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CASAS MELHORADAS Affordable housing in Maputo, Mozambique Jørgen Eskemose & Johan Mottelson - Institute of Architecture, Urbanism and Landscape The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation


CASAS MELHORADAS Affordable housing in Maputo, Mozambique Jørgen Eskemose & Johan Mottelson Institute of Architecture, Urbanism & Landscape The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation. Copenhagen, Denmark All photo credits: Jørgen Eskemose & Johan Mottelson 2016 Contact: Johan Mottelson +45 30 13 10 01 jmot@kadk.dk www.casasmelhoradas.com Project partners: Architects without borders, Denmark Estamos Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Faculdade de Arquitectura e Planeamento Físico

Doners: Melhoradas Martha og Without the generous donations from Danmarks NationalbanksCasas Jubilæumsfond, Urban development and affordable housing in Maputo, Mozambiq Jørgen Eskemose & Johan Mottelson Paul Kerrn-Jespersen Fonden and Dreyers Fond this project would not haveAndersen been possible. Casas Melhoradas

Project partners:

Estamos Urban development and affordable housing in Maputo, Mozambique Architects without borders, Denmark (AUG) Jørgen Eskemose Andersen & Johan Mottelson Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Faculdade de Arquitectura e Pla Department of Human Settlements (DHS), The Royal Danish Acad

Project partners:

Estamos Architects without borders, Denmark (AUG) Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Faculdade de Arquitectura e Planeamento Físico (FAPF) Department of Human Settlements (DHS), The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture

Casas Melhoradas

Urban development and affordable housing in Maputo, Mozambique Jørgen Eskemose Andersen & Johan Mottelson

Acknowledgements:

Without the generous donations from Danmarks Nationalbanks Ju have been possible. Special thanks to Lagiya Khatib, Maria Joana


It is strange that those with the least money inhabit the most “expensive commodity - earth; those who pay, what is free - air. ” - Rem Koolhaas

PREFACE Casas Melhoradas is an applied research project on housing for low income groups in the slums of Maputo, Mozambique with a three-fold focus: 1) developing alternative construction methods to improve the quality and decrease the cost of housing; 2) developing housing typologies that utilize space and infrastructure more economically to initiate a more sustainable urban development; 3) engaging in construction of affordable rental housing through public and private partnerships to scale up the impact of the project. This publication focuses on the first three prototypes which were constructed in 2014-2016. The project is conducted by Institute of Architecture, Urbanism & Landscape, at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, and is linked to the instution’s research on urban development in the Global South. The project collaborates with the Mozambican NGO Estamos, the Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning at Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (FAPF) and the Danish branch of Architects without Borders (AUG). The project was exhibited and published on numerous notable platforms, including Louisisana Museum of Modern Art, Archdaily, the Dansih architectural magazine Arkitekten and Virserum Museum of Art. Finally, it was selected for the Danish pavilion at the 2016 Venice Biennale of Architecture. 4


There is a need for debate on what to do about slums, in Africa “given the current rates of urbanisation and population growth. ” - Gilbert Nii-Okai Addy

BACKGROUND Slums in developing countries are characterized by housing of poor structural quality, inadequate access to social and technical infrastructure, overcrowding and insecure tenure. According to UN-Habitat, approximately 70% of the urban population in Africa live in slums. While Africa is the least urbanized continent, it has some of the highest population growth rates, rates of urbanization and economic growth rates in the world. Accordingly, the African informal settlements are growing at unprecedented rates, sizes and densities to accommodate the rapidly increasing populations. The expected increase of African slum dwellers over the next 15 years is approximately 240 million. The rapidly urbanizing African cities are characterized by urban sprawl, inadequate infrastructure provision and underutilization of scarce resources, particularly land, which cause limited mobility and adds to the infrastructure deficit. The extensive urbanization of Africa is partly caused by “pull-factors”, such as new job opportunities in the service and industrial sectors, as well as better access to education and health facilities. Meanwhile, “push factors”, such as decreasing job opportunities in rural areas, caused by opening of markets and technological advancement have amplified the development. Urbanization has been associated with important economic and social transformations, which have brought longer life expectancy, higher levels of literacy and greater access to social services, education and political participation. Nevertheless, rapid unplanned urban growth threatens sustainable development. Today hundreds of millions of Africa’s urban poor live under inadequate conditions, encompassing considerable challenges and substantial potentials to improve the living conditions of a large group of people. 6


shares the right to a decent standard of living. � Everyone � - Article 25, The Universal Decalaration of Human Rights

