John Marshall Center for Constitutional History & Civics Appreciation Report 2018-2020

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John Marshall Center for Constitutional History & Civics Appreciation Report 2018-2020


a modern approach to civics

PLUS The Robe Returns! People at the Center Our Impact Honor Roll of Donors 2018-2020

IN THIS ISSUE Introducing PopCiv 4 There’s No Place Like Home: The Restored Robe Returns to Richmond An update on Save the Robe Campaign 8 People at the Center, a photo gallery 11 Our Work 12 Our Impact 16 Educating for American Democracy: JMC Champions Civics 17 Honor Roll of Donors 2018-2020 18

BOARD OF DIRECTORS Kevin C. Walsh President

Robert R. Kaplan Vice President J. Tracy Walker IV Vice President Christopher T. Henry

Treasurer J. Edward Betts Jamie O. Bosket Gretchen C. Byrd The Hon. Lucretia A. Carrico Trevor S. Cox Matthew A. Fitzgerald Sheldon Gilbert Beth Norbrey Hopkins The Hon. Henry C. Hudson 2 • John Marshall Center

Cover: Pop Art of John Marshall © 2014 Courtesy of Richmond Magazine

Belinda D. Jones Elizabeth S. Kostelny The Hon. Stephen R. McCullough Jennifer B. Reedy Thomas G. Slater Jr. Addison B. “Tad” Thompson



Office Manager

Christopher T. Henry Steve Lippman Jeff Mead


Charles F. Hobson, Advisor William & Mary Professor (Retired) Editor, The Papers of John Marshall

Joni Albrecht Acting Director Caroline Legros Director of Education & Programs Kathryn Selden

Our Gratitude Thank you for your partnership over the past three years, a transformational time as we began implementing the John Marshall Center’s strategic plan. That roadmap called for us to expand our reach and impact through strategic partnerships with universities, museums, and organizations, a focus that has led to new collaboration and initiatives and informs our educational programs. Thank you for supporting us during this key time, especially through the past year, when we, like everyone, faced tremendous challenges. We find ourselves today at home in the Virginia Museum of History & Culture (VMHC) and operating at the center of America’s classrooms, the Constitution, and our courts, an intersection that has increasingly become the center of our nation’s collective attention. Thank you for joining us there and helping us honor John Marshall’s judicial legacy through public history programs, civics education resources and outreach, scholarly research, preservation efforts, and continuing education opportunities. While we face the reality of America experiencing a civics crisis, we are optimistic as we envision a country where students of all ages are civic-ready, engaging in their communities with an understanding of how our system of government has worked, should work, and will work as we all work toward a more perfect union.

Clearly, work is the operative word. We have ours cut out for us, but, with your partnership, we believe the possibilities are vast. Thank you for believing in the importance of the rule of law, the independent judiciary, and the lasting legacy of John Marshall. We are grateful. Sincerely,

Kevin Walsh • 3

Introducing PopCiv, a modern approach to civics


s our country tries to make sense of unprecedented times, and as parents and civics teachers guide conversations about controversial topics, the John Marshall Center is looking to history for perspective, answers, and sometimes more questions. In January, JMC introduced a new digital series called PopCiv that connects current events and popular culture to constitutional history. “Our culture craves a better understanding of the Constitution and a historical perspective to provide context for what is happening today” says Caroline Legros, JMC Director of Education & Programs. The series is in response to educators looking for quick conversation starters, FAQs, links, and primary source documents to supplement their own history and social studies curriculum. The new resources are housed on JMC’s website, and are designed for the classroom as well as the kitchen table. The following installment, “Juries in American Trials,” posted on the day closing arguments were made in the Derek Chauvin murder trial and teachers were handling questions about the highly publicized case.

4 • John Marshall Center

PopCiv 6: Juries in American Trials Introduction People around the country and world are watching in real time our nation’s judicial system at work in the trial of Derek Chauvin, the ex-Minneapolis City Police Officer accused of the murder of George Floyd, a man in custody and restrained by a 9-minute use of force hold at the time of his death. Like many other high-profile cases, this trial is being televised, streamed, and highly covered in all forms of media. While we are familiar seeing courtroom settings in our favorite television shows and films, we may have questions about the way the different parts of the system function in cases like these. One of the most important facets of a courtroom trial is the jury. In a case like the Derek Chauvin trial, the jury will be responsible for deciding whether or not Chauvin is guilty of the three charges against him: second-degree unintentional felony murder, third-degree “depraved mind” murder, and second-degree manslaughter. To understand how this trial by jury process originated, we have to dive deep into ancient history.

