exercise policies, procedures, directives, checklists, and safety procedures is the responsibility of the owner/user. The owner/user decides whether to maintain or shred exercise paperwork.

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CHAPTER 9 Developing Site-Specific AntiTerrorism and Workplace Protection Checklists and Reports

AT/WP Checklists You already know I’m a huge advocate of CCTV. I am also a huge advocate for the use of checklists. Throughout this book, I constantly talk about the advantages of using checklists. Owning and running a business can be hard enough; checklists can greatly improve the lives of people and businesses everywhere. As a military man, my life was a structured and forever organized one, and almost everything I did required the use of checklists. They are a valuable resource for large or small businesses as well as personal use. Checklists were a major and functional part of my work and my life then, and believe it or not, they still are today. A checklist is a streamlined, step-by-step, chronological list of events or actions to ensure consistency and completeness in carrying out tasks and responsibilities. It is designed to assist in completing certain assigned responsibilities. A procedural guide of sorts, it ensures guidelines and procedures are followed IAW applicable instructions, regulations, and policies. Checklists are effective so that the information you need to be aware of, and to be reminded of, is available immediately and efficiently. Use them for organizing, conducting business and prioritizing. Workplaces worldwide are encouraged to create security and anti-terrorism and workplace protection checklists for all aspects of their program. Checklists are normally derived from operational plans and policies as well as local, state, and federal directives and can be cross-referenced to other applicable sources and 106


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checklists. They’re designed by condensing long, complicated instructions into concise, step-by-step action planning for personnel to use on a day-to-day basis and in cases of emergencies and increased threats. A company’s operations and training plans should include a detailed discussion of the use and purpose of checklists. There is no limit to using checklists, and they can vary widely in design and style as long as they meet the intent required by the owner/user agency. The checklists shown in this chapter is just one example of many styles an owner/user can create. Traditionally checklists are designed so that an item can be marked off with a checkmark when the item is completed. Avoid getting caught up on the style I’ve presented here; the simpler, the better. Create as many or as few checklists as you wish; however, I will caution anyone against creating too many checklists. While checklists are a great tool, creating too many can become confusing, time-consuming, and bothersome. Create only what you need for the workplace. And create checklists to cover any possible incident or scenario that could affect the workplace. For example, create checklists for situations such as the following: - Robbery - Duress - Circulation control - Natural disasters (flooding, hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornadoes) - Bomb threats/suspicious package procedures/ situations - Emergency response (major incidents/minor incidents) - Emergency evacuation - 911 calls - Terrorist attacks - Bioterrorism

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- Cyber terrorism - Workplace violence - Workplace injuries - Bloodborne pathogens - First aid/CPR - The Homeland Security Advisory System - VIPs - Restricted or sensitive areas - Shelter-in-place - Power outages/failures - Computer outages - Emergency power outages - Funds transport - Weapons transport - Utility interruption - Fuel spills - Chemical spills - Chemical release - Fire or explosion - Death

AT/WP Reports A report is a formal or informal document that provides information about something that has happened or something that is going to happen. The owner/user designs the report to his or her specifications. Again, don’t get caught up in semantics. The following reports associated with the AT/WP program are discussed in this chapter: The physical security (initial or annual/routine) inspection report

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1. notification of inspection report 2. inspection results or written discrepancy report AT/WP exercise report AT/WP program assessment report Physical Security Inspection Reports Before inspectors conduct a physical security inspection, they should, as a courtesy, notify in writing and in advance the department to be inspected of the names of inspectors, type of inspection (initial or routine), times and dates of inspection, location and areas to be inspected, and if any special equipment items and special instructions will be required. This is the notification of inspection report. After the inspection has been completed, inspectors should generate another report to the department that was inspected. This is the inspection results or written discrepancy report, and it should list names of inspectors who conducted the inspection, the type of inspection conducted, times and dates the inspection occurred, location and areas inspected, and any special equipment and special instructions. This written report should include a detailed list of all discrepancies found during the inspection. Inspectors should disseminate the report through internal routing channels, and management and inspectors should review the report together and decide on the appropriate corrective actions. Upon receiving the report, the office that was inspected should put into action a plan to correct discrepancies ASAP. The office must be prepared to correct discrepancies no matter how small or large or the amount of work that has to be done. If repairs or discrepancies cannot be corrected in a timely manner, owners/users must decide what alternative actions to take. If the owner/user is unable to repair a discrepancy, is awaiting parts, or an item cannot be repaired for whatever reason, find ways to resolve the issues instead of inviting lengthy delays and making excuses.

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The Initial and Annual or Routine Report An initial report (the original report) is the first physical security report ever conducted on a facility. It is considered an initial report if a report does not exist or cannot be located, if an owner/user has never conducted a report on the facility, or if the facility is new or the owner/user moves into a facility for the first time. Once an initial report is generated, it should be filed and should remain with the facility until the facility closes or ceases to exist. Initial reports correspond with initial inspections. Routine, quarterly, or annual reports are initiated whenever a routine, quarterly, or annual inspection takes place. The report should always correspond with the type of inspection. Write-ups, discrepancies, or problems areas noted during the inspection should be documented on the AT/WP checklist. The checklist should be used to generate the report. Don’t hide things under the rug when it comes to writing the report. Be fair and honest. A completed checklist should mirror what was found during the inspection, and vice versa; report discrepancies should mirror items noted on the checklists. The owner/user decides the time period and corrective action needed to respond to discrepancies. If the office that originally generated the report imposes a timeline to fix discrepancies, as a courtesy, notify the department that was inspected of the timeline. A timeline to respond to and correct discrepancies may be imposed to ensure all actions are completed in a timely manner and to avoid misuse or delay of the process.

Exercise Reports There are two types of exercise reports associated with the AT/WP program. The first exercise report is the organization exercise event report. This report documents the evaluation results of the OEE conducted by the owner/user. The second 110


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type of exercise report is the training exercise report. This report documents exercise results initiated during the initial and continuous training phases. The owner/user selects (in advance) personnel to write and disseminate written reports. This person may be an in-house training instructor, designated workplace personnel, or a trusted agent/disinterested party working outside the business. Exercise reports should always be written after an exercise and debrief has concluded. Use items from the AT/WP exercise checklist to generate the exercise report. The report should list problem areas noted during the event. Don’t hide things under the rug when it comes report writing. Be fair and honest. One of the greatest casualties of this type of program is covering up issues to protect personnel. The next greatest casualty is doing nothing to find them. A completed checklist should mirror what was found during the exercise evaluation, and reports should mirror the checklists. The owner/user decides the time period and actions to be taken in responding to exercise reports. If the owner/ user decides there will be a timeline to respond to reports, he or she should inform the department that was evaluated. The report should be forwarded from the exercise evaluator’s office through internal routing to the office, area, or department that was evaluated. If problems are noted from the exercise, evaluators and the owner/user should work as a team and decide on the appropriate corrective actions. Review problem areas, conduct necessary retraining, and document corrective actions. File the report away if no other action is required. If a reevaluation of the exercise is required, conduct it ASAP so that the previous exercise remains fresh in the minds of participants or do it IAW AT/WP plans. If a reevaluation of an exercise in conducted, conduct another report at the conclusion of the reevaluation.

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Overall Program Assessment Report or (OPAR) The owner/user is encouraged to conduct an overall assessment of the anti-terrorism and workplace protection program. Document the assessment via the overall program assessment report. While the assessment determines the program’s progress, the assessment report documents the progress to ensure the program is in compliance with the owner/user’s mission statement and/or any site-specific, local, state, and federal directives. Assemble your own report with questions as you see fit. Ask and answer important questions about the program, such as the following: Are employees trained in security and AT/WP protective measures, and if so, how, and is the training working? Are training and workplace exercises effective? Is additional training required? Does the owner/user require outside functional experts? Are training instructors effective? Is the operations plan effective? Is the training plan effective? What are the problems with the operations and training plans? Are they too vague? Do they appear complicated? Does the emergency response plan work? Is the contingency plan working? Is it complete? Does it address necessary backup plans the business needs? Identify, document, and resolve problems and institute corrective actions from the assessment. Conduct program assessments and reports quarterly, annually, or as needed. With the exception of the initial report, all reports should be maintained on file for at least one year, until replaced

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or superseded by a current report, or IAW company AT/WP plans. The following examples are of an AT/WP physical security checklist, bomb threat aid, and notification of physical security inspection report. Again, these are only examples. I encourage the owner/user to develop a type and style of report IAW the nature and sensitivity of the business being protected.

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Example Physical Security Inspection Checklist PHYSICAL SECURITY INSPECTION (ADMINSTRATIVE REVIEW) NO. 1. a. 2. a. b. c. 3.

NAME OF PERSON CONDUCTING INSPECTION: John Smith SECTION: (ILLINOIS CHEMICAL BRAND AND WEAPONS DEPOT DIV.) Does the owner/user have an anti-terrorism and workplace protection operations plan? Is the plan effective? Does the owner/user have an anti-terrorism and workplace protection training plan? How effective is the plan? Does it meet the intent of the mission statement or vision? Does the owner/user utilize training exercises, and have they been overall effective? If not, how is the problem being corrected?

a.

Does the owner/user have security- and/or AT/WP-related training materials (e.g., videos, DVDs, audio, policies, directives, and procedures)? How effective is the overall program?

4. a. b.

Does the owner/user have AT/WP security checklists? Are they current? Are checklists effective? If not, what is the owner/user’s plan to revise them?

5.

Does the owner/user have current security instructions or directives?

6.

Does the workplace have current and effective safety and inspection policies and procedures?

7.

Does the owner/user have current written inventory and accountability procedures?

8.

Does the owner/user have current, working, and effective communications procedures?

9.

Do bomb threat and suspicious package procedures exist, and are they effective for the workplace? Does the owner/user use bomb threat and anti-robbery telephone aids?

a. 10.

Does the owner/user have current, working, and effective anti-robbery policies and procedures?

11.

Does the owner/user have current, working, and effective circulation control policies and procedures?

12.

Does the owner/user have current, working, and effective entry control to include vehicle entry procedures?

13.

Does the owner/user have current, working, and effective duress procedures?

14.

Does the owner/user have current, working, and effective workplace incident policies and procedures?

15.

Does the owner/user have current, working, and effective emergency notification procedures?

16.

Does the owner/user have current, working, and effective emergency response procedures?

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DATE:

YES

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Example Bomb Threat Aid/Checklist BOMB THREAT TELEPHONE AID The bomb threat aid will ascertain certain important information from the caller during a bomb threat. This information should be provided to law enforcement officials or other personnel investigating threat. Date of call Length of call Time of call Note exact words from caller

ASK THE CALLER QUESTIONS: Who are you/what is your name?

When is the bomb going to explode?

Location of the device/where is it located

Why did you do this?

Can you give me a description of the device?

Any additional information you can get from the caller, add here:

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Example Notification of Physical Security Inspection Report ILLINOIS CHEMICAL BRAND AND WEAPONS DEPOT DIV MEMORANDUM FOR (ILLINOIS CHEMICAL BRAND AND WEAPONS DEPOT DIV.) DATE FROM: JOHN SMITH- ILLINOIS CHEMICAL BRAND AND WEAPONS DEPOT DIV. SUBJECT: NOTIFICATION OF INITIAL PHYSICAL SECURITY INSPECTION

On 2 February XXX/1200p, JOHN SMITH, of ICBWD Records Admin dept. and a team of inspectors listed below will conduct an INITIAL Physical Security Inspection Administrative Review at the ILLINOIS CHEMICAL BRAND AND WEAPONS DEPOT DIV. This report will be conducted IAW ICBWD Anti-terrorism and Workplace Protection Program Physical Security Operations Plan, para 5a. Preparation Instructions: DEPARTMENT HEADS: Be prepared to access all bunkers, storage areas, lockers, closets, ammo cans, etc. Have all administrative plans, checklists and operational policies and directives ready for inspection. Please ensure a section/department head is available and on hand to provide answers, materials, keys, codes, equipment and paperwork. Inspectors: K. Payne, C. Lowe, R. Stewart, and M. Thomas Reason: (Initial) To review all weapons and chemical security instructions, operational physical security and administrative policies. Length: To be determined. Location/Areas to be Inspected: Entire facility to include weapons bunkers, ammo storage areas and chemical labs. Questions concerning this inspection or any Anti-terrorism and Workplace Protection issue should be directed to Mr. Raden, ext. 1234. JOHN SMITH, Records Dept.

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CHAPTER 10 Overview of Site-Specific Training Modules Chapters 11–17 are the training modules I’ve included as part of the site-specific AT/WP training program. Additional site-specific security and AT/WP concerns not included as part of this book should be included as part of your own individual programs IAW the needs and requirements of your business and added to your ops and training plans. If you, the owner/user, know or reasonably believe that particular security or AT/WP information affecting your business isn’t covered here, but should be a part of your sitespecific program, it becomes your responsibility to include it. Remember, when you’re adding new information affecting workplace personnel, create training for it. I’ve listed nine training modules in this book. Don’t get hung up on the word modules. There’s no real significance behind the word other than it is a word I’ve chosen to categorize my training topics. As the owner/user, feel free to use the word modules or choose your own word as you see fit. Create individual lesson plans, checklists, and training for each training module you add, and be sure to add important local, state, and federal security and AT/WP information where necessary. The following is an overview of the information included in each training module. Conduct additional research for more information on each topic as necessary.

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Training Module 1: - Types of terrorist attacks - What to do if faced by such attacks - Emergency and recommended supplies - The importance of having an emergency plan - People working together in an emergency - Cyber terrorism - Creating a safer workplace (necessary protective measures to consider) - Anti-robbery training

Training Module 2: - Duress procedures - Duress alarms - Duress codes - Duress scenarios - Emergency response plans - Emergency notification - Emergency evacuation

Training Module 3: - Bomb threats and suspicious packages - Bomb threat response plan - Common methods of delivery - Ways a bomb could be disguised - Reporting a suspicious package - What to do if you suspect a device

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Training Module 4: - Circulation control: identifying and challenging suspicious personnel - Restricting entrances - ID badges - Entry authority lists (EALs) - Personal recognition - Restricted, sensitive, and control area entry - Escorted entry - Circulation control checklists

Training Module 5: - Personal, home, and family security - Special precautions for children - Home security - Parking and driving - If you believe you’re being followed - Precautions when you’re away from home - Commercial transportation - Precautions at the airport - Air travel - Actions if you’re attacked

Training Module 6: - The Homeland Security Advisory System and information sharing - Actions associated with each level - Information sharing 119


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Training Module 7: - Bloodborne pathogens, CPR, and first aid - Bloodborne pathogens control plan - Establishing BBP kits, first aid kits, CPR - Bloodborne pathogens exercises

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CHAPTER 11 Training Module 1: Terrorists Attacks, Workplace Violence, and Robbery

Terrorist Attacks (Potential Threats) In recent years, there have been threats of terrorist attacks using nuclear, biological, and chemical materials. In 2001, incidents involving anthrax occurred in the United States, and in 2002 it was found that an American member of Al-Qaeda was planning an attack on the United States using a dirty bomb. In January 2003, London authorities discovered Islamic extremists were in possession of a highly poisonous material related to ricin. In February 2004, ricin was discovered in the mailroom of the U.S. Senate majority leader in Washington, D.C. And in December 2009, a young Nigerian man tried to detonate explosives aboard a Northwest Airlines flight bound for Detroit. These are just a few of the many stories of terrorist-related incidents affecting our nation. The 9/11 terror attack on America was an event that no one ever thought would or could happen. These were attacks on the United States at a level for which no precedent had been established. In any terrorist attack, the primary goal is to create panic. Experts believe terrorists probably do not possess the equipment and materials needed to create weapons capable of producing high enough levels of radiation to kill large numbers of people. The methods of delivery are unknown. If chemical or biological weapons are used, the effects may be devastating. Terrorists are working to obtain biological, chemical, nuclear, and radiological weapons, and the threat of an attack is very real. The Department of Homeland Security, other federal agencies, and other organizations across the nation are working hard to strengthen our nation’s security 121


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and to reduce our vulnerability to emergencies of all kinds. Whenever possible, we want to stop terrorist attacks before they happen. This portion of the chapter is designed to inform the reader of the threats and warning signs that may exist and actions personnel are encouraged to take before, during, and after an incident. There are significant differences between potential terrorist threats that will influence the decisions you make and the actions you take. By beginning a process of learning about these specific threats, you are preparing yourself as all Americans should. Making prompt and accurate information available to Americans now could prevent the confusion and panic terrorists expect later.

Chemical Threats A chemical threat is the deliberate release of a toxic gas, liquid, or solid that can poison people and the environment. Watch for signs of a chemical attack, such as many people suffering from watery eyes, twitching, choking, having trouble breathing, or losing coordination. Many sick or dead birds, fish, or small animals are also cause for suspicion. If you see signs of a chemical attack, quickly try to define the impacted area or determine where the chemical is coming from, if possible. Take immediate action to get away from the affected area. If the chemical is inside a building where you are, try to get out of the building without passing through the contaminated area. Otherwise, it may be better to move as far away from where you suspect the chemical release is and seal the room. If you are outside when you see signs of a chemical attack, you must decide the fastest way to get away from the threat. Consider whether you can get out of the area or if it would be better to go inside a building and follow your company’s plan to shelter-inplace. If your eyes are watering, your skin is stinging, you are having trouble breathing, or you simply think you may have been exposed to a chemical, immediately implement procedures you learned in training; that is, strip, wash, and 122


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so forth. Look for a hose, fountain, or any source of water, and wash with soap, if possible, but do not scrub the chemical into your skin. Seek emergency medical attention.

Biological Threats A biological threat is the deliberate release of germs or other biological substances that can make you sick. Many agents must be inhaled, enter through a cut in the skin, or be eaten to make you sick. Some biological agents, such as anthrax, do not cause contagious diseases. Others, like the smallpox virus, can result in diseases you can catch from other people. Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or may not be immediately obvious. While it is possible that you will see signs of a biological attack, as with the anthrax mailings, it is perhaps more likely that local health care workers will report a pattern of unusual illness, or there will be a wave of sick people seeking emergency medical attention. It is possible you will probably learn of the danger through others: emergency radio or TV broadcast or some other method or signal used in your community. Perhaps you will get a phone call, or emergency response workers may come door-to-door. If you become aware of an unusual or suspicious release of an unknown substance nearby, it doesn’t hurt to protect yourself. Cover your mouth and nose with layers of fabric that can filter the air but still allow breathing, and quickly get away. Examples include two to three layers of cotton such as a T-shirt, handkerchief, or towel. Otherwise, several layers of tissue or paper towels may help. Wash with soap and water and contact authorities. In the event of a biological attack, public health officials will provide information as quickly as they can on what you should do. However, it can take time for them to determine exactly what the illness is, how it should be treated, and who is in danger. Follow your site-specific emergency plans

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and watch TV, listen to the radio, or check the Internet for official news, including the following: - Are you in the group or area authorities consider in danger? - What are the signs and symptoms of the disease? - Are medications or vaccines being distributed? - Where? - Who should get them? - Where should you seek emergency medical care if you become sick? At the time of a declared biological emergency, if a family member becomes sick, it is important to be suspicious. However, do not automatically assume you should go to a hospital emergency room or that any illness is the result of the biological attack. Symptoms of many common illnesses overlap. Use common sense, practice good hygiene and cleanliness to avoid spreading germs, and seek medical advice.

Nuclear Blast A nuclear blast is an explosion with intense light and heat, a damaging pressure wave, and widespread radioactive material that can contaminate the air, water, and ground surfaces for miles around. While experts may predict at this time that a nuclear attack is less likely than others, terrorism by its nature is unpredictable. If there is a flash or fireball, take cover immediately, below ground if possible. Most any shield or shelter will help protect you from the immediate effects of the blast and the pressure wave. In order to limit the amount of radiation you are exposed to, think about shielding, distance, and time. If you have a thick shield between you and the radioactive materials, it will absorb more of the radiation and you will be exposed to less. Similarly, the farther away you are from the blast 124


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and the fallout, the lower your exposure. Finally, minimizing time spent exposed will also reduce your risk.

Radiation Threat or “Dirty Bomb” A dirty bomb is the use of common explosives to spread radioactive materials over a targeted area. It is not a nuclear blast. The force of the explosion and radioactive contamination would be more localized. The extent of local contamination would depend on a number of factors, including the size of the explosive, the amount and type of radioactive material used, means of dispersal, and weather conditions. While the blast would be immediately obvious, the presence of radiation might not be clear until trained personnel with specialized equipment are on the scene. A dirty bomb is not a weapon of mass destruction; however, with any radiation, limit your exposure. Again, think about shielding, distance, and time.

Everyone Needs an Emergency Plan We know that people, places, and things are subject to threats and attack anywhere. Terrorists no longer attack only overseas. Anything can happen anytime or anywhere, so it’s always smart to have a plan and be prepared for the unexpected. There are no guarantees anyone will remain safe or even survive. Having a plan helps you to plan in advance for what could happen in the event of an emergency. Ask about plans at the places where your family spends time. Ask how they will communicate with families during a crisis? Do they store adequate food, water, and other emergency supplies? Find out if they are prepared to shelter-inplace if need be and where they plan to go if they must get away. If plans don’t exist, volunteer to help develop one. You will be better prepared to reunite your family and loved ones safely during an emergency if you plan ahead and communicate with others in advance. 125


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If You Are an Employer, Follow These Guidelines - Ensure your workplace has a building, fire, bomb threat/suspicious package, and emergency evacuation plan that is regularly practiced. If you don’t have plans, develop them, and do start now. Don’t put this off until tomorrow. - Ensure your workplace has a contingency (backup) plan that is regularly practiced. If you don’t have plans, develop them, and do start now. - Take a critical look at your heating ventilation and air-conditioning system to determine if the systems are secure or could be feasibly upgraded to better filter potential contaminants. - Be sure you and others know how to turn off the system if necessary. If they don’t know, start training now! - Think about what to do if employees can’t go home, and make sure you have appropriate supplies on hand. - Those responsible for senior living centers, nursing homes, and facilities where people may have difficulty getting out during an emergency should have updated emergency and contingency plans and ensure they are regularly practiced. If you don’t have plans, develop them, and do start now. Don’t put this off until tomorrow.

If You Are an Employee, Follow These Guidelines - Ask about and know your workplace’s building, fire, bomb threat/suspicious package, and emergency evacuation plans. If they are not regularly practiced, make a request that they be practiced.

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- For those who cannot physically participate, have a sit-down conversation and discuss important actions. - Ask about contingency planning. - Become familiar with the workplace. Take a look at areas that may fall victim to terror and crime. Make smart suggestions and involve others. - Be sure you and others know how to turn off important workplace systems (where applicable and where necessary). - Think about what to do if you can’t go home to your family. - Think about what to do if you can’t leave your home for an extended period. - Ensure that senior living centers, nursing homes, and facilities where people may have difficulty getting out during an emergency have updated emergency and contingency plans and ensure they are regularly practiced.

When an Emergency Does Occur - Be prepared to assess the situation. - Be prepared to assist others who may need help. - Use common sense and use whatever you have on hand to take care of yourself, and employees.