MAPUTO Mozambique is located in Southeast Africa and is one of the poorest countries in the world. The capital, Maputo is characterized by social inequality and urban development without effective planning, without enforcement of regulation, without appropriate infrastructure provision and urban sprawl, which cause increased infrastructure deficit, decreased mobility, loss of farmland and decreased access to employment, health and education systems. The city was developed by the Portuguese colonial rule untill independence in 1975. Today Maputo has a population of more than 2.5 million with approximately 80% of the population living in slums. The city has a high population growth rate (approximately 5% annually) and expands horizontally at high pace, covering vast areas with low urban density developments with limited infrastructure provision (paved streets, storm water management systems, sewage, electricity, water, etc.). Much of the latest developed settlements are now far from the center of the city where the jobs are, causing an increasing pressure to find housing near the center, which can only be done by increasing the urban density within the built up urban fabric. There is limited experience with high densities in the slums, as multi storey construction is expensive. However, the demand for centrally located space cause increasing land prices, providing the economic framework for urban densification through multi-story construction in the slums. 8


Jafar

Unplanned

Guava

Planned unofficially Unplanned

Albasine Unplanned

Magoanine B

Planned officially Planned unofficially Unplanned

Hulene B Unplanned

Hulene A

Planned unofficially Unplanned

Mavalane B Unplanned

Mahotas

Planned officially Planned unofficially Unplanned

3 de Fevereiro Planned officially

Laulane

Planned officially

Ferrovรกrio

Planned officially Planned unofficially

Polana Caniรงo B Planned officially Unplanned

Polana Caniรงo A Planned officially Unplanned

Railroad Main street Coast

Maxaquene C and D Planned unofficially Unplanned

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URBAN DENSITY Urban density has numerous definitions and methods of measurements, that seek to quantify urban characteristics, such as the total built up area, floor area ratio (FAR), the number of dwelling units, people or jobs within a given area. FAR represents the total area of built floors divided by the given area. Urban sprawl refers to the physical outward expansion of cities characterized by low urban densities. The opponents of urban sprawl argue that it results in increased car dependency, traffic congestion, higher levels of pollution, loss of farmland, duplicative infrastructure costs, limited employment accessibility and concentrated poverty. In the African context the negative effects of urban sprawl are amplified, due to lack of planning and infrastructure provision, while strategies to prevent urban sprawl are inefficient due to lack of enforcement of urban regulation. The cost of infrastructure is area determined and is lower per household in a dense city, as the distances between the buildings are shorter. The horizontal urban development thus requires more infrastructural investments to serve the population, while decreasing cost-effectiveness of implemented infrastructural developments. Urban sprawl cause decreased urban mobility as people need to spend more time on transport due to deconcentrating urban functions. This has wider negative implications in terms of access to jobs and services, and negative impact on the economic development. The houses in the slums of Maputo are almost exclusively single-story and the urban densities are relatively low; approximately 0.3-0.4 FAR in centrally located slums, generally decreasing with the distance to the center and below 0.05 FAR 10 km from the center. The continuing urban sprawl with low urban densities in the periphery of the city decreases the mobility and increases the need for investments in infrastructure while public investments in infrastructure are limited. Strategies for countering the extensive urban sprawl by increasing the urban density are thus essential for initiating a more sustainable urban development. 10


Vertical development

Horizontal development

The urban density decreases with the distance to the center

Main roads

Relationship between urban density and infrastructure needed per house hold

Job Market

Church Job Church

Market

Home

Home School

School

Main road

Main road

Relationship between urban density and mobility

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Mafalala, slum adjacent to the center of Maputo - Approximately 0.35 FAR.


Guava, 10 km from the center of Maputo - Approximately 0.04 FAR.


