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Hong Kong Hegemony

Wealth gap in society is reflected in urban built form...

Thesis Book (RESEARCH) LAU Pui Yin Jim December, 2014 // Design Methodology and Practice // Professor Nelson CHEN


CONTENTS

SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 THESIS STATEMENT 1.2 CURRENT SOCIETY PHENOMENON

01 02 03

Hong Kong Hegemony Executive Summary City Montage

SECTION 2. BACKGROUND

2.1 HONG KONG PUBLIC SPACE UNDERSTANDING

06 08 10

Development of public space in Hong Kong Evolution of public space in Hong Kong Metropolitan environmental quality comparison

SECTION 3. RESEARCH

3.1 URBAN PUBLIC SPACE STUDY

3.2 URBAN COMPLEX STUDY

3.3 LOCAL URBAN DEVELOPMENT STUDY

16 20 24 28 34 38 42 46 52 56

Hong Kong Shanghai New York London Rockefeller Center Times Square Quincy Market Liverpool One Swire Properties Hong Kong Land

SECTION 4. POTENTIAL SITE STUDY

4.1 CENTRAL OASIS

62 66

Central Market Statue Square (Star Ferry Car Park)


CONTENTS

SECTION 5. SITE UNDERSTANDING

5.1 OCCUPY CENTRAL

5.2 REACTIVATING STATUE SQUARE

72 74 76 78 86

Site History History of Open Space and Land Reclamation Site Circulation Site Users Urban Strategies

SECTION 6. PROGRAM SELECTION

6.1 ACCESS FOR ALL 6.2 JUSTICE FOR ALL

89 90 92

Ideal Public Space Judicial System Program Distribution

SECTION 7. DESIGN CONCEPT

7.1 HONG KONG CIVIC CONCOURSE

95 96 97

Concept Montage Conceptual Plan Conceptual Section

SECTION 8. BIBLIOGRAPHY 99

SECTION 9. APPENDICES 101


0

1

Per capita area of public open space 5,000 10,000 (km²) population density

INTRODUCTION

2 sq.m. 1.1 THESIS STATEMENT Hong Kong 1.2 CURRENT SOCIETY UNDERSTANDING

1,100 km²

5 sq Tokyo

2,200 km²


1. Introduction

1.1 Thesis Statement The society currently is manipulated by a group of cross-sector corporate giants who, through holding the reins of mainstay economic sectors that lack competition, effectively control or influence both the Hong Kong market and land, as a result the majority of us are being affected everyday lives. In the absence of any regulatory control over economic and industrial concentration, it is facing polarization gap with the social injustice and the hegemonic situation that is reflected in the urban built form. With the changing roles of people and spaces in the contemporary urban society, neighborhoods are being driven out of the area, districts become commercialized. Street activities can hardly be found within the neighborhood. The life within the district is being singled out by the financial activities during the day and almost nothing at night. Interaction between the public are minimized, with a very limited amount of public space. Public space, as a unique physical space that allows people from different backgrounds to use for free, fulfills various societal needs with its different functions and features. Undoubtedly, it is an indispensable component of our city. Yet, its importance is diminishing in Hong Kong because the high density condition and lack of land led to high land price, which make the public spaces expensive to be provided in many urban areas. Majority of space are used for commercial purposes while the importance of public space is neglected and left as some residual spaces.

Keywords | hegemony, equality

Although the polarization between the rich and the poor seems to be an inevitable result from the Government’s laissez-faire policy, I believe equality still can be achieved through a common place that belongs to everyone in this urban context. Where everyone can enjoy equality through good planning and design of a building. From Trafalgar Square to Victoria Park, physical public spaces remind us of its multiple ambitions and capabilities for accommodating consequential political activities as well as everyday leisurely pursuits. The production of public space simultaneously implicates and transcends technical decisions with regard to design, financing and management considerations. Public space is an integral element of a city. Its appearance and functions can very often reflect the life quality of a place at a certain time. The society’s requirements on a public space are primarily based on whether it can satisfy the needs of the general public. Although with high density of people and limited land, we are provided with a small amount of open space per person in the city; within the amount of public space, we can make use of the spaces with higher efficiency to achieve a better quality of urban life.

1


1. Introduction

Executive Summary What social issues affect Hong Kong people and their urban environments? Hegemony is defined as authority, control or influence by one dominant group over another. In Hong Kong, land supply is strictly controlled by Government; development is largely controlled by a handful of large developers. Together, Government and developers dictate urban development to maximize their respective profits. The increasing gap between rich and poor is reflected in the increasing gap in urban places that are economically affordable by the majority of people. For example, Central is the urban core of our city but no longer affordable by most except for the highest end of commercial offices and retail, and increasingly at the expense of diversity and neighbourhoods, of people and places. In particular, high land prices and high density developments cause public space to be viewed as prohibitively expensive to provide and maintain. Public space is generally neglected and, when provided, is often residual, leftover space.

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Intention of this thesis project: Objective of this thesis was to design a project that demonstrates the essential need to integrate more truly accessible public buildings and public spaces within the context of monopolistic urban developments – urban places and spaces that serve as both public destinations and connectors within the city.


dark clouds - hovering over the towers suggest society is currently in a ‘doomsday’ situation, it is monopolized. hawk - symbolic meaning of power and vision, representing the ruling class of Hong Kong high in the sky over the poor. buildings - densely built together in the monopolized urban area which neglects peoples’ need with only profit in mind. layman - at the very bottom of society, where people are lacking essential needs including public needs. pigs - representing the layman’s worthless position in this society. coins - the ultimate substance that everyone is affected by. public space - provided in small, residual spaces and neglected in this urban context.

