Page 1

PRINCIPLES OF

TYPOGRAPHY THE SEARCH FOR ORGANIZATION AND SIMPLICITY

DESIGNED BY JING JIAN Class project for Professor Herstowski's Typography 02 at the University of Kansas, Spring 2011. TEXT FOR THE BOOK WAS COMPILED FROM THE FOLLOWING SOURCES: ELEMENTS OF TYPOGRAPHIC STYLE BY ROBERT BRINGHURST GETTING IT RIGHT WITH TYPE: THE DO'S AND DON'TS OF TYPOGRAPHY BY VICTORIA SQUARE MAC IS NOT A TYPEWRITER BY ROBIN WILLIAMS.

This book is not to be sold to the public and to only be used by the designer for their reference and student design portfolio.

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THE TABLE OF CONTENTS

RULES

5

X-HEIGHT

6

HYPHENATION

22

ALIGNMENTS

26

JUSTIFICATION

30

COMBINING FONTS

38

QUOTES

45

SPECIAL CHARACTERS

50

BULLETS

51

NUMERALS + FIGURES

53

SMALL CAPS

54

PARAGRAPH BREAKS

57

HEADERS

70

CAPTIONS + NOTES

78

TYPE CLASSIFICATION

86

TYPE SPECIMENS

96

3


THE FOLLOWING IS

u yo

tim at

io

n.

e ic bl

pu

co

m

pl

et

em

th

a

ea

ch

EC

K

e

th

ro

ug

h

to nt wa

ht ig m

C

H

Yo u

[E

ST AB

LI

SH

ED

IN

TH

IS

B

O

O

K]

A C OM P E ND IU M O F

THE RULES

__Use only one space between sentences. __Use real quotation marks. __足Use real apostrophes. __Make sure the apostrophes are where they belong. __Hang the punctuation off the aligned edge. __Use en or em dashes, use consistently. __Kern all headlines where necessary. __Always set tabs and use the tab key. __Leave no widows or orphans. __Avoid more than 3 hyphenations in a row. __Avoid too many hyphenations in any paragraph. __Avoid hyphenating or line brakes of names and proper nouns. __Leave a least 2 characters on the line and 3 following. __Avoid beginning consecutive lines with the same word. __Avoid ending consecutive lines with the same word. __Avoid ending lines with the words: the, of, at, a, by.. __Never hyphenate a words in a headline. __Avoid hyphenation in a callout. __Never justify the text on a short line. __Keep the word spacing consistent. __Tighten up the leading in lines with all caps. __Tighten up the leading with few ascenders and descenders. __Use a one-em first-line indent on all indented paragraphs. __Adjust the spacing between paragraphs. __Indent first line of paragraph or add extra space between them. __Use a decimal for the numbers in numbered paragraphs. __Or use right-aligned tab in numbered paragraphs. __Never have one line in a paragraph in the column or following. __Never combine two serif fonts on one page. __Rarely combine two sans serif fonts on one page. __Rarely combine more than three typefaces on one page. __Use the special characters whenever necessary. __Spend the time to create nice fraction. __Or chose a font that has fractions. __If a correctly spelled word needs an accent mark, use it.

5


X-HEIGHT

X-HEIGHT

ON THE TOPIC OF TYPOGRAPHIC COLOR

Readability and legibility are two key elements of printed text that typographer strive to maximize. Readability extended amount of text— such as an article, book, or annual report—is easy to read. Legibility refers to whether an refers to whether a short burst of text—such as a headline catalog listing, or stop sign—is instantly recognizable.

There are several factors that determine whether a text is readable. When deciding what typeface should be used for a job, consideration should be given to the typeface and its x-height. It is important to understand how a block of text can express a message through its texture/color, therefore suiting a particular design solution. Fonts set in the same size, same leading and column width will produce varying degrees of “color.”

L

M a R xim E A iz D ing AB IL IT Y

In typography, color can also describe the balance between black and white on the page of text. A typeface’s color is determined by stroke width, x-height, character width and serif styles.

E G L

IB

E G

IL

I B

IT

I L

Y

I T Y

6


X-HEIGHT

As a designer, if you are only asked to make the text readable on the page the following questions should be asked WHO IS TO READ IT? Someone that wants to read it? Someone that has to read it? HOW WILL IT BE READ? Quickly. In passing. Focused. Near. Far.

ON THE TOPIC OF TYPOGRAPHIC COLOR __Stroke width __X-height __Character width __Serif styles As a designer, if you are only asked to make the text readable on the page the following questions should be asked. . . Readability and legibility are two key elements of printed text that typographer strive to maximize. Readability extended amount of text­—such as an article, book, or annual report—is easy to read. Legibility refers to whether an refers to whether a short burst of text—such as a headline catalog listing, or stop sign—is instantly recognizable. There are several factors that determine whether a text is readable. When deciding what typeface should be used for a job, consideration should be given to the typeface and its x-height. It is important to understand how a block of text can express a message through its texture/color, therefore suiting a particular design solution. Fonts set in the same size, same leading and column width will produce varying degrees of “color.” In typography, color can also describe the balance between black and white on the page of text. A typeface’s color is determined by stroke width, x-height, character width and serif styles.

7


X-HEIGHT

LIGHT

[ TYPOGRAPHIC COLOR ]

Xxhg

72 point

Mrs Eaves zuzana licko

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

9/12 x-height: small character width: average color: light

8


X-HEIGHT

DARK

[ TYPOGRAPHIC COLOR ]

Xxhg

72 point

Clarendon robert besley

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

9/12 x-height: average character width: large color: dark

9


X-HEIGHT

Xx h g

Xx hg

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

x-height: average character width: average color: average

x-height: average character width: large color: dark

ITC New Baskerville hermann zapf

10

Volta konrad bauer & walter baum


X-HEIGHT

X xh g Akzidenz Grotesque gunter gerhand lange

Xxh g

72 point

News Gothic morris fuller benton

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

x-height: average character width: narrow color: dark

x-height: average character width: average color: medium

11


X-HEIGHT

Xx h g Bodoni giambattista bodoni

Xxhg Century morris fuller benton

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

x-height: average character width: narrow color: light

x-height: average character width: wide color: dark

12


X-HEIGHT

Xxhg Didot jonathan hoefler

Xxhg

72 point

Sabon jan tschichold

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

x-height: small character width: average color: light

x-height: average character width: wide color: dark

13


X-HEIGHT

X x hg

Xxhg

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

x-height: tall character width: narrow color: light

x-height: tall character width: wide color: dark

Rotis Sans Serif 55 adrian frutiger

14

Gill Sans eric gill


X-HEIGHT

X xhg DIN linotype

Xxhg

72 point

Trade Gothic jackson burke

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

x-height: tall character width: thin color: light

x-height: tall character width: narrow color: light

15


X-HEIGHT

Xxh g

X xhg

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

x-height: small character width: average color: light

x-height: tall character width: wide color: dark

Bembo francesco griffo

16

Rockwell frank hinman pierpont


X-HEIGHT

X x hg Helvetica max miedinger

X x hg

72 point

Interstate tobais frere-jones

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

x-height: tall character width: average color: light

x-height: tall character width: wide color: dark

17


X-HEIGHT

Xxhg

X xhg

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

x-height: average character width: average color: light

x-height: small character width: narrow color: light

Adobe Garamond claude garamond

18

Filosofia zuzana licko


X-HEIGHT

Xxhg Frutiger adrian fruitiger

Xxhg

72 point

Univers adrian frutiger

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

x-height: tall character width: average color: dark

x-height: tall character width: wide color: dark

19


X-HEIGHT

X xhg Xxhg Gotham tobias frere-jones

Scala Sans martin majoor

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

x-height: average character width: average color: light

x-height: average character width: narrow color: dark

20


HYPHENATION

HYPHENATION In unjustified text, the text block is set with normal letter and word spacing. Because of the even word spacing the text will have an even texture窶馬o large spaces between words. The lines will naturally vary in length. A ragged text block can integrate with the layout and add visual interest to the page. The difficulty is making the ragged edge have a pleasing silhouette. When the first line in the text is longer than the second, it becomes separate from the layout and creates a box-like shape. This destroys one of the advantages of unjustified text. The ragged edge needs to have a life, but a narrow column can be less active. Another advantage to ragged text is less hyphenation is needed. Therefore, names, dates or words which are normally read together can stay together.

ed

ra

e

H

th

g

T

in

ak m is

ge

ng si ea . p l tte a oue v e silh

E

gg

D

ed

IF

F

IC

U

LT

Y

RULES TO KEEP IN MIND

ha

22

__how the text is read avoid widows __avoid hyphenating or line brakes of names and proper nouns __leave a least 2 characters on the line and 3 following __avoid beginning consecutive lines with the same word __avoid ending consecutive lines with the same word __avoid ending lines with the words: the, of, at, a, by.. __never hyphenate a words in a headline __avoid hyphenation in a callout


A

B

O

U

T

H

E

A

D

L

IN

E

S

HYPHENATION

__Don’t hyphenate headlines. That’s a law. __Does the end first line of a two-line head line create a silly or misleading phrase? Fix it.