Shelter-in-Place Consider precutting plastic sheeting to seal windows, doors, and air vents. Each piece should be several inches larger than the space you want to cover so that it lies flat against the wall. Label each piece with the location of where it fits. Use any available information to assess the situation. If you see large amounts of debris in the air or if local authorities report the air is badly contaminated, you may want to shelter-in-place and seal the room. Quickly bring your family 127


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and pets inside, lock doors, and close windows, air vents, and fireplace openings. Turn off air conditioning, forced air heating systems, exhaust fans, and clothes dryers. Take your emergency supplies and go into the room you have designated. Seal all windows, doors, and vents with the plastic sheeting and duct tape or anything else you have on hand. Listen to the TV or the radio or check the Internet for instructions. There may be conditions under which you will decide to get away, or there may be situations when you are ordered to leave. Plan in advance how you will assemble your family and anticipate where you will go. Choose several destinations in different directions so you have options in an emergency. If you have a car, keep at least a half tank of gas in it at all times. Become familiar with alternate routes as well as other means of transportation out of your area. If you do not have a car, plan how you will leave if you have to. Take your emergency supply kit, unless you have reason to believe it has been contaminated, and lock the door behind you. Take pets with you if you are told to evacuate; however, if you are going to a public shelter, keep in mind that pets may not be allowed inside. If you believe the air may be contaminated, drive with your window vents closed and keep the air conditioning or heater turned off. While there is no way to predict what will happen or what your personal circumstances will be, there are simple things you can do now, such as assembling a supply kit and developing a family communications plan, to prepare yourself and your loved ones for any unknown situation. With a little planning and common sense, you can be better prepared for the unexpected. Recommended Supplies to Include in a Basic Supply Kit - One gallon of water per person per day, for drinking and sanitation - At least a three-day supply of nonperishable food items

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- Battery-powered radio and extra batteries - Flashlight and extra batteries - First aid kit - Whistle to signal for help - Dust mask or cotton T-shirt to help filter the air - Moist towelettes for sanitation - Wrench or pliers to turn off utilities - Can opener for food (if kit contains canned food) - Plastic sheeting and duct tape - Infant formula and diapers if you have an infant - Garbage bags and plastic ties for personal sanitation

Emergency Supply Kit Just like having a working smoke detector in your home, having an emergency supply kit will put the tools you may need at your fingertips. Be prepared to improvise and use what you have on hand to make it on your own for at least three days, maybe longer. While there are many things that might make you more comfortable, think first about fresh water, food, and clean air. Remember to include, and periodically rotate, medications you take every day, such as insulin and heart medicine. Plan to store items in an easy-to-carry bag, such as a shopping bag, backpack, or duffel bag. Consider two kits: In one, put everything you will need to stay where you are and make it on your own. The other should be a lightweight, smaller version you can take with you if you have to leave quickly. Store one gallon of water per person per day for drinking and sanitation in clean plastic containers. If you live in a warm climate, more water may be necessary. Store food that won’t go bad and does not have to be heated or cooked. Choose foods that your family will eat, including protein or fruit bars, dry cereal or granola, canned foods and juices, peanut butter, dried fruit, nuts, crackers, and baby foods. 129


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Remember to pack a manual can opener, cups, and eating utensils. Many potential terrorist attacks could send tiny microscopic “junk� into the air; for example, an explosion may release very fine debris that can cause lung damage. A biological attack may release germs that can make you sick if inhaled or absorbed through open cuts. Many of these agents can only hurt you if they get into your body, so think about creating a barrier between yourself and any contamination. Be prepared to improvise with what you have on hand to protect your nose, mouth, eyes, and cuts in your skin. Anything that fits snugly over your nose and mouth, including any dense-weave cotton material, can help filter contaminants in an emergency. It is very important that most of the air you breathe comes through the mask or cloth, not around it. Do whatever you can to make the best fit possible for children. There are also a variety of face masks readily available in home or do-it-yourself stores. Given the different types of attacks that could occur, there is not just one solution for masking. For instance, simple cloth face masks can filter some of the airborne junk or germs you might breathe into your body but will probably not protect you from chemical gases. Still, something over your nose and mouth in an emergency is better than nothing. Include heavyweight garbage bags or plastic sheeting, duct tape, and scissors in your kit. You can use these things to tape up windows, doors, and air vents if you need to seal off a room from outside contamination. Anything you can do in advance will save time when it counts. Special Needs: Think about your family’s unique needs. Pack diapers, formula, bottles, prescription medications, pet food, comfort items, books, paper, pens, a deck of cards, or other forms of entertainment.

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If You Live in a Cold Climate If you live in a cold climate, you must think about warmth. It is always possible that the power may go out, and you may not have heat. Have warm clothing for each family member in your supply kit, including a jacket or coat, long pants, a long-sleeve shirt, sturdy shoes, and hat and gloves. Have a sleeping bag or warm blanket for each person. Store a flashlight, battery-powered radio, extra batteries, first aid kit, utility knife, local map, toilet paper, feminine hygiene products, soap, garbage bags and other sanitation supplies, plastic sheeting, duct tape, and extra cash and identification. Periodically rotate your extra batteries to be sure they work when you need them.

Communities Working Together A community working together during an emergency makes great sense. Talk to your neighbors about how you can work together. Find out if anyone has specialized equipment, such as a power generator, or expertise, such as medical knowledge, that might help in a crisis. Those living in apartment buildings, recreational vehicle parks, condos, town homes, and so forth are encouraged to assemble groups to discuss, train, and put together site-specific plans. Decide who will check on elderly or disabled neighbors. Make backup plans for children in case you can’t get home in an emergency. Sharing plans and communicating in advance is a good strategy.

Cyber Terrorism Cyber terrorism is a relatively new type of attack rising to the surface in America. Hackers attack networks, computer systems, and telecommunication infrastructure by the use of an unauthorized person electronically entering the sys131


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tem from the outside. They inject an “electronic or virtual poison” into the Web, destroying the Internet. Systems can also be sabotaged (an attack against the software and/or hardware of an information system by a person on the inside who is trusted with access to the system). The big problem appears to be that there’s not a wealth of experience with cyber attacks, and at this time, experts are not really clear what can happen when someone attempts to target us full speed. If the security of a network is compromised, services could be interrupted, including essential infrastructure services in areas such as telecommunications, energy, finance, manufacturing, water, transportation, health care, and emergency services. While America may be the target of cyber attacks, more important, it appears that our U.S. defense contractors and fighting forces may be targeted the most. Cyber war is a weapon of growing might, and those using it show little restraint. While training in this area may appear limited, the U.S. military has targeted this area for years. While the U.S. government is aggressively dealing with ways to thwart this type of attack, we as Americans must educate ourselves to outsmart the enemy as best we can by instituting aggressive, site-specific computer security and information systems protection plans, programs, and contingency plans. Test plans and in-place procedures by conducting computer security training scenarios involving an attempted shutdown or takeover of your company’s system. Institute aggressive training initiatives and encourage personnel to do the following: - Do not access unknown sites or e-mail addresses if you are unsure of their safety. - Use firewalls to screen all communications to a system, including e-mail messages. - Although encryption does not protect the entire system, consider some form of protection. An attack

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designed to cripple the whole system, such as a virus, is unaffected by encryption. - Engage software engineers, computer security experts, and other functional experts. While our technology may not be able to completely eliminate this threat just yet, aggressive, site-specific training initiatives provide an opportunity to at least slow down the progress of these computer terrorists and avoid a total shutdown of a company’s infrastructure, or worst yet, a nation.

If a Cyber Attack Occurs, Follow These Guidelines: - Be prepared to do without services you normally depend on that could be disrupted: electricity, telephones, natural gas, gasoline pumps, cash registers, ATMs, and Internet transactions. - Keep handy a battery-powered radio or television, routinely listen to local broadcasts, and be prepared to respond to official instructions if an attack triggers other hazards. - Be prepared to evacuate and go to a public shelter.

Workplace Violence Unfortunately, a very clear and present danger exist involving people who work to earn a living. Millions of American workers are victims of workplace violence each year. The potential for violence to occur in the workplace is very real. It can strike anytime and anywhere, and like terrorism, no one is immune. The Columbine High School attack was an event that no one ever thought would or could happen. It was an attack on an American school at a level for which no precedent had been established.

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Ensure workplace personnel are trained and prepared for the unexpected. Ensure workplace personnel are trained to stay vigilant for suspicious personnel and suspicious situations and report them. Have a plan, develop basic safety and protective measures, and make it a habit to test personnel on a frequent basis. Workplace protection training should be initiated during both the initial and continuous training phases, and as a minimum should consist of the following: - An explanation of the end results instructors expect to see from workplace violence training. - An explanation of each employee’s responsibility if he or she detects suspicious fumes or smells. - An explanation of each employee’s responsibility if he or she detects others asking questions about the workplace or any building, home, or structure. - Review, discussion, and practice of site-specific workplace violence procedures and emergency, response, and contingency plans IAW your ops and training plans. - Employee incident reporting procedures for incidents of harassment, threats, weapons and violence. - A process to alert other employees, management, and supervisors of any concerns employees may have about safety or security in the workplace, and on the grounds. - A discussion of signs identifying aggressive behavior. - A discussion of how to recognize and avoid or diffuse potentially violent situations. - Group discussions on how lessons-learned situations could have been diffused, avoided, or affected in different ways. - Workplace protection or preventive exercises. Use employees as aggressors, victims and evaluators.

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- Duress policy and procedures for use during normal duty hours, emergencies, and times of increased threats. - Where applicable, duress procedures affecting sensitive, restricted, and controlled areas. - A process for providing prompt medical treatment after an incident has occurred. - Stress and anxiety management policies and procedures. - A process for providing counseling and guidance.

Keeping a Workplace Safe and Secure In keeping a workplace safe, owners/users should install security features and deterrents as they see fit: entrapment areas, CCTV, duress systems, additional lighting, alarm systems, warning signs, manned entry control points, reinforced doors and windows, and so forth. CCTV should have 360-degree coverage of all that it is designed to cover. Be familiar with company policies and procedures for dealing with workplace threats and emergencies. Be aware of any threats, physical or verbal, and any disruptive behavior, and report incidents to supervisors. When personnel believe there may be a threat of damage to property or an actual physical attack on a person, contact security, supervision, and in any case not by covered by instruction, notify police. Create duress words and codes and install a duress system where necessary. Other precautionary measures for managers and employees include the following: - Never enter any location where you feel unsafe. - When leaving, leave in pairs or groups until you arrive at a location you believe to be safe. - Introduce a buddy system or provide a security escort or police assistance in potentially dangerous situations and at night.

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- Avoid traveling alone to unfamiliar locations or situations. Notify police if you believe your safety may be in jeopardy if no one else in the workplace is around. - Take all threats seriously, and when threats or incidents are reported, conduct interviews, carefully review and document all information, and institute corrective action. Businesses should work together to watch, assist, and share information. A strip mall is the perfect example of where businesses should work together and be aware of what’s going on next door. Drop in and say hello often. Keep doors and windows locked where possible. Remove excessive advertising in windows and keep a clear view. Be responsible for securing your own work area, and if you’re tasked with being the last one to leave, ensure you check all doors, windows and alarms. Provide a log to record results: first to arrive, last to leave, and status of the facility when entering and securing facilities. Provide stress relief counseling to help workers recover from a violent incident, not only after an incident, but year round. Maintaining a safe and secure work environment is part of any good prevention and protection program. Once you’ve taken efforts to create a safe and secure working environment, you want to ensure the environment remains safe and secure. - As mentioned earlier, it is important to initiate a thorough and vigorous screening process before hiring employees. Conduct thorough background investigations on all personnel before they are hired, with no exceptions. Use available government resources to assist in conducting investigations. The screening process is necessary to ensure that personnel working within are trustworthy, capable, and operationally safe. - Create workplace checklists.

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- Conduct a thorough physical security inspection and correct discrepancies ASAP. - Workplace protection plans are vital. Create clear and sound workplace protection plans, and provide ample opportunity for employees to review plans and procedures. - Create necessary AT/WP tests and evaluate materials and personnel to ensure accuracy and personnel readiness. - Ensure workplace protection training information is centralized and accessible to all personnel. - During both the initial and continuous training phases, ensure personnel understand the importance of workplace protection and require them to take part in any related training exercises, seminars, correspondence, meetings, or conferences that provide training and information for a safe and productive working environment. - Ask questions and involve employees in comprehensive group discussions about causes, results, and solutions to workplace violence. Again, while it’s always great to read from a training book, the best way of getting personnel accustomed to the curriculum is hands-on practice, practice, and more practice. - Initiate an aggressive circulation control program. Ask questions of strangers and don’t be afraid to ask for assistance from co-workers and supervisors. - Identify strangers in and around the workplace; get in the habit and stay in the habit. Pay particular attention to sensitive areas, especially during emergencies and times of increased threat. - Ask questions, such as “Sir/Ma’am, may I help you?” Avoid confronting those who pose a threat. - Never physically accost someone, never be afraid to ask for help, and always notify a supervisor, security, or other employees in unknown or uncertain situations. 137


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- Use security guards (where available) and conduct random ID checks on workplace property, especially at entrances. - Make eye contact with customers without making them feel uncomfortable. Well-trained and vigilant employees often make the best security. - Where possible, keep doors locked and install buzzer system to control entry. - Where applicable, minimize access by unauthorized individuals through identification badges, electronic key cards, and EALs and control entry and exit as much as possible throughout the facility. - Use security surveillance cameras. - Where applicable, establish the use of personnel and vehicle entrapment areas. An entrapment area is a security feature in which a selected number of personnel and/or vehicles are allowed into a designated area at one time. Personnel and/or vehicles remain in this designated area until an owner/user authorizes entry and/or exit to or from the area. Personnel and vehicles are not allowed entry into the main work area until they have satisfied all entry and identification qualifications IAW the owner/user’s workplace protection policies. Following is an example of a personnel entrapment area: A warning sign is posted outside a business by the owner/ user advising the public that a personnel entrapment area exists. A buzzer has been installed to allow entry. Two people buzz for the owner/user to let them in. The owner/ user lets them in, allowing access through the first door and into the entrapment area. The first door closes behind them and locks. They have now entered the business’s personnel entrapment area and cannot physically enter the store or exit the entrapment area until buzzed in or out by the owner/user. The two enter the business and, again, cannot be let out unless the owner/user allows them to leave. After business has been conducted, they leave the business by exiting 138


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through a first door. That door closes behind him or her, and the person is locked in the entrapment area in between the two doors until the owner/user buzzes and lets them out the second door. The owner/user determines whether to allow one or more people in at a time, establishes rules and procedures, and posts them clearly to warn customers of entrapment area policies. This feature may be useful in areas where sensitive or high-value resources are located. Following is an example of a vehicle entrapment area: A business has established a vehicle entrapment area. Procedures are clearly posted warning the public of the entrapment area policies prior to entry. A vehicle drives up to a business. Driver and passengers are all required to exit the vehicle and walk up to an entry control point (ECP). All are required to provide proper identification, entry credentials, point of contact, and reason for entry to the owner/user. When the owner/user is satisfied with the reason for entry and identification credentials, the driver only proceeds to the vehicle and is allowed to drive through the first gate. The fence/gate closes behind the vehicle, securing it and the driver between both gates until the owner/user allows entry onto the property. Passengers remain in a secure personnel entrapment area while vehicle is being checked. While the vehicle is inside the vehicle entrapment area, it is checked for contraband, explosives, etc. Once the owner/user is satisfied that vehicle is safe, entry is allowed. Passengers are allowed entry after identification validation and checks are satisfied. Passengers are clear to rejoin the driver, and they may all proceed to their destination IAW ops and training plan. Entrapment area policies and procedures rest with the owner/user and should be clearly written in the ops and training plans. An entrapment area is a great protective measure for businesses with high-value merchandise, resources, or personnel; however, obviously all businesses will not require the use of such measures. Don’t be bound by the words “entrapment area.� Call it what you want but follow the 139


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same premise. Before establishing measures such as this, conduct thorough research of local and state laws regarding such security features. Keeping a workplace safe begins with people and effective workplace protection programs. Keeping a workplace safe also begins with bosses reaching out to employees and getting to know them. Smart business is getting to know the people who work with and for you. Make it an intentional habit to always engage co-workers and subordinates on a continuous basis. Have sit-down meals together, and don’t forget about those working off-site and away from the workplace. Talk with personnel who work at off-site to see what they see and do and the issues they face. Ask questions and ensure personnel are mentally, emotionally, and physically fit to work. Bottom line: get to know your people. The responsibility belongs to you, regular people in regular jobs taking care of your own.

AT/WP Control Centers (CC) We all know emergency situations can happen, and when they do, it’s the minutes that may really count. A control center, or CC, serves as a focal point for incidents affecting the workplace. It provides an opportunity for personnel to handle on-site situations, particularly emergencies, and make necessary and critical decisions until first responders arrive. A CC is considered a specialized duty position because of the experience, skills, patience, judgment, and knowledge required to control emergencies and other major incidents and disseminate correct information, especially during high-stress moments. A CC must rely upon the validity and credibility of information being received in order to make capable and rational decisions. It becomes the responsibility of the person manning the CC, the controller, to verify information before disseminating it. The controller is charged with controlling and disseminating information to and from the owner/user, 140


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other affected personnel, and first responders. He or she further serves the function of providing continuity, directing personnel, and maintaining control of situations and events until taken over by authorized first responders. This position and policies and procedures relating to it are devised by the owner/user and should be developed during the operations planning stage. A CC may be physically located within the workplace or located elsewhere in cases where the workplace has to evacuate; the CC can still function and maintain control of the workplace and advise work personnel and first responders. An alternate CC may be established to assume duties in cases where the primary CC is unable to function. Where possible, equip CCs with one or more specially trained controllers, applicable checklists, plans, writing materials, computers, radios, land-line and cell phone capability, alarms, cameras, and backup emergency power capability. CCs must always maintain the capability to communicate with the owner/user and first responders through a communication system designated by the owner/user. It is again important to note that not all businesses will require a CC setup. The type of business—its sensitivity and size—should determine this. Funding and staffing a CC should be taken into consideration during the operations planning stage. Security companies may often retain personnel specially trained for these types of positions. Check agencies in your local areas for availability.

Anti-Robbery With a steady rise in workplace violence, crime in America today is spiraling, and tomorrow brings about a weary uncertainty. Today’s workers need to be alert and well trained for any possible scenario. And a knowledgeable and welltrained employee is the key to an effective and successful workplace anti-robbery program. Anti-robbery training helps employees to exercise good judgment, builds confidence, 141


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and helps personnel maintain safety and control in stressful situations involving robberies. The safety of personnel is paramount during any incident. I’ve broken anti-robbery procedures down into three categories: normal day-to-day, or routine; during a robbery; and after a robbery. IAW site-specific anti-robbery training and company plans, conduct the following as part of your everyday routine, or normal day-to-day practices: - Always remember your training. - Always maintain effective security, communication, and common sense. These should not only be used during a crisis but should be used every day. Get in the habit! - Assemble clear and concise real-world and exercise anti-robbery policies and procedures. You have a responsibility to yourself, your family, your co-workers, and your customers to ensure the workplace is safe. - Practice robbery scenarios and treat every situation and scenario as though it were real. While you may never be robbed, you diminish your risk of robbery and its consequences with smart and careful planning. Always notify authorities in advance if exercises are likely to affect the public. - Develop evaluation methods to test anti-robbery procedures. - Appoint primary and alternate person(s) to take charge during an incident. Personnel in these positions should take overall responsibility for delegating tasks, preserving evidence and crime scene integrity after a robbery, and reporting information to police, management, media, and so forth. These primary and alternate positions should be selected during the initial training phase. - Don’t cover windows with advertising or marketing materials. Keep a clear line of sight at all times. Obstacles are created by covering windows. If a 142


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passerby can see what’s going on inside, a robber may decide that the location is too much of a risk. - Go outside and take a good look at the facility or the area where you conduct cash transactions. Take a good look at what someone else sees from the outside looking in. - Stay vigilant and alert to your surroundings while at work. Be cautious and aware when opening and closing safes, vaults, and the facility. Train to stay alert and always remain vigilant for suspicious personnel. - Always remain vigilant when servicing ATMs or receiving a cash delivery. - Never leave cash registers open, even behind bulletresistant glass. It’s a bad practice, and it lets anyone casing the place know your deficient areas. - Where possible, periodically change your hours and alternate your routes when physically transferring or depositing money. - Ensure vaults, safes, and cash boxes out are of sight from the customer, and never access these areas in front of the customer. - Always secure keys and codes to a cash drawer or container. - While not staring to make someone feel uncomfortable, make eye contact and stay attentive to customers. - Install visible CCTV or surveillance systems. Ensure that video quality is clear. When making decision to install CCTV, location consideration will depend on the size and make-up of each individual facility. - Install burglar alarms and duress alarms in conspicuous locations. - Develop call codes, duress codes, and duress words. - Install bullet-resistant glass in front of cashier or teller areas so the public has no physical contact with cashiers. Times have changed; customer-friendly 143


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facilities can still exist with a little smart thinking. With Internet banking, ATMs, and criminals who are willing to commit brazen robberies, employers must find smarter and safer ways to protect themselves and their customers while at the same time, attempting to remain customer friendly. - The doors leading to cashiers and funds should be strong enough and designed to keep out unauthorized personnel. The combination or access code to these doors should be strictly limited and installed where others cannot see the code. Where necessary, in busy and high-risk facilities, install door buzzers to control the flow of customers in and out of the facility and use entrapment areas. - Install anti-robbery height strips on the inside doorframe of all entrances. These strips should be clearly visible from the cash register. Height strips are highly visible, self-adhesive measuring strips that can be affixed to the side of a door or entrance to help you estimate a robber’s height. - Report suspicious behavior or persons to supervisors, who should make the decision to notify security or police. - Where applicable, have just enough cash on hand to conduct business. - Assemble procedures for the use of “bait money� in all cash-handling facilities. - Avoid leaving even small amounts of cash on the premises overnight or after business hours. Crooks are desperate and will even take petty cash left on the premises. - Check the location and positioning of lighting. Good lighting is always a plus during any situation. Proper lighting both inside and outside will help discourage robbers. Lighting should be installed above or near all entrances, around the facility, in all parking lots, and high enough to be out of reach. These lights

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should be permanently left on, and controls should be located inside and not accessible to others. - Minimize entrances as much as possible and IAW local fire codes. Other than the main entrances, other entrances to the building should be kept locked at all times. If employees are required to use a particular locked door throughout the day, arrangements should be made for the employees to have a key or code and be thoroughly trained on security procedures. - Do not open back doors and leave them unattended. Check local fire codes before installing panic bars. Facilities with rear doors with panic bars installed should be locked from the outside, and if an emergency occurs and the front door is blocked, employees can then use the panic bar door to quickly escape to a point of safety. - At night, avoid emptying trash or taking anything out that cannot wait until daytime, especially if the Dumpster is in a secluded spot, back alley, or site where people loiter. - Use security guards where necessary.

IAW site-specific anti-robbery training and company plans, remember the following during a robbery: - Try and remain calm. - Comply with the demands of the suspects. If you resist, you may increase your risk of being injured or killed. Surrender cash and merchandise and hand over the bait money. - If you don’t see a weapon, but the suspects indicate they are armed, believe them. Activate your duress alarm when or if it is safe to do so. - Remember your training to help provide authorities information later: Is there a weapon? 145


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- Are there any distinguishing features of the weapon? How many suspects? How many accomplices? What do the suspects look like? Are there any identifying features you can make a mental note of without staring? What are they wearing? Are there any noticeable accents? Approximately how tall are they? Use the antirobbery height strip on the inside doorframe. Approximately how much do they weigh? Obey instructions and cooperate. Remember, if suspects leave a note behind, do not handle the note any more than necessary and try to preserve it. It may provide fingerprint evidence for the police.