3

montage of current society phenomenon


2

BACKGROUND

? 2.1 HONG KONG PUBLIC SPACE UNDERSTANDING


2. Background

2.1 Hong Kong Public Space Understanding The concept of public space is interpreted differently in different cultures. In the broadest or ideal sense, a public space can be defined as an area where everyone, regardless of his or her background, can enter without per-requisite, such as an entry fee. Typical examples include (but are not limited to) public squares, parks, streets, public libraries, street markets, and country parks, etc. For Hong Kong Government, public space is almost equal to a park or a playground, judged from the open space it provides for the public, which does not require entrance fee and prerequisites. For the private enterprises, mostly real estate developers, public space is a by-product which can be used to exchange for higher plot ratio and more usable floor

area for making profits. For the general public, these public spaces no longer cater to their public activities nor fulfill their expectations of public spaces. Most of the parks built by the government in the urban area have been scarcely visited and used by most of the people, and the ‘public spaces’ provided by the private enterprises turn out to be pseudo due to the sake of fulfilling the minimum requirement in the policy and gain maximum benefit. These mismatches of the provision and usage of the public spaces have become a social conflict. Corporations should take up its social responsibility to contribute to the city development and create a better co-operation between the public and the private. Yet, some developers who do take up their responsibilities, those turn out to be more successful projects than the others.

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Keywords |mismatches, social responsibility


2. Background

Development of Public Open Space in Hong Kong From 1940 to 1980, Hong Kong have very few places that are specifically designed for the public to meet and interact. Most of the public activities are mostly taken place on the street. Until the post war period, residential developments take place in the Kowloon area, urban greens started to caters the need of the society. Although over the years, development of public spaces has increased with a significant number, the public spaces in Hong Kong Island urban areas has remained relatively the same amount. With the amount of population growth and land reclamation development projects over the years, does the existing public spaces able to meet our demand of public space in urban areas? 6


1940

1960

1980

Present

7


2. Background

Evolution of Public Space in Hong Kong Identifying the evolution of public spaces in Hong Kong gives a clear idea of its’ history in public spaces development as well as understanding peoples’ options for social interaction platform. Generally speaking, to deal with the rapid population growth and limited land supply, Hong Kong has created a unique utopia of public spaces that is rarely seen in the rest of the world. From streets and urban parks to elevated walkways and podium gardens. This has generated a second layer of public street life in the city to caters the space demand.

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Urban Parks

Urban Squares

Covered Plazas

Podium Garden

1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Streets

Markets

Elevated Walkway

Underground Connection

?

Future - Unknown

9


2. Background

Metropolitan Environmental Quality Comparison Open spaces are parks, squares and gardens that exist inside a city spaces to play, exercise or enjoy the day. These spaces contribute to the quality of life of the people of a city . Comparing Hong Kong’s open space per capita with other metropolitans around the world puts Hong Kong to shame.

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London has the most open spaces per capita in Europe and the the capital contains 35,000 acres of public parks, public squares and gardens, 40% of its surface area is made up of publicly accessible green space along with public space. Providing 38 square meter per capita. Follows by 26sq.m. for New York, 8sq.m. for Singapore and Shanghai, 5 sq.m. in Tokyo and last with only 2 sq.m. per capita for Hong Kongers. We can not change the fact of the amount of open spaces, but what we can do is to make the space that are provided with a higher efficiency and more publicly integrated with the city.


0

Per capita area of public open space 5,000 10,000 (km²) population density

2 sq.m. Hong Kong 1,100 km²

8 sq.m. Singapore 700 km²

5 sq.m. Tokyo

2,200 km²

26 sq.m. New York 1,200 km²

8 sq.m. Shanghai 6,300 km²

38 sq.m. London

1700 km²

11


3

RESEARCH

3.1 URBAN PUBLIC SPACE STUDY 3.2 PRECEDENT URBAN COMPLEX STUDY 3.3 LOCAL URBAN DEVELOPMENT STUDY


3. Research

Case Study Public realm can be simply defined as a place where strangers meet. Traditionally, this place could be defined in terms of physical ground, which is why discussions of the public realm have been, again traditionally, linked to cities; the public realm could be identified by the squares, any publicly owned streets, pathways, parks, publicly accessible open spaces and any public and civic building or stock exchanges where strangers would be likely to meet. To understand the fundamental elements for public realm, public spaces have been studied and identified in three different scales; urban scale, building complex level and building scale. Different scales of study could help identify different aspects of ingredients for public spaces. Such as ingredients that make great cities, how urban complex integrates its interior with the city and buildings that act as an public space itself. The core ingredients to make great city for public are what happen publicly. Gathering

Keywords | ingredients that make great cities, social exchange

together strangers enables certain kinds of activities which cannot happen, or does not happen as well, in the intimate private realm. In public, people can access unfamiliar knowledge, expanding the horizons of their information. A market depends on these expanding horizons of information. In public, people can discuss and debate with people who may not share the same assumptions or the same interests. We lean towards public spaces that can potentially act as stages for public life, loosely defined as where one can interact with each other, regardless of people they know or they don’t know, through supporting social exchanges, entertainment, community organizing (such as protests) and commercial activities, thereby providing benefits to the community. The existence of public life is a prerequisite to the development of public space. A public space without public life is one that loses its soul, resembling a dead human body, which is simply a body without human life.