Historical Context The concepts behind jury trials date back to antiquity. The ancient Greeks and Romans used tribunals of citizens to evaluate cases against accused individuals, but those dikastai (Greek) and commitia (Roman) assemblies could count into the hundreds, if not thousands, rather than the twelve individuals seen in American courtrooms

today. The origins of contemporary American juries can be traced back to English Common Law of the middle ages. By the 12th century, the English had established that juries of twelve “free men” would be convened to settle land disputes, and trial by jury was included as a key right in the Magna Carta, written in 1215. By the time of the American Revolution, even British colonies were accustomed to the process of a jury trial. In fact, one of the complaints colonists lodged against King George III was that he denied his subjects the right to trial by jury as promised to them as British citizens. When establishing a new government, authors of the Constitution enshrined the right to a trial by jury, whether in civil or criminal cases, in both the original text of the Constitution (Article III, Section 2) and in the Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Amendments. In 1968, the Supreme Court further reinforced the importance of a citizen’s right to a trial by jury in Duncan v. Louisiana, with its majority opinion stating:

“Providing an accused with the right trial by a jury of his peers gave him an inestimable safeguard against the corrupt or overzealous prosecutor and against the compliant, biased, or eccentric judge.” The process of serving on a jury is now a common facet of society. Petit juries (or trial juries) are usually made up of six to 12 individuals asked to come to a unanimous consensus about a defendant’s innocence or guilt. While some states will permit a less than • 5

reason. Additionally, judges will excuse any individual who knows the people involved in the case, has personal knowledge about the events of the case, or has any prejudice in one way or another related to the case.

Jurors listening to counsel, Supreme Court, new City Hall, New York. Winslow Homer, 1869, wood engraving

unanimous verdict in certain cases, federal criminal proceedings require full unanimity of their juries. But before evidence can be reviewed and a verdict found, members of a jury have to be summoned and selected. Many of us have received a jury summons, sent by local district courts to a random selection of individuals in that region. After receiving their initial summons, potential jurors are required to complete a survey that determines their general eligibility to serve. After that screening, qualified individuals will be asked to report for juror selection. Simply receiving a jury summons does not necessarily mean you will be chosen to serve on a jury for a particular trial. In every trial, prosecution and defense attorneys engage in the voir dire process, where each side questions potential jurors to establish their suitability to serve on the jury in that specific case. Attorneys for the prosecution and defense may both dismiss a set number of potential jurors without giving a 6 • John Marshall Center

After the twelve members of the jury are selected, each individual is sworn in and tasked with using the evidence presented during the trial to come to a conclusion about the defendant’s guilt or innocence. In a civil trial, juries determine whether a defendant is “liable” or “not liable” rather than “guilty” or “not guilty.” While the jury itself is responsible for evaluating the evidence in the case, the judge for a trial is still a key component in the judicial process. The judge will determine what evidence may be submitted by the prosecution or defense and can instruct the jury to disregard any information that they believe is inadmissible. In short, the jury is not expected to suddenly gain extensive legal knowledge simply because they have been selected to sit in a jury box. The judge is present to provide legal guidance and context to help the jury in their evaluation of evidence and is responsible for sentencing the defendant after a guilty or liable verdict is reached. Over the course of the trial, attorneys for the prosecution and defense will present their cases to the jury. After both sides rest, the jury is given time to deliberate over the evidence they have received. Some juries deliberate for mere hours or minutes, while others take weeks to reach a verdict. After a

decision is reached, the foreperson or presiding juror reads the verdict before the court, and the defendant (if found guilty or liable) is sentenced by the judge. Each lesson contains an FAQ section. This one asks what the Constitution says about juries, what is the process for jury selection, what is sequestration, and what is the difference between a grand and standard jury. A section called PopTriv uses the movie Twelve Angry Men and the O.J. Simpson trial as examples of courtrooms and juries in our culture. And the Conversation Starter section asks students to


watch Twelve Angry Men and identify the juror they most closely identify with, and/or to read about Ramos v Louisiana, where, in 2020, the Supreme Court reversed an earlier decision, and now requires that any serious offense at the state and federal level must have a unanimous jury in order to convict. Each lesson finishes with a downloadable glossary of terms.

Check out PopCiv at

Young Achievers Meet John Marshall


e were recently invited to bring a law-related program to the Greater YMCA of Richmond’s Young Achievers Career Day. A new partnership with the Virginia State Mock Trial program allowed high schoolers practiced in courtroom procedures to engage the Y’s middle school students in a trial simulation. The young students learned about the judicial process, were introduced to the idea of a mock trial team and had a lot of fun. It was a win for all the students and for us as we seek opportunities to impart the importance of our courts into our communities.

I love what you are doing here. This shows how important the court is in real-life situations today • 7

There’s No Place Like Home:

John Marshall’s Restored Robe Returns to Richmond


ohn Marshall Center (JMC) is pleased to announce with Preservation Virginia (PVA) and the Virginia Museum of History & Culture (VMHC), that through the generous support of donors, the only surviving judicial robe of Chief Justice John Marshall has been professionally conserved and is on display for the public. When Marshall was sworn in as the fourth Chief Justice of the United States, he chose to wear a plain, black robe, which helped establish the form of attire judges use today. John Marshall’s robe is the single-most significant artifact from his 34-year tenure as chief justice and his defining legacy of establishing the federal judiciary as a constitutional equal of the executive and legislative branches of government. In the collection of Preservation Virginia, Marshall’s robe was in need of conservation due to acid hydrolysis from the dye and iron mordant used to achieve its deep shade of black. Howard Sutcliffe, principal conservator and director of River Region Costume and Textile Conservation, performed the conservation. Sutcliffe’s previous projects include Tiraz fragments from Medieval Egypt, Tzar Nicholas II’s parade uniform and the original Kermit the Frog puppet. During the robe’s remote reveal, Chief Judge Roger Gregory of the United States Court of 8 • John Marshall Center

Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, had this to say:

“Marshall brought more than a robe to the Supreme Court, he added power and prestige. The color black is an amalgamation of colors and represents the wide range of the American people. The color represents neutrality of justice and the promise to adhere to justice. The black robe also suspends bias to promote the impartiality of the court.” The robe will be exhibited in a state-of-the-art display case to help ensure its preservation. Beginning Friday, April 16, the public can view the robe as part of a new exhibit, “Intended to Endure: The Legacy and Conservation of John Marshall’s Supreme Court Robe” at the John Marshall House in Richmond, one of six historic properties operated by Preservation Virginia. The John Marshall House is open Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays through December

and is also available by appointment. Tickets and timeslots for interior tours can be reserved online at story continued on next page

Photos of John Marshall’s robe courtesy of Preservation Virginia • 9

“The judicial robe of John Marshall is evocative of the incredibly important and complicated story of Marshall’s Court, its influence to interpret the executive, legislative and judicial powers listed in the Constitution and the legacies of those decisions today” said Elizabeth S. Kostelny, Preservation Virginia CEO and JMC Board Member. “The partnership with the John Marshall Center for Constitutional History & Civics and the Virginia Museum of History & Culture was absolutely critical to realizing the goals of stabilizing and exhibiting the robe.”

“Marshall brought more than a robe to the Supreme Court, he added power and prestige.” – Chief Judge Roger Gregory of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit

The robe will move to the VMHC in 2022. Jamie Bosket, President & CEO of VMHC and JMC Board Member, explains why the VMHC is another fitting home for this unmatched artifact: “Chief Justice John Marshall was not only one of the most consequential Virginians in the early years of our nation he was also the founding president of our state history museum in 1831. We are thrilled to be a part of this important preservation project and will look forward to displaying this iconic historical artifact when the VMHC’s reimagination and renovation is complete in early 2022.” Phase II of Save the Robe is now underway to provide funding for duplicate robes, a traveling exhibition, and classroom resources to interpret the robe’s significance and symbolism today. Visit to learn more or to make a donation.

1830 Portrait of John Marshall by Chester Harding. Courtesy of Boston Athenaeum 10 • John Marshall Center

Our Work


e’ve been hard at work. Here are a few highlights from the past three years and a glance at what we’re up to today.

2018 We expanded Justice in the Classroom through a generous grant from the Virginia Law Foundation and commissioned The King of Crimes by David L. Robbins about the Aaron Burr Treason Trial in John Marshall’s court, presenting it free-of-charge to 1200 RPS students. We also hosted, in partnership with the Virginia Museum of History & Culture (VMHC), three Marshall lectures as part of their Banner Lecture series.

2019 We moved into space at the VMHC, and we formalized the John Marshall Federal Courts Program, our partnership with Omohundro Institute of Early American History & Culture and William & Mary Law School. We filmed The King of Crimes, which is now airing in select markets nationally on PBS stations. We co-sponsored John Marshall Hidden Hero of National Union exhibition at the Virginia Museum of History & Culture and launched Save the Robe, a partnership with Preservation Virginia to conserve John Marshall’s 1806 judicial robe. Through a generous grant from the Dominion Energy Charitable Foundation, we conducted an evaluation of Justice in the Classroom to enhance program sustainability.

12 • John Marshall Center

2020 We hired Caroline Legros, our full time Director of Education & Programs and entered 2021 with a more robust menu of programming, a six-month operating reserve, and new partnerships. We designed two new AP lesson plans covering Marbury v Madison and began work on a series of lessons built around the VMHC’s Determined exhibit about the 400-year struggle for Black equality.

JMC Now We are expanding Justice in the Classroom, creating adaptable resources and programs, matching judges and attorneys to teacher requests for subject matter experts, taking civics and law-related programming to community centers, and developing new content timed to top news stories. PopCiv is a bi-weekly series that connects current events and popular culture to the Constitution.

One social studies curriculum specialist wrote us in response to our edition on “Juries in American Trials” keyed to the closing arguments of the Derek Chauvin trial: “I love what you are doing here. This shows how important the court is in real-life situations today.”