IAW site-specific anti-robbery training and company plans, remember the following after a robbery: - Follow your training. - If you are the primary or alternate person, take charge after the robbery. - Work together as a team and delegate what needs to be done. - Call 911 and stay on the line until advised to hang up. - Secure the crime scene; do not contaminate the affected area. Protect the integrity of the crime scene and areas the suspect may have touched as well as possible. Use note pads, or whatever you can find to cover and protect elements of the crime scene. - Secure the facility and stand by until police arrive. - Try and remain as calm as you can, considering the situation. 146


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- Don’t try to be a hero. Do not chase the suspects and do not try to follow them out of the building. Remember, suspects may still be on the scene. - If possible, attempt to get the license number and make and model of any vehicle involved and note the direction of travel of the vehicle and/or the suspects. - If possible, detain any witnesses until police arrive. Attempt to get names, addresses, and telephone numbers of witnesses. Never discuss the situation with anyone. Refer them to police, management. - When police arrive, answer all questions as accurately as you can. Provide video evidence from surveillance cameras. - Think back and give police all the information possible: How many suspects were there? Did they brandish a weapon? Did you note any distinguishing features of the weapon? What did the suspects look like? Approximately how tall were they? How much did they weigh? Were there any distinguishing characteristics? What were they wearing? Were there any noticeable accents? Implement anti-robbery training as part of both the initial and continuous training phases. Use anti-robbery checklists and training exercises to test owner/user reporting, response, and reaction. Exercises test employees’ abilities to respond, cope, and apply learned skills. Research state and local laws and procedures and government Web sites that provide information about anti-terrorism protective measures, workplace violence prevention, and anti-robbery procedures. Contact local first responders, functional experts, and consultants for assistance and additional information. During a robbery, the key is to stay alive.

Additional Training Aids In addition to anti-robbery checklists and exercises, owners/users and training instructors are encouraged to de147


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velop additional employee training aids. The QRC is a great example. This useful and compact pocket-sized training aid can be kept in a wallet, purse, desk drawer, and so forth, providing employees quick access to it when they need it. The cards should contain necessary security and AT/WP information and quick steps for dealing with most day-to-day and emergency situations.

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CHAPTER 12 Training Module 2: Duress Procedures and Emergency Response Plans Duress is a use of force, coercion, or unlawful activity against another person. This illegal use of force can occur anytime and anywhere, particularly at businesses maintaining high-value or sensitive resources and/or personnel. Duress procedures are designed to thwart illegal coercion or unlawful activity and may involve the use of alarms, words, codes, numbers, or any other system developed by the owner/user to protect people and property and warn others of illegal activity.

Duress Alarms A duress alarm is a device that when activated transmits an electronic signal to a main alarm panel, alerting personnel of a situation requiring assistance. The main alarm panel may be associated with or connected to police, security, or an alarm dispatch center. Duress alarms are used when particular work center personnel are forced to yield protected items or persons from unauthorized persons. The alarm system must be configured to allow personnel on duty to activate it without arousing the intruder’s suspicion. The two types of duress alarms associated with AT/WP are stationary duress alarms and portable duress alarms. Stationary duress alarms may be installed in locations where there may be a risk to personal safety associated with the location or activity performed. Portable duress alarms can be carried on the person, are powered by a battery pack or other electronic source, and work by transmitting electronic signals to a main alarm panel. Stationary and portable activated duress alarms have had great successes.

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Before considering installing a duress alarm, think about all of the following: type, size, and sensitivity of a business, location, need, effectiveness, replacement, repair, testing, training, and funding.

Duress Words Duress words are preselected words created by the owner/ user, surreptitiously incorporated into a sentence during a normal conversation indicating a possible hostile situation affecting persons, facilities, or resources. It is normally used in the presence of other personnel familiar with the word. The word can also be blurted over a radio or telephone by another employee familiar with the same duress word and process. Create duress words only if you believe you have a need for them. Duress words should not be everyday, common words; if they are, they may be used inadvertently. Protect the code by revealing it only to those who need to know it. Physically safeguard the duress words at all times from unknown persons.

Example of How Duress Words Are Used The owner/user of the Illinois Chemical Brand and Weapons Depot Division created a series of duress words for the month of October 2009. The company’s procedure includes creating a different duress word for every day of the month. The duress word for Thursday, October 15, 2009, is Chippendale. A works the primary control center of the weapons warehouse. B is an armed guard working the main entry control point (ECP) to the weapons warehouse.

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IAW company policy, A is required to conduct a radio or telephonic status or well-being check with B every half hour. At 1530 hours, A conducts a routine half-hour radio status check on B. When A asks B her status, she responds with the word “Chippendale.” By using the word Chippendale, B has indicated that she’s under possible duress. IAW company policy, A implements a duress procedure checklist and dispatches two armed guard units to B’s location to check on her.

Duress Codes A duress code is a preselected letter, number, or a combination of the two passed from one person or agency to another (who are also knowledgeable of the process) to ascertain a person’s or agency’s safety, well-being, and/or security status. Duress codes may be used during routine day-to-day events, during emergencies, and during times of increased threat. Used properly, a duress code allows those using the code to indicate that they or others are involved in a situation that may require assistance.

Example of How Duress Codes Are Used The owner/user of the Illinois Chemical Brand and Weapons Depot Division created a duress system because of the huge quantities of weapons and explosives contained on the premises. The owner/user decided, in addition to having duress alarms and duress words, the facility would benefit from a daily duress code. The duress code for the day is the number nine. All personnel working within the weapons warehouse who have a need to know are aware that the code of the day is the number nine.

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A works the night shift control center of the weapons warehouse depot. B works the night shift guarding a sector of the same weapons warehouse. The control center where A is located is in the east wing of the McKay building, physically two miles south of the weapons warehouse. The weapons warehouse where B is located is one mile north of the control center in warehouse X. IAW company policy, A is required to conduct a radio or telephonic safety check with B every half hour. At 1530 hours, A attempts a routine half-hour safety check by radio with B. A receives no response from B. At 1532 hours, A then tries to phone him, but the line is busy. She tries contacting him several times again, but B never responds. B does not answer his radio because he is in an area of the warehouse where radio transmissions are sometimes broken, weak, and unreadable. He is unaware that A is attempting to contact him for a safety check. IAW company ops plan, B should try to contact A if fortyfive minutes pass and A has not conducted a safety check with him. B is writing a letter to his wife and simply forgets about the time. At 1548 hours, A finally reaches B by phone. She tells B to prepare to authenticate his safety and well-being status. (Authenticating confirms to A that B is well and secure.) A passes the number six to B.

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B responds with three. (Six and three add up to nine. Remember, the owner/user has selected nine as the duress code for the day.) With B authenticating the correct number, this indicates to A that B appears safe, so she terminates the authentication process. If B misauthenticates or gets the response wrong by saying any other number that does not add up to nine, IAW their company’s ops plan, A may attempt the authentication again by passing B another number below nine. A may also use the number nine. If passed the number nine, B’s response should be zero. Zero plus nine equals nine. If A believes that B has indicated signs of duress or trouble, or if B indicates that he’s in trouble while guarding the weapons cache, A would implement whatever corrective action procedure the owner/user has devised in the ops, training, and/or contingency plans. Duress codes may be used daily, weekly, or quarterly in conjunction with duress alarms and words, or until compromised by an unauthorized person, and can be initiated every half hour, hourly, or IAW ops plans. Create duress codes only if you believe you have a need for them. Duress codes should be kept simple by using letters or numbers; avoid complicating the system by using any number over ten. Protect the code by revealing it only to those who need to know it. Physically safeguard the code at all times from unknown persons. Duress procedures can be used during emergencies and increased threat conditions where necessary. Not all businesses will require use of a duress system. Consider the location, need, effectiveness, response, replacement, repair, testing, training, and funding of a system. The owner/ user develops policies and procedures for the program, determines requirements, develops training, and selects the type of system; that is, alarms, words, codes, or all three. Create checklists and QRC information cards and ensure clear and sound duress procedures are published in com153


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pany plans. Devise procedures for when compromise of the alarm, word, or code is suspected.

Emergency Response Plan

Because the United States has become a nation where violent and mass attacks are a reality, owners/users as well as private citizens have a responsibility, and owners/users have been placed in an additional critical role of ensuring that people are trained and ready to respond to an emergency. Advance preparation makes dealing with an emergency more tolerable. The 9/11 terrorist attacks clearly demonstrated the need to prepare not only America’s first responders but all Americans, and at all levels. Terrorists have the knowledge and the capability to strike anywhere in the world. One of the most important steps anyone can take in preparing for emergencies is to develop an emergency response plan. An emergency response plan is guidance to establish clear and concise procedures and an organizational structure to respond to emergencies. It provides the opportunity to 154


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assign roles and responsibilities for the implementation of the plan during an emergency. It also serves as a plan for expediting entry for emergency personnel. Minimizing danger, protecting personnel and property, and restoring normal operations is the objective. With proper planning, the impact of an emergency can be lessened. It is important that all personnel be trained as to their individual responsibilities within the plan and how it will be implemented. A plan of this nature should include a process for notification, response, and evacuation. An emergency response plan should be regularly practiced and tested. Ensure the plan assesses heating, ventilation and air conditioning to determine whether the system is secure or could feasibly be upgraded to better filter potential contaminants. Include procedures and training to ensure personnel can turn it off if need be. Consider devising alternative plans if personnel are forced to remain at work, and ensure you have appropriate supplies on hand. In creating an emergency response checklist, ensure it addresses issues that apply specifically to your business or specialty.

Emergency Notification When we’re notified of an emergency, again, it’s the seconds that count. The ability to effectively communicate with others in times of emergency is vital. Let’s face it, communication failures do occur, and when they do, they put those who depend on communication in jeopardy, especially during a crisis. Emergency notification procedures provide an opportunity to reach people faster, reduce miscommunications, and add continuity and flow during an emergency. Use an emergency notification checklist during an emergency. Implementation of specific emergency notification measures will depend of the type of emergency and the severity of the event. Some alternative ways an owner/ user may notify employees in the event of an emergency are staff meetings or briefings (for which there may not be 155


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enough time), e-mail, voice mail, text message, television, radio, cell phone/mobile phone, pager, internal communications systems, loud speaker, or messenger. Site-specific emergency response plans should be designed and implemented in conjunction with state and local government policies and procedures.

Emergency Response When a business is affected by a major incident, accident, or disaster, it is highly probable that emergency workers and first responders will have to enter the workplace to render assistance and save lives. Personnel must be aware of their own individual responsibilities as they relate to an emergency response. All personnel should be trained and prepared to react swiftly and deliberately to emergencies. Unimpeded and expedited entry of first responders during an emergency response as well as swift and immediate emergency response actions by personnel should all occur simultaneously. Owners/users are encouraged to develop emergency entry procedures (IAW state and local fire protection codes). Include procedures for safeguarding, accountability, and destruction of sensitive information prior to any entry or evacuation. When an owner/user is notified of a major incident requiring emergency responders, he or she should abide by all state and local laws pertaining to emergency entry and response.

Emergency Evacuation Emergency evacuation requires vacating a facility because of a major incident, accident, or disaster. Emergency evacuation procedures instruct the owner/user in cases of unexpected and sudden events that require immediate attention. These procedures also help to ease confusion and provide 156


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continuity and order to situations. Emergency evacuation procedures should be regularly practiced and tested. When evacuating, whether during a real event or an exercise, always evacuate in a calm and orderly manner and take seriously the event and measures associated with it. Horseplay and pushing and shoving should not be tolerated and must be addressed by the owner/user to ensure evacuations are taken seriously and conducted in a safe manner. Create, review and test emergency checklists and procedures and ensure they address the following: - AT/WP communication and information-sharing procedures. - Staggered work schedule and personnel standby or recall procedures. - Emergency and contingency planning. - Threat level actions personnel are required to take in the event of an emergency. - Circulation control and identification procedures. - Procedures for halting all routine visits, deliveries and repairs. - Procedures for vehicles parked in/around the workplace. - Where applicable, enhanced mail and package screening. - Procedures for checking easy access points, HVAC, roofing, windows, doors, tunnels, and weak and worn structural problems. - CCTV and alarms. - Emergency telephone numbers. - Preplan, avoid routines, vary times and routes, and keep a low profile, especially during periods of increased threats. - Training and documenting training. - Emergency response training exercises 157


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- Procedures for threatening or malicious telephone calls, e-mail, etc. - Conduct a quick visual scan of your work area and evacuate in a calm and orderly manner. Try to remain calm and do not rush or panic. - Locations of emergency exits and stairwells. Follow the nearest escape routes. - Rally point or assembly area locations. - Be alert and immediately report any situation that may constitute a threat or suspicious activity. - Remain vigilant and take notice and report all suspicious activities, packages, devices, personnel, and other unusual materials or situations along the evacuation route. - Personnel should never handle or attempt to remove any suspicious object, but instead, should call for assistance. - Report any unusual findings when you arrive at the rally point or assembly area. - Increase the number of visible security personnel, patrols, timing, and routes; correspond with law enforcement where necessary. - If security guards are not available, consider placing employees at specifically designated entry points to control entry and exit to and from the facility. - Before evacuating, and if time permits, turn off computers and lights, close windows, and close doors behind you but don’t lock them.

In addition: - Teach family and employees about the consequences of terrorist attacks. - Teach family and employees how to prepare for emergencies and how to respond.

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- Take a first aid and CPR class. Local American Red Cross chapters can provide valuable information. - Teach children how and when to call 911. - Discuss site-specific emergency response plans with employers and school officials. - Talk with family members about potential emergencies and how to respond to each. Discuss what you would need to do in the event of an emergency evacuation. - Make sure everyone in your household knows how and when to shut off the water, gas, and electricity at the main switches. - Consider ways to help neighbors who may need special assistance, such as the elderly or the disabled. - Make arrangements for pets. Pets may not be allowed in public shelters. Always use up-to-date checklists and conduct training exercises to test procedures, and ensure checklists are available to authorized personnel only. Checklists may be separate or combined into one flowing document. Conduct thorough research of all state and local emergency and disaster procedures before implementing exercises. Develop a variety of scenarios, and don’t be afraid to get creative. Invite local emergency responders as well as city, state, and federal government agencies to participate in joint exercises. Use both employees and nonemployees as perpetrators, suspects, victims, and evaluators when conducting exercises. Remember to create exercises unique to your work center. Document all reviews, routing, dissemination, changes, and updates to duress and emergency response plans, procedures, and checklists, and publish the processes in the ops plan. Emergency events do not always require the same level of response. They’re dictated by the severity and nature of the event and its effect on the health and safety of the people involved. Recognizing that traumatic events often 159


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produce short- and long-term psychological concerns for personnel involved, use counselor intervention after a realworld emergency has ended and some sense of normality has returned. If your business does not have an emergency response plan, now is the time to develop one. Tomorrow may be too late!

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CHAPTER 13 Training Module 3: Bomb Threats and Suspicious Packages

Bombings, potential bombings, and the threat of being attacked are very real in today’s world. They constitute a serious threat and should be taken seriously. They bring fear among people and threaten to uproot our daily routines. Law enforcement officials worldwide are tasked with providing protection for life and property, but law enforcement can’t do the job alone. We as Americans must step up to the plate and take on our part in the fight against crime and terrorism.

Bomb Threat and Suspicious Package Response Plan A bomb threat and suspicious package response plan provides detailed procedures to implement when a bomb threat 161


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occurs or a suspicious package is found. The plan itself should describe exact details of how it will be executed, to include preparedness, reporting, reaction, response, recovery, equipment and evacuation. Procedures should be clear, concise, and should describe standard site-specific procedures for handling bomb threats or suspicious packages and should discuss specifics such as what, where, how, when, and whom. Include procedures for implementation of checklists, telephone aids, code words, numbers, letters, and call signs. The overall plan is a “go to� and provides bomb threat and suspicious package instruction and direction IAW state, local, and site-specific directives. Emergency notification, response, and evacuation routes and rally points are important elements of these actions. Bomb threat/suspicious package actions are generally executed in the same manner in order to always obtain the same results.

Bomb Threat Telephone Aids Called bomb threat telephone cards or bomb threat aids, these items allow personnel to ascertain certain information and characteristics about the call and caller or help recall certain information about a suspected device. These aids should list general information about the threat, allowing an individual to record as much detail as possible that could be useful to police. Post bomb threat aids near telephones, offices, customer service areas, and other designated locations throughout a business facility IAW the ops plan. Create mini bomb threat QRCs containing the same information that a checklist or aid would have; use the convenient pocket device when needed.

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Bomb Threat/Suspicious Package Checklists A bomb threat/suspicious package checklist can be very effective when it comes to a situation involving a suspected or actual explosive device. Check your own state and local bomb threat/suspicious package policies and procedures before assembling lessons, conducting training, or implementing procedures of this type. Combine state, local, and site-specific procedures into one smart, flowing checklist. While your city or state may have general bomb threat and suspicious package procedures, each individual jobsite is encouraged to assemble a site-specific policy, procedure, and training plan unique to that business. Procedures should be clearly written in an operations, training, and contingency plan. Once given the order to evacuate during a bomb threat or suspicious package incident, personnel should do the following: - Evacuate to the pre-designated rally point and be accounted for until the affected area has been deemed safe by authorities. - Conduct a quick scan of the work area and evacuate in a calm and orderly manner. Due to the excitement and possible confusion during a bomb threat or suspicious package incident, personnel may forget simple learned tasks. Criminal elements thrive off confusion and panic. - Always be alert for suspicious devices when evacuating, and report any unusual findings to supervisors when you arrive at the rally point. It is very possible that a device may have been placed along the evacuation route. - Be alert for suspicious people nearby during evacuation and upon arriving at rally point. It is also possible that someone involved in initiating the threat may still be present.

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- Once at the rally point, a supervisor or designated person should take a head count to ensure the facility is evacuated and everyone is safely present and accounted for. - Change the rally point location after each real-world and exercise incident to avoid giving those who may be observing and taking notes an indication of rally point locations. Bomb threat and suspicious package procedures should cover normal day-to-day operations, emergencies, and times of increased threats. Procedures may be incorporated into an overall fire or emergency evacuation plan or act as a standalone plan. To avoid compromise, avoid posting bomb threat procedures in public areas. It is essential that bomb threat/ suspicious package procedures be exercised and rehearsed during initial and continuous training as well as OEEs. Train employees to be familiar with all areas of the workplace, and if personnel work off-site, ensure they are also trained. Be able to spot items and personnel that appear out of the ordinary. Observe and report. Be aware when using electronic devices, such as radios, cell phones and computers that electronic devices could possibly set off explosive devices. Check fire department or explosive ordnance directives in your area.

Common methods of delivering a bomb threat or suspicious package Telephone: It is highly possible that a telephone will be used to communicate a threat. The use of the telephone aids the individual in remaining anonymous.

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- Listen carefully for all details. - Use your bomb threat/suspicious package checklist/ telephone aid. This should be posted by phones, kept on your person, or located nearby for easy accessibility. - Obtain as much information as you can about the caller. - Listen for and note names, nicknames, background noises, and voice characteristics, such as very deep, very high pitched, having a distinguishable accent, and so forth. - Notify police and provide them with any information from the checklist that you were able to ascertain.

Receiving a bomb threat in person It is also possible that employees, visitors, vendors and contractors could deliver a bomb threat. If this situation occurs, follow these guidelines: - Attempt to note physical description; that is, weight, height, hair color, race, identifying marks, and type of clothing. - Note the direction of travel, mode of travel, and number of occupants in a vehicle if possible. - Notify police and provide them with any information from the checklist or the suspected device that you were able to ascertain. - Evacuate to the rally point or a safe distance as determined by management or the fire department. Verify state and local operational procedures for emergency evacuation.

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Ways a bomb may be disguised - Hidden in a box and/or disguised in other ways. - Carried in a purse, briefcase, backpack, and so forth. - Strapped to a person’s body, underneath or on top of clothing. - Hidden in a car, truck, or any motorized vehicle. - Funneled through the U.S. mail.

What Are Suspicious Packages? - Packages with unusual odors. - Packages with too much wrapping. - Packages with bulges, bumps, or odd shapes. - Packages with no return address. - Items sent “registered” or “personal.” - Packages with incorrect spelling or poor typing. - Packages with protruding wires or strings. Note characteristics of the device and location for later reporting to police and other appropriate agencies. If you see or think you see a suspicious package, do not attempt to handle it or bring it inside. Isolate the area and call for help!

What should make me suspect a piece of mail? - Unexpected or from someone you don’t know. - Addressed to someone no longer at your address. - Handwritten with no return address or one that you cannot confirm is legitimate. 166


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- Lopsided or lumpy in appearance. - Sealed with excessive amounts of tape. - Marked with restrictive endorsements such as “personal” or “confidential.” - Has excessive postage.

When should I report a suspicious package? - Immediately! If a package causes you concern, act upon it! - Don’t wait to see if someone will come and get it! - You don’t need to become a victim!

What should I do with a suspicious piece of mail? - Don’t handle a letter or package that you suspect is contaminated; isolate it! - Don’t shake it, bump it, or sniff it. - Clear the area immediately, and if time permits, take your personal belongings with you: briefcases, lunch boxes. - Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water. - Notify supervisors and managers. - Notify the local police and fire departments. Bomb threats can be directed at specific areas or general locations, and a specific time element may be involved. Keep in mind that more than one device may be present. Personnel in the vicinity of a bomb threat may not react in a calm manner. An owner/user must make the decision to accomplish basic tasks until appropriate authorities arrive. Proper planning and preparation can reduce the risk of personal injury and mass panic. In all situations, training,

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preplanning, and reaction must be decisive and flexible in order avoid further threat. When teaching bomb threat/suspicious packages instruction, the owner/user is encouraged to consider the following: - Use lesson plans. - Use checklists. - Understand the significance of bomb threat/ suspicious package training. - Ensure training continues throughout the employee’s time on the job. - Review lessons-learned reports from incidents involving bombs and suspicious packages. - Conduct frequent training exercises to give employees hands-on involvement. - Encourage employees to ask questions and engage in group discussion about the subject. Use employees or nonemployees as perpetrators, suspects, victims, and evaluators. Conduct training exercises often and develop a variety of scenarios. Don’t be afraid to get creative; avoid complacency. Invite local emergency responders from the city, state, and federal government levels to participate in joint bomb threat/suspicious package exercises. Use credible government agencies and Web sites that provide information about bomb threats and other emergency procedures. Effective, site-specific plans and programs, training, rehearsals, checklists, and a dedicated responsibility on the part of the owner/user can help to reinforce the knowledge needed when dealing with bomb threats and suspicious packages, inevitably saving lives.