3. Research

3.1 Urban Public Space Study Ingredients to Make Great Cities Six categories of public spaces have been set out to identify each cities’ most recognizable space for each of the activity. Public Event Space, Popular Tourist Area, Political Demonstration, New Year Celebrations, Sports and Outdoor Concerts, Festival Marketplace.

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The 6 categories has covered most of the major public interaction that happens in any metropolitans. Looking at how the place is popular to people and what provides that place with the vibrancy. Most of the selected examples are located in the center area of the city, depending on the events that it hosts.

Music Festival

Cultural Events

Celebrations

City Icon

Sightseeing

Political Demonstration

Sport Event

Festival

Museum

Concert

Market

Busking

Focusing on the very center point of the city, within 1km of the distance , what sort of public spaces are provided in the urban center, and how close is the nearby urban park.


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3. Research

3.1 Urban Public Space Study City 1 Hong Kong

0

Per capita area of public open space 5,000 10,000 (km²) population density

Public Event Space: West Kowloon Popular Tourist Area: Tsim Sha Tsui Promenade Political Demonstration: Victoria Park New Year Celebrations: Times Square Sports and Outdoor Concerts: Hong Kong Stadium Festival Marketplace: “The Peak” / “Stanley Market”

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In the condensed city of Hong Kong, Victoria Harbor is the center of the city, most of the public spaces from the chosen category are located closely together and near the edge of coast line. Festival Marketplace in Hong Kong, there seems to be yet non-existence of a Festival Marketplace in Hong Kong. Most of the market place are located on streets such as Ladies Market in Mong Kok and Stanley Market in Stanley.

2 sq.m. Hong Kong 1,100 km²

8 sq.m.


17

12 minu 1km

tes

2 km


Popular Tourist Area Tsim Sha Tsui Promenade 1:10000

Public Event Space West Kowloon 1:10000

Political Demonstration Victoria Park 1:10000

CONTEXT

City 1 Hong Kong

Train MTR MTR

MTR

MTR MTR

18

MTR

EVENT

NOTES

West Kowloon reclaimed land currently undergoing a leisure and cultural development. The space is often used as a major outdoor music festival, art exhibition and other rare festivals. It often has runners and cyclers at the promenades when it is not used for events.

Tsim Sha Tsui Promenade is a major tourist hub in metropolitan Hong Kong, with many shops and restaurants that cater to tourists. Many of Hong Kong’s museums are located in the area. Victoria Harbor and the iconic Hong Kong Skyline at the HK Island are the main attraction for the promenade, often has big celebration events with fireworks at festivals.

An urban park located between Tin Hau and Causeway Bay, with much of the sports recreation facilities. Every year it holds large events such as Lunar New Year Fair and some art and culture exhibitions. It often used as a gathering point for demonstrations, with weekly City Forum held in the park.


Sports and Outdoor Concerts Hong Kong Stadium 1:10000

New Years Celebratation Times Square 1:10000

Festival Marketplace The Peak 1:10000

MTR

44

32

80

60

40

60

M

120

118

52 60

80 10 8

48

Stanely Market 1:10000

60

6

4

66

100

80

10 0

116

120

88

100 12 0

12 0

100

40

80

60

60

40

40

34

60 6

0 118

19

74

80

100

60

60

10 0

80

80 12 0

80

100

114

118

100

116

12 0

? A major shopping center and office tower complex with privately owned public space (POPS) at ground level. It has become one of the two main gathering point for new year celebration. Various activities take place which become an attraction to commerces for business. However the generous set back becomes an important breathing space in the dense urban condition.

Main sports venue of Hong Kong all take place at this stadium, it somehow represents Hong Kong’s sports with a symbolic meaning. The stadium was supposed to be a multi purpose entertainment and sports venue. However, its open-air nature has led to noise complaints from residents in tower blocks surrounding the stadium.

?

Hong Kong has many street markets or shopping complex dotted around the city, yet there are no public activates happening apart from commercial activities. The two are always separated with very minimal relation as shown in Hong Kong; especially in the densely populated urban area.


3. Research

3.1 Urban Public Space Study City 2Per capita area of public open space 5,000 10,000 (km²) Shanghai 0

population density

Public Event Space: Expo Park Popular Tourist Area: Nanjing Ring Road Political Demonstration: N/A “People’s Park” New Year Celebrations: The Bund Sports and Outdoor Concerts: Shanghia Stadium Festival Marketplace: Xiantiandi

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In the past due to the restrictions on freedom of association and of speech. Therefore there are no famous or wellknown areas for political gatherings. However, the People’s Park would easily be the venue for political demonstration activities, with the surrounding Governmental Amenities and open spaces provided.

2 sq.m.

Hong Kong 1,100 km²

8 sq.m.

5 sq.m. Tokyo

2,200 km²

26 sq.m.

8 sq.m. Shanghai 6,300 km²

38 sq.m.


12 minutes 1km

21

0

500m

SHANGHAI 1:25000


Public Event Space Expo Park 1:10000

Political Demonstration “People’s Park” - N/A 1:10000

Festival Marketplace Nanjing Road East 1:10000

Metro

CONTEXT

City 2 Shanghai

Metro

Metro

22

EVENT

NOTES

Although the park was built for the expo exhibition, the space is now became an area for tourists, and host events such as music festivals and exhibition. Visitors can walk along the riverside and enjoy the landscaping combines Western and Chinese gardening styles.