__Don’t leave widows in headlines.

“DON QUIXOTE DE LA MANCHA” “PROFESSOR AND THERAPIST TO LECTURE” “DON’T LOSE YOUR SELF RESPECT” “MAN WALKS BAREFOOT ACROSS BAY BRIDGE” Fix it, or rewrite the headline.

“MAN WALKS BAREFOOT ACROSS BAY BRIDGE”

23


HYPHENATION

WHAT ARE BAD line breaks A N Y WAY ?

__1 CASING ADDER BAT __2 Heresy borsch-boil starry a boarder __3 __4 __5

__6

__7 __8 __9

24

borsch boil gam plate lung, lung a gore inner ladle wan-hearse torn coiled Mutt-fill. Mutt-fill worsen mush offter torn, butted hatter putty gut borsch-boil tame, an off oiler pliers honor tame, door moist cerebrated worse Casing. Casing worsted sickened basement, any hatter betting orphanage off. 526 (fife toe sex). Casing worse gut lurking an furry poplar—spatially wetter gull coiled Any-bally. Any-bally worse Casing’s sweat-hard, any harpy cobble wandered toe gat merit, bought Casing worse tow pore toe becalm Any-bally’s horsebarn. (Boil pliers honor Muttfill tame dint gat mush offer celery; infect, day gut nosing atoll.) Butt less gat earn wetter starry.

[1] Justify the headline so it stays on one line. [2] Use a line break (shift+return)to bumpt “a” down to the next line, where it fits very nicely. [3] Kern the line a tiny bit to bring the rest of the word up. [4] Type a dischy in front of the word to bumpt it down. [5] Never hyphenate a person’s name. I had to go up a few lines, bump “off” down, which bumped the other line endings down. [6] Fix widows. [7] There is plenty of room to squeeze “bought” on this line, perhaps by kerning the lin ea tiny bit. [8] “Horsebarn” is a good long word that could be hyphenated; type a dischy. Better yet, when “bought” moved up, it gave enough room to move horsebarn” up. If not, try opening the text box a wee bit. [9] Edit: to get rid of that terrible widow, exchange a short word for a long word.

[CORRECTED] CASING ADDER BAT

Heresy borsch-boil starry a boarder borsch boil gam plate lung, lung a gore inner ladle wan-hearse torn coiled Mutt-fill. Mutt-fill worsen mush offter torn, butted hatter putty gut borsch-boil tame, an off oiler pliers honor tame, door moist cerebrated worse Casing. Casing worsted sickened basement, any hatter betting orphanage off. 526 (fife toe sex). Casing worse gut lurking an furry poplar—spatially wetter gull coiled Any-bally. Any-bally worse Casing’s sweat-hard, any harpy cobble wandered toe gat merit, bought Casing worse tow pore toe becalm Any-bally’s horsebarn. (Boil pliers honor Mutt-fill tame dint gat mush offer celery; infect, day gut nosing atoll.) Butt less gat earn wetter starry.


AN S W S O N ID HA W RP

O

D

co a c ra lu olu gr a m n, mn ph, th an be at d is m it e an us ve r or t ph an

N sit eve d e u at r l e [W ch ID wo lete ion ave a ara OW wi rds a s. If wid pa wid cte ] W d e , o wo y o r t ow r s ni r l rd ou ws of . W (n hen W o ng in o ha an a wo ors t w a pa ID a m es, r tw ve d o rd e t ord ra O , t ha s, gr W he n ar dep o. S edi rph ch ap l S h gi en om tin a ot ea ar he vi ac en n n A d n t r p g er s N ju din eti g p s b D ar on s) an s r t a g o me ivi ere t b e on d O ei wo th lea R ha n w s y leg ft o ng rd e ve P o ir e n l H s pa at as wi hich u c s, r th A ra th t li few a e N ll ph e n e pr n r wr e p S d r a e n e, t r t h a o se d ha an O i t . o g r e mo i t e t g e . d of t l N s on a a e in Bu m ve he A v A th line e is en t i yo sp co voi P e c i A tm u l s d a i [O ne le lle G ’re aci py, o bo E so RP u ab avi d n st t r w A ov ng en lo HA R b e o r g f r at h o f e. .A d i ng, N] E o k LW tse wo W do in m lea th W AY lf a n’t hen ne g i t h s t a e s e R n. e l d O S t th fit . t h co e at N e So e t d o rre to th las G m te r r ct p o e b t l et s, th f t ot ine im is. he to of m ne es a o pa xt f

HYPHENATION

R IVERS

In typography, rivers, or rivers of white, are visually unattractive gaps appearing to run down a paragraph of text. They can occur with any spacing, though they are most noticeable with wide word spaces caused by either full text justification or monospaced fonts.

25


IF THEY ARE BOTH WRONG, THEN WHAT’S RIGHT? Alignment is only a small piece of the puzzle. What works for one design might be totally inappropriate for another layout. As with all layouts, it depends on the purpose of the piece, the audience and its expectations, the fonts, the margins and white space, and other elements on the page. The most appropriate choice is the alignment that works for that particular design.

ALIGNMENTS If someone insists that fully justified text is better than left aligned text, TELL THEM THEY ARE WRONG If someone else tells you that left-aligned text is better than justified text, TELL THEM THEY ARE WRONG

26


— — — — — — — — — — — —

“R IG H T A N D

do

W n

G

ti

N

xis

O

te

R

no

gr ap hi c de sig EFFECTIVE

n

There is only

AND NON-EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION.”

— PETER BILAK, ON ILLEGIBILITY

27


ALIGNMENTS

CENTERED

There is nothing inherently wrong with centered text. As with ragged right or fully-justified text alignment, what works for one design might be totally inappropriate for another layout. There are simply fewer situations where centered text is appropriate. When in doubt, don’t center it. As with all layouts, alignment depends on the purpose of the piece, the audience and its expectations, the fonts, the margins and white space, and other elements on the page. The most appropriate choice is the

WHEN IN DOUBT, DON’T CENTER IT

alignment that works for that particular design. No matter what alignment you use, remember to pay close attention to hyphenation and word/character spacing as well to insure that your text is as readable as possible. There will undoubtedly be well-meaning friends, business associates, clients, and others who will question your choices. Be prepared to explain why you chose the alignment you did and be prepared to change it (and make necessary adjustments to keep it looking good) if the person with final approval still insists on something different.

LEFT-ALIGNED, RAGGED RIGHT __Often considered more informal, friendlier justified text. __than The ragged right edge adds an element of space. __white May require extra attention to hyphenation to right margin from being too ragged. __keep Generally type set left-aligned is easier to work

with (i.e. requires less time, attention, and tweaking from the designer to make it look good).

28


ALIGNMENTS

You may find that FULLY-JUSTIFIED text is a necessity either due to space constraints or expectations of the audience. If possible though, try to break up dense blocks of texts with ample subheadings, margins, or graphics.