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CHAPTER 14 Training Module 4: Identifying and Challenging Suspicious Personnel, or Circulation Control

Circulation Control Circulation control is a security deterrent process created by an owner/user that involves the entry, exit, and internal movement of all people within and/or around a workplace. These security measures are applied against the threat of unauthorized personnel not only in restricted, sensitive, or controlled areas but in routine work areas to preclude theft, destruction, or hostile actions within the area. The owner/user is responsible for conducting circulation control by making random and/or periodic patrols and security checks of the workplace. Where possible, conduct identification checks of anyone in the facility, including employees, visitors and contractors. In addition, check all operational, nonoperational, and administrative areas that are part of the workplace to ensure they’re secure and free of unauthorized people and suspicious activity. 169


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The owner/user may develop schedules designating which employees are responsible for circulation control on designated days, weeks or months. Circulation control may be implemented by a single employee, teams, departments or sections, and may be conducted hourly, randomly, periodically, or IAW company ops plan.

The following are deterrent processes that fall within the range of circulation control:

Random and/or routine monitoring/walkthrough of the workplace This deterrent process is conducted by the use of CCTV, alarms, warning signs, and vigilant employees. The owner/ user maintains authority to make circulation control procedures as stringent as necessary IAW the nature of the business. Know the people who work with and for you. If you’re uncertain or suspicious of those who say they work with you, there should be processes in place to make identification simple. If you’re still unsure, by all means ask questions and ask for help from other employees. For any AT/WP program to be successful, it takes working together as a dedicated team.

Restricting entrances and exits - Restrict the number of entrances and exits for routine day-to-day business and for sensitive or controlled areas, especially during emergencies and periods of increased threat. - Lock unsecured access points and avoid propping doors open.

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- Install two-way mirrored windows and door buzzers. When someone asks to enter, an employee can see who is requesting entry but cannot be seen from the outside. - Place personnel at designated doors to control entry and exit and to maintain security and accountability. Where possible, provide radios, cell phones, and pagers for these personnel and/or provide CCTV to help monitor entrances and exits.

Workplace Identification Badges Another great circulation control deterrent is the use of workplace ID badges. Identifying and tracking visitors should be a primary concern in today’s world. An identification badge is one of the simplest and most straightforward ways to identify visitors and employees and control their access to a workplace. A simple and secure way to enhance the functionality of your ID badge program is to incorporate photos and magnetic stripe cards. These cards store certain information on a magnetic stripe, which is read when the card is swiped through a card reader system. Magnetic stripe cards are commonly used for a variety of reasons: employee badges, student IDs, etc. When designing procedures, consider production, reproduction, security, validation, distribution, and destruction of badges. ID badges should be worn on the outer clothing and attached above the waist, to the shirt, blouse, jacket, or coat, where they can be clearly seen. Where necessary, develop additional procedures for sensitive areas, emergencies, and times of increased threats.

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Entry Authority List (EAL) The entry authority list (EAL) is a procedure commonly used for identification purposes, for control of entry into work areas, and for granting unescorted entry into a workplace. The way this procedure generally works is if someone does not have, has forgotten, lost, or had stolen their personal or workplace identification, they’re required to sign in on an EAL and provide some form of identification. The owner/ user creates the process at his/her own discretion and IAW the ops plan. EALs could also be used for employees who do not possess or require workplace credentials, are entering on a one-time or temporary basis and performing a service on an as-needed basis.

Example EAL for employee: Occasionally, an employee will lose an ID, report it as stolen, or simply will show up for work without it. Identifying employees can work many ways IAW an owner/user’s existing security policies. Below is an example of how an owner/user can utilize an employee EAL. - Establish an EAL for workplace personnel only. - Establish an employee roster with specific information listed. - When/if employee shows up without proper ID, contact the employee’s supervisor or work department to verify employment. - Compare the employee’s personal identification information to a valid and current workplace employee roster. - Establish a pre-designated workplace pass or code word or number. - Have a known employee vouch for the security status of the individual.

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- When confirmation is received, issue the employee a temporary badge, and sign in on the EAL.

Example EAL for visitor: - A visitor arrives at the workplace primary or main entry control point. - The entry controller requests ID from the visitor. (The ops plan may determine whether a visitor’s ID should be retained at the ECP until the visitor departs the facility or should be returned to the visitor upon entry.) - The controller ascertains the reason for visit, name of person to visit, contact number, and destination. - The controller logs the visitor’s personal identifying information on the EAL: name of visitor, name and address of the business that they’re associated with, license or state ID number, phone number, and so forth. - The controller confirms the visit by contacting the person or location the visitor is requesting to visit. - Once the visit is confirmed, the person may be allowed to continue to the destination with or without an escort IAW company plans. - Upon completion of the visit, the visitor returns to the ECP, is returned his or her ID if it was surrendered upon entry, signs out, and leaves the building. Not all businesses will require the use of an EAL. EALs should always be maintained with the owner/user and destroyed or shredded IAW the ops plan.

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Example Entry Authority List (EAL) DATE: SEPT 25, XXXX OWNER/USER NAME AND DEPT: JOHN SMITH- SUPPLY AND STORAGE ILLINOIS CHEMICAL BRAND AND WEAPONS DEPOT DIVISION ENTRY AUTHORITY LIST (EAL)

The EAL, ID badge system can be as flexible or as stringent as the owner/user prefers. Owner/user determines if this system is necessary, creates the EAL and ID badges, and determines what necessary information goes into the EAL. Depending on the size and nature of the business, owner/user may log or document all visitors and escorted personnel entering and exiting a facility. Sensitive areas may also constitute use of an EAL. The EAL may be used during special visits, inspections, deliveries, repairs, emergencies, and during increased threats to keep control of visitors. Post or have EAL available at selected manned entry points and/ or IAW ops plans. Include procedures to maintain, produce, reproduce, account for, validate, distribute and destruction of EAL. NOTE: Obviously all businesses won’t require the use of an EAL or ID badge system. FIRST AND LAST NAME

ID INFORMATION

DATE/TIME/POC

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Personal Recognition Contractors, vendors, and visitors may visit a facility often enough that they become known or familiar to the owner/ user. In such cases, the owner/user may use a process called personal recognition. This process allows unimpeded entry without the use of an ID badge, an EAL, or escorts. The objective of personal recognition is based on past experiences and familiarity. Avoid as much as possible having random people roam the workplace. Use this system carefully so the process is not abused. If you’re going to use personal recognition, monitor the process closely, and at a minimum, have personnel sign in and out on an EAL for security and accountability purposes.

Restricted, Sensitive, and Controlled Area Entry For the purpose of AT/WP a restricted, sensitive, or controlled area is defined as an area, room, building, or other parts of a facility to which access is limited, strictly limited, or forbidden, monitored and controlled IAW a specific policy or directive. The levels of security may depend on the nature and sensitivity of the room or area to be protected. Circulation control of these areas can be accomplished by the owner/users, and admittance should be limited to persons who have authorized or official business within the area. Control of the area may depend entirely on a company’s written policies and the security awareness of the people working in it. Use identification badges, EAL, and escort procedures to identify visitors, control entry, and maintain accountability. Avoid using personal recognition for these areas. Document all visits and keep entrances to the minimum necessary for safety, security, and operational control.

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Escorted Entry Escorted entry is the process whereby an individual who is typically not authorized entry to a particular area is allowed to perform a service there on a one-time basis and is kept under surveillance by workplace personnel or a designated escort official. An escort official assumes responsibility for the safe and secure conduct of the escorted individuals and personally keeps them under surveillance and control while in the area until the individuals sign out and leave the premises. Depending on the nature and sensitivity of the business, escort officials may turn over escort duties to other employees. Implementing circulation control; circulation control measures apply to everyone. Implement circulation control procedures during normal day-to-day operations, during periodic or random ID checks, during after-hour security checks, and during times of emergency and increased threats. Periodic or random ID checks should be carefully designed to avoid the appearance of singling out certain individuals. Increase checks during periods of increased threats and IAW ops plan. Circulation control measures apply to everyone. Save the movie star treatment for the red carpet. VIPs and dignitaries should be given the same treatment as everyone else, and procedures should be applied IAW the ops plan. No exceptions should be made when it comes to the security and welfare of people and the workplace. Everyone gets treated the same.

The Challenge Some businesses may require workplace ID to be displayed while on work property and/or when requested by proper authorities. In AT/WP circumstances where identity must be verified and a person has refused to display proper ID, the owner/user may initiate a challenge. A challenge is simply a request for identification or authentication. The purpose 176


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of any challenge is to positively identify persons. While conducting a challenge, always remain vigilant of your surroundings for anything that may appear suspicious.

Sound the Alarm After a challenge, if a person’s identity still cannot be verified and he or she refuses to show proper ID and cannot be properly identified by the owner/user, personnel should sound the alarm. Sounding the alarm notifies others that you may need assistance. Don’t be afraid to ask questions of those who are not familiar to you in your work areas, and never physically attempt to detain persons. Instead, if you cannot ascertain someone’s identity and reason for being there, contact security personnel, a supervisor, or other work personnel. Always observe and be familiar with your work area and be able to spot suspicious or unknown people and items that are out of the ordinary. If after supervisor or security intervention, a person still cannot be properly identified, implement corrective action IAW ops plan. It may be necessary to immediately remove the person (or the threat) from the workplace until identity and/or authority to enter can be verified. Results of any circulation control action should always be documented. At businesses where it’s virtually impossible to identify individual customers, circulation control can be accomplished by CCTV, security guards, alarms, warning signs, and/or a routine walk-through and observation of the location and clientele. Some companies, especially larger businesses, may retain private security agencies to conduct circulation control. Large or small, businesses need protection, and circulation control adds that extra protective measure. Everyone in the workplace becomes responsible for security. If circulation control is conducted on a day-to-day basis, employees should become more accustomed to working with the process. The owner/user maintains and has oversight of all 177


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circulation control policies, procedures, and processes and decides overall requirements based on the needs of the workplace. Pat downs, search techniques, and the use of personnel search and X-ray equipment should be conducted IAW state and local laws. Circulation control is a very important step in the AT/WP program and should be covered and practiced during both training phases. Large or small, public or private, circulation control is a great deterrent. Checklists ensure compliance with applicable site-specific, state, and local directives to ensure all necessary steps are followed IAW written procedures. Use circulation control checklists anywhere people and resources are located. Conduct circulation control during normal day-to-day duties, at night, on weekends and holidays, and during emergencies and times of increased threats. Conduct random, no-notice, and/or advanced-warning circulation control exercises. Exercises test the employees’ knowledge and ability to report, respond, react, and apply processes and information learned during training. Use employees or nonemployees as exercise players, perpetrators, suspects, victims, and evaluators. Conduct training exercises often. Don’t be afraid to get creative and remember to create exercises unique to your work center. Invite local emergency responders to participate in joint exercises. Use applicable training aids and checklists. Some training aids can help employees recall important information about suspects and incidents. Always research state and local policies, laws, and procedures, as well as credible government Web sites. Use local first responders, functional experts, or AT/WP consultants for assistance and additional information.

New Thinking: Out with the Old and In with the New No one wants to fall under the “lessons-learned” category. Years ago, people had little concern about threats, and if 178


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there was a threat, most people were comfortable with the idea that it wouldn’t affect them. While it’s true that threats have changed throughout the years, 9/11 should have awakened something in all of us. There are threats out there, and yes, they can affect you. Universally and systematically, people should feel inspired to do something more than before. Those conspiring to support terrorism or those who have grudges to fix hope you never become inspired. Those conspiring to support terrorism or those who have grudges to fix hope you never feel moved to change the way things are. Those conspiring to support terrorism or those who have grudges to fix hope that you remain complacent. Those conspiring to support terrorism or those who have grudges to fix hope that you remain unaware of the dangers that exist among us. Smart and aggressive security and AT/WP measures and deterrents provide us an excellent opportunity to move forward in a new and bold direction. We can certify to those conspiring to support terrorism or fix grudges that smart security, aggressive protective measures, and advanced planning are not and will not be taken for granted. One may ask … are anti-terrorism and workplace protection programs really necessary? One may ask … are operation plans, training plans, and physical security inspections really necessary? One may ask … is bomb threat training and homeland security advisory and circulation control measures really necessary? One may ask … does any of this stuff really make any sense? My answer to these questions is simple: did 9/11? An uninspired, unnerved, and complacent America is a vulnerable America. An uninspired, unnerved, complacent, and vulnerable America is a dangerous America.

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CHAPTER 15 Training Module 5: Personal, Home, and Family Security

While conducting research to piece this book together, I was deciding on the topics to include. While I initially concentrated my work primarily on protecting the workplace and workers, I soon realized I was leaving out a very important aspect of anti-terrorism and protection. How could one discuss this very important topic and not include the family? Families are confronted with the same protection fears that businesses are. Terrorism, threats, crime, and violence can devastate a family just as much as they can devastate a business. The safety of our loved ones, our families, is just as important, if not more. 180


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The family, that most cherished and valued asset is the spirit of this great country, and we owe it not only to ourselves to provide this information for our families and our loved ones, but we owe it to history. Watching what’s going on in the world today and watching the evening news has been a wake-up call for my family as well as my friends, as I’m sure it has been for most Americans. It should be! It has forced me to make some very important changes in my own life and has helped me open my eyes more and more to how my family and friends live as well. Terrorists and criminals do not discriminate. The mere fact that we exist makes us a target for terrorism, crime, and violence. While some of the rules to remember, or as I like to call them, “rules of engagements,” listed in this chapter have historically been geared toward military personnel and their families, times have changed, and it’s time for us all to jump aboard the bandwagon. With terrorist threats and attacks around the world and here at home, threats toward U.S. interests at home and abroad, and an increase in violent home invasions and workplace shootings, I considered it extremely important to share with you protective measures I’ve studied throughout my years in the air force, hoping you’ll find something here that you can use to maybe help change the way you live your life. I encourage you to carefully make some important decisions about what you read in this chapter and how to apply the information to your own situations as you see fit. I know that all families won’t require the same amount of protection; however, be selective and be smart for the safety of your home and your loved ones.

An American Way of Life The world has become a ritual of changes and global instability, and because the threats against us are real, there 181


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are some things I believe are worth curtailing, whether you live and work stateside or live and work overseas. I call it smart planning, and it consists of doing things just a little differently from before. Again, as I said earlier, there’s nothing new to the idea of protecting oneself, one’s home, one’s family, and one’s livelihood. However, I believe the overall idea somehow lessened a little in previous years. As Americans, we indulge ourselves in our jobs, our vacations, family gatherings, and our overall everyday lives. The American way of life has always been the one to envy. True, we have our social and economic problems, but the American way of life is the life to want, to cherish, and we want future generations to enjoy the same freedoms we’ve had, and even more. We owe it to ourselves to never stop achieving the things we consider important and the things that we’ve spent a lifetime enjoying. Governmental protection agencies, including the Department of Homeland Security, have provided a responsible and effective advertising campaign, partly consisting of public service announcements designed to inform, educate, and empower American families to prepare for and respond to emergencies. Portions of this chapter was taken from a manual dedicated toward military members and their families called JS Guide 5260, Service Member’s Personal Protection Guide: A SelfHelp Handbook to Combating Terrorism, published by the Joint Chiefs of Staff provides smart rules to live by for military members. I’ve taken excerpts from the manual and believe that a lot of the valuable information can be applied everyone. Use information that can benefit you, and your family.

Keep a Low Profile - Do not draw attention to yourself or your family; be considerate of neighbors. 182


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- Do not blast loud music. (You don’t have to be loud to enjoy yourself.) - Refrain from posting your names on the outside of your residence or mailbox. - When entertaining, consider keeping the crowd at a minimum—small enough for you to know what’s going on—and keep it under control. Do not allow people you do not know on your property or inside your home. - Brief all family members on good security procedures.

Be Unpredictable - As much as you can, vary the times you leave home every day. Refrain from letting everyone know your routines. You may not even realize it, but chances are very real that someone is always watching, even if it’s the next-door neighbor, a member of the condo association, or the guy across the street. - Vary daily routines to avoid habitual patterns. For example, vary the time you open and close the blinds and leave lights on in one room one day and in another the next day. - If you’re leaving for a length of time, let someone you know and trust know where you’re going, how long you’ll be gone, and when you plan to return. - Advise friends or family members of your destination when leaving the office or home and your anticipated time of arrival. - Vary your route, time, and mode of travel. - Watch for anything suspicious. - Do not release personal information. - If you believe you’re being followed, go to a predetermined safe area.

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- Avoid giving unnecessary personal details over the phone, Internet, or in person. - Be alert to strangers at your workplace and at home. - Report suspicious people loitering near your residence or office. - Memorize key phone numbers. - Be alert and remain vigilant.

Be Suspicious - Avoid posting personal information on Internet Web sites or giving personal information to people you do not know. Monitor with care family members’ Internet activity. Investigate any suspicious activity. - Do not answer questions from unknown callers. Instruct your family and associates not to provide strangers with information about you or your family. - Treat with suspicion any inquiries about the whereabouts or activities of other family members. - Be alert to public works crews. - Do not be afraid to request identification from repair personnel, contractors, or other visitors requesting access to your residence or businesses. - Be alert to peddlers and strangers. - Don’t open the door for strangers. - Write down license numbers and the make and model of suspicious vehicles. Note descriptions of occupants. - Refuse to meet with strangers.

Special Precautions for Children - Never leave young children alone or unattended. Be certain they are in the care of a responsible and 184


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trustworthy person. If it becomes necessary to leave children at home, keep the house well lit and notify neighbors. - Instruct children to keep doors and windows locked and never answer the door for strangers. - Teach children how to contact the police or a neighbor in an emergency. - Know where your children are at all times. - Advise children to never leave home without telling you where they will be and who will accompany them. - Always travel in pairs or groups. - Avoid isolated areas. - Tell children to refuse automobile rides from strangers and refuse to accompany strangers anywhere. - Advise children to run at the first sign of trouble. Scream as loud as possible. - Tell children to run toward an adult or any source of help and safety. - Tell children if someone attempts an abduction to draw attention in any way possible. Never give in and go with an abductor. - Advise children to refuse to meet with strangers.

Home Security - Make a plan and practice it. - Establish an emergency family checklist, to include an emergency contact list, evacuation plan, and emergency meeting place. Ensure all family members are trained and are aware of actions to take. - Restrict the possession of house keys. Change the locks if keys are lost or stolen and when moving into 185


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a previously occupied residence. Alarm the doors until you’ve had the opportunity to change locks. - Lock all doors at night, including the garage and car doors. Keep the house locked, even if you’re home. - When installing entrance and exit doors, consider solid doors with deadbolt locks. Install one-way peepholes. - Ensure locks are in good working order. - Lock skylights. - Ensure all unused inside and outside windows are permanently closed and secured. - Ensure windows are locked when they are shut. - Be as careful of second-floor or basement windows as you are of those on the ground floor. - Secure sliding glass doors with a stick, or piece of wood. - Install a patio door lock. - Ensure doors locks cannot be bypassed by breaking the glass or panels. - Install metal grating or decorative security ornaments on glass doors and ground-level windows, with interior release mechanisms that are not reachable from outside. - Close all shutters at night and when leaving your residence for extended periods. - Secure all unused doors. - Secure gates and fences during the day and at night. - Trim trees and remove poles, ladders, boxes or obstacles that might help an intruder to scale the fence, air conditioner, wall, or hedge. - Install lights to illuminate all sides of your residence, garage, and patio area. Crooks hate light when working at night. - Leave lights on during hours of darkness. - Check regularly to see that lights are working. 186


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- Dogs or other pets can sound an alarm if they hear or spot an intruder. - Shred of otherwise destroy all envelopes, bills, or other items containing personal information before throwing out. - Develop friendly relationships with your neighbors but avoid divulging your life history. - Consider installing cameras, video systems or dummy or simulated camera systems as a deterrent. - Consider alarms and intercom systems. - Consider investing in a portable home generator. A portable generator is always a good idea in cases of power outages and emergencies. - If you suspect a problem, it may not be unusual to place baby monitors, listening devices, or motion detectors on your property. You can now buy affordable security devices at local shops. - Ensure you have an ample supply of fire extinguishers. - Have first aid and bloodborne pathogen kits available. - Know emergency phone numbers. Post them near phones, doors, or any place that is quickly accessible. - Ensure you and your family stay alert in your observations of persons who may have you under surveillance or who may be casing your house in preparation for a burglary or other crime.

Parking and Driving - Where possible, avoid parking on the street. - Always lock your car.

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- Always check for suspicious people or activity before entering a garage and car and before exiting a vehicle. If in doubt, avoid the area or drive away. - Leave only your ignition key with valet parking attendants. Never leave your house keys. - Never leave garage doors unlocked. Use a remote garage opener if available. - Before leaving a destination to get into your vehicle, check the surrounding area to determine if anything of a suspicious nature exists. Display the same wariness before exiting your vehicle. - Avoid leaving packages, parcels, bags, and so forth in your car in plain sight. - If possible, vary routes to work and home. - Where possible, avoid late night travel. - Travel with companions. - Avoid isolated roads or dark alleys when possible. - Habitually ride with seat belts buckled, doors locked, windows closed, and purses or personal bags out of sight.

If You Believe You’re Being Followed - Circle the block for confirmation of surveillance. - Do not stop or take other actions that could lead to confrontation. - Do not drive home. - Get a description of the car and its occupants. - Go to the nearest safe haven. - Contact police if needed.

Security Precautions When You’re Away

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- Leave the house with a lived-in look. - Notify trusted neighbors. - Stop deliveries or forward mail to a neighbor’s home. - Don’t leave notes on doors. - Don’t hide keys outside the house. - Use a timer to turn lights on and off at varying times and locations. - Leave a radio or television on. - Secure valuables.

Using Commercial Transportation - Vary modes of commercial transportation. - Select busy stops. - Don’t always use the same taxi company. - Don’t let someone you don’t know direct you to a specific cab. - Ensure that a taxi is licensed and has safety equipment (seat belts at a minimum). - If possible, ensure that the face of the driver and the picture on license are the same. - Try to travel with a companion. - If possible, specify the route you want the taxi to follow.

Precautions at the Airport - Arrive early; watch for suspicious activity. - Observe what people are carrying. Note behavior not consistent with that of others in the area. - No matter where you are in the terminal, identify objects suitable for cover in the event of attack.

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Pillars, trash cans, luggage, large planters, counters, and furniture can provide protection - Do not linger near open public areas. - Stay informed about the Transportation Security Administration’s (TSA’s) list of items passengers may carry aboard aircraft and any necessary changes to security. Proceed through security checkpoints as soon as possible in order to be in a more secure area. - Avoid secluded areas that provide concealment for attackers. - Be aware of unattended baggage anywhere in the terminal. - Be extremely observant of your own carry-on luggage. Briefcases designed for laptop computers are popular among thieves. Likewise, leaving luggage unattended provides an opportunity for someone to place an unwanted object in your carryon bag. - As much as possible, do not pack anything you cannot afford to lose; if the documents are important, make a copy and carry the copy. - Report suspicious activity to the airport security personnel - Always adhere to the TSA’s policies and restrictions.

Actions if Attacked in an Airport - Dive for cover. - Do not run; running increases the probability of shrapnel hitting you. - If you must move, crawl and stay low to the ground, using available cover. - Cover your ears and head with your hands to protect neck, arteries, ears, and skull.

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- Do not attempt to assist responding security and law enforcement personnel unless told to do so. They will not be able to distinguish you from attackers. Lie still until told to get up.