An affluent car free shopping, eating, entertainment district reconstituted traditional stone gate houses on narrow alleys. Tourist are attracted by the active nightlife on weekdays as well as weekends though romantic setting.

The park’s central location makes it the main spot for rallies and demonstrations in Shanghai where the Governments head quarters are located. With several major museums and Shanghai’s main shopping street nearby, it is also one of the top tourist destinations in the city.


New Years Celebratation The Bund 1:10000

Sports and Outdoor Concerts Shanghai Stadium 1:10000

Popular Tourist Area Xiantiandi 1:10000

Metro

Metro Metro

Metro Metro

23 Metro

This is one of the most famous tourist destinations as well as an iconic place for Shanghai. The promenade allows the capture the skyline of Shanghai with the former Shanghai International Settlement as backdrop. Light show and fire works gathers people around the world on New Years’ Eve for a festive celebration.

Used as a multi purpose stadium where currently the Home ground for Shanghai East Asia football club. Being one of the largest football stadium in the world, it has held many sport events opening ceremony as well as other cultural events such as music concerts.

Associated with the former fruit and vegetable market in the central square, now a popular shopping and tourist site, and the Royal Opera House. Attractions driven by the central square with its street performers, theaters and entertainment facilities, including the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, and the London Transport Museum.


3. Research

2 sq.m.

5 sq.m.

3.1 Urban Public Space Study City 3 New York

Hong Kong 1,100 km²

Tokyo

2,200 km²

Public Event Space: Central Park Popular Tourist Area: Fifth Avenue - Rockefeller Center Political Demonstration: Union Square New Year Celebrations: Times Square Sports and Outdoor Concerts: Yankee Stadium Festival Marketplace: South Street Seaport

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Manhattan has a very different approach to the other cities in terms of the urban planning, all the famous public areas are spread out, therefore the main urban park is distanced from the urban center. The public spaces are closely related to the Avenues rather than on the coast line like other cities.

8 sq.m. Singapore 700 km²

26 sq.m. New York 1,200 km²


4 km 12 minutes 1 km

0

500m

NEW YORK 1:25000

25


Popular Tourist Area Fifth Avenue - Rockefeller Center 1:10000

Public Event Space Central Park 1:10000

Political Demonstration Union Square 1:10000

City 3 New York

MTA

MTA

MTA

MTA

MTA MTA MTA

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NOTES

MTA

MTA

MTA

MTA

MTA

Being the largest open space in New York City, it allows many recreation activates such as cycling, roller skate and seasonal activities. Music festivals are available to be held in the large open spaces on special dates while picnic / relaxation activities happens throughout the year on different seasons.

A commercial complex but also a hot spot for tourist. It’s planning allows to draw people into the heart of the complex with seasonal events and other public elements. Being a National Historic Landmark helps to draw tourist to the area but also create a symbolic meaning to the people of the city.

The park has historically been the start or the end point for many political demonstrations, now became primary public gathering point for mourners. Greenmarket is held regularly on weekdays by a number of regional farmers, serving more than 250,000 customers per week. This is a popular meeting place, given its central location in Manhattan and its many nearby subway routes with many bars and restaurants.


Sports and Outdoor Concerts Yankee Stadium 1:10000

New Years Celebratation Times Square 1:10000

Festival Marketplace South Street Seaport 1:10000

MTA

MTA

MTA

MTA

MTA

MTA

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MTA

Commercial intersection that is one of the world’s most visited tourist attractions, brightly adorned with billboards and advertisements along with various events and street performances. Annual New Year’s Eve celebrations attracts millions of people gather for the count down as a year round attraction.

Home ballpark for the New York Yankees and the New York City Football Club. This has a strong symbolic meaning to the New Yorkers as a home for their team. A museum displays Yankees’ memorabilia along with wide choice of restaurants, it becomes a place to gather the fans from around the world. The capacity is large enough to allows music concerts to be held in this stadium.

It has a strong historic background, the original fish market has became a commercial area. With modern tourist malls featuring restaurants, shopping and nightlife, it attracts many tourists. Revitalization strategy of modern shopping areas has turned the museum int0 a greater tourist attraction.


2 sq.m.

5 sq.m.

8 sq.m.

3. Research

3.1 Urban Public Space Study City 4 London

Hong Kong 1,100 km²

Tokyo

2,200 km²

Shanghai 6,300 km²

Public Event Space: Hyde Park Popular Tourist Area: Trafalgar Square Political Demonstration: Parliament Square New Year Celebrations: River Thames Sports and Outdoor Concerts: Wembley Stadium Festival Marketplace: Covent Garden

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London is known the world over as a leading financial centre, but its parks, woodlands and gardens play a key role in making it perhaps the best place to live, work and visit in the world. The public open spaces are closely linked together along the river and the urban parks. In addition, London’s parks and woodlands plays a major part for tourism and a boost to the local economy.

8 sq.m.