Here’s what we’re up to now: § the John Marshall Library, a digital archive;

§ PopCiv, connecting current events and popular culture to the Constitution;

§ Cohens v Virginia at 200, an academic symposium which will include a reenactment

§ placing attorneys and judges in the classroom,

of the historic argument; § the A. E. Dick Howard Prize for Virginia

both remotely and in-person; § preserving Marshall objects and places, most

Constitutional History, in conjunction with

importantly with Preservation Virginia’s John

Virginia History Day, to honor JMC former

Marshall House, Phase II of Save the Robe, and

board member Dick Howard and the 50th

the Center’s collection of Marshall artifacts

anniversary of the Virginia Constitution;

and papers;

§ the John Marshall Center Teacher Awards for

§ developing classroom and after-school

excellence and innovation in teaching the Constitution;

enrichment programs; § and designing and presenting a variety of

§ mock trial team recruitment, development,

teacher professional development programs.

and mentorship;

Community Spotlight John Marshall Center: Confronting the civics crisis in America Reprinted with permission from the Richmond Times Dispatch May 2, 2021 Recent studies show that many Americans lack a

other community leaders to support the efforts of

basic understanding of how our government works.

Preservation Virginia in its ongoing restoration of

We find this alarming — and disturbing. So RTD

the John Marshall House, a Federal-style gem built

Opinions asked Joni Albrecht, acting director of

in 1790, where Marshall lived for 45 years.

the John Marshall Center for Constitutional History & Civics, which is located at the Virginia Museum of

Miller says that he, Hunton Andrews Kurth attorney

History & Culture in Richmond, about its work on

Allen Goolsby and others noticed the fence around

this important issue.

the house needed painting, and that’s where it all started. JMC continues to partner on preservation

Why was the center founded, and what is its

efforts but also provides open-access civics


education resources, professional development

The John Marshall Foundation, renamed the John Marshall Center for Constitutional History & Civics (JMC) in November 2020, was founded in 1987 by

opportunities to history and social studies teachers, continuing legal education to attorneys and forums for the general public.

former Virginia Attorney General Andy Miller and • 13

Community Spotlight We’re in the process of rewriting our mission

for many reasons, not the least of which was for its

statement, but it will say something like this: The

symbolism of neutrality.

John Marshall Center for Constitutional History & Civics (JMC), located at the Virginia Museum of

Save the Robe is the campaign to conserve John

History & Culture (VMHC), honors the judicial legacy

Marshall’s 1806 judicial robe, a partnership of

of John Marshall by engaging and educating the

Preservation Virginia and JMC. With generous

public about the rule of law under the Constitution,

funding from the VMHC and individual donors,

bringing civics, scholarship, and conversation to our

we completed Phase I, restoring the robe and

classrooms and communities.

creating an archival case for storage and display. This American treasure now is on display at the

We are a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization.

John Marshall House in a new exhibition entitled, “Intended to Endure.”

One of the center’s focuses is to engage the public about John Marshall’s legacy. Can you

At the robe’s virtual unveiling in April, Chief Judge

discuss those efforts, and his importance to

Roger Gregory of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the

the American judiciary?

Fourth Circuit and former JMC board member,

I think of John Marshall as America’s “expounding father.” He is the longest-serving U.S. chief justice, leading the court for 34 years and shaping it into what it is today, coequal to the executive and legislative branches of government. The first of his great cases was Marbury v. Madison in 1803 that established the U.S. Supreme Court’s right to expound constitutional law and exercise judicial review, empowering the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional. After 218 years, Marbury still is working for the American people. We’re working on a lesson plan today built around Marbury’s role in the landmark Brown v. Board decision. Marshall’s body of work includes more than 1,000 decisions, more than 500 of which he authored, that consistently uphold the court’s authority to interpret the Constitution and the importance of a strong federal government to our nation’s health.

commented that the black robe today symbolizes the presence of all colors in addition to “the neutrality of justice.” The robe will move to the VMHC when it opens its newly renovated space this time next year. Phase II includes creating duplicate robes, a traveling exhibit, and educational resources that interpret the robe’s significance and symbolism. If only the robe could talk. It’s seen seven presidential oaths, all those famous and foundational cases, and the Aaron Burr treason trial, held in Richmond at the state Capitol. The recently released report, “Educating for American Democracy,” (EAD) calls for a recommitment to civics education in grades K-12 amid “deep challenges” facing the U.S. How is the center promoting civics education?

What’s the status of the project to restore

At the root of the EAD’s thinking is the idea that

John Marshall’s remaining judicial robe? And

civics, if delivered in a nonpolitical manner, can be

what will be done with it?

a unifier of people. That’s been our commitment

It was Marshall who standardized American judges wearing black robes. He eschewed the scarlet and fur-trimmed, rather aristocratic numbers favored by his predecessors, and instead chose basic black, 14 • John Marshall Center

since our founding. We’re excited to see the EAD amplify this ideal through 300-plus organizations and are champions of their civics road map, helping to equitably create and distribute enrichment and classroom resources and programs.

Community Spotlight We long have provided civics resources free of

The American experiment in self-government relies

charge and have focused teacher professional

on civic-ready citizens to function well, but we are

development programs to schools with lower-

graduating students who haven’t been taught how

than-average history [Standards of Learning (SOL)]

the system works or how to engage in it. Rhode

scores and higher-than-average free and reduced

Island recently faced a lawsuit for not offering civics.

lunch program eligibility.