Air Travel - Air travel, particularly through high-risk airports or countries, poses security problems different from those of ground transportation. Here, too, simple precautions can reduce the hazards of a terrorist assault. - Find out if a threat exists prior to travel, especially before traveling to a designated high-risk location. - If you are in the military, avoid using rank and address on tickets, travel documents, or hotel reservations. Avoid traveling in uniform and looking the part as much as possible. Contain military paperwork and identification. - Select window seats; they offer more protection, since aisle seats are closer to a potential hijackers’ movements up and down the aisle. - Rear seats also offer more protection, since they are farther from the center of hostile action, which is often near the cockpit, - A seat at an emergency exit may provide an opportunity to escape. Whether you are away from home or spending time at home with family, people remain a target for criminals. Peace of mind starts with informing loved ones on the issues that really matter. At any moment a crisis may occur that can impact the decisions we make and the actions we take for a lifetime. The TSA has up-to-date information on security, and items permitted and prohibited on airlines. The TSA and other credible organizations are dedicated to readiness, security, 191


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and preparedness of America. These and other organizations continue to work hard to strengthen security and reduce vulnerabilities to emergencies of all kinds, and whenever possible, stop terrorist attacks before they happen. Keep a low profile, be unpredictable, and stay alert to the people and things going on around you. I try to live by these rules every day. It makes for a smarter, safer, and more peaceful existence.

Family Training Aids Families too can develop Quick Reference Checklists (QRCs) to refer to in cases of emergency. This useful and compact pocket-sized training tool can provide family members with quick reminders of what to do in an emergency. It can contain relatives’ phone numbers and addresses, emergency numbers, scenarios and first aid techniques. There’s no limit to what the family can do to be prepared. Emergency planning is critical, so make a plan now. Information, along with smart planning and keen vigilance, can protect and keep you and your family safe for a lifetime.

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Example Personal Family Security Quick Reference Card PERSONAL FAMILY SECURITY QUICK REF. CARD Use pocket reference laminated cards as quick references during any kind of emergency incidents affecting the home. Keep these cards in wallets, purses, or desks, and make sure the kids keep a copy. It’s a great way to keep the family in the know!

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CHAPTER 16 Training Module 6: The Homeland Security Advisory System and Information Sharing The world has changed since September 11, 2001. We are a nation at risk of terrorist attacks and will remain at risk for the foreseeable future. With the establishment of threat conditions, we must remain vigilant and ready to deter terrorist attacks at all costs. Created and published by the Homeland Security Presidential Directive 3, the Homeland Security Advisory System provides alerts when there’s credible information warning of an imminent threat to the United States. It advises Americans to be vigilant, to be aware of their surroundings, and to report suspicious items or activities to local authorities and advises on actions to implement. It also advises everyone to establish an emergency preparedness kit and emergency plan for themselves and their families and to stay informed about what to do during an emergency. The system is used to communicate with public safety officials and the public at large through a threatbased, color-coded system.

The Homeland Security Advisory System There are five threat conditions, each identified by a description and corresponding color. The description details the color’s meaning, followed by actions we’re required to take in the event of a change or rise in threat conditions. The higher the threat condition, the greater the risk of a terrorist attack. Risk includes both the probability of an attack occurring and its potential gravity.

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Green—Low Risk (Low Risk of Terrorist Attack) The following protective measures may be applied: - Refining, practicing, and exercising preplanned protective measures - Ensuring personnel receive training on the Homeland Security Advisory System and departmental and sitespecific protective measures - Regularly assessing facilities for vulnerabilities and taking measures to reduce them

Our Actions - Develop an emergency plan. Visit the Web for help in creating a plan. - Share it with family, friends, and co-workers and practice the plan. - Create an emergency supply kit. - Be informed. - Know how to shelter-in-place and how to turn off utilities (power, gas, and water) to your home or office. - Examine volunteer opportunities in your community, such as Neighborhood Watch and so forth, and donate your time. - Consider completing an American Red Cross first aid or CPR course or a Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) course.

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Blue—Guarded Condition (General Risk of Terrorist Attack) In addition to the previously outlined protective measures, the following may be applied: - Checking communications with designated emergency response or command locations - Reviewing and updating emergency response procedures - Providing the public with necessary information

Our Actions - Complete the recommended steps at level green. - Review stored disaster supplies and replace items that are outdated. - Be alert to suspicious activity and report it to the proper authorities.

Yellow—Elevated Condition (Significant Risk of Terrorist Attack) In addition to the previously outlined protective measures, the following may be applied: - Increasing surveillance of critical locations - Coordinating emergency plans with nearby jurisdictions - Assessing further refinement of protective measures within the context of the current threat information

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- Implementing, as appropriate, contingency and emergency response plans

Our Actions - Complete recommended steps at levels green and blue. - Ensure disaster supply kit is stocked and ready. - Check telephone numbers in family emergency plan and update as necessary. - Develop alternate routes to and from work or school and practice them. - Continue to be alert for suspicious activity and report it to authorities.

Orange—High Condition (High Risk of Terrorist Attack) In addition to the previously outlined protective measures, the following may be applied: - Coordinating necessary security efforts with armed forces or law enforcement agencies - Taking additional precautions at public events - Preparing to work at an alternate site or with a dispersed workforce and restricting access to essential personnel only

Our Actions - Complete the recommended steps at lower levels. - Exercise caution when traveling and pay attention to travel advisories. 197


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- Review your family emergency plan and make sure all family members know what to do. - Be patient. Expect some delays, baggage searches, and restrictions at public buildings. - Check on neighbors or others who might need assistance in an emergency.

Red—Severe Condition (Severe Risk of Terrorist Attack) In addition to the previously outlined protective measures, the following may be applied: - Assigning emergency response personnel and prepositioning specially trained teams; monitoring, redirecting, or constraining transportation systems - Closing public and government facilities - Increasing or redirecting personnel to address critical emergency needs

Our Actions - Complete all recommended actions at lower levels. - Listen to local emergency management officials. - Stay tuned to TV or radio for current information and instructions. - Be prepared to shelter-in-place or evacuate as instructed. - Expect traffic delays and restrictions. - Provide volunteer services only as requested. - Contact your school or business to determine the status of the work day.

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AT/WP Information Sharing The Homeland Security Information Network allows all states and major urban areas to collect and disseminate information among federal, state, and local agencies involved in combating terrorism. For the purpose of this book, we define information sharing as collecting information as it relates to homeland security and anti-terrorism and workplace protection and alerting others. Information sharing is as important as any other AT/WP process; it involves receiving and disseminating important information as it relates to the security of people and resources. Information should be shared that can affect the lives of others, not only during emergencies and disasters, but during normal day-to-day activities. The owner/user should always verify information before disseminating it to others. The owner/user develops site-specific information-sharing procedures, including policies, lesson planning, training, exercises, and checklists. Training for the Homeland Security Advisory System and information-sharing module should be conducted during the initial and continuous training phases. Conduct joint exercises and involve local law enforcement, fire, and emergency services. Exercises test an employee’s ability to report, respond, and react. Conduct no-notice, random, and advanced-warning exercises during both normal, and after hours. Use employees or nonemployees as perpetrators, suspects, victims, and evaluators. Conduct training exercises often, and again, get creative. Create a variety of scenarios and exercises unique to your work center. Ensure the ops plan includes clear and concise information about the Homeland Security Advisory System and information sharing procedures. Conduct thorough research of credible government information and Web sites that will generally provide you with the most up-to-date information about strengthening the security and readiness of our nation. You can provide valuable assistance to local fire stations, law enforcement, emergency medical services, and emergency management. Join a Neighborhood Watch group to help with terrorism 199


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awareness and neighborhood emergency preparedness. Volunteer with the Medical Reserve Corps to provide public health and medical support. Help others get prepared, especially those with special needs. There is no limit to how one can prepare and train for emergencies. All over America, communities are organizing. It all starts with you. Stay informed!

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CHAPTER 17 Training Module 7: Bloodborne Pathogens, CPR, and First Aid This module examines bloodborne pathogens and the necessary safeguards and training to deal with them. We also examine CPR and basic first aid supplies needed to confront a situation requiring medical assistance until first responders arrive. Bloodborne pathogens (BBP) are microorganisms that are present in human blood and can infect and cause disease in people who are exposed to blood containing them. These microorganisms can be transmitted through contact with blood and other bodily fluids. The pathogens of primary concern are the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. Today everyone is at great risk of exposure to body fluids, not just employees or first responders. Exposure to blood and other body fluids occurs across a wide variety of situations and occupations. First responders must be especially alert to avoid exposure and must properly safeguard affected areas so that follow-on personnel are protected from exposure as well. Emergency responders, health-care workers, public safety personnel, and private citizens alike can be exposed to blood through needle sticks and other contaminated sharp objects. These items should be disposed of properly. All persons are urged to take advantage of available engineering controls and work practices to prevent exposure to blood and other body fluids.

Bloodborne Pathogens Control Plan All personnel should have access to, and be properly trained on, a bloodborne pathogens control plan. The purpose of this plan is to protect the health and safety of personnel 201


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who can reasonably expect, as the result of performing their job duties, to be exposed to blood or potentially infectious materials. This plan reduces exposure to bloodborne pathogens and should include instructions to follow safe practices, including wearing proper protective equipment and clothing.

Bloodborne Pathogens Kits Should Include the Following: - Gloves - Gowns - Face shields - Masks - Eye protection - Other ventilation devices as appropriate Gloves should be worn when it can be reasonably anticipated that persons may have contact with blood or body fluids, mucous membranes, or non-intact skin, or must handle contaminated items or surfaces. Gloves should also be worn for vascular access procedures, dressing changes, nasal/ tracheal suctioning, and during all cleaning and decontamination procedures of blood and body fluids. Disposable gloves should not be washed or decontaminated for reuse; they should be replaced as soon as practical when they become contaminated or as soon as feasible if they are punctured or their barrier ability is compromised. Masks and eye protection should be worn when splashes, sprays, splatter, or droplets of blood or other bodily fluids may be generated and when eye, nose, or mouth contamination can be reasonably anticipated. Protective eyewear should be worn for any invasive procedure or activity that produces blood or other bodily fluids in which eye exposure can occur. Protective eyewear must provide peripheral as well as direct protection from exposure. Eye protection 202


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may consist of one of the following: safety glasses (plain or prescription), goggles, or a chin-length face shield. Eyewear should be cleaned with antiseptic soap or disinfected with an intermediate disinfectant between patients or when used by other personnel when the eyewear is shared. Resuscitation should be readily available to personnel who can be reasonably expected to resuscitate. Devices with one-way valves to prevent the patient’s saliva or vomit from entering the caregiver’s mouth are preferred. Protective barriers should be provided in appropriate sizes and kept in accessible and convenient locations. Report bloodborne pathogen exposures to supervisors and seek medical care as soon as possible after an incident. Those exposed to blood at home or outside the workplace should contact the nearest medical center or clinic for instructions. Medical care must not be delayed. Those having contact with blood/body fluids must wash their hands with soap and water ASAP. During a major incident involving a life-or-death situation, time may be of the utmost importance. Medical emergencies may involve a single victim or may involve several. Incidents involving blood, gunshots, or explosions are very real, and being able to assist and save lives is also very real. Knowing how to treat injuries and assist in medical emergencies can make a difference. If you have first aid supplies, you are better prepared to deal with a situation when someone is in need of assistance.

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- Antibiotic and burn ointment - Cleansing properties or soap - Antibiotic towelettes to disinfect - Petroleum jelly - Adhesive bandages - Eyewash solution BBP, CPR, and basic first aid training should take place in both the initial and continuous training phases. Develop lesson plans from both Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards and policies and local medical educators. Develop exercise scenarios involving first aid and self-aid buddy care applications. Create computer-based training and tests and encourage discussions. Disseminate BBP, CPR, and first aid kits in strategic locations throughout the workplace to include mobile transport positions, but only after personnel have been thoroughly trained. Inspect administrative and operational policies, procedures, and locations of kits during the physical security inspection. Document training, distribution, and accountability of kits IAW the ops plan. Correspond with functional experts for full-on detailed and appropriate specialized training classes, particularly where it may involve resuscitation, CPR, and emergency defibrillation equipment. Specially trained medical educators, EMTs, and paramedics should be required to conduct training involving resuscitation, CPR, and emergency defibrillation equipment. During training, use videos, DVDs, the Internet, and real-world lessons-learned incidents. Private citizens should decide what works best for them and their families based on their own situations.

Bloodborne Pathogen Exercises Exercises test the employee’s ability to report, respond, and react. Use bloodborne pathogens training exercises to 204


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test bloodborne pathogens, CPR, and first aid training response and application procedures. The owner/user should conduct random, no-notice, and advance-warning exercises using checklists. Exercises should be conducted during both normal and after hours. Use employees or nonemployees as perpetrators, suspects, and victims. Conduct training exercises often and get creative. Develop a variety of exercise scenarios unique to your work center and invite local emergency responders to participate in joint exercises. Research OSHA and state and local policies and procedures and government Web sites that provide information about bloodborne pathogens, CPR, and first aid training procedures and techniques. Contact local first responders, functional experts, or AT/WP consultants for assistance and additional information.

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CHAPTER 18 What Would You Do?

We all know that emergency situations happen, and when they do, they happen in different ways. Emergencies are not scripted and can happen at a moment’s notice. The more we are prepared to handle an emergency, the less catastrophic the event becomes, making it more tolerable than if we had not prepared at all for it. In these times, terrorist incidents and other violent incidents have become a part of human culture. Training exercises are designed to test the reporting, response, and reaction capabilities of people in normal day-to-day as well as emergency events, making the outcomes of events perhaps less traumatic. Here I’ve designed a series of exercise scenarios to make you think about what you would do in a given situation? These scenarios are far from ridiculous, and let’s face it, could happen at any given time or place. Think … What Would You Do?

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Scenario #1 … Its 12:00 am, and you’ve been tasked with working late for the past two weeks to finish an important project. You’ve also observed a late-model red truck parked outside your workplace on and off for the last two weeks. At intermittent times, a man will exit the truck and disappear behind the building to where a storage garage is located. On three different occasions, after about ten minutes or so, the man returns to the truck and appears to engage in conversation with an unidentified woman sitting in the truck’s passenger seat. The unidentified woman, who never exits the car, wears a baseball cap pulled down far enough over her face, as though she is purposely trying to hide her identity. What would you do? Scenario #2 … You notice a suspicious gray late-model car with two men sitting in it. It has appeared in front of your workplace at intermittent times throughout the day. One man gets out periodically, has a cigarette, walks to the rear of the facility, and after a few minutes, appears again, walks back to the car, and drives away. What would you do? Scenario #3 … You’re tasked with ECP duties. An unidentified female has come into the weapons depot’s primary ECP at least four times in a two-week period. She claims she’s looking for John Smith, who she thought was an employee there. You notice she appears nervous and anxious and leaves before you can get her assistance. What would you do? Scenario #4 … It’s Saturday morning, and you’re sitting in your home talking to a friend on the phone. You never see the face, but you look up and just happen to notice a tall man with a baseball cap in your neighbor’s backyard while your neighbor is on vacation. What would you do? Scenario #5 … You’ve been tasked with briefing a group of teenage girls at the local community center. A female that you aren’t familiar with walks in and pulls out a handgun. She’s upset and yelling something about “she didn’t mean to do it.” What would you do?

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Scenario #6 … John Thomas is a new employee at the weapons depot. He arrives the first day for work but realizes he forgot his work ID at home, has no other identification, and none of the other employees are sure of who he is. What would you do? Scenario #7 … It’s midnight, you’re alone, and you hear noises outside your back bedroom window. Your husband is deployed to the desert, and the kids are with their grandparents. You get up to investigate, but when you open the curtains, there’s no one there. You lie back down, and about five minutes later, hear footsteps coming up the stairs. What would you do? Scenario #8 … It’s early Sunday morning, and you step out of the front door of your townhome to get the newspaper. You notice two strange men you’ve never seen before walking near your home. Both are wearing black clothing, smoking a cigarette and constantly looking over their shoulder. They immediately notice you and start walking your way. What would you do? Scenario #9 … Officer Sheryl Jones and Officer Bob McCanna, a rookie, have been tasked with conducting traffic control on the corner of Main and Fifth Avenue, a very busy intersection, during rush hour. Tom Booker has been sitting in traffic at least an hour and has gotten quite flustered. He leaves his car and approaches the officers on foot, yelling and screaming about something. The officers can’t hear Mr. Booker because of the traffic noises, and car horns. The officers notice Mr. Booker pulling out what looks like a 380 millimeter handgun, or could it be a cell phone? What would you do? Scenario #10 … You’re the new security guard who was just hired after the old guard was fired for snoozing on the job. Your first task is to review last week’s CCTV videotaped events involving the weapons depot. On Wednesday, September 15, at 9:00 am, the video shows an unidentified red truck circling the weapon depot’s east end. On Thursday, September 16, at 5:00 am, the video shows what 208


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appears to be the same truck stopping in front of the facility. At 5:05 am, a male subject gets out of the truck and attempts to enter the front door but apparently finds it locked. At 5:13 am, the man goes to the rear of the facility, finds a rear door unlocked, and enters the unlocked door. At 5:32 am, the video dies. The old security guard never had an opportunity to brief you that the CCTV system had been malfunctioning. In fact, the old guard never had an opportunity to meet you before he was fired, so you were not aware of the CCTV problems. Once you discovered the malfunction, you were planning on reporting the malfunctioning camera and the suspicious videotaped events, however, never got around to it because of your new job orientation schedule. You planned on reporting it to overhead management as soon as you got a chance, but never got the chance. What would you do? Scenario #11 … You’re a personal friend of the new security guard. You have no connection to the security guard’s job. While off-duty playing pool, your friend the guard has told you about the firing of the old guard, the malfunctioning cameras, and the possible suspicious activity on the job. He confided in you that he still had not reported the malfunctioning CCTV. When he started to report it a second time, an exercise emergency evacuation drill took place, and he never got around to it. What would you do? Scenario #12 … Joe works in Quality Control. Before he leaves for the evening, he decides to go to the men’s room to adjust his tie before he heads home. In the men’s room, he notices a small brown backpack left under the sink, almost hidden out of sight. He decides someone must have mistakenly left it, so he takes it to the security office. The security office is very busy with paperwork from a previous emergency evacuation drill, so Joe decides to leave the backpack with a note on the counter until security finishes the paperwork; then he goes home for the day. What would you do?

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Scenario #13 … After a long, hard day at work, Joe finally arrives home, settles in, and turns on the evening news. Breaking News: “We interrupt this regularly scheduled program to bring you the following report: At 5:15 pm central standard time, an explosion occurred at the Illinois Chemical Brand and Weapons Depot Division, located ten miles west of downtown Chicago, injuring sixteen, killing four, leveling the facility, and devastating a nearby farming community. Authorities report the local Bomb and Arson Unit is investigating the incident and may have found critical evidence linking what appears to be a form of explosive device found at the scene. Large chunks of metal and shreds of clothing, including pieces of brown canvas material, were also found at the scene. Authorities suspect the explosion may have been detonated from inside but are still investigating. Authorities plan on surveying what was left of the facility’s CCTV video to look for any existing clues.” Joe asks himself, “Is it possible that the backpack I saw in the men’s room and carried to security was …? Nah … can’t be! “Is it possible? “What should I have done? “What could I have done? “I never knew … I mean … “I’ve never got any training on this stuff … “Or, wait a minute, or did I?” Joe thinks to himself, “I think I remember last year sometime, they gave us a pamphlet to read … something about bomb threats or something. I don’t quite remember. I think… I may have put the pamphlet in my desk drawer and… I haven’t seen it since!” What would you do? Scenario #14 … You hear recent news reports of bomb threats and several suspicious packages found in your town. 210


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As a town employee, you’re now concerned because you know that your employer has not provided you with any type of bomb threat training. What would you do? Scenario #15 … You’re leaving work for the day and come across an unattended backpack outside the entrance. What would you do? Scenario #16 … You work at a major bank. You’re the last one to leave. Before leaving, you have to secure the bank’s alarm system. You notice the alarm will not set properly. In fact, it hasn’t been arming correctly for the last three days. You finally get it to secure, and you leave for the evening. What would you do? Scenario #17 … It’s mid June, you come across a man who appears lost near your office. The man appears suspicious, and in addition, appears to be wearing an unusual amount of clothing. What would you do? Scenario #18 … It is finally Christmas Eve, you’re at home, and you hear a news report of a suspected attack on an adjacent city’s infrastructure. What would you do? Scenario #19 … You’re driving home after a long day at work. You notice the same blue car following you even to the point where you’ve reached the street you live on. What would you do? Scenario #20 … You’re at an office retirement party. You overhear two employees discussing revenge on another employee for getting their sister fired. You try and listen in more closely, but no luck. What would you do? Scenario #21 … You notice what appears to be a green moving van parked in your gated community. It is unattended and hasn’t moved in two weeks. There is no company name or phone number on the van. The van was moving a resident at the end of the cul-de-sac three weeks ago, but none of the neighbors know anything about it. What would you do?

