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T HE INTE R N AT IONAL AFFAIR S A S S O C IATIO N / U NIV E RS IT Y O F P E NN S YLVA N I A

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Letter from the Editor The Consul Staff Editor-In-Chief

Dear Reader of The Consul, I am very excited to present to you our newest edition of The Consul. In this issue, we chose to focus on one of the most potent

Jake Cohen C ‘18

Content Editors Christine Du C ‘16 Zachary Gross C ‘18

Head Layout Editor Yen-Yen Gao W ‘18

Head of Marketing and Outreach Rolando Bonachea C ’16

Columnists Claudia Dally C ‘15 Halle Abraham C ‘19 Joe Li C’17 Joe Pires E’19 Tim Perevozchikov C ‘15 Dylan Rhile W/C ‘18 Serena Hajjar C ‘19 Eduardo Coccaro C ‘15 Mena Shanab C ‘15

Layout Editors

Thank you, and enjoy The Consul!

Irina Bit-Babik C‘18 Ilana Wurman C ‘19 Isha Gupta W ‘19 Ricardo Martinez C ‘18

Jake Cohen Editor-in-Chief


Table of Contents Semester in Review 4

Refugee Crisis: In Numbers 6

Assad and the Syrian Refugee Crisis Rolando Bonachea 8

ISIS’s Hostile Cultural Takeover Claudia Dally 10

Syrian Refugees in Lebanon Serena Hajjar 12

Ethiopians in Israel Halle Abraham 14

Racist European Politicians Joe Pires 16

Is it Time to Back Down? China Loses Diplomatic Footing Over South China Sea Disputes Christine Du 18

Cashing In? The New Politics of Fossil Fuels in Latin America Eduardo Coccaro 20

The Brain Drain An Overview of Human Capital Flight Joe Li 24


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Semester

AUG 14: American flag raised in Cuba

OCT 10: Bombings kill dozens in Turkey

SEPT 10: Vote against Iran deal blocked in Senate

plosions, which occur almost simultaneously, are the dead-

-

Tensions rise in Turkey, which -

deal.

SEPT 14: Refugee Crisis in Europe AUG 19: Germany approves third bailout for Greece aftermath of the economic crisis that hit the Eurozone earlier this year. The deal still seeks approval from other European powers and is seen

4

-


in Review OCT 31: Russian passenger jet crashes -

OCT 29: China ends one-child policy to have two children. The measure comes as a response to

the deadliest in Russian avia-

NOV 13: ISIS attacks in Paris kill dozens

cert hall, restaraunts, and a soccer sta-

clared capital of Raqqa.

NOV 20: Mali hotel attacked

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REFUGEE CRISIS

19

HOW DO NATIONS FAIL THE Persecutions force refugees to their homes.

Once forced out of their homes, many refugees end up in camps.

1

Many refugees realize their 3 lives cannot be sustained in these camps and instead look to

2

4 REFUGEES WORLDWIDE? 30 30 25 20 20 20 20 15 15 10 10 10 02014 2015 2016

from developed nations, particularly in Europe.

For now, the plan only applies to 66,000 in Italy and Greece.

(in millions)

Syria

11.6 Iraq

4

Afghanistan

2.6

Yemen

1.1

Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

Large numbers of refugees are

European Union ministers voted to relocate EU-wide in September

The other 54,000 were to be moved to Hungary, but are now being held “in reserve.�


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Photo by Angelos Tzortzinis / Getty Images

Assad and the Syrian Refugee Crisis BY: ROLANDO BONACHEA

T

actions need to address the disaster

statistics from the United Nations (UNHCR) refer to the nationality of

own people has left millions of people displaced internally and externally.

sparsely populated desert areas in Iraq. Therefore, to adequately solve

8


the

rapid

deterioration

of

the

two sparsely populated areas with

on opposition held areas in heavily populated cities closer to the coast and south of Damascus, such as the cities

has prompted a new exodus from

In the short term, the easiest option for

remain in power and indiscriminately

dramatic nature of the atrocities they immolation, and use of explosive devices to murder those opposed to them are all more media worthy than Europe, the population in the camp is

lack of international will to solve the imposition, the war will continue for make the cut for the media due to their frequent nature.