Singapore 700 km²

26 sq.m. New York 1,200 km²

38 sq.m. London

1700 km²


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0.5

km 12 m 1k inut m es

0

500m

LONDON 1:25000


Popular Tourist Area Trafalgar Square 1:10000

Public Event Space Hyde Park 1:10000

Political Demonstration Parliament Square 1:10000

TFL

City CONTEXT

4 London

TFL

Train TFL

TFL

30

TFL

TFL

EVENT

NOTES

Being the largest park in London, it has held many major events in the past including the Great Exhibition of 1851. It has become a traditional location for mass demonstrations, with the Speaker’s Corner which holds political debates form time to time. It has also been the venue for some famous rock concerts and seasonal events for entertainment purposes.

This is the well known tourist attraction in the central London. Contemporary art installation has been hosted along with other commemorative statues and sculptures. The square is also used for political demonstrations and community gatherings, such as the celebration of New Year’s Eve.

An island with open green area is another main tourist attractions which contains ten statues of statesmen and other notable individuals. It is also the place where many demonstrations and protests have been held.


Sports and Outdoor Concerts Wembley Stadium 1:10000

New Years Celebration River Thames 1:10000

Festival Marketplace Covent Garden 1:10000

TFL TFL

TFL Train

TFL

TFL

TFL

Train

TFL

The promenade shows the iconic side of London, with the surrounding landmarks. For that reason, it easily becomes the detestation for festival celebration. Events include arts, music and community festivals happens annually to promote the cultural and tourism industry. New Years Celebration with fireworks happens at the river every year which becomes the spot for the festival.

Being the association football stadium, it hosts most of the major football matches and other sport matches. A sliding roof allows it to hold many other events, particularly major concerts but also private events like weddings and conferences.

Train TFL

Associated with the former fruit and vegetable market in the central square, now a popular shopping and tourist site, and the Royal Opera House. Attractions driven by the central square with its street performers, theaters and entertainment facilities, including the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, and the London Transport Museum.

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3. Research

3.2 Urban Complex Study

32

In the scale of building complex study, both overseas and local examples will be studied and compared. This study seeks the ingredients on how a complex and a building itself integrates with the city to become a public space. Comparing Rockefeller Center in New York and Times Square Shopping Complex for their similarity on locations and program, different approaches on public area dedication and strategy shows a significant comparison between the two. Other studies in urban complex such as the transformation of Quincy Market in Boston and a redevelopment of Liverpool One would provide a great deal of strategies and ingredients in making building complex a seamless integration to the city.


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3. Research

3.2 Urban Complex Study Case 1 Rockefeller Center

Aven u

e of t

he Am

erica

s

Central Park

Rockefeller Center should be read as five ideologically separate projects that coexist at the same location. Ascent through its five layers exposes an archaeology of architectural philosophies.

9.0 ha Times Square

Rock efell

Central Park 9.0 ha

er Pla

Fifth

za

Aven u

e

East River Context Map 1:25000

Context Map 1:20000

Aerial View of Rockefeller Complex N.T.S.

reet st St W 51

Stre e W5 0th

Rockefeller Center is the most mature demonstration of Manhattanism’s unspoken theory of the simultaneous existence of different programs on a single site, connected only by the common data of elevators, service cores, columns and external envelope.

9th

8th

Str eet

Hudson River

1970

t

1964 Stre et

1956

W4

34

1950

Hudson River

W4

Project: Rockefeller Center Area: 90,000m2 Program: Commercial Complex Location: New York City, U.S. Construction Date: 1930-1939


East River

East River East River East River

ap

Street Grid an Promenade

Context MapContext Map Context Map 1:25000 1:25000 1:25000

S

S S

Original Center Buildings

S

S S

S

S S

S S

S S

S S S

S

S S

S S

S

S S

Designated Public Space Public SpaceUnderground Designated Public Space Designated Public SpaceDesignated Underground Connecting Concourse Underground Connecting Underground Concourse ConnectingConnecting Concourse Concourse Original Center Original Buildings Center Original Buildings Center Buildings Manhattan Street Manhattan Grid Manhattan Street Grid Street Grid with Pedestrian withPromenade Pedestrian with Pedestrian PromenadePromenade

Three blocks stretches across the Fifth Avenue and the Sixth Avenue, between 48th St. and 50th St.. Covering 5 hectares of land in the original complex plan.

5. Channel Garden

The introduction of Rockefeller Plaza to break the block into a smaller lot; following the Manhattan Grid, pedestrian promenade leads people into the plaza, creating a city within a city.

8. Radio City Music Hall

Complex expands and claims more frontage on the Sixth Avenue. Designated more areas to the public to create public plazas.

9. Sunken Plaza

11. 30 Rockefeller Plaza

Underground network has connected the entire complex, with commercial activities and subway connectivity.

12. Roof Garden

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7

Case 11 Rockefeller Center

W 50th St.

W 49th St.

14

8

venue

W 50th St.

11

W 49th St.

W 48th St.

Seventh SixtAvenue hA

W 51st St.

15

Rockefeller Plaza 2 10

36

6

Entrance to underground shopping concourse

13

9 12 5

3

50th St.

49th

Rockef

eller Plaza of Avenue the Americas

12

St.

4

Plaza

12

12

Fifth A venue Rockefeller Plaza Channel Garden

Overall view of original complex

Fifth Avenue

Fifth Avenue Site Map 75% public accessible area 1:2500 25% privatively owned space Site Map 1:2500

=6.75ha =2.25ha

moving

Plaza surrouding pedestrian circulation 1:1000

Plaza surrounding pedestrian circulation 1:1000

lingering

staying

pedestrian circulation access by car


9. SUNKEN PLAZA This was developed from searching the answer of how to attract shoppers down to this underground concourse. Later, fountains and tress were placed in the plaza as features. Seasonal events, such as Ice Skating and Christmas celebrations take place as attractions. The plaza became the destination, the heart and main focal point of the complex.