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Scenario #22 … You’ve been tasked with conducting security background checks. You notice security clearance background check paperwork does not exist for 75 of the 105 employees, and the 75 have been on the job for at least 12 years or longer. What would you do? Scenario #23 … While conducting circulation control duties for your department, you come across two vending machine vendors in the basement near the chemical lab with no ID or escort. When challenged, neither gives a clear explanation as to why they’re there. What would you do? Scenario #24 … The duress button for the cashier cage is inoperative. In fact, it hasn’t worked for weeks. What would you do? Scenario #25 … You’re Captain Andre Thomas, and you’re responsible for briefing the flu/H1N1 portion of the military processing line prior to deployment. You’ve heard that Technical Sergeant Drew, who is also part of the briefing, has had marital and financial problems. He also seems despondent and withdrawn. What would you do? Scenario #26 … Your nine-year-old twins ask a lot of questions all the time. They recently asked “Why do people kill other people, and what is terrorism?” What would you do? Scenario #27 … You’re the supervisor of eighty workers, and Jamie’s one of them. Because you’ve been tasked with so many subordinates, you’ve never really had a chance to do a one-on-one sit-down talk or counseling with Jamie. In fact, her work performance has been suffering. She’s shown up for work late on several occasions, has not met her goal this month for parts production, and other workers have told you that Jamie’s been having marital problems and has come to work lately smelling like beer. Today you finally take a much-needed opportunity to sit down with Jamie. You call her into your office, and you start the counseling session by asking her about her work performance. You notice Jamie appears tired, hung over, and highly agitated, and she smells of alcohol. What would you do? 212


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Scenario #28 … Supervisor Cindy has decided to schedule a first-time bomb threat exercise for her workplace. She initiates the exercise over the company loudspeaker. Attention, attention, attention: Be advised that a bomb threat has been received for the weapons depot. At 12:00 pm, a male subject telephoned the depot and related that a bomb will go off in Corridor C in five minutes. Excitement and panic sets in immediately. Other employees immediately realize what Cindy did wrong. What would you do? Scenario #29 … You’re tucking little Chucky in for the night, and before you leave the room, he says, “Mommy, Daddy, what’s an emergency plan?” What would you do? Scenario #30 … You work at City Town Bank. The facility has been robbed three times since you started working there. You’ve begged the boss to please install bullet-resistant glass and get anti-robbery training for the employees. The boss always says he’ll look into it. Meanwhile, he tells employees to return to work. The employees are extremely nervous whenever someone fitting the description of the last three robbers walks in. What would you do? Scenario #31 … Your job does not have and has never had a bomb threat telephone aid or checklists. What would you do? Scenario #32 … Two suspicious teens have been observed lurking around the local water plant in your town. The locks have been found damaged on several occasions. What would you do? Scenario #33 … A horrific explosion takes place at your workplace, and many people are injured as a result. There is a lot of blood and injuries, and the electrical and telephone services have been affected. The workplace has no BBP, first aid, or CPR kits or equipment. What would you do? Scenario #34 … You’re the registrar at University X. You’ve been hearing recent reports of rampant shootings at nearby

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small colleges. No one seems to make a big deal about it, but you’re concerned. What would you do? Scenario #35 … Your city’s power and petroleum plants provide easy access to outsiders. Recent threats to the nearby village’s power and petroleum supply have been widely known in the state. What would you do? Scenario #36 … Your home’s alarm system works great; however, for some reason, whenever you leave the house, you never arm the system. The guy across the street has had his home burglarized recently, and you’ve been hearing reports of homes in the area that have had attempted break-ins. What would you do? Scenario #37 … The assisted living facility where your father now lives allows visitors to come in during the day but secures all doors after 8:00 pm. You’ve seen employees prop the doors open at night to smoke, and they usually forget to lock them back up. What would you do? Scenario #38 … The nation has declared “threat condition orange.” What would you do? Do any of these scenarios sound even vaguely familiar? Could any of these scenarios really happen? It’s not funny, nor is it impossible! The scenarios are designed to make you think. They’re real and they can happen! It has become vital that we have the necessary policies, procedures, and training in place to deal with these types of situations. It’s past time to stop talking about it … and do it! It’s past time that employees accept responsibility for their own safety and security and stop depending on someone else to do it. Step up to the plate. No fear mongering, no paranoia—just fact! Owners/users and ordinary citizens are encouraged to assemble a plan now. Create training unique to your type of business. Include topics listed here and include additional topics according to your individual situations. Include DHS and other credible sites and information that discuss the health, safety, security, and welfare of Americans during 214


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emergencies and times of increased threat. Get yourself, your employees, and your family in the mindset that security and AT/WP training and education is critical to the security of people nationwide. When you’ve set the pace by becoming proactive, and when you’ve set the pace by becoming excited about AT/WP, others may follow suit. Get everyone to step up and take the lead. We’re in a different era now, and on-the-job training should involve more than just learning the job you were hired for. The threat is real, and the time to realize it is now. Unless we act, and act now, tomorrow may be too late. Ask yourself, would you really know what to do if any of the above scenarios happened at your workplace or at your home? Are you ready? Do you have a plan? Would you know how to respond correctly? Would you know who to call? What would you do?

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CHAPTER 19 Anti-Terrorism and Workplace Protection Program Assessments Assessments are designed to ensure the program meets the intent of the owner/user’s ops and training plan objectives and visions. Assessments measure the efficiency and effectiveness of the program as a whole. All business owners/users should conduct an overall AT/WP program assessment in order to determine if the anti-terrorism and workplace protection program is working to meet the intended objectives of the business. Assess the program to include administrative and operational security and AT/WP policies, procedures, training, equipment, and so forth. Determine if the program is in compliance with site-specific ops plan objectives and any applicable local, state, and/or federal directives. Develop and use program assessment checklists to validate the process. Examine the feasibility and effectiveness of all security and AT/WP plans and programs. Do they work? Are they useful? What can be accomplished to better the program and processes? Examine workplace readiness and compliance with applicable operations, training, and contingency plans. Examine workplace readiness and compliance with applicable state, local, and other directives if any. Examine the currency, accuracy, and effectiveness of overall security and AT/WP readiness and compliance with applicable operational, training, and contingency plans. Compare and contrast your program with other like programs. Determine how employees are trained on protective measures and evaluate whether training works. Measure the effectiveness of training and workplace exercises. Is additional training needed? How many training exercise failures or reevaluations has the company had this year, last year, or last quarter? What’s the comparison? Does the company require outside functional experts? Are they effective? Are 216


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training instructors effective? Are people actually getting the idea of what the program is? Where is the program headed next? Are the programs and policies working? Do they require more attention? Is the program a failure? Measure the incidence of real-world violent and criminal incidents, breakins, burglaries, and suspicious activity in similar companies and compare those companies to yours. Come up with workable solutions to repair what needs to be repaired. Evaluate and test the physical security program. Use penetration exercises during these evaluations. Be very careful not to use any scenarios that could be interpreted as an actual hostile situation that might cause accidental injury to personnel, jeopardize security, result in a false response from first responders, or cause unnecessary panic. Use assessment teams or individuals to identify and resolve problems and institute corrective actions ASAP. Conduct assessments quarterly, annually, or as needed. Assemble a program assessment report at the conclusion. The report should be similar to the physical security and exercise reports. Document and maintain report results for at least one year or IAW ops plan. The program assessment process should be clearly written and conducted IAW the ops plan.

The Keys to an Effective Anti-terrorism and Workplace Protection Training and Education Program: - Early planning - Written/electronic administrative and operational checklists - Thorough physical security inspections - A sound and effective operations plan - A strong and sustainable training plan - Engaged people and a willingness for positive change on the part of the everyone (employer, employee, customer, individual, and family) 217


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- Accountability on the part of everyone - Involvement on the part of everyone - Execution on the part of everyone - Devotion on the part of everyone - Enthusiasm and motivation on the part of everyone - Vigilance on the part of everyone - Confidence on the part of everyone And the final and probably the most important and most meaningful key to an effective anti-terrorism and workplace protection education program is the spirit of determination of everyone to keep the workplace, the family, and America safe and free. We’ve completed the bulk of information that makes up the site-specific AT/WP program. While I know there may be plenty of other topics I have not included related to your particular site-specific plans, that wasn’t my objective, and I leave that up to you. I want you to feel motivated to find areas that are of security and AT/WP concern for your business. If you feel even slightly motivated to do something different from before, then I feel I’ve been successful in achieving my goals. I believe this program is vital to the security and freedom of this nation. This is your start to launch or re-launch your site-specific anti-terrorism and workplace protection programs in full gear. Terrorism and workplace violence can only thrive if we let them. We have the power to make a difference! Take the power and own it! Be encouraged and feel empowered to make a change and make a difference. A safe, secure, and healthy America is only the piece of the puzzle, to what some say are complex issues. It has become an unfortunate reality that we’ve been forced to recondition or reshape our way of thinking and our ways of living … Or is it? Maybe it’s time! Maybe it’s past time!

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CHAPTER 20 Making Smarter Eco Choices (Creating a Safer and Healthier Place to Live) Some may ask, what is the correlation between Protect America: Not Afraid and Fighting Back and creating a safer and a healthier environment? The answer in my opinion is simple—plenty! Historically, terrorism has reared its ugly head by striking indiscriminately in various forms against individuals and property, causing havoc in people’s lives. Those who deliberately and willfully destroy or manipulate the environment also fall into the same category of terrorists. Take eco-terrorism for example. Also called green terrorism, eco-terrorism is terrorism conducted for the sake of environmental or animal rights causes. The acts of violence described by authorities as eco-terrorism vary widely. Some acts involve sabotage of equipment and unmanned facilities, using techniques ranging from equipment destruction to arson and firebombing. Tree spiking, the embedding of metal spikes in trees to deter logging, is sometimes described as eco-terrorism because of the risk to loggers when the spikes are struck by chainsaws and other machinery. And yes, there have been individuals who have been prosecuted and convicted in the United States for various forms of ecoterrorism. Environmental terrorism, like environmental warfare, involves the use of the forces of nature for hostile purposes. This process deliberately destroys or manipulates the environment. Environmental terrorism includes both the targeting of the environment itself, such as deliberate contamination of water or agricultural resources, and the use of the environment as a conduit for destruction, such as releasing chemical or biological weapons into the atmo219


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sphere. Although such tactics have long been used in times of war, they have also emerged as a viable option for terrorists. This emerging threat has put us on notice, and for now at least, seems to have outpaced the world’s ability to respond. The environment has been used as a weapon of war for centuries. Throughout history, aggressors and defenders have used the forces of nature against their enemies. During the Vietnam War, the United States sprayed herbicides over vast areas of South Vietnam to destroy forests and vegetation and deny its enemy cover or mobility. There are no laws, mechanisms, or policies that exist for deterring terrorists from engaging in deliberate manipulation and destruction of the environment. In fact, the end of the Cold War and the changing face of terrorism have made environmental terrorism an exceedingly likely possibility, and although the fight that we’ve been accustomed to has a new face, its presence is not new. The issues of a tainted environment go back as far as the invention of the first automobile. The unknown and uncertain effects from a tainted environment may have serious and lasting implications on our future. Cleaning up the environment has become our new responsibility. Pollutants and harmful toxic gases in the atmosphere threaten our health and existence, the existence of our children, their children, and their children’s children. Will they have the same opportunities to live, thrive, and exist in a clean and healthy environment? Will they have the same opportunities to live, thrive, and exist in a peaceful and stable world? Meanwhile, what is being done to halt those who deliberately and willfully destroy or manipulate the environment? As Americans, what can or what must we do to do our part to confront the issues that face our environment? While we recognize we must make changes, now is the time to become energized and revitalized. While I certainly don’t claim to be an expert on the environment, I don’t believe you have to be an expert to get involved and make a difference. While piecing together 220


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information for this chapter, I spent three years on and off conducting my own unofficial survey, and I asked people this question:

As an American, if your input could make a difference in the world today, how or what would you do to make the world a healthier and safer place to live? Here are some of the answers I got: I would use environmentally friendly products that won’t hurt the environment, such as biodegradable soaps and cleaners. I would try to recycle more. I’d ensure my family turns off the TV when not watching it. Probably use the oven as little as possible. The microwave uses less energy. Use only cloth towels, which can be used again and again, instead of paper towels and toilet paper. I’d like to try recycling rainwater, and maybe use rain barrels. I’d use laundry water to water trees. Will laundry water kill the trees? As a family, we’d save water as much as possible. We try as a practice to use water sparingly and only when necessary. I was told to reduce the temperature of my hot water heater to 120 degrees, wrap it in a water heater insulating type of blanket, and insulate the first three to six feet of hot and cold water pipes. So we’re going to try it and see what comes of it.

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Go back to old school and hang laundry out to dry instead of using the dryer. Use air conditioning only when necessary. My wife and I ride our bikes to work when possible. Use solar motion detector lights. Switch to energy-efficient compact fluorescent light bulbs. Turn off the lights when leaving the room. Don’t use pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizer. Shred and compost bulk mail. Use newspapers for cat litter. Use paper products that are from recycled paper. Plant responsibly. Plant vegetable gardens; grow fruit and can both veggies and fruit. Convert my flat roof into a garden or mini-farm. Keep the filter on my air conditioner clean. Keep my home at the coolest temperature that is comfortable for my family in the winter. Close south,- east,- and west-facing curtains during the day to keep out solar heat during the summer. Clean the coils at the back of my refrigerator often. Only heat and cool rooms we use. Close vents and doors to rooms that we don’t use. Keep windows closed and shades down when air conditioning is on. 222


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Check and clean air conditioning filters monthly and replace as needed. Unplug electric chargers, televisions, and audio/video equipment when not in use. These devices use electricity even when they are not in use. Turn off my computer or put it in standby mode when I’m not using it. Run appliances such as the dishwasher and clothes washer at night. These appliances use lots of electricity. My family might not like it, but I’d wait till I have a full load to run the dishwasher and clothes washer and use cold water when possible. Keep lamps and televisions away from my thermostat. I’ve heard that the heat they generate will cause my air conditioner to work harder. Unplug my old refrigerator in the basement that isn’t being used. I hear old refrigerators can use three times the electricity of modern ones. When we’re out of the house (and at night, when we’re asleep), we use a programmable thermostat to automatically raise the temperature five to ten degrees in summer and lower it five to ten degrees in winter. We’ve installed weather stripping on all doors and windows. Think about installing electric timers on exterior lighting, small appliances, and room air conditioners. We would add dimmers to our home’s lighting system. Seal all the exposed ductwork in my house with caulk. I’ve heard the heat and air escapes before getting where it’s supposed to go.

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Add more insulation in my attic. I hear something like less than six to ten inches of insulation in your attic is not enough for comfort. Consider installing low-flow showerheads to reduce hot water use. Change the air filters on my car every twelve thousand miles. In desert or dusty areas, change the air filter every five thousand miles. Add a fuel cleaner to my tank every three thousand miles. Properly inflate my tires. Slow down while driving. Use a composter to turn our food and lawn waste into mulch. It’s a good way to reduce trash production. Find a way to reduce imported oil. Encourage ways to help change America to wind power. Invest in clean, American-made energy. Place a smart cap on carbon pollution. I’ve heard that the Environmental Protection Agency said that a smart cap on carbon pollution would cost about a dime a day per person. I’m for that!

America has to start making smarter choices; we are a big part of the solution. The United States consumes more energy than any other country. Some companies are making strategic investments in promising new ways to produce transportation fuels. The change we need starts with us. People and things are responsible for the effects on the environment. Historically, these effects were unknown, often overlooked, and hardly ever talked about. We now know that the effects are real. Some 224


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hidden and unspoken truths about our environment can be as devastating as the weapons of mass destruction. It’s going to take the entire universe to participate in cleaning up what is now a world problem. Reprogramming ourselves to live and thrive in a clean, safe, and healthy world is what’s needed, for everyone. Now is the time to acclimate, reeducate, and become accustomed to being more resourceful. Rethinking and readjusting just a few things in our lives (out with the old, and in with the new) provides a lasting opportunity to improve our environment, our atmosphere, and our existence. Our future depends on it. I share the ongoing commitment to help improve our environment. No one knows the results of the differences we’re attempting, but there’s got to be a beginning. We do know if we don’t do anything at all, our existence looks bleak. There’s no good in doing nothing. There needs to be a footprint planted firmly in the earth. This footprint must be a footprint planted for life, a footprint for the future. Turning one’s head is simply not the answer. Being part of the solution is. See it as an opportunity, not a challenge. If your eco-input could make an impact on the world today, how or what would you do to make the world an eco-friendlier place to live? America has to start making smarter choices.

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CHAPTER 21 Lessons Learned The following are excerpts from news stories of attacks and threats of attacks against the United States and its resources overseas and stories of actual incidents of violence around the nation. Also included are instances of Americans planning, training, and exercising to fight back. I included lessons learned to give you the reader an idea of the bulk of incidents occurring in the world around us, as well as the efforts everyday Americans are taking to prepare to fight back against these types of incidents. I want to encourage owners/users to use some form of lessons-learned information as part of your anti-terrorism and workplace protection programs, even if you don’t use this particular information. Sad to say, but there are plenty of lessons learned to use, and unfortunately, always will be. My hope here is that you will take a look at these lessons learned, take into consideration what you have read up to this point, and then stop thinking and put into action the necessary protective measures, training, and security deterrents for yourself, your family, and your workplace now! We cannot predict what’s going to happen next, and we cannot live in fear. We can, however, increase our personal responsibility and prepare and protect what’s ours for our future. Terrorists become successful through our own ignorance. April 1995—Oklahoma: A domestic terrorist attack aimed at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building claimed 168 lives and left over 800 injured. Until the September 11, 2001, attacks, it was the deadliest act of terrorism on U.S. soil. Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols were both arrested for their roles in the bombing. Investigators determined that they were sympathizers of a militia movement and that their motive was to retaliate against the government’s handling of the Waco and Ruby Ridge incidents in Texas. 226


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April 1999—Colorado: Two high-school seniors conducted an all-out assault on Columbine High School during the middle of the school day. The boys’ plan was to kill hundreds of their own classmates with guns, knives, and bombs. When it was over, one teacher, twelve students, and both the attackers were dead. September 2001—New York: In an apparently coordinated terrorist attack against the United States, commercial passenger jets crashed into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York; two of them into other significant landmarks, killing 2,973 people. American Airlines Flight 11, carrying eighty-one passengers and eleven crew members, slammed into the north tower of the World Trade Center in Manhattan. Minutes later, United Airlines Flight 175 from Boston to Los Angeles, with fifty-six passengers and nine crew members on board, crashed into the south tower. Both towers eventually collapsed. A half hour after the second crash, American Flight 77 took off from Washington, D.C.’s Dulles Airport en route to Los Angeles, California, carrying fifty-eight passengers and six crew members and crashed into the Pentagon. Less than an hour after the third crash, United Flight 93, en route from Newark, New Jersey, to San Francisco, crashed near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, with thirty-eight passengers and seven crew members aboard. The FBI said it believes all four planes, carrying a total of two hundred sixty-six people, were hijacked by terrorists. The Federal Emergency Response Plan was implemented immediately after first attack, according to White House. All U.S. embassies and U.S. forces around the world were put on the highest alert. October 2002—Maryland: Police were dispatched to schools in Montgomery County, Maryland, in an attempt to reassure children and parents after one or more snipers shot dead five people in a sixteen-hour period. August 2003—Chicago: A thirty-six-year-old man shot and killed six people in an auto parts warehouse on the South Side of Chicago before being shot to death by Chicago police. 227


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June 2004—Chicago: The Justice Department says Jose Padilla and another terror suspect plotted to blow up apartment buildings in major U.S. cities that may have included Chicago. Padilla was first picked up years ago and accused of planning to set off a dirty bomb in the United States. June 2006—Chicago: A plot by terrorists to use dirty bombs laced with a deadly chemical to attack U.S. targets, including what was then called the Sears Tower in Chicago, was uncovered by British intelligence and law enforcement authorities. Though it was not clear from the sources that Al-Qaeda was behind the plot, Osama bin Laden’s network had also planned on targeting the Sears Tower following the September 11, 2001, attacks. August 2006—Chicago: A series of emergency drills were held in Illinois to try to make sure the state was prepared for any disaster or possible terrorist attack. The large-scale drills included responding to train accidents and suicide car bombings. In a Chicago suburb, the drill grew into a massive exercise. Dozens of firefighters were involved in a scenario where a car crashed through a building. In all, about two thousand people took part statewide. In another scenario a bomb exploded in a nearby commuter train. The goal was to find the holes in the state’s disaster plan. February 2007—Chicago: Two cousins from the Chicago area were arrested as part of an alleged terrorist plot. They were accused of conspiring to commit terrorist acts against U.S. military forces and Americans overseas. March 2007—Miami: A man walked into the back offices of the company where his former girlfriend worked, shot at her repeatedly while running after her through the cubicles, and finally turned the gun on himself, but the semiautomatic handgun had already been emptied. April 2007—Virginia: At least thirty-two people were killed and twenty-nine wounded in a shooting rampage at Virginia Tech University, the worst ever on an American campus. A Virginia Tech student killed thirty-two students and faculty

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members and wounded twenty-three before committing suicide. May 2007—Fort Dix, Kentucky: Six foreign-born Muslims were arrested and accused of plotting to attack the Army’s Fort Dix and massacre scores of U.S. soldiers, a plot the FBI says was foiled when the men took a video of themselves firing assault weapons to a store to have the footage put onto a DVD. June 2007—New York: Federal authorities foiled a plot by a suspected Muslim terrorist cell to blow up John F. Kennedy International Airport, its fuel tanks, and a jet fuel artery. Authorities announced they had broken up the suspected terrorist cell, arresting three men, one of them a former member of Guyana’s parliament. November 2007—Chicago: A tipster reported that AlQaeda planned to strike Chicago and Los Angeles shopping malls over the holiday shopping season. July 2008—Knoxville: A fifty-eight-year-old man was charged with first-degree murder in a shooting at a Knoxville, Tennessee, Unitarian church that left two people dead and five injured. Police said he acted alone and was motivated by frustration over being unable to obtain a job. February 2008—Chicago: A gunman fatally shot five women in a robbery at the Lane Bryant clothing store at a suburban Chicago strip mall and fled, prompting police to sweep through neighboring shops as terrified customers watched. The victims were killed, and robbery was believed to be the motive. Police searched for the gunman using dogs and a helicopter equipped with infrared sensors but concluded he left the store off Interstate 80 southwest of downtown Chicago. February 2008—Chicago: A man dressed in black stormed into an oceanography class at Northern Illinois University in DeKalb, Illinois, and opened fire with a shotgun and two handguns, killing five students and wounding at least seventeen people before apparently killing himself. The gunman 229


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was not a student at the school, which is located sixty-five miles west of downtown Chicago. November 2008—India: Serial terrorist attacks in Mumbai, India’s financial capital, left at least 100 dead and 280 wounded. Teams of gunmen attacked two five-star hotels, a railway station, hospitals, and a restaurant famous for attracting tourists. The gunmen specifically targeted Americans and Britons. March 2009—Alabama: A gunman who killed at least ten people on a terrifying rampage across two Alabama counties had struggled to keep a job and left behind lists of employers and co-workers he believed had wronged him, authorities said. The gunman, who killed his mother at the start the rampage, took his own life at the job where he worked until 2003. March 2009—North Carolina: A lone gunman burst into a Carthage, North Carolina, nursing home, killing eight people, according to police. The gunman barged into the rooms of terrified patients, sparing some from his rampage without explanation while killing seven residents and a nurse caring for them. A Carthage police officer confronted him in a hallway and stopped the brutal attack. April 2009—New York: A gunman killed fourteen people at an immigration center in upstate New York before taking at least twenty hostages, then apparently turning the gun on himself. A receptionist with a gunshot wound to her stomach played dead under her desk and called 911. After opening fire, the gunman holed himself up with hostages in the center, where help is given to new immigrants and would-be U.S. citizens. The gunman was believed to have parked his car so that it blocked the back door of the civic center, preventing escape. April 2009—Kenya: In a dramatic rescue, U.S. Navy SEALs shot three pirates dead after a five-day standoff in a lifeboat off the coast of Somalia. Navy snipers struck because of fears that the captain was in imminent danger of being shot and killed, according to Navy officials. 230


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May 2009—New York: Two hundred emergency responders conducted a disaster drill to respond to a radiological incident aboard a suburban New York City commuter train. The drill happened at a Mount Vernon rail yard on a Metro-North train. Metro-North officials say eight different emergency agencies worked to evacuate a train, arrested two suspects, and decontaminated people in a tent as part of the drill. May 2009—New York: Four men were arrested in an alleged plot to attack targets in New York. Suspects were charged with plotting to detonate explosives near a synagogue in the Riverdale section of New York’s Bronx borough. The men were also charged with plotting to shoot down military planes located at New York’s Air National Guard base at Stewart airport in Newburgh, New York, with stinger surface-to-air guided missiles. Each man was charged with one count of conspiracy to use weapons of mass destruction within the United States and one count of conspiracy to acquire and use anti-aircraft missiles. June 2009—Little Rock, Arkansas: In a targeted attack on a military recruiting center, a man with “political and religious motives” killed a soldier just out of basic training and wounded another. July 2009—Washington, D.C.: A widespread and unusually resilient computer attack that began July 4 knocked out the Web sites of several government agencies, including some that are responsible for fighting cyber crime. Several government agency Web sites were down at varying points over the holiday weekend and during the week. Federal government officials refused to publicly discuss any details of the cyber attack. July 2009—North Carolina: FBI and local authorities in various North Carolina locations arrested seven suspected terrorists for various charges, including terrorist activities. The men were charged with acts such as training others to commit terrorist attacks and conspiring to kidnap, murder, and injure. Following the arrests, residents in the 231


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rural Wake County Shadow Oaks subdivision said they never suspected their neighbors of terrorist activity. September 2009—New York: A man was indicted by a federal grand jury, charged with conspiracy to build and explode weapons of mass destruction. Federal agents say he recruited many others who are still not in custody. September 2009—Illinois: A man was arrested and charged with murder after planting what he thought was a nearly one-ton bomb in front of the Springfield, Illinois, federal courthouse. Authorities say he became radicalized while in prison and even tried to become a pen pal of John Walker Lindh, an American caught fighting with the Taliban in the days just after 9/11. September 2009—Dallas, Texas: Federal prosecutors arrested a nineteen-year-old Jordanian national and charged him with trying to bomb a downtown Dallas skyscraper. Additionally, he was charged with attempting to use a weapon of mass destruction. He was arrested after placing a decoy car bomb at Fountain Place, a sixty-story glass office tower. November 2009—Fort Hood, Texas: In what is considered the worst case of violence on a military base in the United States, an army major cleaned out his apartment, gave leftover frozen food to a neighbor, and called another to thank him for his friendship before he went on the killing spree that left thirteen people at Fort Hood, Texas, dead. The rampage unfolded at a military processing center where some three hundred unarmed soldiers were lined up for vaccines and eye tests. Soldiers reported that the gunman shouted “Allahu Akbar,” an Arabic phrase for “God is great” before opening fire. December 2009—Detroit, Michigan: A twenty-threeyear-old Nigerian man was charged with trying to destroy a Detroit-bound Northwest Airlines plane in a Christmas Day attack that brought tightened aviation security and raised fresh concerns about terrorism. The man attempted to set off a device containing the explosive pentaerythritol as 232


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the aircraft approached the Detroit airport. Congressional lawmakers were looking for answers to how the suspect was allegedly able to smuggle an explosive mixture onto an airplane. The suspect, who claimed to have ties to AlQaeda, was subdued after he tried to ignite a powdery substance just before landing in Detroit. He originally boarded in Nigeria. December 2009—Las Vegas, Nevada: Law enforcement officials say a suspect who opened fire at a security checkpoint in a Las Vegas federal building was upset over losing a lawsuit over his Social Security benefits. The man was shot dead in a gunfight with deputy U.S. marshals. Officials say early evidence points to the man’s anger over his benefits case as the motive for the shooting. Although this by far isn’t a complete list of all incidents, it does give the reader an idea of the scope of such acts and adds credence to the idea that aggressive, proactive, and effective attention and dedicated anti-terrorism and workplace protection training and education is needed to deal with such incidents. The portrait painted here is a key indication of what’s occurring in the world around us. We can go on ignoring it and pretend it doesn’t exist, thinking maybe it’ll go away, maybe it won’t affect me! Or just maybe … we can take the opportunity to do something!