Traditionally many books, newsletters, and newspapers use full-justification as a means of packing as much information onto the page as possible to cut down on the number of pages needed. While the alignment was chosen out of necessity, it has become so familiar to us that those same types of publications set in left-aligned text would look odd, even unpleasant.

JUSTIFIED TEXT

__Often considered more formal, less friendly than left-aligned text.

__Usually allows for more characters per line, packing more into the same amount of space (than the same text set left-aligned).

__May require extra attention to word and character spacing and hyphenation to avoid unsightly rivers of white space running through the text.

__May be more familiar to readers in some types of publications, such as books and newspapers

__Some people are naturally drawn to the “neatness� of text that lines up perfectly on the left and right.

29


IO

N

E AC SP L EA ? ID S E RD TH O IS N W AT EE H W ETW B —

AT — —

C — — —

FI — —

TI — —

S — — —

JU

30


JUSTIFICATION

JUSTIFY TEXT ONLY IF THE LINE IS LONG ENOUGH TO PREVENT AWKWARD AND INCONSISTENT WORD SPACING. Here is a general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas, if you like.

The only time you can safely get away with justifying text is if your type is small enough and your line is long enough, as in books where the text goes all the way across the page. If your line is shorter, as in newsletter, or if you don’t have many words on the line, than as the type aligns to the margins the words space themselves to accommodate it. It usually looks awkward. You’ve seen newspaper columns where all text is justified, often with a word stretching all the way across the column, or a little word on either side of the column with a big gap in the middle. Gross. But that’s what can happen with justified type. When you do it, the effect might not be as radical as the newspaper column, but if your lines are relatively short, you will inevitably end up with uncomfortable gaps in some lines, while other lines will be all squished together.

Justified text was the style for many years—we grew up on it. But there has been a great deal of research done on readability (how easy something is to read) and it shoes that those disruptive, inconsistent gaps between the words inhibit the flow of reading. Besides, they look dumb. Keep your eyes open as you look at professionally printed work (magazines, newsletters, annual reports, journals) and you’ll find there’s a very strong trend to align type on the left and leave the right ragged.

When your work comes out of the printer, turn it upside down and squint at it. The rivers will be very easy to spot. Get rid of them. Try squinting at the example on the bottom of the previous page.

31


JUSTIFICATION

MINIMUM 80

DESIRED 100

MAXIMUM 133

There are a lot of hyphens in Bookman, we can do better than this default justifcation setting.

32

BOOKMAN 9/12

FUTURA 9/12

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine andmotion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine andmotion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.


JUSTIFICATION

MINIMUM 95

DESIRED 100

MAXIMUM 110

Rivers are larger in both typefaces.

BOOKMAN 9/12

FUTURA 9/12

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine andmotion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine andmotion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

33


JUSTIFICATION

MINIMUM 90

DESIRED 100

MAXIMUM 133

Rivers are more pronounced in this setting, and hyphenation of words becomes distracting

34

BOOKMAN 9/12

FUTURA 9/12

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine andmotion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine andmotion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.


JUSTIFICATION

MINIMUM 90

DESIRED 100

MAXIMUM 133

Rivers are less pronounced because the minimum space between words has been decreased, however there are still too many hyphens. We can still do better.

BOOKMAN 9/12

FUTURA 9/12

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine andmotion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine andmotion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

35


JUSTIFICATION

MINIMUM 75

DESIRED 90

MAXIMUM 120

This is the most successful of the justification settings, rivers are signifcantly reduced in both typefaces.

36

BOOKMAN 9/12

FUTURA 9/12

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine andmotion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine andmotion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.


“THERE IS NOT BINDING RECIPE FOR TYPE COMBINATIONS. IT IS A MATTER OF TYPOGRAPHIC SENSITIVITY AND EXPERIENCE. EXPERT TYPOGRAPHERS, AS WELL AS CARELESS AMATEURS PERMIT THEMSELVES COMBINATIONS THAT WOULD HORRIFY COLLEAGUES WITH MORE TRADITIONAL SYMPATHIES.” Although there is not recipe there is a place to start: keep an eye on the characteristic shapes of the letterform. A well designed page contains no more than two different typefaces or four different type variations such as type size and bold or italic style. [Using 2 different serif fonts or 2 different sans serifs fonts in the same composition is never a good idea]

COMBINING Typefaces When combining serif and sans serif text fonts, one should try and match the characteristics of form and type color, proportion, x-heights.

38


When combining typefaces, don’t be a wimp. the key is contrast

39


COMBINING TYPEFACES

OLD STYLE Calisto, Goudy Old Style, Janson, Palatino, Perpetua, Plantino, Sabon, Adobe Caslon, Monotype Bembo, Stempel Garamond HUMANIST SAN SERIF Frutiger, Calibri, Gill Sans GROTESQUE SAN SERIF Franklin Gothic, News Gothic, Haettenschweiler, Akzidenz Grotesk

aa BB ee GG gg aa BB ee GG gg

40

Goudy Old Style Old Style [9/12] Frutiger Humanist san serif [9/12]

Adobe Caslon Old Style [9/12] Franklin Gothic Grotesque san serif [9/12]

OLD STYLE / GERALD + HUMANIST SANS SERIF

OLD STYLE / GERALD + GROTESQUE SANS SERIF

WORDS IN LIBERTY

WORDS IN LIBERTY

A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement.

A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement.


COMBINING TYPEFACES

TRANSITONAL Bookman Old Style, Baskerville, Mrs Eaves GEOMETRIC SAN SERIF Futura, ITC Avant Garde Gothic, Bauhaus, Avenir GROTESQUE SAN SERIF Franklin Gothic, News Gothic, Haettenschweiler, Akzidenz Grotesk

aa BB e e G G g g a a BB e e GG g g Mrs Eaves Transitional [9/12] Futura Geometric san serif [9/12]

Bookman Transitional [9/12] Gill Sans Humanist san serif [12/12]

TRANSITIONAL + GEOMETRIC SANS SERIF

TRANSITIONAL + HUMANIST SANS SERIF

WORDS IN LIBERTY

WORDS IN LIBERTY

A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement.

A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time.

41


COMBINING TYPEFACES

MODERN Bodoni, Didot, Bauer Bodoni, Aster, Bell, Ellington GEOMETRIC SAN SERIF Futura, ITC Avant Garde Gothic, Bauhaus, Avenir GROTESQUE SAN SERIF Franklin Gothic, News Gothic, Haettenschweiler, Helvetica

aa BB ee GG gg aa BB ee GG gg Didot Modern [9/12] Avenir Geometric san serif [10/12]

Bodoni Modern [9/12] Akzidenz Grotesk Grotesque san serif [11/12]

MODERN + GEOMETRIC SANS SERIF

MODERN + GROTESQUE SANS SERIF

WORDS IN LIBERTY

WORDS IN LIBERTY

A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was

A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was

first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement.

42

first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement.


COMBINING TYPEFACES

NEW TRANSITONAL Clarendon, Mrs Eaves TRANSTIONAL Bookman Old Style, Baskerville, Mrs Eaves GEOMETRIC SAN SERIF Futura, ITC Avant Garde Gothic, Bauhaus, Avenir HUMANIST SAN SERIF Frutiger, Calibri, Gill Sans

aa BB ee GG gg a a BB e e GG g g Clarendon New transitional [8/12] Futura Geometric san serif [9/12]

Bookman Transitional [9/12] Gill Sans Humanist san serif [12/12]

NEW TRANSITIONAL + GEOMETRIC SANS SERIF

NEW TRANSITIONAL + GROTESQUE SANS SERIF

WORDS IN LIBERTY

WORDS IN LIBERTY

A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was

A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism

first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement.

was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement.

