T HE INTE R N AT IONAL AFFAIR S A S S O C IATIO N / U NIV E RS IT Y O F P E NN S YLVA N I A
Letter from the Editor The Consul Staff Editor-In-Chief
Dear Reader of The Consul, I am very excited to present to you our newest edition of The Consul. In this issue, we chose to focus on one of the most potent
Jake Cohen C ‘18
Content Editors Christine Du C ‘16 Zachary Gross C ‘18
Head Layout Editor Yen-Yen Gao W ‘18
Head of Marketing and Outreach Rolando Bonachea C ’16
Columnists Claudia Dally C ‘15 Halle Abraham C ‘19 Joe Li C’17 Joe Pires E’19 Tim Perevozchikov C ‘15 Dylan Rhile W/C ‘18 Serena Hajjar C ‘19 Eduardo Coccaro C ‘15 Mena Shanab C ‘15
Thank you, and enjoy The Consul!
Irina Bit-Babik C‘18 Ilana Wurman C ‘19 Isha Gupta W ‘19 Ricardo Martinez C ‘18
Jake Cohen Editor-in-Chief
Table of Contents Semester in Review 4
Refugee Crisis: In Numbers 6
Assad and the Syrian Refugee Crisis Rolando Bonachea 8
ISISâ€™s Hostile Cultural Takeover Claudia Dally 10
Syrian Refugees in Lebanon Serena Hajjar 12
Ethiopians in Israel Halle Abraham 14
Racist European Politicians Joe Pires 16
Is it Time to Back Down? China Loses Diplomatic Footing Over South China Sea Disputes Christine Du 18
Cashing In? The New Politics of Fossil Fuels in Latin America Eduardo Coccaro 20
The Brain Drain An Overview of Human Capital Flight Joe Li 24
AUG 14: American flag raised in Cuba
OCT 10: Bombings kill dozens in Turkey
SEPT 10: Vote against Iran deal blocked in Senate
plosions, which occur almost simultaneously, are the dead-
Tensions rise in Turkey, which -
SEPT 14: Refugee Crisis in Europe AUG 19: Germany approves third bailout for Greece aftermath of the economic crisis that hit the Eurozone earlier this year. The deal still seeks approval from other European powers and is seen
in Review OCT 31: Russian passenger jet crashes -
OCT 29: China ends one-child policy to have two children. The measure comes as a response to
the deadliest in Russian avia-
NOV 13: ISIS attacks in Paris kill dozens
cert hall, restaraunts, and a soccer sta-
clared capital of Raqqa.
NOV 20: Mali hotel attacked
HOW DO NATIONS FAIL THE Persecutions force refugees to their homes.
Once forced out of their homes, many refugees end up in camps.
Many refugees realize their 3 lives cannot be sustained in these camps and instead look to
4 REFUGEES WORLDWIDE? 30 30 25 20 20 20 20 15 15 10 10 10 02014 2015 2016
from developed nations, particularly in Europe.
For now, the plan only applies to 66,000 in Italy and Greece.
Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons
Large numbers of refugees are
European Union ministers voted to relocate EU-wide in September
The other 54,000 were to be moved to Hungary, but are now being held â€œin reserve.â€?
Photo by Angelos Tzortzinis / Getty Images
Assad and the Syrian Refugee Crisis BY: ROLANDO BONACHEA
actions need to address the disaster
statistics from the United Nations (UNHCR) refer to the nationality of
own people has left millions of people displaced internally and externally.
sparsely populated desert areas in Iraq. Therefore, to adequately solve
two sparsely populated areas with
on opposition held areas in heavily populated cities closer to the coast and south of Damascus, such as the cities
has prompted a new exodus from
In the short term, the easiest option for
remain in power and indiscriminately
dramatic nature of the atrocities they immolation, and use of explosive devices to murder those opposed to them are all more media worthy than Europe, the population in the camp is
lack of international will to solve the imposition, the war will continue for make the cut for the media due to their frequent nature.
to remain the same due to the simultaneous departure of many of
million externally, were already in
Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons
The Attempt to Erase Parts of History BY: CLAUDIA DALLY
T much similar to what occurred in the
The international community has
than what the Nazis have done and of their acts are no worse than other
to recruit and radicalize, like no other. The true imminent threat, however, is their commitment to erase the existence of people and cultures that do not necessarily fall in line with
for military intervention to put a stop
protect these cultural sites and artifacts. and culture of civilizations that are some of the most important to human existence?
stated that sites like at Palmyra are and murdered Jews across Europe. crossroads of several civilizations.â€?
to show their destruction of these sites
Hatra and Nimrud in northern Iraq.
in the scope of cultural preservation and international law.