East.

to remain the same due to the simultaneous departure of many of

million externally, were already in

Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

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The Attempt to Erase Parts of History BY: CLAUDIA DALLY

T much similar to what occurred in the

The international community has

than what the Nazis have done and of their acts are no worse than other

to recruit and radicalize, like no other. The true imminent threat, however, is their commitment to erase the existence of people and cultures that do not necessarily fall in line with

for military intervention to put a stop

idolatrous

such,

demolition

and

protect these cultural sites and artifacts. and culture of civilizations that are some of the most important to human existence?

stated that sites like at Palmyra are and murdered Jews across Europe. crossroads of several civilizations.�

to show their destruction of these sites

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Hatra and Nimrud in northern Iraq.

in the scope of cultural preservation and international law.

technicians

The ICC is one step forward to

to prevent similar occurrences as to

of histories and cultures not only in

curators,

operations. There is a deep history of

conservation

this cannot completely stop what

“How do we preserve history and culture of civilizations that are some of the most important to human existence?� earlier wars or Palymra, it can help with the restoration and conservation processes.

without the use of force we cannot The United Nations was formed post-

the Internet and social media allows

option. It will take more than the UN and individual state initiatives.

The International Criminal Courts has community, and of world leaders called the situation in the Islamic

such artifacts in comparison to the

ancient manuscripts all important to parts of history and civilizations. to destroy artifacts and sites considered

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Syrian Refugees BY: SERENA HAJJAR

A

to pesticides, toxic chemicals, heavy

The country is now home to one of population - second only to Turkey.

entry

and

stay

documentation.

they arrive destitute and penniless. In order to survive, these households have had to rely at least partly on

which faces minimal prospects as they are forced to skip years of education in order to provide for their families. In

drafted into a workforce where they are

renewal or acquisition of a residency visa is a costly, complicated processes

family livelihood opportunities and impoverished millions of households

supermarkets, or auto-repair shops.

hammer.

such measures present serious health

intimate partner violence and sexual Photo by Hasan Shaaban for the Observer

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in Lebanon lack of funds.

aims to provide free education for up

Photo by Hasan Shaaban for the Observer

result, displaced families have had to education is mandatory in the country,

opportunities.

“We don’t have a house because we don’t have the money to pay rent...If we go to school, who would help our families?”

we would never have allowed our

and shelters in the countryside, or in the city.

children.

calls himself Hassan and lives under of the politically volatile situation have the money to pay rent,” he said, the Israeli state and the resultant

In order to eradicate the hardships

year civil war -- are still fresh in the

families?”

laws.

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#

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The Consul

Ethiopians in Israel Rescue-Prompted Immigration to Cultural Marginalization and Police Brutality BY: HALLE ABRAHAM

I

THE HISTORY JEWS

OF

ETHIOPIAN

endure overt discrimination in Israel that manifests in institutional and social spheres. There is a sentiment that despite thousands of years of loyalty Ethiopian

Jews

are

not

Jewish Christianity has always held a clear political,

and

economic

systems.

some ways functions like an ethnicity,

is one that resonates closely with Ethiopian Jews themselves—and it is that they are descendants of those

Jews faced the discrimination of major the Ethiopian identity.

diversity makes it hard to assert that

It is hard to say exactly when and how Judaism made its way to Ethiopia,

evidence.

scholarship on the topic that allows for study today. There are several distinct narratives that have circulated

the rest of the Jewish diaspora and community.

Ethiopian Jewish community refers

hundreds of thousands in Ethiopia. To

mortality in the country. Israel, under the leadership of Prime aware of the isolation and passion conditions in Ethiopia—and decided

Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

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of the Jewish diaspora. The response included a secret service led operation


to promise conversations with leaders of the Ethiopian community to discuss not only excessive force in physical

communities as a systemic issue in the police force. In terms of health sectors in Israel, discrimination of Ethiopians that has prompted some Ethiopian Jews to question their Judaism. Israel has Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons the society this way shows an inherent disparity in terms of how the Israeli

are very conducive to dependence on

of the relative proximity of EthiopianETHIOPIANS IN ISRAEL Ethiopian Jews have expressed several

control, under the pretense that many

the Holocaust.

and

institutional

discrimination

children away from their schools. Jews in Israel, and that ethnicity is not

made aware of mostly on the Internet.