UNDERGROUND SHOPPING CONCOURSE The Concourse establishes an underground pedestrian passages between buildings from 5th to 6th st and 47th to 53rd. There are 6 subway access along concourse, filled with a series of shop and restaurants. Later the shops were surviving without the help of the plaza, increasing popularity of Radio City was bringing the numbers into the area and the plaza.

8. RADIO CITY MUSIC HALL Completed in 1932, at the time it was promoted as the largest and most opulent theater in the world. It plays a major in the complex as a destination, it is one of the most popular tourist attractions, the Music Hall has been attended by more than 300 million people.

7

1 15

Sixth A venue

11 8 14

12. ROOF GARDENS Developing gardens on the roofs was a central element of Raymond Hood’s ideal city. In result, creating the third layer in the city. Also with the spread of roof garden from block to block, the effect of open space among the great towers is created.

2 10

6

13

9

5. CHANNEL GARDEN The channel created by the English and French building has draw people into the complex from the Fifth Avenue. The circulation arteries become a destination itself, with the use of vegetation, sculptures and stores, sloped steeply down to meet the plaza steps. Created a natural gateway to the plaza.

12 5

12 3

Overall view of original complex

St. 50th

49th

St.

4

Rockef eller Plaza

N.T.S. view of original complex Overall

12

12

Fifth A venue

Landmarks 1. Simon and Schuster Building 2. 50 Rockefeller Plaza 3. British Empire Building 4. La Maison Francaise 5. Channel Garden 6. NBC Studio 7. Observation Deck 8. Radio City Music Hall 9. Sunken Plaza 10. Rockefeller Plaza 11. 30 Rockefeller Plaza 12. Roof Gardens 13. International Building 14. 1 Rockefeller Plaza 15. 1270 Avenue of the Americas sun path pedestrian circulation access by car

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3. Research

3.2 Urban Complex Study Case 2 Times Square

Project: Times Square Area: 10,000m2 Program: Commercial Complex Location: Hong Kong, China. Construction Date: 1991- 1994

2010 Russell Street

1980

1993

Victoria Harbour

Times Square was built in 1994 as a major shopping mall redeveloped from a former tramway depot. Only 60 percent of the site is built upon, which creates a welcome open space in a highly congested area in Causeway Bay. This open space is used for civic activities, exhibitions , performance and it is one of the designated locations for the new year count down.

Tung Lun

gG ap

Fly

ove

r

Victoria Park

oad

Canal R

eet

Context Map 1:5000

Context Map 1:10000

tr Percival S

Aerial View of Times Square Complex N.T.S.

Site Map 1:1000

Sharp Street East

M

South China

n St.

oad

heso

Hennessy R

Mat

Wo ng

t

1.0 ha

Happy Valley Racecourse

Russell Street

r Flyove

Na iC

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The MTR Causeway Bay South concourse and its auxiliary spaces in the fifth basement floor links Times Square to the existing MTR Causeway Bay through the tunnels underneath Percival Street.

tree Russell S

38

1980 Russell Street

Yiu Wa East


Racecourse

Context Map 1:5000

Site Map 1:1000

S

Pedestrian Corridor intersect with Existing Street Patten Pedestrian corridor is introduced to allow the open piazza to connect from different entry point.

1. Times Square

Underground Connecting Concourse

Designated Public Space Public Space act as a node of pedestrian network. Set back becomes an important breathing space.

2. Open piazza

Subway connection is linked with underground commercial activities and lead to open piazza.

3. Pedestrian corridor

MTR connection

39


Per ci

val

Stre et

Case 2 Times Square

Tung Lung Street

oria Park 40

Russell Street

Taxi Stop

Percival Street

so n

Pedestrian Corridor

Ma t

Sharp Street East

Underground Connection

he

Wo ng

St re

Na

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ung

Ga

pF

Russell Street

Percival Street

lyo

ver

Open Piazza

ina Yiu Wa East

Site40% Mappublic accessible area 1:1000 60 % privatively owned space Site Map 1:1000

moving

=0.4 ha =0.6 ha Open Piazza surrounding pedestrian circulation 1:500

lingering

pedestrian circulation access by car

staying


OFFICE TOWER 194 meters with 33 storeys high towers facing North gain maximum of day light. This skyscraper is one of the tallest building in the area and stand out as a Landmark.

2. OPEN PIAZZA 40 percent of the plot area was devoted to the public as a open piazza. This allow pedestrian activities and serve as an open space for civic activities, exhibitions , performance. Because of the location it is one of the designated locations for new year count down.

1

1

RETAIL PODIUM 14 storeys of retail becomes the main attraction of Causeway Bay as a popular shopping district. Filled with restaurants, shops and entertainment facilities.

3. PEDESTRIAN CORRIDOR Introducing the pedestrian corridor connecting the back to the front of the complex makes the area fully pedestrianized. This help the ease of human traffic on grade and makes the entire ground floor easier to access.

lR na Ca

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Per ci

val

Programing and Layout N.T.S.

Overall view of Times Square N.T.S.