43


COMBINING TYPEFACES

SLAB SERIF Cholla Slab, Claredon, Archer, Rockwell GEOMETRIC SAN SERIF Futura, ITC Avant Garde Gothic, Bauhaus, Avenir HUMANIST SAN SERIF Frutiger, Calibri, Gill Sans

aa BB ee GG gg aa BB ee GG gg

44

Rockwell Slab serif [9/12] Futura Geometric san serif [10/12]

Claredon Slab serif [8/12] Frutiger Humanist san serif [9/12]

SLAB SERIF + GEOMETRIC SANS SERIF

SLAB SERIF + HUMANIST SANS SERIF

WORDS IN LIBERTY

WORDS IN LIBERTY

A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism

A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was

was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time.

first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement.


Q AP UO D O TE AS S S T H RO , ES PH ES

,


QUOTES + ETC

But it is necessary to know how to set them yourself because sometimes the software doesn’t do it or does it wrong.

__Opening double quote: “ Type: Option [ __Closing double quote: ” Type: Option Shift [ __Opening single quote: ‘ Type: Option ] __Closing single quote: ’ Type: Option Shift ]

[Examples] Bridge Clearance: 16' 7" The young man stood 6'2" The length of the wall is 153' 9"

46

QUOTATION MARKS

Use real quotation marks—never those grotesque generic marks that actually symbolize ditto/inch or foot marks: use “and”—not “and”. Most software applications will convert the typewriter quotes to the real quotes for you automatically as you type. Check the preferences for your application—you’ll find a check box to tell your application to automatically set something like “typographer’s quotes,” “smart quotes,” or “curly quotes.” Then as you type using the standard ditto key (“), the software will set the correct quotation marks for you.

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —


QUOTES + ETC

APOSTROPHE APOSTROPHE: ’ OPTION SHIFT ]

PEOPLE OFTEN ARE CONFUSED ABOUT WHERE THE APOSTROPHE BELONGS. THERE ARE A COUPLE OF RULES THAT WORK VERY WELL.

__For possessives: Turn the phrase around. The apostrophe will be placed after whatever word you end up with. For example, in the phrase the boys’ camp, to know where to place the apostrophe say to yourself, “The camp belongs to the boys.” The phrase the boy’s camp says “The camp belongs to the boy.” __“The big exception to this is “its.” “Its” used as a possessive never has an apostrophe! The word it only has an apostrophe as a contraction—“it’s” always means “it is” or “it has.” Always. __It may be easier to remember if you recall that yours, hers, and his don’t use apostrophe—and neither should its. __For contractions: The apostrophe replaces the missing letter. For example: your’re always means you are; the apostrophe is replacing the a from are. That’s an easy way to distinguish it from your as in your house and to make sure you don’t say: Your going to the store. __As previously noted, it’s means “it is”; the apostrophe is indicating where the i is left out. Don’t means “do not”; the apostrophe is indicating where the o is left out. __For omission of letters: In a phrase such as Rock ’n’ Roll, there should be an apostrophe before and after the n, because the a and the d are both left out. And don’t turn the first apostrophe around—just because it appears in front of the letter does not mean you need to use the opposite single quote. An apostrophe is still the appropriate mark (not ‘n’). __In a phrase such as House o’ Fashion, the apostrophe takes the place of the f. There is not earthly reason for an apostrophe to be set before the o. __In a phrase such as Gone Fishin’ the same pattern is followed—the g is missing. __In a date when part of the year is left out, an apostrophe needs to indicate the missing year. In the 80s would mean the temperature; In the ’80s would mean the decade. (Notice there is no apostrophe before the s! Why would there be? It is not possessive, nor is it a contraction­—it is simply plural.)

47


QUOTES + ETC

HYPHEN -

EN DASH –

EM DASH —

NEVER USE TWO HYPHENS INSTEAD OF A DASH. USE HYPHENS, EN DASHES, AND EM DASHES APPROPRIATELY. Everyone knows what a hyphens is—that tiny little dash that belongs in some words, like mother-in-law, or in phone numbers. It’s also used to break a word at the end of a line, of course.

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

D

A

S

H

E

S

You might have been taught to use a double hyphen to indicate a dash, like so : -- . This is a typewriter convention because typewriters didn’t have the real dash used in professional typesetting. On a Mac, no one needs to use the double hyphen—we have a professional em dash, the long one, such as you see in this sentence. We also have an en dash, which is a little shorter than the em dash.

48


QUOTES + ETC

DASHES

HYPHEN A hyphen is one third of the em rule and is used to link words. It serves as a compound modifier where two words become one, such as x-height. A hyphen is also used to break works at syllables in text blocks.

EN DASH To type an en dash: Option + Hyphen

EM DASH To type an em dash: Shift + Option + Hyphen

An en dash is half of the em rule (the width of a capital N) and is used between words that indicate a duration, such as time or months or years. Use it where you might otherwise use the word “to.”

The em dash is twice as long as the en dash—it’s about the size of a capital letter M in whatever size and typeface you’re using at the moment. This dash is often used in place of a colon or parentheses, or it might indicate an abrupt change in thought, or it’s used in a spot where a period is too strong and a comma is too weak.

In a page layout application, the en dash can be used with a thin space on either side of it. If you want you can kern it so it is not a full space. October – December 6:30 – 8:45 A.M. 4 – 6 years of age

Our equivalent on the typewriter was the double hyphen, but now we have a real em dash. Using two hyphens (or worse, one) where there should be an em dash makes your look very unprofessional. When using an—no space is used on either side.

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SPECIAL CHARACTERS

THE FOLLOWING IS A LIST OF THE MOST OFTEN USED SPECIAL CHARACTERS AND ACCENT MARKS

__“ __” __‘ __’ __– __— __… __• __fi __fl __© __™ __® __° __¢ __€ __⁄ __¡ __¿ __£ __ç __Ç

Option + [ Option + Shift + [ Option + ] Option + Shift + ] Option + Hyphen Option + Shift + Hyphen Option + ; Option + 8 Option + Shift + 5 Option + Shift + 6 Option + g Option + 2 Option + r Option + Shift + 8 Option + $ Option Shift 2 Option + Shift + 1 Option + 1 Option + Shift + ? Option + 3 Option c Option + Shift + c

opening double quote closing double quote opening single quote closing single quote; apostrophe en dash em dash ellipsis bullet ligature of f and i ligature of f and l copyright trademark registered trademark degree symbol euro symbol euro symbol fraction bar upside down ! upside down ? pound symbol cedilla capital cedilla

Remember, to set an accent mark over a letter, press the Option key and the letter, let go, then press the letter you want under it.

__´ __` __¨ __˜ __ˆ

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Option + e = é á Option + ~ = è Option + u Option + n Option + i


BULLETS

THIS VERY USEFUL TYPOGRAPHIC ELEMENT CAN ADD EMPHASIS, CLARITY AND VISUAL INTEREST TO ALL KINDS OF COPY Simply put, a bullet is a large dot used to draw attention to each item in a list or series. The items can be single words, phrases, sentences or paragraphs. Even if you use the bullet that is part of your font, don’t automatically assume it’s the right size: it might need to be altered in scale or position to make it look balanced next to the text. Bullets should be centered on either the cap height or x-height, depending on the nature of your copy. If all of your items begin with a cap, center the bullet on the cap, or a bit lower so it balances with the negative spaces created by the lowercase. If your items all begin with lowercase characters, center the bullets on the x-height. Insert some space after the bullet to avoid crowding. The preferred way to align bullets is with the left margin. You can also have the bullets overhang the margin, and keep all your text aligned with the left margin. Whichever style you choose, your listing will look best if items that run more than one line are indented so that the copy aligns with itself, and not with the bullet on the first line. To be more creative, substitute symbols or dingbats for the actual bullets. Try squares, triangles or check marks ( just not all at once, as shown in the illustration!). Keep these simple and in proportion with the rest of your text.

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

BULLETS

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BULLETS

The preferred way to align bullets is with the left margin. You can also have the bullets overhang the margin, and keep all your text aligned with the left margin. Whichever style you choose, your listing will look best if items that run more than one line are indented so that the copy aligns with itself, and not with the bullet on the first line.