of Israel—as a safe haven state for

“Israel has admitted to destroying the blood that Ethiopians donated to blood banks, as well as forcibly injecting several thousand Ethiopians with birth control”

extremely indicative of the state of

transportation—that have overtly told

In recent weeks, the closed circuit video Damas Pakada, an Ethiopian uniformed soldier, and a policeman, demonstrated the widespread issue of Israeli police

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Racist European Politicians BY: JOE PIRES

T

he past decade has seen a massive party (or at least one that follows the lead

Thankfully, politically, Golden

chances for improvement of the lives

over whether or not the policy proposals one.

actually come into fruition. However, level of support with their promise to still remains a known force in Greece. SWEDEN – SWEDEN DEMOCRATS

aspects of European political culture

and sympathizers of the fascist party.

that Golden Dawn have connections with some estimates had them as the primary

three of those parties. GREECE – GOLDEN DAWN

is within contemporary Europe of this

Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

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FRANCE – NATIONAL FRONT Jimmie Åkesson has claimed that the racists and fascists within the party

as reactionary. The former party European community as a whole European parliament) for nationalist

Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

party also has a tendency towards

The

sentiment

from

the platform.

typical

for

most

supporters

of

the party more moderate, the party

“Swedish Jews cannot be Swedish unless they abandon their Jewish identity.” - Bjorn Soder, 2014

(formerly the Union for a Popular

politics.

three parties are not the only major

economic shift that rendered many of into Parliament have not moderated

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The Consul

Is it Time to Back Down?

China Loses Diplomatic Footing Over South China Sea Disputes BY: CHRISTINE DU

T

projects, where the islands were was moved to a reef, that concluded this summer. It has since focused its and consistent estimate of the exact

important to a country like China, who

the most important sea lanes in the this opportunity to fortify its role

evidence of two more airstrips under construction. The new installations will allow China to exercise more

“The South China Sea issue is becoming a conflict of interest that is alienating important partners and hindering China’s greater foreign policy efforts.” sustained Chinese air and sea patrols of the area. The speed at which China

territorial waters as coastal waters

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Graphic by the Los Angeles Times claims on the land that these waters surround. The confusion will, and has, manifested itself in hostile

limited use of conventional force to manipulate risk.�

China and various other countries,

Paracels meant to oversee Chinese

the Philippines, and was followed surveillance ships, navy patrols and

resolved (or at least deescalated). This

undiplomatic

outcomes.

Professor

China in a sticky position as it also faces domestic nationalistic pressures

Netherlands ruled it had jurisdiction to hear some territorial claims the

at the University of Pennsylvania,

China Relations.� He concludes that

point, China may need to explore some compromises in order to prevent

the international community and

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Cashing In?

The new politics of fossil fuels in Latin America

BY: EDUARDO COCCARO

A particularly in the oil and natural

approach to this new scenario, the prospect of increased revenues from

the national oil company, which for more than a decade has seen its production plummet.

for auction, only two were snatched industry. MEXICO development. Thus, ever since the

nationalize their fossil fuel reserves.

contracts, as well as what investors proposals

in the hands of national oil companies.

were

hotly

contested same time, lower oil prices caused Pemex to cut its yearly expenditure

awarded for three. This time, the

20


provided information on its minimum

that when its most important deepare auctioned, the price of oil will

oil

corporation

Eni

International,

deep-water division. There is still room for careful optimism, as the over the next auction, scheduled international oil producer. her detractors continue to emphasize

companies awarded contracts, eleven requirements for national equipment sized explorers or oil startups, while a vastly inferior sum compared to oil multinationals with operations oil market is known for its cyclical department at the University of prices, and vice versa. These critics prices, which makes exploration of

competitive industrial platform that executive director of General Electric

point out that a major reason these multinationals did not participate in

the company has already increased its investments in the production of

itself stayed out of the latest round. million this year and that the country

pressured to follow suit.

the national oil company in order to minimize risk.

BRAZIL

It comes as no surprise that critics of

political,

economic,

and

research in Rio de Janeiro as evidence

social ARGENTINA

revenue. The company, which at its

economy. The corruption scheme

private

infrastructure

executives

has proceeded to search for potential

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environmental

controversy

in

the fact that reserves are isolated from

could indeed usher in a new era of

points out to the enormous amounts of physical and human capital

Communities in the state of NeuquĂŠn, investments in infrastructure, worry have welcomed European and North

and Chinese interest in its wells; it industry on par with its development LEST THE OIL THAT’S IN YOU

its fossil fuel landscape. Given the

and clearly outlined laws are crucial chooses to pursue, it will need to

for their own advancement, they will

action in order to secure their interests partnerships pick up pace, so do joint should or should not interfere in

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rules.