HOUSING IN THE SLUMS OF

MAPUTO

A typical house in the slums of Maputo is single story with two to four rooms and between 20-60 m2/215-645 ft2. Previously “casa de caniço” (reed house) and “casa de madeira e zinco” (timber and corrugated iron sheet house) houses were frequent, but today “casa de blocos” (concrete block house) is the most common housing type. A “casa de blocos” features an on site cast reinforced concrete structure, with cement block walls and corrugated iron sheet roofs. Houses are usually ongoing construction processes, expanding one room at a time, as a complete house requires too big an investment for the individual family. Kitchens are usually outdoor sheds, as charcoal is the most common fuel for cooking. Toilets are usually exterior to the house, consisting of an open cesspit covered with a circular concrete slab. The bathroom is usually without water and people wash with water from a plastic container. The plots are usually surrounded by a wall, a hedge or a fence. A typical plot is between 300-500 m2/32005350 ft2. Plots are typically smaller closer to the center as it makes the land desirable and plots are subdivided. Houses usually take up a higher percentage of the plots closer to the center of the city. The majority of the population lack housing financing options as most land is owned informally, leaving residents unable to use their land as mortgage when dealing with financial institutions. Almost all homes are built without the involvement of the formal construction sector and virtually the entire construction process takes place in individual plots, leading to waste of resources as building materials are often left to deteriorate during the process. Occasionally families run out of money during the construction process leaving half-finished structures. There is a very limited degree of industrialization in the construction sector and the quality of construction is often low. An optimization of the production processes in the construction sector by increasing the degree of prefabrication of building components could reduce the waste of resources, time and cost of construction. 14


Casa de caniรงo

Casa de Madeira e Zinco

Casa de Blocos

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of living. “ The home should be the treasure chest � - Le Corbusier

PROJECT Casas Melhoradas seeks to improve the quality and decrease the cost of housing and develop housing typologies that utilize space and infrastructure more economically to initiate a more sustainable urban development in the slums of Maputo. The project develops semi-industrial building component production, and is experimenting with prefabricated element construction, produced locally in Maputo’s slums, based on the local capacities. Thereby the project seeks to limit the waste of resources, reduce the price, reduce the time of the construction process and improve the quality of housing. The project develops multi-story housing typologies, rooted in the local socio-economic and cultural conditions, seeking to utilize space more efficiently, in order to contain the urban sprawl and use the infrastructure more economically. Thereby, the project seeks to facilitate the development of more compact urban environments in the slums and make future infrastructure investments more cost-effective. On this background, the project seeks to improve mobility, improve the access to infrastructure and economize space. The developed housing models, building techniques and production methods are tested in full scale in collaboration with local builders, through construction of test houses and are subsequently evaluated to identify the most appropriate solutions for low-income groups in Maputo. Finally, the project seeks to engage in public and private partnerships on construction of affordable rental housing in order to scale the impact of the project. 16


The starting point for architecture should be as far from archi“tecture as possible. By that I mean problems that every single citizen in society understands, is affected by, and can have a say in. ” - Alejandro Aravena

PHASE 1 Phase 1 was built in 2014 in Maxaquene C, a slum area close to the center of Maputo. The housing concept is based on a simple building system, consisting of lightweight wooden elements, prefabricated in a local timber workshop, transported by hand and assembled for a complete housing unit in a relatively short time. The construction system allows construction of various housing typologies in up to two stories such as solitary blocks, courtyard housing and row houses, with higher densities than conventional housing typologies in the area. The house is a reinterpretation of the traditional “Casa de Madeira e Zinco”. The project features a suspended plywood ceiling containing insulation foil as well as mosquito net protected natural ventilation openings, securing comfortable indoor climate. Local sustainable wood was used for the construction. Recycled bottle caps were used for mounting the façade cladding and old tires were used to produce prefabricated point foundations. The house is raised above the ground and is therefore less prone to flooding. The price is comparable with single story houses built with conventional methods. Due to budget constraints, it was only possible to build a single module, and not ideally a denser typology in two stories. Budget: 3,000 USD. Size: 15 m2 / 160 ft2. 18


is a valuable commodity in growing cities, and detached units, “theLand norm in slum areas, are not the most efficient use of available space; yet conventional multistory construction is too costly a solution. ” - Kinetic Design Group