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OPEN PIAZZA Freed up the ground floor as a pedestrianized street for the public open 24 hours. Generous set back becomes an important breathing space to the district as well as a node.

Stre e

Per ci

Landmarks 1. Times Square a 2. Times Square Open Piazza 3. Pedestrian corridor

t

val

Stre e

t

sun path pedestrian circulation access by car

41


3. Research

3.2 Urban Complex Study Case 3 Quincy Market

Project: Faneuil Hall Marketplace Area: 40,000m2 Program: Market Complex Location: Boston, U.S. Construction Date: 1742 - 1976

1872

2010

Con gr

ess S tree

Faneuil Hall Marketplace, which involved a 1976 renewal by Benjamin Thompson & Associates in Boston that signaled the rebirth of a beloved but then-decrepit historic landmark, transformation of Boston’s historic Quincy Market buildings into Faneuil Hall Marketplace in 1978 was a six-acre sustainable reuse and redesign project of Boston’s first public market.

Fre edo

mT rail

North Street

t

Mer

ree

t

ark et S t

nF

Joh

Context Map 1:10000

ton

Stre e

t

th M ark et S tree

Aerial View of Faneuil Hall Marketplace N.T.S.

Clin

Boston Inner Harbour

Row

Nor

4.0ha

Sou

th M

Boston City Hall

nts

t

mS tree t tha

Stre e

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cha

Cha

Faneuil Hall Marketplace fulfills the requirements of a design continuing to satisfy its original function into the present and continues to be a vibrant presence in Boston’s downtown.

1920

Sta te

42

1835

ge

Fitz

oad

ce R

urfa

S rald


coastline

coastline

coastline

Orginal Market Complex Faneuil Hall was served as fishing market before 1830, then it served as supermarket, business exchange and town meeting site at the coastline.

1. Market Square

Expansion of Market Complex Downtown commercial demand had grown beyond the capacity of Faneuil Hall. To provide an expansion of shop space Quincy Market was built, as an indoor pavilion of vendor stalls; so has the coastline of Boston.

2. Faneuil Hall & Market Square

Introduction of Festival Marketplace By the early 1970s, Quincy Market was decaying. Developer Rouse Company developed a new building form, the festival marketplace. Indoor and outdoor space both served as food and retail area. Combining the main market, becoming The new Faneuil Hall Marketplace.

4. Quincy’s Market

Boston Street Pattern with Pedestrianised Area The development of festival marketplace, streets are pedestrianised allowing activities to happen indoor as well as outdoor.

7. Outdoor Shopping and Dinning

43


Congress Street Case 3 Quincy Market Faneuil Hall

Faneuil Hall

Congress Street

Faneuil Hall

Faneuil Hall

No

55% public accessible area 45% privatively owned space Site Map 1:1000

hn

Jo

z

it F F

Cliton Street

Cliton Street

North Market Street Chatham Street

South Market Street

North Market Street

a

o a eR r ge c itz rfa F F u hn S o J ld ra ge S ld

State Street

State Street

ur

f

d oa R e ac d

Chatham Street

t

South Market Street

NSotr rthee St t ree

Cliton Street

Cliton Street

North Market Street

South Market Street

North Market Street

Chatham Street

Chatham Street

State Street

44

State StreetStreet South Market

rth

moving

=2.2ha =1.8ha Pedestrian circulation 1:1000

lingering staying

pedestrian circulation access by car


2. FANEUIL HALL It has been a marketplace and a meeting hall since 1742, now it is part of Boston National Historical Park and a wellknown stop on the Freedom Trail. It has became the 4th most visited tourist site in America because the history and present marketplace innervation.

Cong re

Str e

et

ss Str

eet

ath am

2

5

3

4 6 7

8

ad

face Ro rald Sur

itzge

John F F

Overall view of Feneuil Hall Marketplace N.T.S.

3. QUINCY MARKET Quincy Market is a historic market complex which behind of Faneuil Hall. It was an expansion of shop space as an indoor pavilion of vendor stalls. The main Quincy Market building continues to be a source of food for Bostonians, though it has changed from grocery to foodstall, fast-food, and restaurants. It is a popular and busy lunchtime spot for downtown workers. In the center, surrounding the dome, is a two-story seating area.

1

Ch

1. MARKET SQUARE The market square contains Sam Adams Statue, it represents the Revolutionary patriot. This area act as a entry to the Faeuil marketplace, with facilities allow public to rest. The open spaces at both the east and west ends of the marketplace are a common venue for various street performers, as well as street vendors. Most daytime visits to Quincy Market will encounter a large circular crowd of people standing around a juggler or other act.

7. OUTDOOR SHOPPING AND DINING Further street vending space is available against the outside walls of the building, especially on the south side, under a glass enclosure. Most stalls in this space sell trinkets, gifts, and other curiosities. A few restaurants also occupy fully enclosed spaces at the ends of this enclosure.

Landmarks 1. Simon and Schuster Building 2. Faneuil Hall Marketplace 3. Vegetable Market 4. Quincy’s Market 5. South Market 6. North Market 7. Outdoor Vendors 8. Shopping Arcade 9. Office Building sun path pedestrian circulation access by car

45


3. Research

3.2 Urban Complex Study Case 4 Liverpool One

Project: Liverpool One Area: 170,000m2 Program: Mixed-Use Complex Location: Liverpool, U.K. Construction Date: 2003-2008

1999

2007

2010

Lime Street Station Liver Building

Thomas Ste

ers Way

17 ha

Albert Dock

Lo

rd

Echo Arena Liverpool

Context Map 1:10000

Liverpool Cathedral

Str e

et

Aerial Liverpool One Complex N.T.S.