The Jan. 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol unfortunately is Exhibit A of our current civics crisis in America.

PopCiv is our newest resource, and connects current events and popular culture to the

This year, the commonwealth is

Constitution. The menu of resources is timed

commemorating the 50th anniversary of the

to current headlines and is designed to spark

state’s modern-day constitution. And in five

conversations both in the classroom and around

years, the United States will observe the 250th

kitchen tables. Our most recent installment on

anniversary of Declaration of Independence.

juries in American trials posted as teachers were

How will the center mark these milestones?

handling questions about the highly publicized Derek Chauvin murder trial. We also are excited to develop lessons around the VMHC’s “Determined” exhibit about the 400year struggle for Black equality and have made a renewed commitment to examine when the courts have triumphed — we’ve done a fairly good job of that — and when the courts have failed the American people. Justice in the Classroom is a 6-12 history and civics curriculum available online at, and includes classroom visits by judges and attorneys. In response to educator requests, we are expanding online resources and making them more nimble, functional and adaptable. We’re happy to talk with any school or community center about the civics and law-related programs we offer. Recent polls show that many Americans lack a basic understanding of civics. Why is that, and what does that mean for our national well-being?

We are excited to help celebrate the 50th anniversary of the “new” Virginia Constitution by offering a $1,000 prize to the winning entry in the Virginia History Day Junior or Senior Division that demonstrates superior understanding of Virginia’s constitutional tradition, and how the rights and duties of citizens or of government have changed over time. This award is given in honor of A.E. Dick Howard, professor of law at the University of Virginia, former member of the John Marshall Center’s board, executive director of Virginia’s Commission on Constitutional Revision (1968 to 1971) and the Virginia Constitution’s principal writer. And for the 250th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, we and everyone we know in the history arena and otherwise is going to party like it’s 2026, celebrating the more perfect union we continue to work toward with liberty and justice for all. What’s more worthy of celebration than 250 years of struggle, failure and triumph? We’ll serve the Madeira.

There long has been a civics education equity gap

— Pamela Stallsmith, Opinions Editor, Richmond

in our country and, in turn, Virginia. Some schools

Times Dispatch

can afford to offer civics, some cannot. In some districts, civics is mandated and, in many, it is not. • 15

16 • John Marshall Center

John Marshall Center Champions Educating for American Democracy’s Civics Roadmap


new report and an accompanying roadmap for the future was recently released by “Educating for American Democracy (EAD),” a collaborative initiative of more than 300 academics, historians, political scientists, educators, administrators, civics providers, and students seeking to strengthen history and civic learning. In summary, the report reveals an America experiencing a crisis in history and civics education and a resulting failure to prepare young Americans and adults for participation in self-government. The EAD Roadmap calls for organizations such as JMC to design and deliver high-quality resources, instruction, and enrichment with a focus on inquiry to create “civic ready” schools and communities. This is a call echoed by Virginia school leaders in our conversations with them. Those charged with the historic record and how it is told are being called upon to champion the cause for reinvestment in civic strength.

“The Educating for American Democracy Roadmap reestablishes the importance of crucial civic knowledge about our constitutional democracy, along with the civic virtues that engaged citizens need.” – Paul Carrese, the director of The School of Civic & Economic Thought and Leadership at Arizona State University.

JMC is a registered “Champion” of the EAD, expanding our development and delivery of open-access educational resources and outreach. To learn more, visit • 17

2020 Honor Roll of Donors

Debra Prillaman

Thomas W. Williamson

Marshall L. Smith

Richard Smith

Charles Witthoefft

Michael W. Smith

Courtney Sands Wilson

Jack Spain

O’Hagan Meyer, PLLC

William Marshall “Bee” Stribling

Friends of the John Marshall Foundation ($51 to $249)

William Taylor

William Anderson

Kristen Walinski

Benefactor ($500) Robert W. Bailie Thomas Bakke Frank B. Bradley III Richard Cullen Matt Fitzgerald

Chief Justice Council ($10,000)

T. Cary Gresham

Mr. & Mrs. E. Claiborne Robins Jr.

Joseph F. Johnston Jr.

Marshall M. Taylor

Jay Lagarde

Gwathmey Memorial Foundation Associate Justice Council ($5000) Harry F. Byrd III Allen C. Goolsby Belinda Jones

Chris Henry Robert Kopf Christopher Malone The Honorable Stephen McCullough Anne Marie Whittemore The Jane & Arthur Flippo Foundation Claude Moore Charitable Foundation

John Barr Hilaire E. Beck Mona Nicholas Blake

Frances Thomas Fielding Tyler Fielding Williams

Ann Burks

John Marshall Society ($50)

W. Birch Douglass

William Anderson

Virginia Drewry

W. Hamilton Bryson

Carl Gillespie

The Honorable Robert Bushnell

Mark Greenough Ann Hamner Charles Hobson A.E. Dick Howard The Honorable Henry Hudson

Maxwell Cisne Henry Eigles Frances Harwood Angeline Hougas Keith Jones

F. Claiborne Johnston

James Jones

Albemarle Foundation

Quoits Club ($250)

John Lain

Susan Jones

Tom & Jeni Reedy

Irving Blank

H. Pettus LeCompte

C.K. Mallory III

Thomas G. Slater Jr.