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The Brain Drain An Overview of Human Capital Flight

BY: JOE LI

T

their destination countries and very

countries to developed countries.

their mother countries.

more persistent and impactful way popular

destinations

and

places

less developed (for example, Ukraine

the rest would stay, work and most likely live the rest of their lives in

political turmoil or social upheavals, social elites that are at the upper levels

employment opportunities. talented international students to stay

needs of survival such as security or

This may very well imply that more population from China and other education,

healthcare,

etc.

Those next couple of years.

and passions in a new country. The

and lack of familiar social network

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proper policy support, this can act as

externalities

that

will

eventually

run.

and

the

individuals

themselves.

retain the talented within their own

in the destination countries and their home countries due to the fact that

nature for someone with the skills and

“It is human nature for someone with the skills and talent to pursue better opportunities for personal or family development, and sentiments of patriotism alone will not do the job of saving those migrants.�

for personal or family development, and sentiments of patriotism alone

sense helped reduced the amount of a fundamentally important role in

worker to his or her family in the

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Sources Refugee Crisis Infographic, pg. 6

Sarah Almukhtar

-

Reuters

-

sis-europe-syrian -

Assad and the Syrian Refugee Crisis, pg. 8

-

Fahim, Kareem, and Maher Samaan. Alexander Sehmer -

-

Oddone, Elisa, and Alisa Reznick. “Syria: Governorates.” UNHCR, ed.

-

-

“Timbuktu mausoleum destruction suspect appears at ICC,”

UNHCR, ed.

ISIS’s Hostile Cultural Takeover, pg. 10

Syrian Refugees in Lebanon, pg. 12

Robert Windrem,

Goldberg, Eleanor. -

Agencies, Jaafar, Nisreen, and Lisa Abou Khaled. Noah Rayman

60 Minutes

html. Legal Status of Refugees from Syria: Challenges and Consequences of Maintaining Legal Stay in Beirut and Mount Lebanon. -

-

-

Amr Al-Azm

26

Shaheen, Kareem.


“Syrian children forced to work on streets of Beirut face severe exploitation.”

Is it Time to Back Down?, pg. 18 “What China Has Been Building in the South China Sea.”

Ethiopians in Israel pg. 14

“Q&A: South China Sea Dispute - BBC News.”

Knutsen, Elise.

“The Plight of Ethiopian Jews in Israel - BBC News.” “The Tribulations of Being an Ethiopian Jew.”

“Chinese Navy Chief Warns US: You Could Spark War.”

“Why Ethiopian Jews Are Protesting Police Violence in Israel.”

with-philippines-claim.html. Blanchard, Ben, and Andrea Shalal.

Racist European Politicians pg. 16

-

Alderman, Liz. Crouch, David.

Goldstein, Avery.

Dedieu, Jean-Philippe. “Dispatches: Greece Vows to End Anti-Immigrant Police Operation.” Erlanger, Steven, and Alison Smale.

-

Cashing in?, pg. 20 Johnson, Keith.

-

Connors, Will. Valle, Sabrina.

Groll, Elias.

-

“Jean-Marie Le Pen Creates New Political Party in France.”

auction-in-two-years. Barnato, Katy.

-

“The Anti-immigration Sweden Democrats Are Now the No1 Force in Sweden, Polls Show - Spectator Blogs.” “The Rise of Europe’s Far Right.” The Rise of “What Does Syriza’s Victory Mean for Greece’s Immigrants?” -

Nunes, Dimalice.

Rockmann, Roberto. Rockmann, Roberto.

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Sources Continued Cashing in?, pg. 20 (cont.) Legrand, Christine. “Mexican Expropriation of Foreign Oil, 1938.” In

Malkin, Elisabeth.

-

“The Good Oil Boys Club.”

The Brain Drain, pg. 24 “International Migration 2013.” United Nations Docquier, Frederic, Olivier Lohest and Abdeslam Marfouk. Bidwell, Allie.

-

Tsuda, Takeyuki. -

Ratha, Dilip.

Ratha, Dilip and Ani Silwal. -

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Special thanks to the International Affairs Association for their neverending support.

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