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pick any three adjectives that describe yourself: • lovely • surly • ghastly • womanly • saintly • ungodly • stately • sprightly

pick any three adjectives that describe yourself: a lovely d surly c ghastly x womanly r saintly h ungodly s stately z sprightly

Choose a dingbat instead ofthe dumb ol’ bullet, Option + 8.

There are many dingbats to choose from, but they are usually too big.

pick any three adjectives that describe yourself: s lovely s surly s ghastly s womanly s saintly s ungodly s stately s sprightly

pick any three adjectives that describe yourself: s lovely s surly s ghastly s womanly s saintly s ungodly s stately s sprightly

Decreasing the point size of the bullet is possible, but then it sits too low.

Raise the dingbat higher off the baseline


NUMBERALS + FIGURES

Oldstyle figures are very useful and quite beautiful when set within text. Unlike lining figures, they blend in without disturbing the color of the body copy. They also work well in headlines since they’re not as intrusive as lining figures. In fact, many people prefer them overall for most uses except charts and tables. It’s well worth the extra effort to track down and obtain typefaces with oldstyle numerals; the fonts that contain them might well become some of your favorites.

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

proximate lowercase letterforms by having an x-height and varying ascenders and descenders. They are considerably different from the more common “lining” (or “aligning”) figures which are all-cap height and typically monospaced in text faces so that they line up vertically on charts. Oldstyle figures have more of a traditional, classic look. They are only available for certain typefaces, sometimes as the regular numerals in a font, but more often within a supplementary or expert font. The figures are proportionately spaced, eliminating the white spaces that result from monospaced lining figures, especially around the numeral one.

ABOUT NUMERALS + FIGURES

OLDSTYLE FIGURES are a style of numeral which ap-

NOTICE HOW LARGE AND CLUNKY THESE NUMBERS APPEAR

Dear John, Please call me at 438-9762 at 3:30 to discuss marriage. Or write me at Route 916, zip code 87505.

NOTICE HOW BEAUTIFULLY THESE NUMBERS BLEND INTO THE TEXT

Dear John, Please call me at 438-9762 at 3:30 to discuss marriage. Or write me at Route 916, zip code 87505.

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54

lo

AL L

PS

CA

Sm al w al er l ca l c si up as ps th s. C per e le are th ose om ca tte up be at a are put se a rs i per us re n er pp n ca ed pr ot pro ea any se ( wi opo the gr rs w giv cap t h r t sa a m i t e n i t al in io m s hi a nal e a ca n n typ ) le b o ly s n t o e dy co tru ge rm fac ters of rre e s ner al t e. S th co ct m at ex ma at a py fo all e s t o ll re wi r th ca ma r ca cap ab th e ps ll o s n ou typ . T ca b ar ut t l ef ru ps e u e l the oo ac e s fo se es ki e, m r a d s i size ng w al a fo nt o no hic l ca ny r sp rus f n h tic m ps typ ec ive orm ea e ha ef ial w bl an ve ac em he al y w r d t h l i n e, b p h n o n a t e w u t ag. th ei ey gh ca ts n

SM

SMALL CAPS

__Use small caps for acronyms. Set acronyms such as NASA or

__Use small caps for common abbreviations. Set common abbreviations NASDAQ in small caps when they appear in body text or headlines.

such as AM or PM in small caps so they don’t overpower the accompanying text. Use small caps for A.M. and P.M.; space once after the number, and use periods. (if the font does not have small caps reduce the font size slightly) __Use true small caps fonts. Avoid simply resizing capital letters or using the small caps feature in some programs. Instead use typefaces that have been specifically created as small caps.


SMALL CAPS

[CAPS] Harriet, an FBI agent, turned on CNN to get the dirt on the CIA before going to bed at 9:30 PM. [SMALL CAPS] Harriet, an fbi agent, turned on cnn to get the dirt on the cia before going to bed at 9:30 pm.

The capital letters in the middle of the sentence call too much attention to themselves. Notice how the small caps blend in with the text.

__Set small caps for acronyms, especially acronyms such as NASA or NASDAQ in small caps when they appear in body text or headlines.

__Use small caps for common abbreviations. Set common abbreviations such as AM or PM in small caps so they don’t overpower the accompanying text. Use small caps for A.M. and P.M.; space once after the number, and use periods (if the font does not have small caps reduce the font size slightly). __Use true small caps fonts. Avoid simply resizing capital letters or using the small caps feature in some programs. Instead use typefaces that have been specifically created as small caps.

55


. ce fa e

C

N

SM

AL L

Tr m ue at dr ch aw th n s e we ma ig ll c ht ap of s th are e ca spe pit ci al ally let d te ra rs wn in th to e sa m

RA W -D UE TR

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

AP S

SMALL CAPS

There Is No Rest For The Wicked. The weight of the computer-drawn small caps is thinner than the weight of the first letter caps. The typeface is Eurostile.

Th e r e I s N o R e s t F o r T h e W i c k e d . There are quite a few font families that

include “true-drawn” small caps—letterforms that have been redesigned to match the proportions and thickness of the uppercase. These families are often called “expert” sets or perhaps “small cap” sets. The result is a smooth, uniform, undisturbing tone throughout the text. This is Adobe Caslon.

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PARAGRAPH BREAKS

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

PARAGRAPH BREAKS

IT’S ABOUT RHYTHM Paragraph breaks set a rhythm for the reader. The breaks have a relationship with the column of text as well as the page margins. A break may be introduced as an indentation, as a space or both. The over all page feel will be influenced by your choice.

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PARAGRAPH BREAKS

THE RULES 1. Do not indent the first paragraph 2. Block paragraphs are flush left and are separated by extra leading not a full return 3. The amount indent is equal to the leading (sometimes needs a bit more) 4. Never hit two returns between paragraphs

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PARAGRAPH BREAKS

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term— still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

59


PARAGRAPH BREAKS

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

60


PARAGRAPH BREAKS

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But

it is the movements which survive, oddly,

here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avantgarde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While

Marinetti's open-

ing manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

61


PARAGRAPH BREAKS

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-ofthe-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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PARAGRAPH BREAKS

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But i t is t he move me nts whi ch surv ive, oddly, he re whe re we l ive a nd wo r k as poe ts a nd a rt ists: or, i f not t he move me nts, t he n t he i r se nse o f a r t as a n l i fe i tse lf. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. W hi le Ma ri ne tt i ' s o p e n i ng ma n i fe s to fo r I talia n Futurism bristle d w i t h a pole m i cal sta nce i n favo r o f t he t ra ns fo r med p re se nt (1909), t he late r ma ni fe stos of Futurist p o e ts a nd a r t is ts o ffe re d formal, “te chni cal” approache s to t he works t he n g e t t i ng u nd e r way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

63


PARAGRAPH BREAKS

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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PARAGRAPH BREAKS

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term— still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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PARAGRAPH BREAKS

F u t u r i s m was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. Bu t i t is t he move me nt s which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on bo th its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. W h i l e Ma r i ne t t i ' s op e ni ng manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

66


PARAGRAPH BREAKS

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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PARAGRAPH BREAKS

FUTURISM was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. BUT it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on bo th its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. WHILE Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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pa nts ed ci of ng .

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H TH EA SO E DE R M REA S A he AK D R by rc Sp en ck t. of sp ke hy i aci adin E ER E te ac rn n ng g x SU S TH a i tt e be ng. do in a give ha RE EE E tw Ke cu h ta n F to ee rn m ea p pe e d TO S IN IRS n i a su ar le ng nt o er i tte is sa bs s r US A T T rs th pa ke ec tt he tio to e p g e y t E BO HI cr ro of o c n be TH D NG ea ce te re of gi te s s x t at a nn EM Y O S pi vi of . P ing in ec su re ro g a e al of CO F T o ly mo per ppr a co vin sp op f wr RR EX iti ns g ac ria ng ist sm in te EC T, . en al g i vi t l l a s a su TL et m ch al te ou ie hi Y. rs v -

DE S KE UB pa R RN HE ge o A lin IN AD r do e or cu bl er G A m o a

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H HEADERS


HEADERS

THE KEY TO KERNING IS VISUAL PERCEPTION.