PHASE 2 Phase 2 was built in 2015 in Maxaquene A, a slum close to the center of Maputo. The prototype consists of a heavy first floor concrete base with a light two-storey wooden house on top. The prototype is a modern interpretation of the traditional “Casa de Madeira e Zinco” and “Casa de Blocos”. Based on the experiences of phase 1, the prefabricated wooden element structural system was optimized and used similarly; produced in a local carpentry workshop using sustainable wood. The project features a suspended plywood ceiling containing insulation foil as well as mosquito net protected natural ventilation openings, securing comfortable indoor climate. A building system developed in Brazil’s favelas (vigotas e abobadilhas) was used for the concrete floor separating the first and second floor. The vertical outdoor spaces between the street and the house forms a social transition zone between inside and outside, where there is room for cooking and interacting with passers-by. The rectangular volumes on the verandas contain gas stoves. The three-story prototype is located in a slum area consisting of single-story homes, and thus appears as a radical statement about how space and infrastructure can be used more efficiently. Budget: 15,000 USD (including electricity, water and septic tank). Size: 60 m2 / 650 ft2. 22


The fact that human growth is exponential implies that the past will at “some point become too “small” to be inhabited and shared by those alive. ” - Rem Koolhaas

PHASE 3 Phase 3 was built in 2016 and consists of a vertical addition to an old house in proximity to the city center, in a slum area in the Polana Caniço neighborhood. The project demonstrates how existing buildings can be transformed to meet the need to build more dense. An additional concrete structure was added to the old house supporting the new first floor timber construction. Like in phase 2 the project was constructed with locally produced timber elements and the vigotas e abobadilhas technology for the concrete slab. New windows were added to the old ground floor, improving the indoor climate. A deep access gallery oriented towards the private outdoor areas give access to the two new housing units and works as a covered porch, which provide shade from the sun and shelter from the rain. Budget: 8,000 USD (including electricity). Size: 30 m2 / 325 ft2. 32


Phase 3, existing house, prior to vertical addition.

Phase 3, after vertical addition. 33


Transport of construction materials

Prefabrication of timber elements

Consruction with concrete blocks and reinforced concrete structure

Rebars for reinforced concrete structure

Transportation of prefabricated elements

Prefabricated elements are organized at construction site

46


Prefabrication of timber elements

Prefabrication of timber elements

Prefabricated structural system for concrete slab (vigotas e abobadilhas)

Prefabricated structural system for concrete slab (vigotas e abobadilhas)

Prefabricated elements are assembled

Prefabricated elements assembled

47


“ Slums represent the worst of urban porverty and -inequality. � Kofi Annan

ECONOMY The first three houses were constructed for 200-300 USD per m2, which is comparable with prices of conventional single-story housing construction in the slums of Maputo. However, the quality is higher than the average house in the same price range, and phase 2 and 3 are multi-story, which is more expensive to construct than single-story housing. By scaling the project, it would be possible to further reduce the price. Each housing unit is approximately 15 m2/160 ft2 (totalling approximately 4000 USD). Each housing unit is rented out for approximately 50 USD per Month. According to the International Monetary Fund (2013), the annual GDP (PPP) per capita is 1,327 USD, approximately 110 USD per month. The number is expectedly higher in Maputo, as it is the capital of the country. The first three houses were constructed on land owned by low-income families who receive a part of the rent and take over the houses once they are fully financed, either for private use or for renting out. The project receives 70% of the rent, the plot owner receive 20% and the remaining 10% is for administration. Each housing unit is thus fully financed over a 10 year period. The contracts with the families span over a 15 year period. 50


DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES As the project engages with universal issues, dissemination is essential. The project seeks to inspire and encourage debate and professional discussions on urban development and housing in the slums of Maputo as well as the wider African context. The project was exhibited at Louisiana - Museum of Modern Art (2015), the Forum Building Green Expo (2014 and 2015) and Virserum Museum of Art (2012 and 2016). The project was selected for the exhibition at the Danish Pavilion at the Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2016, an exhibition which will subsequently be displayed at the Danish Architecture Centre in Copenhagen and the Utzon Center in Aalborg. The project was published in Arkitekten (March 2016) and on ArchDaily (both in Chinese, Spanish, Portuguese and English), as well as numerous other websites. In addition to the wider involvement in public dissemination activities, the project is rooted in the research department at the Institute of Architecture, Urbanism and Landscape, at The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation School of Architecture, and is central to the Institute’s research and teaching activities related to urban development in developing countries. The project involves both Danish and Mozambican architecture students through workshops, field work and hands on work with construction of prototypes. Finally, the project collaborates with Architects Without Borders Denmark, and involves volunteers from the organization providing Danish architects with first-hand experience with housing and urban development in developing countries. By involving Danish architects and architecture students in the project, knowledge, experience and professional networks are established within a field with potential for the Danish knowledge-based economy in today’s globalized world. 52