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As America Changes, so must we ‌ As mentioned in previous chapters, there are no universal solutions to prevent terrorist attacks, since the threats we face are largely unpredictable and will continue to change over time. There are no guarantees that trouble or violence won’t affect our families or the workplace since these threats are mostly unknown, sporadic, and can affect even the most innocent. This chapter sums up protection, prevention, and deterrent actions, plans, and programs people are encouraged to incorporate into their daily lives before an emergency or disaster occurs. We owe it to our nation to take a stance and do something different. We owe to ourselves and our nation to establish peace of mind now, and for those who follow in our footsteps. We owe it to the cowards who continue to threaten our shores and our quality of life. We owe it to those who say American lives have been permanently uprooted and that American lives will never be the same. We owe it to the great men and women of our American fighting forces, for they are the heroes who work tirelessly night and day to serve and protect our great country. We owe it our brothers and sisters, our sons and daughters, our mothers and fathers, and our grandparents and greatgrandparents who fought to defend freedom and liberty in and for this great nation. They are the ones who have fought for freedom, and they are the ones who have died in defense of and for our rights, our country, and our freedom. It has become vital that we as a people push forth the efforts of anti-terror and crime prevention education necessary to engage the threats we face now and will face in the 234


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future. Incidents around the world and here at home must not continue to frighten or make us angry. They must, however, make us wiser and make us smarter. There’s much more to do to combat terrorism and stop violence in this country. We must work in concert with federal, state, and local agencies to fight terrorism and crime, but we must also relieve our government of the burden of fighting this battle alone. We must accept our own responsibilities and do what we need to do to deter terrorism and violence in this nation. I hope you are prepared to make some important decisions and a few simple and worthwhile changes in your life and the lives of others. I really hope I’ve been successful in providing you with information necessary to make these important changes. Terrorism and workplace violence are not new tactics; they have, however, become formidable forces and remind us just how vulnerable we can be. It’s time to fight back! Fight Back: Create site-specific AT/WP checklists for operational and administrative programs. Checklists ensure compliance and order and make sure the work is done right according to policy. Fight Back: Create plans and training for the following: bomb threats and suspicious packages; circulation control; personal, home, and family security; the Homeland Security Advisory System; bloodborne pathogens, CPR, and first aid training; and any other site-specific interests you see fit to plan for. Fight Back: Create written/electronic site-specific AT/WP operations, training, emergency, and contingency plans. Plans should make clear the program vision and objectives for day-to-day operations, emergencies, disasters, and contingency actions. Plans must be organizational templates that address the details of who, what, where, why, and how. Fight Back: Conduct a thorough scrub and review of all security-related instructions, policies and procedures. Some 235


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companies are still working with outdated security policies developed in the 1960s and 1970s. It’s past time to trash old policies and procedures and implement new and aggressive security and AT/WP strategies today. Fight Back: Review, evaluate, and exercise emergency and contingency response plans on a continuous, and not on an as needed basis. Fight Back: Implement training exercises on a continuous basis to test and evaluate personnel’s ability to report, react, and respond. Train and exercise plans IAW your ops plan. Fight Back: Conduct a thorough physical security inspection upon moving into a facility, when significant physical changes have affected a facility, when an incident has occurred compromising the physical security of the facility, or when an increase in threat levels occurs. A single person, team, or working group can conduct these inspections. Initiate solutions on problem areas ASAP. Fight Back: When building a new facility, design the layout to prevent blind spots. If occupying a facility already in place, conduct a thorough physical security inspection, identifying blind spots and areas people can hide out in, such as tall vegetation and bushes. Once identified, put a plan in place to eliminate these areas. Fight Back: Determine the height of vegetation and remove tall vegetation blocking clear views around the workplace. Vegetation should be kept low enough that it does not allow concealment of intruders. Fight Back: Install physical barriers when and where necessary. Construct adequate fences, gates, and other barriers to provide boundary protection and place bars and protective screening on all external doors, windows, HVAC vents, and other possible points of entry. Develop a barrier plan and ensure those responsible for implementing it are thoroughly trained and have a clear understanding of the necessity of a barrier plan. Barrier requirements for busi236


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nesses will differ according to nature and sensitivity of the business. Fight Back: Secure grills, grates, manhole covers, and other openings. These areas should be identified during the physical security inspection. If they cannot be secured, conduct frequent checks and always document results. Fight Back: Consult and collaborate with credible government sources, law enforcement agencies, consultants, and AT/WP specialists for assistance with physical security, training and establishing or reestablishing programs. Fight Back: Consult and collaborate with credible government sources and law enforcement agencies, including DHS, to ensure a coordinated response to a major security or AT/WP incident or accident and to receive up-to-date information on credible threats and necessary emergency actions to take. Fight Back: Create information-sharing procedures IAW the ops plan. Fight Back: Design entry procedures for use on a dayto-day basis, during emergencies, and during times of increased threat. Use ECPs to prevent unauthorized entry and the introduction of hazardous materials, contraband, or prohibited items into the workplace. If security isn’t available, owners/users should control entry. Fight Back: The owner/user makes the best security deterrent. Fight Back: Develop circulation control procedures. Make random/periodic security checks of the workplace and outside areas. Conduct spot checks for suspicious personnel, activity, and packages. Never bring an unattended or suspicious package back into the workplace. Implement site-specific procedures IAW business plans. Remind all personnel to remain vigilant, and do ask questions of strangers.

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Fight Back: Upon assessment that an incident may be hostile, monitor the incident and notify a supervisor or security where available. Employees or supervisors may make the determination to contact police. Never try to physically detain anyone. Fight Back: Create an emergency response plan for your business to establish an organizational structure and clear and concise procedures for response to emergencies. Include as part of the plan procedures for notification, response, and evacuation. All employees should have a working knowledge of all emergency procedures. Fight Back: Post emergency numbers, (decals/lists), bomb threat, anti-robbery and suspicious activity aids/checklists, on or nearby telephones for personnel to use during emergencies. Fight Back: Use checklists, telephone aids, and QRCs to help work through emergencies, incidents, and accidents. Ensure telephone aids and checklists are current, accurate, and located in convenient locations. Fight Back: Where necessary, protect locations where people assemble by installing surveillance equipment, armed guards at strategic locations, warning signs, checkpoints, and metal detectors. Fight Back: Minimize, cover, or remove signs identifying high-risk facilities, particularly during periods of increased threat. Minimize signs identifying critical utility and power plants, petroleum facilities, and water treatment plants. Provide warning signs, fencing, strong locks, alarms, and CCTV to deter unauthorized access. Use landscape planting to conceal aboveground systems. Fight Back: Conduct spot checks on facilities and transportation housing those tasked with security duties. Personnel tasked with these duties should make frequent radio, faceto-face, or telephonic contact with another agency, control center or supervisors to verify personnel’s safety and wellbeing. Conduct these checks IAW the ops plan and install 238


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CCTV where applicable to check the status of resources and/or personnel. All personnel should remain alert and vigilant at all times. If it looks suspicious, check it out, and document results. Fight Back: Conduct spot checks for tampering and control access and secure facilities and storage areas housing ground-, air-, and water- sensitive and vital equipment. Increase spot checks during times of increased threat. Strictly limit access. Fight Back: Limit and secure access points for personnel and vehicles. Fight Back: Secure buildings, storage areas, and other rooms not in regular use. Fight Back: Use intrusion detection equipment. These systems should be capable of promptly detecting any penetration of the area that they are designed to protect. Fight Back: Watch for unidentified or suspicious vehicles around the home and workplace. Fight Back: Watch for abandoned parcels or suitcases. Never bring an unattended package back into your home or business. Fight Back: Use QRCs for families too. Fight Back: Teach your children how and when to dial emergency numbers, such as 911. Fight Back: Lock or alarm facility doors and windows. Use guards, cipher locks, buzzers, and two-way mirrored windows on entry doors where necessary. Fight Back: Enforce necessary vehicle controls. Fight Back: Always have a family plan and ensure everyone in the family knows the plan. Parents may choose not to share family disaster planning information directly with very young children who may become frightened. If you 239


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plan to include your school-age children in the development of the plan, explain in simple, easy-to-understand language, without alarming them. As a parent, you know your child best. You can make the best decision about how much information to share. Fight Back: Review and practice plans with family members. When practicing, ensure children understand the significance without alarming them. Make updates accordingly. Fight Back: Be ready to take appropriate protective actions. Fight Back: Determine the best escape routes for evacuating your home and businesses. Fight Back: Learn and ensure that your families, co-workers, and friends understand the Homeland Security Advisory System and the actions associated with each threat level. Fight Back: Try to remain calm during emergencies or disasters. When an emergency occurs, it can occur in an instant, and things can get quite hectic. Emergencies can be so immense that responders may not be able to assist you, your family, or your business immediately. Remember, it is in the best interest of you, your family, and your business that you are prepared for any emergency. Fight Back: Render assistance to personnel in your work areas and those at home. Call for help and work together. Be flexible in emergency situations. Fight Back: When the emergency is over, review what has occurred and check on the status of employees and family. Fight Back: Find out about the emergency plans at your workplace, your children’s school or day-care center, and other places where your family spends time. Determine who will pick up and watch over the children if they must leave school.

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Fight Back: Listen to the local radio and TV for special announcements and instructions. Fight Back: Identify relatives or friends who can care for your children or elderly family members if you must stay at work. Fight Back: Make sure your contact person knows your status and where you are going. Fight Back: Prepare to help the elderly, disabled neighbors, or family members if needed. Fight Back: Ask about animal care before a disaster strikes. Animals may not be permitted inside emergency shelters because of health regulations. Make a plan in advance. Fight Back: Show family members how to turn off the natural gas, water, and electricity to your home. Fight Back: Teach all family members how to use a fire extinguisher. Fight Back: Make family members aware not to provide strangers with information about you or your family. Fight Back: Vary daily routines to avoid habitual patterns. Fight Back: Get trained and volunteer so you can help others in your community. Learn about your community’s warning signals—what they sound like and what you should do when you hear them. Fight Back: Lock all entrances at night, including the garage. Keep the house locked even though you’re at home. Fight Back: Write down license numbers of suspicious vehicles and note the description of occupants. Fight Back: Install effective lighting systems. Lighting should be of sufficient intensity to allow detection of unauthorized activity. Keep lighting turned on around facilities 241


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during hours of darkness. Switches for exterior lighting should be installed in such a manner that they are accessible only to authorized individuals. Fight Back: Post warning signs where needed. Fight Back: If you have an alarm system in your home or business, use it. Take the initiative to do something before the bad guy does. Fight Back: Use on-call lists during emergencies and increased threat periods. The lists may include points of contacts, agencies authorized to conduct specialized training, specially trained and qualified personnel, local contractors, repair agents, consultants, and so on. These lists can provide valuable assistance during routine and emergency responses, stoppages, breakdowns, damage to property and equipment, and so forth. Fight Back: Maintain sufficient quantities of food, water, and medicine for use during emergencies and times of increased threat. Fight Back: Develop procedures to locate and assemble personnel inside shelters or places designated as protective areas for use during emergencies and increased threat periods. Fight Back: Develop procedures to use during periods of increased threat levels, such as limiting parking and moving cars, objects, and trash cans away from facilities, particularly high-risk facilities. If these items cannot be removed, conduct frequent checks. Implement a barrier plan accordingly. Fight Back: Develop procedures to appoint an on-scene commander, charge person, and team members during emergency situations. These personnel take charge of situations and direct personnel accordingly. These appointments should be made in advance, during training, and procedures should be outlined in a plan.

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Fight Back: Create and implement control centers where necessary. Fight Back: Conduct an operational function check of all interior and exterior security features often and document results. There’s nothing worse than having inoperative cameras, alarms, or radios during a crisis. Fight Back: Develop family training for private residences according to your family’s needs and desires. Fight Back: Ensure family members are cautious when checking packages, receiving home deliveries, accessing home contractors, and so forth. Always verify who a package is from. If unknown, do not accept. Fight Back: Remind drivers to secure and check vehicles before entering and exiting. Where applicable and IAW local laws, create site-specific training for checking the undercarriage of vehicles when threat levels increase. Fight Back: Develop procedures for the use of electronic media in the workplace. Some of these items record and can be used in other ways you may not even be aware of. Fight Back: Create a bloodborne pathogens control plan and kit. Ensure BBP, first aid, and CPR equipment is available in the workplace. Distribute kits in strategic locations throughout the work center, at ECPs, and on mobile units. Develop accountability procedures and always document training. Create computer-based training, tests, quizzes, and exercise scenarios involving first aid and self-aid buddy care applications. Correspond with professional medical personnel for specialized training classes, especially those that may involve resuscitation equipment, CPR, and emergency defibrillation equipment. All personnel should be properly trained and tested on these areas. Develop training lesson plans from both OSHA standards and company policies. Report bloodborne pathogen exposures to supervisors and seek medical care as soon as possible after an incident. For those exposed to blood at home or outside the workplace,

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contact the nearest medical center or clinic for information on how to proceed. Fight Back: Develop and strictly enforce stringent company operating instructions for the removal, storage, protection, and transportation of funds. Fight Back: Keep as little money on the premises as possible, or as needed. Fight Back: Do not leave cash drawers, safes or vaults open unless absolutely necessary. Fight Back: Create policies for when a funds container is unattended. Ensure the immediate area around the funds container is lit. Fight Back: Ensure stringent procedures exist for control and issuance of keys, master keys, codes, and combinations to funds storage rooms, safes, vaults, and locks. Fight Back: Review procedures regarding reinforced construction requirements; for instance, doors, window, ceilings, walls, and interior and exterior lighting. During the physical security inspection, check administrative and operational procedures, doors, windows, walls, floors, ceilings, lighting, alarms, signs, and CCTV. Fight Back: Examine funds security lighting procedure, particularly lights over and near doors and windows through which entry could reasonably be gained. Ensure switches for exterior lighting are installed in such a manner that they are accessible only to authorized individuals. Fight Back: Examine the use of duress words, and duress units and switches. Fight Back: Avoid leaving cash, including petty cash, onsite when the facility is closed. Fight Back: Examine carefully funds transport procedures for normal daylight periods, hours of darkness, and during periods of increased threats. Design anti-robbery check244


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lists, and review, strengthen, and test procedures for quality and effectiveness. Include and review procedures for backup generators during a power failure. Fight Back: Design and strictly enforce IAW state and local laws, stringent company operating instructions for the removal, display, storage, protection, and transportation of arms, ammunition, and explosives. Fight Back: Review procedures regarding specific reinforced construction requirements for weapons facilities, that is, doors, windows, ceilings, walls, and interior and exterior lighting. Fight Back: AAEs are always susceptible to theft. Certain firearms are unique, and needless to say, require protection whenever they are out of storage or lockup. Fight Back: All firearms must be continuously guarded when they are removed from approved storage areas. Owners/users must evaluate the changing need to protect AAE according to the threat of theft, sabotage, or terrorism. They are encouraged to scrutinize procedures on a continuous basis and implement the most stringent policy and procedures regarding AAE. Review often and strengthen procedures and operating instructions for the legal handling, selling, removal, display, storage, protection, and transportation of AAE. Review, strengthen, and test procedures for entering or visiting facilities containing AAE. Ensure access to these facilities is strictly limited and controlled. Review, strengthen, and test procedures for guarding, displaying, issuing, securing, and licensing of AAE. Review, strengthen, and test procedures for alarms, lighting, and CCTV for AAE during a power failure. Review, strengthen, and test procedures for facilities storing high-risk or very high-risk items. Fight Back: Design anti-robbery checklists for AAE and always use inventory forms to document and ensure continuity and accountability. Ensure exterior building and door lighting is provided for all structures storing AAE. Lighting should be of sufficient intensity to allow detection of unauthorized activity. Ensure switches for exterior lighting are 245


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installed in such a manner that they are accessible only to authorized individuals. Fight Back: Always assume positive control of AAE at all times. Remove AAE from storage areas for as short a time as possible and in as small a quantity as needed to support specific projects. Where applicable, ensure weapons that are placed in shipping containers are banded, sealed, or secured in a way that prevents removal of the weapons without leaving visible signs of tampering. Fight Back: Pharmacies and controlled substance storage areas are lucrative areas for pilferage, burglary, and robbery. An owner/user is encouraged to develop, review, strengthen, test, and strictly enforce stringent protection procedures for pharmacies. Designate the number and type of alarms. Where applicable, designate these areas as sensitive, controlled, or restricted areas, and secure them as such. Review, strengthen and test procedures regarding security, locks and keys, and/codes. Review procedures regarding reinforced construction requirements, that is, doors, windows, ceilings, walls, and interior and exterior lighting. Switches for exterior lights should be installed inside the secure area so they are not accessible to unauthorized individuals. Proper lighting both inside and outside the facility is also crucial. Advertisement signs on windows should be used as minimally as possible. Signs block the view of those walking by who may spot a crime in progress. Owners/users should do everything they can to make the rear of their pharmacy uninviting for would-be burglars. This means plenty of lighting, reinforced doors and locks, and, if possible, a clear view for police officers. Remember, it is likely that burglars may come into the facility during business hours to check the layout, or “case� the facility. If you suspect suspicious activity, or if someone is asking inappropriate questions of workers, make an attempt to discreetly obtain the suspicious vehicle’s license plate number and notify police. Fight Back: Chemical, power, petroleum, fuel, oil, and water facilities are critical and may be considered targets of op246


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portunity, so they should be protected accordingly. Review, strictly enforce, strengthen, and test procedures and designate these areas as sensitive, controlled, or restricted. Develop training and practice exercise scenarios involving penetrating and protecting these resources. Involve local businesses and authorities where possible. Install fences, locks, gates, alarms, and CCTV and staff the facility if necessary. Develop procedures to follow during emergencies and increased threat periods. Ensure appropriate lighting is provided. Lighting shall be of sufficient intensity to allow detection of unauthorized activity. Ensure switches for exterior lighting are installed in such a manner that they are accessible only to authorized individuals. Conduct a routine, random, and after-hours security check for these areas. Fight Back: Conduct physical security inspections, quality safety inspections, and random and after-hours security checks for construction sites. Review, strengthen, and test procedures to ensure they work. Create safety checklists and review and scrutinize safety inspection procedures for heavy equipment. Create tests and exercise scenarios. Ensure construction sites are well lit and secured properly during hours of darkness and when workers are not present. Ensure equipment is secure and that the site is patrolled by security where necessary. Ensure fencing, gates and locks are effective enough to deter outsiders. Use alarms, CCTV, and warning signs for these facilities where necessary. Fight Back: Hold weekly or quarterly AT/WP staff meetings to determine the status of the program. During this time, review business as usual; any different or unplanned issues affecting the program; physical security inspection reports; administrative and operational issues; training; changes in threat conditions; and any new, changed, or discontinued programs, policies, or procedures. Fight Back: Conduct an overall AT/WP assessment of the program to ensure it is effective and works in your business’s fight against terrorism and workplace violence. Rescrub all areas of the program and commit to reworking weak areas and programs collectively. Work as a team. 247


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Fight Back: Know your people; interact with them as much as possible without compromising job integrity or promoting conflicts of interest. Ask questions, engage them in conversation, and know personalities as much as possible. Enlist others on the job to do the same. Make it part of your training. Fight Back: Question your suspicions. Fight Back: Stay vigilant! Fight Back: Keep a low profile, be unpredictable, and always stay alert. Fight Back: Use environmentally friendly products that won’t hurt the environment. Fight Back: Recycle rainwater, use rain barrels, and use laundry water to water trees. Fight Back: Turn off the TV and other electrical items when not using them. Fight Back: Use the oven as little as possible. Use the microwave more; it’s 75 percent more energy efficient than your oven. Fight Back: Use cloth towels instead of paper towels and toilet paper. Fight Back: Wrap hot water heaters in a water heater insulating blanket and insulate the first three to six feet of hot and cold water pipes. Fight Back: Hang laundry out to dry instead of using the dryer. A dryer is the second-highest household energy user next to the refrigerator. Fight Back: Use air conditioning only when necessary. Fight Back: Ride a bike to work when possible, drive fuelefficient cars, and properly inflate tires and slow down while driving. 248


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Fight Back: If you live in a colder climate and must drive, there’s no real need to warm your car up first. Driving heats your car faster than idling it. Fight Back: Avoid using pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizer. Fight Back: Use paper products that are from recycled paper. Fight Back: Plant responsibly; plant vegetable gardens and grow fruit. Fight Back: Switch to energy-efficient compact fluorescent light bulbs. Fight Back: Keep your home at seventy-eight degrees in the summer, or at the warmest temperature that is comfortable for you. Fight Back: Keep windows closed and shades down when the air conditioning is on. Fight Back: Check and clean air conditioning filters monthly and replace as needed. Fight Back: Run appliances such as the dishwasher and clothes washer at night. Fight Back: When you’re out of your house at night or when you’re asleep, use a programmable thermostat to automatically raise the temperature five to ten degrees in summer and lower it five to ten degrees in winter. Fight Back: Install weather stripping on all doors and windows and use thermal curtains to keep the heat in and the cold out in the winter and the cool air in and the sun out during summer. Fight Back: Add dimmers to your home’s lighting system. Fight Back: Consider installing low-flow showerheads and sink aerators to reduce hot water use. 249


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Fight Back: Use a composter to turn your food and lawn wastes into mulch. Fight Back: Invest in clean American-made energy. Fight Back: Place a smart cap on carbon pollution.