KERNING The more white space that surrounds an object or letter, the smaller it seems, even if it is next to an object of equal size, but with less white space around it. The key to kerning is to keep it visually consistent. The spacing between letters may not all be the exact same, but it will appear that way with the proper kerning.

__[HL] vertical characters next to each other need the most amount of space __[HO] a vertical next to a curve needs less space __[OC] a curve next to a curve needs very little space __[OT] a curve can actually overlap white space __[AT] the closest kerning is done where both letters have a lot of white space around them TYPOGRAPHY unkerned

TYPOGRAPHY kerned

71


HEADERS

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism

Radical mix of art and life

72

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. 1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”


HEADERS

WORDS IN LIBERTY A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. 1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avantgarde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

73


HEADERS

WOR DS I N L I BE RT Y A Prologue to Futurism F u t u r i s m was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. 1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical mix of art and life Bu t i t is t he move me nt s which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on bo th its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. W h i l e Ma r i ne t t i ' s op e ning manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

74


HEADERS

W O R D S IN L I BE RT Y / /

A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM / Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. 1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. RADICAL

MIX OF ART AND LIFE /

Bu t i t is t he move me n ts whi ch surv ive, oddly, he re whe re we live a nd work as p o e ts a nd a r t is ts : o r, i f no t t he move me nts, t he n t he i r se nse of a rt as a n li fe i tse l f. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. W hi le Ma ri ne t t i 's ope ni ng ma ni fe sto for I talia n Fu tu r is m b r is tl e d wi t h a pole m i cal sta nce i n favor of t he t ra nsforme d p re se n t (19 0 9), t he late r ma n ife stos of Futurist p oe ts a nd a rt ists offe re d formal, “te ch n i cal ” ap p roache s to t he works t he n g e t t i ng unde r way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

75


HEADERS

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. 1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. – A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.” – RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

76


HEADERS

on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. 1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

IN LIBERTY

passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely

WORDS

Futurism was first announced

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

77


CAPTIONS AND NOTES FOOTNOTES AND ENDNOTES Footnotes and endnotes are necessary components of scholarly and technical writing. They’re also frequently used by writers of fiction, from Herman Melville (Moby-Dick) to contemporary novelists. Whether their intent is academic or artistic, footnotes present special typographic challenges.

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CAPTIONS + NOTES

NUMBERS/ SYMBOLS

— — — — — — — — — — — —

Footnotes are most often indicated by placing a superscript numeral immediately after the text to be referenced. The same superscript numeral then precedes the footnoted text at the bottom of the page. Numbering footnotes is essential when there are many of them, but if footnotes are few they can be marked with a dagger, asterisk, or other symbol instead. Endnotes should always use numerals to facilitate easy referencing.

SIZE

Footnotes and endnotes are set smaller than body text. The difference in size is usually about two points, but this can vary depending on the size, style and legibility of the main text. Even though they’re smaller, footnotes and endnotes should still remain at a readable size.

Specifically, a footnote is a text element at the bottom of a page of a book or manuscript that provides additional information about a point made in the main text. The footnote might provide deeper background, offer an alternate interpretation or provide a citation for the source of a quote, idea or statistic. Endnotes serve the same purpose but are grouped together at the end of a chapter, article or book, rather than at the bottom of each page. These general guidelines will help you design footnotes and endnotes that are readable, legible and economical in space. (Note that academic presses and journals can be sticklers for format: before proceeding, check with your client or publisher to see if they have a specific stylesheet that must be followed.)

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CAPTIONS + NOTES

WORDS IN LIBERTY 1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3. selbst = himself

A Prologue to Futurism

Radical mix of art and life

80

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. 1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”


CAPTIONS + NOTES

1.

Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

3.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. 1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avantgarde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of parole in liberta = Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works words set free (liberty) then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

2.

WORDS IN LIBERTY

selbst = himself

81


CAPTIONS + NOTES

1.

Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design,

2.

parole in liberta = words set free (liberty)

3.

selbst = himself

Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

WOR DS I N L I BE RT Y A Prologue to Futurism F u t u r i s m was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. 1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical mix of art and life Bu t i t is t he move me nt s which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on bo th its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. W h i l e Ma r i ne t t i ' s op e ning manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

82


CAPTIONS + NOTES

W O R D S IN L I BE RT Y / /

A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM / Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. 1 Futurism rejected traditions and

1.

Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

2.

parole in liberta = words set free (liberty)

3.

selbst = himself

glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. RADICAL

MIX OF ART AND LIFE /

Bu t i t is t he move me n ts whi ch surv ive, oddly, he re whe re we live a nd work as p o e ts a nd a r t is ts : o r, i f no t t he move me nts, t he n t he i r se nse of a rt as a n li fe i tse l f. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. W hi le Ma ri ne t t i 's ope ni ng ma ni fe sto for I talia n Fu tu r is m b r is tl e d wi t h a pole m i cal sta nce i n favor of t he t ra nsforme d p re se n t (19 0 9), t he late r ma n ife stos of Futurist p oe ts a nd a rt ists offe re d formal, “te ch n i cal ” ap p roache s to t he works t he n g e t t i ng unde r way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

83


CAPTIONS + NOTES

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. 1 Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. – A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà = words set free (liberty) 2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst = himself 3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.” – RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

84


CAPTIONS + NOTES

the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. 1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

IN LIBERTY

passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely

WORDS

on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by

1 Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

Futurism was first announced

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

2

parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3

selbst = himself

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti Selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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86


TYPE CLASSIFCATION

VARIATIONS IN STRESS As early typefaces were based on the written letterforms the scribes, it was important that the type designer tries to capture as much as the written form as possible. The letter O is a good example to study the distribution of weight which creates a vertical stress through the thinnest part of the letterform. It was this characteristic that the early typefaces tried to imitate. This is quite clear in Garamond. As type evolved and the designer was no longer influenced by handwriting, the stress became more vertical as in Baskerville and later totally vertical with Bodoni. In Univers you will find no noticeable stress.

VARIATIONS IN THICKS AND THINS Faces also vary in degree of contrast between thick and thin strokes of the letters. In Garamond you can see a prominent characteristic of little contrast between thick and thin strokes of a letter. In Transitional faces there is a tendency toward refinement and greater contrast between thick and thins. Bodoni has maximum contrast in these strokes (extreme contrast of thick and thins, hairline serifs). With Serifa there is a return to very little contrast (almost mono-weight. In Univers the is an absence of any noticeable thick and thin strokes; there is a uniformity of strokes (mono-weight).

VARIATIONS IN SERIFS Serifs also vary from one face to the next in their weight and in the way they are bracketed; that is the way in which the serif meets the vertical stroke of the letter. Once again, you can see the evolution of type from Garamond to Baskerville, to Bodoni this was followed by the return of the heavy serif in Serifa and the elimination of the serif in Univers.

87


TYPE CLASSIFCATION

HUMANIST OR OLD STYLE The roman typefaces of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries emulated classical calligraphy. Sabon was designed by Jan Tschichold in 1966, based on the sixteenth-century typefaces of Claude Garamond.

__little contrast between thick and thin of strokes __stroke weight has inflections similar to handwriting __strong diagonal stress such as on letter o __sloping bar on letter e

TRANSITIONAL These typefaces have sharper serifs and a more vertical axis than humanist letters. When the fonts of John Baskerville were introduced in the mid-eighteenth century, their sharp forms and high contrast were considered shocking.

Aa Ee Sabon

Aa Ee Baskerville

__contrast between thick and thin strokes is pronounced

__very slight diagonal stress __bracketed serifs __horizontal bar on e __tall x-height MODERN The typefaces designed by Giambattista Bodoni in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries are radically abstract. Note the thin, straight serifs; vertical axis; and sharp contrast from thick to thin strokes.