Thomas Brown

Michael Maibach

Richard Reynolds

Addison B “Tad” Thompson

Gretchen Byrd

Ann H. Marshall

Gilbert Schill

J. Tracy Walker IV

Manuel Capsalis

Elizabeth Marshall

Randolph Smith

Trevor Cox

John Marshall

Mr. & Mrs. Brenton S. Halsey

John Marshall

Sustainer ($2500)

Beth Hopkins

Anne Cary Allen

Mr. & Mrs. R. Walter Jones IV

Hatley Mason

Robert R. Kaplan

McGuireWoods, LLP

The Honorable Lucretia A. Carrico

Vernon Inge

G. Gilmer Minor III

Elizabeth Kostelny

Marshall Tucker

Steve Lippman

Kevin Walsh

The Honorable William C. Mims

William Wooldridge Norfolk Southern Railroad Madeira Society ($1200) Marshall Acuff Jr. J. Edward Betts Jr. Jamie Bosket 18 • John Marshall Center

Monica Monday The Honorable Pauline Newman

Richard Marshall Julia Milone The Honorable Norman Moon Marcia Nass C. Cotesworth Pinckney Henry Pollard Frances Purcell Gordon F. Rainey Jr. William Richardson

Cecil Quillen

Louise Rosenburgh

W. Taylor Reveley

Douglas Rucker

The Honorable Harry Taliaferro

Michael Schubert Joseph Sharnoff

Justice in the Classroom Virginia Law Foundation The King of Crimes Film Robert R. Kaplan John Marshall Center Teacher Award Kaplan, Voekler, Cunningham & Frank, PLC Miles & Stockbridge

Save the Robe, a partnership of Preservation Virginia and John Marshall Center for Constitutional History & Civics Jessica Aber Hannah Aizenman Joni Albrecht The Honorable Morris S. Arnold

David Kinney Kathryn & Luke Kissam Sarah G. Klein Dr. & Mrs. Warren W. Koontz Jr. Mr. & Mrs. Dale L. Kostelny Jay Lagarde Eli Lehrer Mr. & Mrs. Rodney E. Lorence

Virginia H. Spratley Charitable Fund II Supreme Court Historical Society Michael Tango The Thayer/Gruys Family Virginia Museum of History & Culture

2019 Honor Roll of Donors

Prof. Kevin Walsh Brendan Walsh Max Weintraub Robyn Westmorland

Chief Justice Council ($10,000)

Russell Bell

Mr. & Mrs. Richard G. Lundvall Michael Maibach

Tori Jo Wible

George C Freeman III

Mona Blake

Florence M. Mallory

The Honorable Don Willett

David G. Leitch

Frank Bradley John Bradshaw

John R. Marshall

Regina Williamson

Barbara S. Briggs

Cynthia A. Marshall

Nick Williford

Reverend Caroline Smith Parkinson

The Honorable Robert Bushnell

Mr. & Mrs. John Marshall

Elisabeth Augusta Winter

R. Hewitt Pate

Ronald Wray

Marshall M. Taylor

Chandler Battaile Jr.

Mery C. Butler William Byrd Society, Children of the American Revolution The Honorable Lucretia A. Carrico Mr. Wallace L. Cliborne Lauretta C. Crawley Perry Dane Ellen Dappert Angelan Dickey Jarrett Dieterle Doug Ey John Foote Dr. Jerry Gilbert Sheldon Gilbert Karen A. Gould Mr. & Mrs. John H. Guy IV Robert Hawk Alexander Hooopes Mr. & Mrs. Rick Humphreys Mr. & Mrs. Keith Jacobson Knut Johnson Heidi Jones Robert R. Kaplan Bryan Killian

Elizabeth Marshall Dr. Gary McDowell Jeannette S. McGowan The Honorable & Mrs. David McKeague Christopher Meldrum The Honorable Gilbert Merritt The Honorable & Mrs. Richard J. Minor

G. Gilmer Minor III

E. Claiborne Robins Jr.

CARES Act Funding

Virginia Sargent Reynolds Foundation

Richmond Recovers, City of Richmond

Virginia H. Spratley Charitable Fund II

Virginia Humanitie Associate Justice Council ($5000) Albemarle Foundation

Nancy Gruys Mueller

Harry F. Byrd III

Marcia Thayer Nass

Allen C. Goolsby

The Honorable Paul U. Niemeyer

Belinda Jones

Mr. & Mrs. William O’Connor

Tom & Jeni Reedy

Carol R. Owens John Parks Mr. & Mrs. John O. Peters Robert Petrera

Robert R. Kaplan Thomas G. Slater Jr. Addison B. “Tad” Thompson J. Tracy Walker IV

Ms. Debra J. Prillaman & Mr. Robert D. Shrader Jr.