The ICC is one step forward to
to prevent similar occurrences as to
of histories and cultures not only in
operations. There is a deep history of
this cannot completely stop what
â€œHow do we preserve history and culture of civilizations that are some of the most important to human existence?â€? earlier wars or Palymra, it can help with the restoration and conservation processes.
without the use of force we cannot The United Nations was formed post-
the Internet and social media allows
option. It will take more than the UN and individual state initiatives.
The International Criminal Courts has community, and of world leaders called the situation in the Islamic
such artifacts in comparison to the
ancient manuscripts all important to parts of history and civilizations. to destroy artifacts and sites considered
Syrian Refugees BY: SERENA HAJJAR
to pesticides, toxic chemicals, heavy
The country is now home to one of population - second only to Turkey.
they arrive destitute and penniless. In order to survive, these households have had to rely at least partly on
which faces minimal prospects as they are forced to skip years of education in order to provide for their families. In
drafted into a workforce where they are
renewal or acquisition of a residency visa is a costly, complicated processes
family livelihood opportunities and impoverished millions of households
supermarkets, or auto-repair shops.
such measures present serious health
intimate partner violence and sexual Photo by Hasan Shaaban for the Observer
in Lebanon lack of funds.
aims to provide free education for up
Photo by Hasan Shaaban for the Observer
result, displaced families have had to education is mandatory in the country,
“We don’t have a house because we don’t have the money to pay rent...If we go to school, who would help our families?”
we would never have allowed our
and shelters in the countryside, or in the city.
calls himself Hassan and lives under of the politically volatile situation have the money to pay rent,” he said, the Israeli state and the resultant
In order to eradicate the hardships
year civil war -- are still fresh in the
Ethiopians in Israel Rescue-Prompted Immigration to Cultural Marginalization and Police Brutality BY: HALLE ABRAHAM
THE HISTORY JEWS
endure overt discrimination in Israel that manifests in institutional and social spheres. There is a sentiment that despite thousands of years of loyalty Ethiopian
Jewish Christianity has always held a clear political,
some ways functions like an ethnicity,
is one that resonates closely with Ethiopian Jews themselvesâ€”and it is that they are descendants of those
Jews faced the discrimination of major the Ethiopian identity.
diversity makes it hard to assert that
It is hard to say exactly when and how Judaism made its way to Ethiopia,
scholarship on the topic that allows for study today. There are several distinct narratives that have circulated
the rest of the Jewish diaspora and community.
Ethiopian Jewish community refers
hundreds of thousands in Ethiopia. To
mortality in the country. Israel, under the leadership of Prime aware of the isolation and passion conditions in Ethiopiaâ€”and decided
Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons
of the Jewish diaspora. The response included a secret service led operation
to promise conversations with leaders of the Ethiopian community to discuss not only excessive force in physical
communities as a systemic issue in the police force. In terms of health sectors in Israel, discrimination of Ethiopians that has prompted some Ethiopian Jews to question their Judaism. Israel has Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons the society this way shows an inherent disparity in terms of how the Israeli
are very conducive to dependence on
of the relative proximity of EthiopianETHIOPIANS IN ISRAEL Ethiopian Jews have expressed several
control, under the pretense that many
children away from their schools. Jews in Israel, and that ethnicity is not
made aware of mostly on the Internet.
of Israel—as a safe haven state for
“Israel has admitted to destroying the blood that Ethiopians donated to blood banks, as well as forcibly injecting several thousand Ethiopians with birth control”
extremely indicative of the state of
transportation—that have overtly told
In recent weeks, the closed circuit video Damas Pakada, an Ethiopian uniformed soldier, and a policeman, demonstrated the widespread issue of Israeli police
Racist European Politicians BY: JOE PIRES
he past decade has seen a massive party (or at least one that follows the lead
Thankfully, politically, Golden
chances for improvement of the lives
over whether or not the policy proposals one.
actually come into fruition. However, level of support with their promise to still remains a known force in Greece. SWEDEN â€“ SWEDEN DEMOCRATS
aspects of European political culture
and sympathizers of the fascist party.
that Golden Dawn have connections with some estimates had them as the primary
three of those parties. GREECE â€“ GOLDEN DAWN
is within contemporary Europe of this
Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons
FRANCE – NATIONAL FRONT Jimmie Åkesson has claimed that the racists and fascists within the party
as reactionary. The former party European community as a whole European parliament) for nationalist
Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons
party also has a tendency towards
the party more moderate, the party
“Swedish Jews cannot be Swedish unless they abandon their Jewish identity.” - Bjorn Soder, 2014
(formerly the Union for a Popular
three parties are not the only major
economic shift that rendered many of into Parliament have not moderated
Is it Time to Back Down?