__extreme contrast between thick and thin strokes __hairline (strokes) serifs __horizontal stress __horizontal bar on e

88

Aa Ee Bodoni


TYPE CLASSIFCATION

EGYPTIAN OR SLAB SERIF Numerous bold and decorative typefaces were introduced in the nineteenth century for use in advertising. Egyptian fonts have heavy, slab-like serifs.

__mono weight __square ended serifs __horizontal stress __horizontal bar on e

HUMANIST SANS SERIF Sans-serif typefaces became common in the twentieth century. Gill Sans, designed by Eric Gill in 1928, has humanist characteristics. Note the small, lilting counter in the letter a , and the calligraphic variations in line weight.

Aa Ee Memphis

Aa Ee Gill Sans

__based on the proportions of the Roman capitals __some contrast in the stroke weight __lowercase a and g are usually two story TRANSITIONAL SANS SERIF Helvetica, designed by Max Miedinger in 1957, is one of the world's most widely used typefaces. Its uniform, upright character makes it similar to transitional serif letters. These fonts are also referred to as "anonymous sans serif."

__uniform stroke __upright axis GEOMETRIC SANS SERIF Some sans-serif types are built around geometric forms. In Futura, designed by Paul Renner in 1927, the Os are perfect circles, and the peaks of the A and M are sharp triangles.

__very little contrast in the stoke weight __a little wider set __constructed from simple shapes : circle

Aa Ee Gill Sans

Aa Ee Futura

and rectangle

__usually a one story lowercase a __upper case A has a pointed apex

89


TYPE CLASSIFCATION

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& AKZIDENZ GROTESK DESIGNER gunter gerhard lange

CLASSIFICATION grotesque

CHARACTERISTICS spur on g, tall xheight, short ascenders and descenders, short tail on q

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& BASKERVILLE DESIGNER john baskerville

CLASSIFICATION transitional

CHARACTERISTICS diagonal stress, bracketed serifs , tall x-height

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& BELIZIO DESIGNER david berlow

CLASSIFICATION slab serif

CHARACTERISTICS monoweight, square serifs, ball terminals

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& BEMBO DESIGNER stanley morison

CLASSIFICATION old style

CHARACTERISTICS high contrast between thick and thin strokes

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& BOOKMAN DESIGNER alexander phemister

CLASSIFICATION new transitional

CHARACTERISTICS horizontal stress, tall x-height

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& BODONI (BAUER BODONI) DESIGNER giambattista bodoni

CLASSIFICATION didone (modern)

CHARACTERISTICS extreme contrast between thick and thin strokes

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& CASLON (ADOBE CASLON) DESIGNER carol twombly

CLASSIFICATION transitional

CHARACTERISTICS long tail on q, slight diagonal stress

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& CHOLLA DESIGNER sibylle hagmann

90

CLASSIFICATION n/a

CHARACTERISTICS squared curves, short ascenders and descenders


TYPE CLASSIFCATION

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& CLARENDON DESIGNER robert besley

CLASSIFICATION slab serif

CHARACTERISTICS monoweight, large ball terminals

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& CLICKER DESIGNER greg thompson

CLASSIFICATION grid based san-serif

CHARACTERISTICS little stroke contrast, technology based, tall x-height

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& DIDOT DESIGNER firmin didot

CLASSIFICATION modern

CHARACTERISTICS high contrast stroke weight, tall x-height

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& DIN DESIGNER albert jan-pool

CLASSIFICATION grotesque

CHARACTERISTICS no stroke contrast, tall x-height, short ascenders and descenders

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& DISTURBANCE DESIGNER jeremy tankard

CLASSIFICATION new transitional

CHARACTERISTICS mix of upper and lowercase, unique g and q, bracketed serif

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& FILOSOFIA designer: zuzana licko

classification: modern

characteristics: bracketless serif, contrasting stroke

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& FRUTIGER designer: adrian frutiger

classification: humanist

characteristics: low contrast, short ascenders and descenders

91


TYPE CLASSIFCATION

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& FUTURA DESIGNER paul renner

CLASSIFICATION geometric

CHARACTERISTICS circular bowls/ counters, monoweight, wide

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& GARAMOND (ADOBE GARAMOND) DESIGNER claude garamond

CLASSIFICATION old style

characteristics bracketed serifs, short x-height, variable weight

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& GILL SANS DESIGNER eric gill

CLASSIFICATION humanist

CHARACTERISTICS minimal stroke width, wide character width

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& GOUDY DESIGNER frederic w. goudy

CLASSIFICATION old style

CHARACTERISTICS short x-height, diagonal stress, stroke variation

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& HELVETICA DESIGNER max medinger

CLASSIFICATION grotesque

CHARACTERISTICS tall x-heights, twostory a, squared leg kicks

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& INTERSTATE DESIGNER tobias frere-jones

CLASSIFICATION grotesque

CHARACTERISTICS short ascenders/ descenders, angled finials

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& KÜNSTLER SCRIPT DESIGNER hans bohn

CLASSIFICATION script

CHARACTERISTICS different line weights, ball terminals, goudy caps

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& MELIOR DESIGNER herman zapf

92

CLASSIFICATION transitional aserif

CHARACTERISTICS high stroke contrast, square serif ending


TYPE CLASSIFCATION

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& MEMPHIS DESIGNER emil rudolf weiss

CLASSIFICATION slab serif

CHARACTERISTICS mono weight, square serifs, horizontal stress

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& MRS EAVES DESIGNER zuzana licko

CLASSIFICATION transitional

CHARACTERISTICS vertical stress, g has no open counter, thick and thin strokes

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& NEWS GOTHIC DESIGNER morris fuller benton

CLASSIFICATION grotesque

CHARACTERISTICS tall x-height, shallow descenders

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& PLATELET designer conor mangat

classification geometric

characteristics no stroke variation, half upper/half lower

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& ROCKWELL DESIGNER monotype corporation

CLASSIFICATION slab serif

CHARACTERISTICS mono weight, square serifs

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& ROTIS SANS SERIF DESIGNER otl aicher

CLASSIFICATION humanist sans serif

CHARACTERISTICS tall x-height, two story a, Q tail is above baseline

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& ROTIS SERIF DESIGNER otl aicher

CLASSIFICATION humanist serif

CHARACTERISTICS bracketed serifs, tall x-height, subtle stroke contrast

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& SABON DESIGNER jan tschichold

CLASSIFICATION old style

CHARACTERISTICS thicks and thins, short x-height, scooped serifs

93


TYPE CLASSIFCATION

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& MEMPHIS DESIGNER emil rudolf weiss

CLASSIFICATION slab serif

CHARACTERISTICS mono weight, square serifs, horizontal stress

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& SHELLEY DESIGNER matthew carter

CLASSIFICATION script

CHARACTERISTICS all characters connect, consistent loop

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& SNELL ROUNDHAND DESIGNER matthew carter (charles snell)

CLASSIFICATION script

CHARACTERISTICS calligraphy influenced, strong stroke variation

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& SWIFT designer: gerard unger

classification: new transitional/humanist

characteristics: sturdy, tall x-height, short ascenders/descenders

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& TRADE GOTHIC DESIGNER jackson burke

CLASSIFICATION humanist san serif

CHARACTERISTICS tall x-height, short ascenders/descenders

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& UNIVERS DESIGNER adrian frutiger

CLASSIFICATION grotesque

CHARACTERISTICS monoweight, heavy, short ascenders/descenders

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& VOLTA DESIGNER konrad bauer, walter baum

CLASSIFICATION slab serif

CHARACTERISTICS thick/thin strokes, large square serifs

HAMBURGERQ hamburgerq?!& WALBAUM DESIGNER justus erich walbaum

94

CLASSIFICATION modern

CHARACTERISTICS extreme contrast, hairline serifs, horizontal stress


TYPE SPECIMENS

95


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION

SLAB SERIF

ARCHER

MaxogGdQRst

BOOK A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * HAIRLINE

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

SEMI-BOLD A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

96

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { } ? ! @ & *

BOLD ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { } ? ! @ & *


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION GROTESQUE

AKZIDENZ GROTESK

MaxogGdQRst ROMAN A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* BLACK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*