Sustainer ($2,500)

Mr. & Mrs. E. Claiborne Robins Jr.

Marshall Tucker

Kristina Rutledge

Madeira Society ($1200)

Patrick Sheridan

Robert W. Bailie

Deborah B. Simon

J. Edward Betts Jr.

Sharon Y. Smith

The Honorable Lucretia A. Carrico

Estate of Hugh Meredith • 19

The Honorable Roger L. Gregory Joseph F. Johnston Jr. Cynthia Marshall Captain & Mrs. Thomas Upton Sisson Kevin Walsh TowneBank Benefactor ($500) Frank B. Bradley III Henry Butler T. Cary Gresham Ralph Higgins Robert Kopf The Honorable Pauline Newman

Friends of the John Marshall Foundation ($51 to $249)

John Marshall Society ($50)

Mary Bradshaw

Hilaire E. Beck

Peter Broadbent Ann Burks Elizabeth Bushnell Meyers Whittington Clement W. Birch Douglass Mark Dray Henry Eigles Anne Hobson Freeman Jerome Gilbert Carl Gillespie Ann Hamner Mary Hansen

Debra Prillaman

Frances Harwood

Tim Rogers

Charles Hobson

Mr. & Mrs. W. McIlwaine Thompson Jr.

Clausten Jenkins

Thomas W. Williamson

Ann H. Marshall

Quoits Club ($250) William Anderson Thomas Brown Gretchen Byrd Trevor Cox Richard Cullen

C.K. Mallory III John Marshall Richard Marshall Hatley Mason Julia Milone John Mizell The Honorable Norman Moon

William Anderson Irving Blank Daniel Bress The Honorable Robert Bushnell Mark Greenough

Chief Justice Council ($10,000)

Carl J. Hayslett

George C Freeman III

Angeline Hougas

David G. Leitch

James Jones

Reverend Caroline Smith Parkinson

Heather Kleiner Steve Lippman Michael Maibach Sarah Marshall Phillip Metcalf Trevor Potter Stephen Price Randolph Smith Colin Thomas Justice in the Classroom Dominion Energy Charitable Foundation Virginia Law Foundation

Mr. & Mrs. R. Walter Jones IV

Sophie Nicholson

The King of Crimes

C. Cotesworth Pinckney

SouthState Bank

Henry Pollard

Universal Leaf Foundation

Gordon F. Rainey Jr. The Honorable Harry Taliaferro

Louise Rosenburgh Douglas Rucker Michael Schubert Joseph Sharnoff

Anne Marie Whittemore

Marshall L. Smith

Charles Witthoefft

Michael W. Smith

Courtney Sands Wilson

Jack Spain

The Honorable William C. Mims

The Honorable Harry Taliaferro Fielding Williams Lincoln Willis William Wooldridge

20 • John Marshall Center

of Donors

Catherine Hammond

Marcia Nass

Christopher Malone

Honor Roll

Taft Carter

Mr. & Mrs. Brenton S. Halsey

Elizabeth Kostelny


Virginia Film Office Teacher Award Hunton Andrews Kurth Kaplan, Voekler, Cunningham & Frank, PLC

R. Hewitt Pate E. Claiborne Robins Jr. Marshall M. Taylor Associate Justice Council ($5000) Harry F. Byrd III Allen C. Goolsby Belinda D. Jones Robert R. Kaplan G. Gilmer Minor III Thomas G. Slater Jr. Addison B ‘Tad’ Thompson J. Tracy Walker IV McGuire Woods LLP TowneBank Richmond Foundation Sustainer ($2500) J. Edward Betts Jr. Madeira Society ($1200) Anne Cary Allen Robert W. Bailie Honorable Lucretia A. Carrico


Page Edgerton

Susan Jones

The Honorable Roger L. Gregory

Randolph Lee

Mr. & Mrs. James Jones III

Gordon F. Rainey Jr.

Sophie Nicholson

Gifts in Kind

Louise Marshall Rosenburgh

C. Cotesworth Pinckney

Cheryl G. Ragsdale

Captain & Mrs. Thomas Upton Sisson

Lacy Ward Jr.

Henry Pollard Trevor Potter

Addison B. ‘Tad’ Thompson

Allen, Allen, Allen & Allen

Courtney Sands Wilson

Mr. & Mrs. John R. Marshall Mr. & Mrs. Tom Reedy

Benefactor ($500) Thomas Q. Bakke Jr. Honorable Gerald Baliles Frank B. Bradley III Doug Callaway Joseph F. Johnston Jr. Warren Martin Debra Prillaman Cheryl G. Ragsdale Mr. & Mrs. O. Jackson Sands Mr. & Mrs. W. McIlwaine Thompson Jr.