Project exhibited at Louisiana Museum of Modern Art

Workshop with students at the school of architecture (FAPF) in Maputo

53


We can’t solve problems by using the same “kind of thinking we used when we created them. ” - Albert Einstein

EPILOGUE The constructed prototypes are not to be considered an ‘end result’ but rather as a part of a continuous professional discussion regarding the future of urban development, housing typologies and construction methods in the slums of Maputo as well as the wider African context. Accordingly, the project has received a lot of valid professional criticism, not least from the Mozambican architectural profession. As one of the main goals of the project is to fuel and spark professional debates on urban development of African slums, criticism and discussions related to the project were welcomed and highly appreciated. A number of issues determining the future of the African slums, including land ownership and infrastructure provision, will be highlighted in the project process over the coming years. The project team is looking forward to inputs from all stakeholders in order to facilitate an open-minded, participatory and transparent process aiming at improving the urban environments for the low-income populations in Maputo and the wider African Context. The project will build new prototypes during 2017-19 and is currently seeking investors and donors. We look forward to a continuing critical dialogue with our colleagues in Mozambique, Denmark and elsewhere. Read more on www.casasmelhoradas.com 54


REFERENCE: PLANNING IN LAULANE A program from the 1980’s, ‘Strategic Action Planning’, succeeded to curb unplanned urban expansion of Maputo and created a desirable urban form. The independence accelerated the urbanization of Maputo which took place without any type of formal housing supply to meet increasing demand. Although post-independence Mozambique had hardly any qualified architects and planners an urban development team with planners and architects from the UK, Canada and Denmark as the driving force, was built up within Maputo city council from 1980 and onwards. The programme managed to provide approximately 12,000 plots, organized in neighborhood clusters with land reserved for roads, schools, health care posts and recreation. The layouts were simple, motivated by the need for fast demarcation and the limited technical capacity within the municipal authorities. Today plots are increasingly provided by small and medium informal suppliers, typically long-term residents claiming traditional land rights. These residents subdivide plots in a similar way as was pioneered by the city council in the 1980’s which now continues as a cultural model, that many low-income residents see as a desirable urban form, today more than thirty years later. The experience shows how a strategic, low-cost and hands-on approach in response to rapidly expanding urban setting can produce significant results. 56


Laulane neighborhood of Maputo. Planned and developed partially facilitated with funding from Denmark.

Arial photo of Machava, an area that was developed without formal planning. However, the area is planned infomally by local professionals with inspiration from previous development projects, such as Laulane above. 57


REFERENCE: LATRINAS MELHORADAS In the 1980’s the Swedish architect BjÜrn Brandberg developed the latrina melhorada (better latrine), known as the SanPlat System for low-cost sanitation. The system consists of curved concrete slab placed over a hole in the ground making a pit latrine. The concept has gained acceptance all over Africa where some 4-5 million SanPlat latrines have been built in over 20 countries and improved the hygienic and sanitary conditions for millions of people. In Maputo, where the SanPlat system was first developed, the design is widely copied locally and semi-industrialized manufacturing of the system is seen in many of the low income neighborhoods. Illustration taken from Manual Programa de Latrinas Melhoradas, Maputo 1985. 58


Semi industrialized production of latrinas melhoradas in Maputo.

The original design of the latrina melhorada.

Installation of latrine.

Installation of latrine.

Latrines sold by the side of the road. 59


Casas Melhoradas is an applied research project on housing for low income groups in the slums of Maputo, Mozambique with a three-fold focus: 1) developing alternative construction methods to improve the quality and decrease the cost of housing; 2) developing housing typologies that utilize space and infrastructure more economically to initiate more sustainable urban development processes; 3) engaging in construction of affordable rental housing through public and private partnerships to scale up the impact of the project. This publication focuses on the first three prototypes which were constructed in 20142016. The project is conducted by the Institute of Architecture, Urbanism & Landscape, the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, and is linked to the instution’s research on urban development in the Global South.

Casas Melhoradas  

Affordable housing in Maputo, Mozambique

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