China Loses Diplomatic Footing Over South China Sea Disputes BY: CHRISTINE DU
projects, where the islands were was moved to a reef, that concluded this summer. It has since focused its and consistent estimate of the exact
important to a country like China, who
the most important sea lanes in the this opportunity to fortify its role
evidence of two more airstrips under construction. The new installations will allow China to exercise more
“The South China Sea issue is becoming a conflict of interest that is alienating important partners and hindering China’s greater foreign policy efforts.” sustained Chinese air and sea patrols of the area. The speed at which China
territorial waters as coastal waters
Graphic by the Los Angeles Times claims on the land that these waters surround. The confusion will, and has, manifested itself in hostile
limited use of conventional force to manipulate risk.â€?
China and various other countries,
Paracels meant to oversee Chinese
the Philippines, and was followed surveillance ships, navy patrols and
resolved (or at least deescalated). This
China in a sticky position as it also faces domestic nationalistic pressures
Netherlands ruled it had jurisdiction to hear some territorial claims the
at the University of Pennsylvania,
China Relations.â€? He concludes that
point, China may need to explore some compromises in order to prevent
the international community and
The new politics of fossil fuels in Latin America
BY: EDUARDO COCCARO
A particularly in the oil and natural
approach to this new scenario, the prospect of increased revenues from
the national oil company, which for more than a decade has seen its production plummet.
for auction, only two were snatched industry. MEXICO development. Thus, ever since the
nationalize their fossil fuel reserves.
contracts, as well as what investors proposals
in the hands of national oil companies.
contested same time, lower oil prices caused Pemex to cut its yearly expenditure
awarded for three. This time, the
provided information on its minimum
that when its most important deepare auctioned, the price of oil will
deep-water division. There is still room for careful optimism, as the over the next auction, scheduled international oil producer. her detractors continue to emphasize
companies awarded contracts, eleven requirements for national equipment sized explorers or oil startups, while a vastly inferior sum compared to oil multinationals with operations oil market is known for its cyclical department at the University of prices, and vice versa. These critics prices, which makes exploration of
competitive industrial platform that executive director of General Electric
point out that a major reason these multinationals did not participate in
the company has already increased its investments in the production of
itself stayed out of the latest round. million this year and that the country
pressured to follow suit.
the national oil company in order to minimize risk.
It comes as no surprise that critics of
research in Rio de Janeiro as evidence
revenue. The company, which at its
economy. The corruption scheme
has proceeded to search for potential
the fact that reserves are isolated from
could indeed usher in a new era of
points out to the enormous amounts of physical and human capital
Communities in the state of NeuquĂŠn, investments in infrastructure, worry have welcomed European and North
and Chinese interest in its wells; it industry on par with its development LEST THE OIL THATâ€™S IN YOU
its fossil fuel landscape. Given the
and clearly outlined laws are crucial chooses to pursue, it will need to
for their own advancement, they will
action in order to secure their interests partnerships pick up pace, so do joint should or should not interfere in
The Brain Drain An Overview of Human Capital Flight
BY: JOE LI
their destination countries and very
countries to developed countries.
their mother countries.
more persistent and impactful way popular
less developed (for example, Ukraine
the rest would stay, work and most likely live the rest of their lives in
political turmoil or social upheavals, social elites that are at the upper levels
employment opportunities. talented international students to stay
needs of survival such as security or
This may very well imply that more population from China and other education,
Those next couple of years.
and passions in a new country. The
and lack of familiar social network
proper policy support, this can act as
retain the talented within their own
in the destination countries and their home countries due to the fact that
nature for someone with the skills and
â€œIt is human nature for someone with the skills and talent to pursue better opportunities for personal or family development, and sentiments of patriotism alone will not do the job of saving those migrants.â€?
for personal or family development, and sentiments of patriotism alone
sense helped reduced the amount of a fundamentally important role in
worker to his or her family in the
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Assad and the Syrian Refugee Crisis, pg. 8
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“Timbuktu mausoleum destruction suspect appears at ICC,”
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Goldberg, Eleanor. -
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“Syrian children forced to work on streets of Beirut face severe exploitation.”
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with-philippines-claim.html. Blanchard, Ben, and Andrea Shalal.
Racist European Politicians pg. 16
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Cashing in?, pg. 20 Johnson, Keith.
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auction-in-two-years. Barnato, Katy.
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