Anne Marie Whittemore

Friends of the John Marshall Foundation ($51 to $249)

Hilaire E. Beck Irving Blank Mary Bradshaw Evans B. Brasfield Peter Broadbent W. Hamilton Bryson Ann Burks

William C. Wooldridge

Whittington Clement

Susan Bailey and Sidney Buford Scott Endowment Trust

W. Birch Douglass

Richard Cullen Mr. & Mrs. Jerome A. Gilbert

Mark Dray Henry Eigles Anne Freeman Carl Gillespie Robert Grant Alexander Green Brian Hager Catherine Hammond Ann Hamner

Col. Sydney Smith & Lt. Col. Timothy Gilhool

Courtenay Hansen

Mr. & Mrs. Brenton S. Halsey

A.E. Dick Howard

W. David Harless Mr. & Mrs. F. Claiborne Johnston Jr.

Letitia Lee Smith The Honorable Harry Taliaferro

Gretchen Byrd

Trevor Cox

Marshall L. Smith

John Barr

Thomas W. Williamson

Irving R. Blank

Alexander Slaughter

Jack Spain

The Honorable Robert Bushnell

C.B. Arrington

Joseph Sharnoff

Joseph Alcorn

Professor Kevin Walsh

Quoits Club ($250)

John Richards

Charles Hobson Elizabeth Kostelny The Honorable Chief Justice Donald Lemons

Colin Thomas

Justice in the Classroom Virginia Law Foundation Teacher Award Hunton Andrews Kurth Kaplan, Voekler, Cunningham & Frank, PLC

Douglas O. Tice Michael Ward


William Wellons

Marshall A. Acuff Jr.

Fielding Williams

Mary C.B. Bass

John Marshall Society ($50)

Edith Taylor Patterson Cates T. Cary Gresham

Mona Nichols Blake

Anne H. Marshall

Corey Booker

Louise Marshall Rosenburgh

Thomas Brown Frank F. Campo Courtney Cann Jason William Lindsey Elisabeth Danby Rachel Madison Danby Wendy Daniel Stephen Kemp Dixon Kevin M. Dowd Keelyn Grant William A. Gray Frances Harwood Carl J. Hayslett Chris Henry John Mizell

Thomas J. Stribling Marshall M. Taylor William H. Taylor The King of Crimes Mrs. Cynthia Advani Marshall & the late Watson Melton Marshall Rev. Caroline Smith Parkinson Virginia H. Spratley Charitable Fund II Herndon Foundation Virginia Sargeant Reynolds Foundation

Sarah Elizabeth Montana

Virginia Film Office

C.K. Mallory III

Roberta Oster Michael Schubert

Lecture Series

Richard Marshall Elizabeth Marshall

William Connor Smith

N. Hatley Mason III

Anne H. Marshall

Liam Richard Smith

David I. Meyers

The Honorable Justice William Mims

Alyson Lindsey TaylorWhite

Mr. & Mrs. R. Walter Jones IV Mr. & Mrs. Richard C. Marshall IV

The Roller-Bottimore Foundation • 21

Corporations, Foundations and Organizations Our deepest gratitude to these corporations, foundations and organizations for their partnership and support of our mission. 2020 Albemarle Foundation William Byrd Society, Children of the American Revolution The Jane & Arthur Flippo Foundation Gwathmey Memorial Foundation Kaplan, Voekler, Cunningham & Frank, PLC McGuireWoods, LLP Miles & Stockbridge Claude Moore Charitable Foundation Norfolk Southern Railroad O’Hagan Meyer, PLLC Richmond Recovers, City of Richmond Virginia Humanities Virginia Law Foundation 2019 Albemarle Foundation Dominion Energy Charitable Foundation Hunton Andrews Kurth Kaplan, Voekler, Cunningham & Frank, PLC Virginia Sargent Reynolds Foundation SouthState Bank Virginia H. Spratley Charitable Fund II TowneBank Virginia Film Office Virginia Law Foundation Universal Leaf Foundation 2018 Allen, Allen, Allen & Allen Herndon Foundation Hunton Andrews Kurth Kaplan, Voekler, Cunningham & Frank, PLC Virginia Sargeant Reynolds Foundation The Roller-Bottimore Foundation Susan Bailey and Sidney Buford Scott Endowment Trust Virginia H. Spratley Charitable Fund II TowneBank Richmond Foundation Virginia Film Office Virginia Law Foundation

22 • John Marshall Center

Programming Partners The John Marshall Center thanks our programming partners for ongoing collaboration in support of the preservation and advancement of John Marshall’s legacy.

American Civil War Museum Center for Civic Education Cleveland-Marshall College of Law Historic Richmond Foundation Marshall University National Constitution Center Omohundro Institute of Early American History & Culture Preservation Virginia Preservation Virginia’s John Marshall House University of Richmond Law School US Supreme Court Historical Society Virginia Museum of History & Culture Virginia State Mock Trial Association William & Mary Law School YMCA of Greater Richmond

The Marshall Family Genealogy Project We are continuing to update The Marshall Family Genealogy Project and are preparing for a revised edition of the book. Please send your updates to Kathryn Selden, Office Manager and Genealogy Associate, • 23

Mailing Address PO Box 7090 Richmond, VA 23221 Physical Address Virginia Museum of History & Culture 428 N. Arthur Ashe Blvd. Richmond, VA 23220


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