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CHAPTER 23 I Salute and Honor Strength, Spirit, and Determination: Everyday People Doing the Right Thing

This chapter acknowledges the heroes, unsung heroes, and hero-like attitudes and actions of everyday people who in one form or another have fought back and/or continue to fight back to protect this great land and still hold true the internal drive to pass it on. To all who find themselves in this chapter, I salute and honor you! The September 11, 2001, tragedy should have awakened something in all of us. This was a horrific and cowardly attack on our nation and our freedom. If this attack has done anything to this nation, it should have given all Americans the strength and the will to fight back. This attack should have given us all a wake-up call. This attack should have given us all the motivation, willpower, guts, and the intense dedication and motivation to want to change the way we conduct security in this forever-changing world. 251


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I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent support of our president of the United States, regardless of who it is and in spite of your own prejudices and dislikes; we support our president. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stand to represent standing for rather than standing against. When or if you’re in a position to you hold a platform where you can reach others and make a difference, spreading hate, ignorance, and fear among Americans and bringing down the president only brings down this great nation. This is America, one nation for all. If our president fails, we all fail. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to dispel the ignorance, rhetoric, and negative energies from negative, ignorant, and bitter people, groups, organizations, and the forever hopeless. These un-American people historically have stood for divisiveness, scarring, tearing apart, and breaking down the principles and basic values this country was founded on regardless of party affiliation, race, creed, or culture. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent equality and respect for all. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent “We the People.” I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent and support our proud men and women of the armed forces all over this world. They’re the ones who have vowed to serve and protect, and they’re the ones who proudly protect us as we lie asleep at night; thank you for your service. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent and respect our service organizations all over the world; thank you for your service. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent service. 252


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I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent continued faith and strong values. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent faith in your God. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent family. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent community. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent integrity. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent getting rid of excuses. Excuses are signs of incompetence. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent what’s right, and doing what’s right. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent holding your head high, knowing you’re doing the right thing, and encouraging others to do what’s right. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent doing what’s right all the time, even when no one is looking. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent telling your neighbors, co-workers, friends, and families that if it’s the right thing, it’s okay, and hold no regrets. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent respect and support for your neighbors and your community. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent making better choices for your family, faith, and community.

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Roland Stewart

I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent taking time and reflecting on making things better and making things right. I salute and honor each and every one of you who in one way or another has answered your calling to take care of yourself. I salute and honor each and every one of you who in one way or another has answered your calling to assist and take care of others. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent moving on and letting go of the past for a better you. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent change. See it as an opportunity, not a challenge. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent bold, new thinking. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent taking a bold, positive stand and moving in a bold, new direction. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent the idea of “no risk, no reward.� I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent abandoning negative issues and accentuating the positive. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent looking past failure. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent looking to success. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent accepting the challenge to rally against the threat. 254


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I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent those who have accepted the challenge to rally against the threat. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent protecting our environment. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent a passion for life. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent a passion for loving, regardless of who it is. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent empowering others. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent hanging in there. You know it’s tough, but in spite of the pain, scars, and tears, you know that at the end of the day, it’ll be okay. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent knowing that things or situations are tough however, if you really want it, if you really have the desire, you can do it. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent humbling yourselves even in the toughest times. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent being grateful for the little things you have and showing it. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent motivation and being driven. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent owning a process. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent using the process the right way.

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Roland Stewart

I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent having the same opportunities as your neighbor. Even though some say things are still not even, lose the excuses, pull yourself up off the ground and work hard to achieve your dream. It is possible. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent accepting self-responsibility and self-reliance. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent fighting for what you believe in. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent the nation’s first responders and the difficult job they do, day in and day out; thank you for your service. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent never forgetting. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent not being afraid. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent fighting back! I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent the heroes, the unsung heroes, and hero-like attitudes and actions of everyday people like you. I salute and honor each and every one of you who stands to represent. Recognizing the need for positive change does not mean giving up values and principles. People are keys to doing the right thing, all the time. Honor and integrity certifies it. Doing the right thing all the time means that even when no one is looking, we do what is right. Doing the right thing means that when given the opportunity to serve, in whatever form or fashion, we do it because it is right, it feels right, and it’s supposed to be this way. Doing the right thing has never meant sacrificing values and principles. The path

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to achieving success has never been easy; however, the results of achieving the final outcome can be significant. What is right comes from the heart. What is right reflects the set laws of this land. What is right comes from our values and principles. Committing to changing the way we do business is the right thing to do. It becomes vital to the security, protection, and success of this nation. It all starts with dedicated people with dedicated principles and dedicated unshakable values, ready and willing to do the right thing.

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Glossary of Terms AAE—Acronym for arms, ammunition, and explosives Anti-Terrorism—Defensive measures used to reduce the vulnerability of individuals and property to terrorist acts. It includes limited response and containment by workforce personnel, local law enforcement, and associated government agencies. ASAP—Acronym for as soon as possible AT/WP Assessments—Overall review and purge of the AT/ WP program to determine if it meets the needs of the owner/user IAW set operations plans, visions, and objectives. AT/WP Teams or Working Groups—Groups selected to identify workplace protection and physical security operational and administrative weaknesses and vulnerabilities during day-to-day operations and during emergencies and times of increased threat, with the intent of providing a strong, safe, and healthy work environment solutions. Bait Money—A term usually used in banking for predesignated money located at a funds facility, and provides tracking for law enforcement officers; a tool in helping police capture robbery suspects; money that can be traced by the police. Barrier—Structure, barricade, or fencing used to deny or delay entry; a boundary or obstruction to protect human and physical resources. Bloodborne Pathogens Control Plan—Plan for reducing exposure to bloodborne pathogens. It helps to eliminate or minimize employee exposures. Bloodborne Pathogens—Infectious material in blood that can cause disease in humans, including hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV.

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Bloodborne Pathogens Training—Training education for personnel who can reasonably expect to come in contact with blood and/or other potentially infectious materials. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)—Emergency technique to revive somebody whose heart has stopped beating; involves clearing the person’s airways and then alternating heart compression with mouth-to-mouth respiration. Challenge—A request or demand for identification or authentication. The purpose of any challenge is to positively identify persons. Checklist—A sequenced, step-by-step, or chronological order of events. It can also be designed to remind a user of what must be reviewed, the correct procedure to follow, and so forth. It guides the owner/user through certain processes and in an organized fashion; a kind of to-do list. Circulation Control—Entry, exit, and internal movement of personnel within/or around a workplace. These security measures are applied against the threat of unauthorized personnel not only in restricted, sensitive, or controlled areas but in normal day-to-day work areas to preclude theft, destruction, or hostile actions within the area. Close Circuit Television (CCTV)—A television transmission system in which cameras transmit pictures by cable to connected monitors. Community Emergency Response Team (CERT)— Assists people in their neighborhood or workplace following an event when professional responders are not immediately available to help; educates people about disaster preparedness for hazards that may impact their area and trains them in basic disaster response skills. Compensatory Measure—A modification, offset, equivalent, substitute, or change in an AT/WP policy or procedure.

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Contingency Plan—Often called plan B, alternate plans, backup plans, and/or worst-case scenario plans, these plans describe the readiness policy and procedure for anything that could happen or for situations that are likely to occur when things go wrong. Continuity Folder or Plan—Describes how a process is conducted—who, what, where, why, and when—so that if one leaves a position, someone else is capable of performing that same job. It ensures that procedures and practices are done the same way all the time; it ensures consistency and clarity of a process. Continuous Anti-Terrorism and Workplace Protection Training—Training that is implemented on a continuous or as-needed basis and is directed toward security procedures and requirements and the job of each individual as it relates to anti-terrorism and workplace protection. This phase of training is ongoing, is implemented throughout the year, and is always conducted after the initial training. Control Center (CC)—A focal point for incidents affecting the workplace; provides an opportunity for personnel to handle on-site situations, particularly emergencies, and make necessary and critical decisions until first responders arrive. Debrief—Used in AT/WP to receive and disseminate information after an event and to inform or discuss results of a situation or incident. Deficiency—A security vulnerability or weakness Department of Homeland Security (DHS) — A cabinet department of the United States federal government with the primary responsibilities of protecting the territory of the U.S. from terrorist attacks and responding to natural disasters. Deviation—Depart from the norm, from procedure, purpose, or policy.

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Discrepancies—Noted differences between policies and procedures. Domestic Terrorism—Terrorism perpetrated by the citizens of one country against fellow countrymen. That includes acts against citizens of a second country when they are in the host country and not the principal or intended target. Duress Alarm—Portable or stationary device used to alert others when particular personnel are forced to yield protected items or persons to unauthorized persons; alerts others of incidents or situation affecting persons, places, or resources. Duress Word—Selected word or words incorporated into normal sentences and passed to other persons or agencies to indicate a possible hostile situation and/or incident affecting persons, facilities, or resources. Eco-terrorism—Terrorism conducted for the sake of environmental or animal rights causes. Entry Authority List (EAL)—Process used to control entry and exit to and from work and sensitive areas and to grant unescorted entry into an area. Entry Control Point (ECP)—In AT/WP, in ECP is referred to an entrance to a workplace, business, facility, structure etc. Generally, these areas are staffed by personnel. Environmental terrorism—Involves deliberately destroying or manipulating the environment; the use of the forces of nature for hostile purposes; deliberately contaminating water or agricultural resources. Exercise—A test, practice, rehearsed event, action, or task performed repeatedly (through simulated or actual physical movements) during a designated time period that is designed to evaluate and improve AT/WP tasks, procedures, actions, and capabilities.

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Functional Expert—Person who maintains knowledge, judgment and skills based on prior training, practice and career experience. Harassing Behavior—To follow, repeatedly telephone, or stalk someone or to engage in bizarre, unexplainable, or troublesome conduct toward someone, including the threat of violence. Hard Target—A military installation, weapons-related facility, or weapons-related equipment. HVAC—Acronym Conditioning

for

Heating,

Ventilating,

and

Air

IAW—Acronym for In Accordance With Illinois Chemical Brand and Weapons Depot Division (ICBWD)—Fictional company name used in this book Immediate Visual Assessment (IVA)—Surveillance within or outside of a workplace, including perimeter sectors or areas where camera systems fail, increased threats exist, or poor visibility or blind spots exist. Information Sharing—Exchange of data between a sender and receiver; to collect information and communicate it to others. Initial Anti-Terrorism and Workplace Protection Training—New or first-time training, administered on a one-time basis, and implemented for all newcomers and temporary personnel. It is directed toward security procedures and requirements and the job of each individual as it relates to anti-terrorism and workplace protection. Internal Communication System (ICS)—A communication system used to disseminate information to personnel. Intrusion Detection Equipment (IDE)—Alarm systems capable of detection, for example motion detectors or volumetric sensors. 263


Mission Statement—Describes what an owner/user expects as a result of implementing an operations plan. National Threat Advisory—Alerts personnel when there is credible information warning of an imminent threat to the United States. It further advises about actions that Americans are recommended to take; actionable information about an incident involving threats targeting critical national networks, infrastructures, or key assets. Operations Plan (Ops Plan)—Guideline describing the requirements necessary to implement the anti-terrorism and workplace protection program. It makes clear the operational and administrative policies and procedures and how businesses should abide by them. Organization Exercise Event (OEE)—AT/WP training exercise dedicated specifically towards an entire business or organization. Overall Program Assessment Report (OPAR)— Documents the AT/WP program’s progress to ensure the program is in compliance with the owner/user’s mission statement and/or any site-specific, local, state, and federal directives. Owners/Users—Personnel who physically works and/or operate a particular work center or business during normal and emergency conditions; responsible for the overall operation and administrative functions of the work center; may also be a person who owns a business property. Physical Security—That which is designed to safeguard personnel and prevent or deter attackers from accessing a facility, resource, space, or information stored on physical media and to prevent unauthorized access to equipment and facilities by criminals and prevent a terrorist attack. Physical Security Inspection—Detailed assessment of physical structures and equipment for discrepancies, tampering, deterioration, or malfunction. Physical security inspections also include reviews of security-related admin264


istrative policies, procedures, and directives for accuracy, clarity, currency, and feasibility. Plans Coordinator—Individual or team selected to coordinate and implement security and AT/WP plans. Purge—Inspect and remove as necessary administrative and operational policies, procedures, resources and personnel; to clear a process and eliminate the unused. Quick Reference Cards (QRCs)—A handy pocket/wallet reference card that contains relevant security and AT/WP information. Rally Point—Also called an assembly area, this is a designated location where personnel will assemble to be accounted for after an incident or emergency has been deemed safe. Sensitive/Controlled/Restricted Area—Room or other place containing specific vulnerabilities, vital documents, equipment, processes, or personnel that requires specific entry and circulation control and may require additional security depending on the sensitivity of the area. Simulate—Imitate a performance, training exercise, or other actions; a walk-through or explanation versus physically conducting the action. Site Specific—A particular location or jobsite Smart Planning—Provides guidance for owners/users to maximize their potential and to prioritize and focus on the mission at hand. It also allows them to prepare and work out methods before an incident occurs. Soft Target—Military term for an undefended target to be destroyed. For AT/WP purposes, a soft target may be any place where people assemble that is considered an easy target for terrorists or criminals. Soft target is also used in technology security circles to describe computers, networks, or entire domains with exploitable vulnerabilities. 265


Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)—Specific and standard way of systematically conducting a job or other tasks; sequence of tasks, decisions, calculations, and processes that when undertaken in the sequence laid down produces the described result or product. Suspicious Package—Any unidentified package, piece of mail, briefcase or object with unusual odors; too much wrapping; bulges, bumps or other odd shapes; no return address; a “registered” or “personal” label; incorrect spelling or poor typing; or protruding wires or strings. Tabletop Exercise—Convenient way to rehearse events and/or tasks; normally performed by teaching, models, charts or briefs designed to assess and improve AT/WP tasks, procedures, and capabilities. Terrorism—Indiscriminate act that strikes in varying forms of threats and violence. The calculated, unlawful use of force, violence, or the threat of violence intended to coerce or to intimidate governments, societies, or individuals; used in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological. Terrorists generate fear through intimidation, coercion, and acts of violence, such as mass shootings, hijackings, bombings, or kidnappings. Training Exercise (TE)—Involves personnel in the initial or continuous training phase, and evaluates their reporting, reaction, and response actions to a given situation. Terrorist Groups—Individuals trained in a paramilitary force committing an overt or covert act for political gain. Training Plan—Guideline that sets forth the plan for antiterrorism and workplace protection training; it makes clear the overall goal of training. Transportation Security Administration (TSA)— Responsible for protecting the Nation’s transportation systems to ensure freedom of movement for people and commerce in all modes of transportation.

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Vigilant—Watchful, aware, cautious, alert Workplace—Location where people perform assigned work duties; locality where one or more employees are present while on duty, including private domains. Workplace Protection—Fundamental knowledge of the threat, and measures implemented to reduce personnel and property vulnerabilities to terrorism and criminal activity. Workplace Safety—Reduction or elimination of harm to employees and clients in the event of weapons in the workplace, harassing behavior, and the threat of violence. (The goal of any workplace should be to promote a safe, secure, and healthy environment in which all employees, clients, and visitors may safely function without fear of crime and violence). Workplace Violence—Any act of physical threat or violence, harassment, intimidation, or other threatening or disruptive behavior that may occur in a place where people work.

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Epilogue Tragic incidents like the bombing of the Murrah Federal building in Oklahoma City, the shooting rampage at Columbine High, the Virginia Tech massacre, the Northern Illinois University killings, the Fort Hood shootings and the September 11 tragedy should’ve never happened, but they did. We cannot take time back. We cannot control the minds and thoughts of others, and we certainly can’t predict what’s going to happen next. We can, however, reflect on what has happened then and what is happening now in the world. Terrorism continues to threaten our existence as Americans. Crime and violence continue to threaten the peace of the individual, the family, and the American worker. When we look at the crime, threats, and violence in the news today, it seems as though doing something about it should be second nature. When I read what some people say about others who have written on the subject of terrorism and workplace crime and violence, it never ceases to amaze me to see comments from people labeling writers such as myself as over the top and trying to scare and frighten people, or accusing us of trying to make Americans paranoid. Please! Is talk of protecting oneself, one’s family, or one’s nation really thought of as “over the top, frightening, or making people paranoid”? I and others like me don’t think so. I and others like me strongly advocate the concept of self reliability. Education and information have become extremely powerful tools. Why are we depending on the already-burdened U.S. government to protect us when, justifiably, we know we’re just as capable and have the ability to protect ourselves. Look, by now my stance is clear. I strongly believe that increasing one’s personal responsibility increases one’s selfreliability. It’s twenty years past time for us to open our eyes to our surroundings, take a really good look at what’s going around us, and start doing something about it.

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I, too, believe that a sector of society believes—not only since 9/11, but in years past—the idea that government has to set the stage when it comes to protection of people. This is the norm, or has been the norm, and there are those who are quite comfortable with this notion. It seems as though some have accepted that premise, and so lives by it. We’ve faced one of the worst terrorist attacks in history, in which scores of people died. We’ve faced unheard-of frightening violence in American workplaces and institutions, and we still continue to face horrific and unnecessary violence against innocent people in their homes and on the streets throughout this country. If we have the power to be a superpower, why is it we haven’t deterred what is going on in our own backyards? One would reasonably believe that attacks not only on our solidarity and existence as people are being infringed upon, but attacks on our liberty and freedom alone would force us to become the planners and directors of our own fate. The “it can’t happen here” attitude is history, for we know by now that it can happen anywhere. To do nothing, folks, is not an option! If we don’t come to the rescue of ourselves, then simply put, we’re wrong! And inevitably, we’re in serious trouble. Because of unsuccessful attempts to make good on some threats, the threats still continue, and we as a nation still remain vulnerable. There are no telltale signs when things will get any better, and we as a people cannot afford to wait for another terrorist attack or another crazed gunman. There’s so much more to do. There’s so much more we as a people have to conquer and can do to protect this great country. Do we use only the threat of war to fight back? Do we pretend that crime and violence is only an urban problem? Or do we toughen up our national defenses, get smart on crime and violence, and start to educate and inform Americans about the real threat and what to do? I watch television and I browse the Internet for events occurring in the world every day. I’m still amazed at the 270


methods and lengths people will go through to commit terrorist acts, and I ask why? I’m still amazed at the number of workplace shootings and killings that are taking place, and I ask why? I’m still amazed that shootings occurring in some major urban areas still go unsolved because surveillance cameras either don’t work, the pictures are “fuzzy” or there are no pictures at all, and I ask why? I‘m still amazed at the extent another person will go through to hurt another person, and yes, I still ask why? Well, folks, frankly, I’m tired of the whys! The whys are many, and unfortunately, still yet to be known. But while waiting for an answer, I know it’s time to do something. As I mentioned during the introduction, I often talk to people and ask their personal views concerning events occurring in the world today affecting terrorism and crime and violence. While I do believe people are generally and sincerely concerned about events taking place in the world, I just don’t get a sense that people actually understand the severity and the sensitivity. I just don’t get a sense that people actually take seriously the threats we face in this world today, not just from terrorism alone, but from vicious and senseless killings of other people in our own country. Since I’ve retired my Air Force Security Forces uniform, boots, and beret, the thoughts, training, experiences, hard work, and dedication instilled in me burns brighter than ever before. Will it ever go away? I don’t know, but I do know the furnace is full of oil, and there’s a huge fuel truck standin’ by awaitin’ a refuel. I joined the Air Force Security Police with the intention of receiving four years of experience I could use on the outside. Twenty years later, I realize those years haven’t been in vain. They’ve been the most powerful and significant twenty years in my lifetime. I wrote this book because I’m passionate about what I believe. I’m passionate about what I believe to be some very important issues and concerns affecting this nation. Twenty years have prepared me for what is to come. We as a people 271


and we as a nation have the tools, resources, information, and intelligence to affect a situation before it happens. We as a people and we as a nation have the tools, resources, information, and intelligence to affect an entire nation. I said affect, not stop it. Can it be stopped? I don’t know. Can it be affected? I say yes, indeed. We have the tools, resources, information, and intelligence to educate and make smart our children, their children, and our children’s children. My intent here was to encourage people to accept personal responsibility when it comes to protecting themselves and others. My intent here was to encourage people to take some initiative and get involved. My intent here was to motivate people to become more aware, to become more vigilant. My intent here was to encourage people to develop smarter security habits and foster a new attitude when it comes to security. And my intention here was to inform and show people that other options exist in the fight against terrorism and crime in the places where we live and work. There’s nothing unconventional here. Have I been successful? I don’t know; only time will tell. If we open up a dialog now and build working programs to strengthen and refine what we already know, we can affect and reshape the mindset of Americans and generations to come…Start today! Choose what’s best for you and make it happen. Make a difference! Be proactive, be accountable, and hold others accountable. Hold your head high, lead from the front, and make your voice heard. Doing nothing has severe consequences in our continued efforts to protect America and fight back! So I ask again, as I did in the introduction, are we as Americans any safer now than before 9/11? Are we prepared to respond to another attack on our freedom as Americans?

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Notes/References Excerpts of the Example Training Plan/Welcome Letter was originally published by former Lt. Col. David Koontz, 28th Security Forces squadron commander, Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota A Government Guide: Postal Service Advice on Suspicious Packages or Letters, published by U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Department of the Air Force, U.S. Postal Inspection Service (Module 3) Citizen Guidance on the Homeland Security Advisory System Recommended Actions for Citizens Risk of Attack, published by the U.S Department of Homeland Security with input from the American Red Cross (Module 6) JS Guide 5260 Service Member’s Personal Protection Guide: A Self-Help Handbook to Combating Terrorism, published by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, U.S. Department of the Air Force/U.S. Department of the Army (Module 5) The Madeline Hunter “Seven step lesson plan” (Chapter 2, Lesson Plans) USA.gov/Ready.gov/Terror and the use of biological and chemical threats/ (Module 1/Module 6) U.S. Department of Homeland Security/Information Sharing (Module 6) U.S. Department of Homeland Security, www.FirstGov.gov (the U.S. government’s official Web portal) (Module 2/ Emergency Response) U.S. Department of Human Services (General Information) U.S. Department of Labor (OSHA) (Module 7) U.S. Department of Transportation Security Administration (Module 5) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (General Information) U.S. Department of the Air Force (General Information) 273



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