97


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION TRANSITIONAL

BASKERVILLE

MxaogGdQRt REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* SMALL CAPS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* ITALIC

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

98

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION

SLAB SERIF

BELIZIO

MxagGdQrR REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 567890(){}?!@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* BLACK ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* 99


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION GROTESQUE

BELL GOTHIC

MxagGdQrRI LIGHT A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* BLACK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

100

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&*


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION MODERN

BEMBO

MxnogGdQrRst REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

BOLD A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* EXTRA BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&*

101


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION

NEW TRANSITIONAL

BOOKMAN

MxaogGdQrR REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

102

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 567890(){}?!@&* BOLD ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 567890(){}?!@&*


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION MODERN

BODONI

MxaogGdQrRst REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&*123456789 ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* ORNAMENTS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 23 4567890(){}?! @&* 103


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION TRANSITIONAL

CASLON

MxanogGdQRt REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * ALTERNATE

c h i k l Ss T t A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

104

SWASH

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Z ORNAMENT

A a Bb C c D d Ee F f G g H h Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr S s Tt Uu Vv Ww X x y Z z 1 2 3 4


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION TRANSITIONAL

CENTURY SCHOOLBOOK

MxaogGdQrRt REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*123456789 ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&* BOLD ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*

105


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION

OLD STYLE

CHELTENHAM

MaxogGdQrRs REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

106

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* BOLD ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION MODERN

CHOLLA

MaxnogGdQrRst UNICASE A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* REGULAR

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

107


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION

SLAB SERIF

CLARENDON

MxagGdQrRt LIGHT A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* REGULAR

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

108

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION

GRID BASED SAN SERIF

CLICKER

MaxnogGdQRs REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

109


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION MODERN

DIDOT

MxaogGdQrRt REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*123456789 ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

110

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&*


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION GROTESQUE

DIN

MaxnogGdQrRt LIGHT

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *123456789

REGULAR

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { } ? ! @ & *

MEDIUM A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { ? ! @ & * BLACK

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { ? ! @ & *

111


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION GROTESQUE

DIN (CONDENSED)

MaxngdQHAMBURG LIGHT CONDENSED A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *123456789 REGULAR CONDENSED

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &*

BOLD CONDENSED A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

112

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* BLACK CONDENSED

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION MODERN

DISTURBANCE

MxnatQbWFGdR REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*123456789 ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*

BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&*

113


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION BLACKLETTER

FETTE FRAKTUR

MxnaopQRtfg REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){} ?!@&* Idunt aliquam adignim velit utat. Etuer accum dunt ad magniam, vendiat lam verostrud essi tetum illa facipisl utet endre feu faccum dit praessi. Ing ea feuguer aessenim atisi.Delessi. Sectet, sit, ver si. Alit ipit esequis exer adigna adignit aliquat lam dunt utpat aut nisisi. Tate conse nim adionsecte feuis etum dolobore molore verit veniss

114


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION MODERN

FILOSOFIA

MxnaopQrRtfGg REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* FRACTIONS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

UNICASE A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&*

115


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION GROTESQUE

FRANKLIN GOTHIC

MaxodQRtfGg BOOK A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * DEMI

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&* HEAVY

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

116

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*

CONDENSED

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&*


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION HUMANIST

FRUTIGER

MaxodQRtfGg CONDENSED A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* REGULAR

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* ULTRA BLACK

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*

117


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION GEOMETRIC

FUTURA

MxaopQRstGg BOOK A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 67890(){}?!@&* EXTRA BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

118

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION HUMANIST

GILL SANS

MaxnbyogGQRt REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!&*

BOLD A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*

119


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION GEOMETRIC

GOTHAM

MayogGdQRt BOOK A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* ITALIC

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

120

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* LIGHT

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&*


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION GROTESQUE

HELVETICA

MaoygGdQrRt REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&*

BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BLACK EXTENDED

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * ULTRA LIGHT

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

121


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION NEO-GROTESQUE

INTERSTATE

MaoygGdQrRt REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* BLACK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

122

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* BOLD CONDENSED

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION SCRIPT

KUNSTLER SCRIPT

MxyogGdQrRt REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*

BLACK A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*

123


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION

TRANSITIONAL SERIF

MELIOR

MayogGdQrRt REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

124

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION

SLAB SERIF

MEMPHIS

MxagGdQrRt LIGHT A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* MEDIUM

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* EXTRA BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*

125


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION HUMANIST

META

MaxogGdQrRst REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * CAPS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

BLACK A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

126

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION TRANSITIONAL

MRS EAVES

MaxogGdQrRst REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * 1 2 3 456789 ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*

BOLD A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * FRACTIONS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*

127


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION GROTESQUE

NEWS GOTHIC

MaxogGdQrRst REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * 123456789 ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

BOLD A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

128

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION

SAN SERIF MONOSPACED

OCR A

MaopQRfGg REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was formed in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Ii Jj Qq Rr Yy Zz 9 0 (

Cc Dd Kk Ll Ss Tt 1 2 3 ) { }

Ee Ff Gg Hh Mm Nn Oo Pp Uu Vv Ww Xx 4 5 6 7 8 ? ! @ & *

129


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION

SAN SERIF

OPTIMA

MxaopQRstGg BOOK A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

130

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&*


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION

OLD STYLE

PALATINO

MxaopQRstGg LIGHT A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* OLD STYLE

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* MEDIUM

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* BLACK

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* 131


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION TRANSITIONAL

PERPETUA

MxaopQRstGgq

REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt UuVvWw XxYy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&*

BOLD A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand.Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic.These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

132

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION GEOMETRIC

PLATELET

MaxbyogGQrRt THIN A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Mm Nn Yy Zz ? ! @

Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } & * REGULAR

Aa Bb Mm Nn Yy Zz ? ! &

Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } * HEAVY

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Mm Nn Yy Zz ? ! @

Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } & *

133


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION GEOMETRIC

PRIORI SANS

MxanopdrRtSfGg REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twentyfirst centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* ALTERNATE

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*

BOLD A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

134

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7890(){}?!@&*


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION

NEW TRANSITIONAL

PRIORI SERIF

MxanodQrRtSfg REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 567890(){}?!@&* ALTERNATE

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 567890(){}?!@&*

BOLD A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&*

135


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION HUMANIST

ROTIS

MxanopQrRtGg (55) SANS A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7890(){}?!@&*

SERIF A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

136

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION

OLD STYLE

SABON

MxayogGQfR REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* SMALL CAPS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* BOLD ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&*

137


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION HUMANIST

SCALA SANS

MxabyogGdQrR REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twentyfirst centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * CAPS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! & *

ITALIC A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twentyfirst centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

138

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION

SLAB SERIF

SERIFA

MxaoygGdQR REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* BLACK

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&*

139


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION SCRIPT

SNELL ROUNDHAND

MaxogbGdQrRt REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BLACK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

140

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&*


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION

NEW TRANSTIONAL/ HUMANIST SERIF

SWIFT

MxaoygGdQrR BOLD CONDENSED A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * REGULAR

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* ITALIC

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&*

BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &*

141


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION HUMANIST

SYNTAX

MxaoygGdQrR REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BLACK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

142

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* BLACK

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION HUMANIST

TRADE GOTHIC

MxanyogGdQrR CONDENSED A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&* MEDIUM

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

BOLD NO.2

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&*

143


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION MODERN

WALBAUM

MxyagGdQrR REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* SMALL CAPS

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

144

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&*


TYPE SPECIMENS

CLASSIFICATION

SLAB SERIF

VOLTA

MyogGdQrR REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* MEDIUM

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* MEDIUM ITALIC

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 67890(){}?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* 145


Principles of Typography  

Typography II Designed Typography Workbook

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