Street Stand

y Merse

Liverpool One is a shopping, residential and leisure complex. It is a retail led development, anchored by department stores Debenhams and John Lewis, with additional elements including leisure facilities, apartments, offices, public open space and transport improvements. The completion of Liverpool One has significantly boosted the local economy as well as lifted Liverpool into the top five most popular retail destinations in the UK. The scheme creates new ‘high streets’ within the city centre, with the Paradise Street area transformed into a pedestrian zone. Car parking and a manned cycle park underneath. An initial concern at the planning stages was that additional parking spaces would lead to an unacceptable traffic increase. However, evidence showed that the main effect would be to make existing shoppers stay longer.

River

46

1941


Redevelopment Area 17 hectares of land are listed into the redevelopment scheme for Liverpool One, as a new center of Liverpool.

1,2. One Park West and Hilton Hotel

Liverpool Street Pattern with Pedestrianised Area With 35 hectares of land, the Paradise Street area transformed into a pedestrian zone, with car parking and a manned cycle park underneath

3. Chavasse Park

Designated Public Space

Remaking a City Centre

Chavasse park is an open space in the city centre of Liverpool, the park was extensively altered as part of the Paradise Project redevelopment scheme. It is now reinstated atop a new 2000-space underground car park.

The influences acting on Grosvenor’s central Liverpool development, the border of which is outlined in red. The development has come to act as a hub, stitching the city back together and linking its different districts.

4. Department Stores

5. Transportation Hub

47


St. Georges Hall

Case 4 Liverpool One

Town Hall

Royal Liver Building

Municipal Building

Lime Stations

Law Courts 48

River Mersey

residential hotel anchor stores leisure element office retail transportation hub landmarks and vistas

Central Elevated Walkway Connection 1:5000

Albert Dock

Anglican Cathedral


1. ONE PARK WEST CĂŠsar Pelli has designed this 17-storey building in central Liverpool, consisting of 326 apartments, offices, restaurants, cafĂŠs and parking. Located at the border of the redevelopment, creating a iconic image for the entire development project and it is the tallest building in the development.

2. HILTON HOTEL One of the landmark building that is framing the entrance and the boundary of Chavasse Park. Providing the one of the two hospitality of Liverpool One . Catering the existing business sectors in Liverpool.

Lord Street

7

8 9

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7

5

9

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ra Pa

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9

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6

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Street

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James

4. DEPARTMENT STORES Anchor stores re required to provide quality assurance, big brands and the range of products that will attract people to the development without them, no development will be viable. Three department stores are located at different corners of the district.

49

et

1

4

3

2

Str a

nd

3. CHAVASSE PARK Chavasse park is an open space in the city centre of Liverpool, the park itself was extensively altered as part of the Paradise Project redevelopment scheme. It is reinstated in rising terraces on top of 3,000 car park spaces and dominated by the residential development at the surrounding area. Framed by city centre buildings.

Overall view of Central Market N.T.S.

10

5. TRANSPORTATION HUB Bus station and a multi-storey car park at the edge of the main shopping district are one of the strategy for attracting people at the suburb area and is a way to allurement consumers from outer fringes to shop in the city centre.

Str e

et Landmarks 1. One Park West 2. Hilton Hotel 3. Chavasse Park 4. John Lewis Department Store 5. Department Stores 6. Leisure Elements 7. Multi Level Unit Retail 8. Office 9. Residential 10. Transportation Hub sun path pedestrian circulation access by car


3. Research

3.3 Local Urban Development Study

50

Developers dictate the urban development along with the Government’s help. The manipulated market is controlled by few corporate giants. Yet, there are some which still concerns our society over their profits demonstrates through the design of development. Some local developments examples have been studied. Understand how the development can benefits their investments as well as providing good public facilities for the society. Between the two, there are no conflicts and there shouldn’t be. Swire Properties and Hongkong Lands Development have been selected for their distinctive business model, where design, develop and manage mixeduse commercial projects of scale and connectivity, destined to become the focal points of the surrounding urban areas. To understand the aim of the developments, TaiKoo Place and Exchange Square have been studied, respectively. Together,

they both have similarity on the way properties are located closely together and interconnected with each other. This allows the ease of accessibility between the complexes. The interconnection between buildings creates a second layer of streets above ground; this way, public have the accessibility to all buildings without being on ground avoiding on grade traffic. Podium, plaza and pedestrianized streets are also designated to the public with activities within the developments; it becomes the icon for the urban context. Benefits are also given to the developers in this way; the connection allows their properties to become a city within a city or sometimes the important connector in the city. The value and the flow of pedestrian of these properties will rise simultaneously. This gives an idea how profit and public facilities provision can coexist with each other in urban context.


51


3. Research

3.3 Local Urban Development Study Case 1 Swire Properties

Project: TaiKoo Place Area: 60,000m2 Program: Mixed-Used Development Location: Quarry Bay, Hong Kong Construction Date: 1977- 2008 52

Swire Properties’ vision of building TaiKoo Place into a premium business and retail community was unique in Hong Kong. It all began when the Taikoo Dockyard was redeveloped into what is now Taikoo Shing, one of the first, and most distinctive, private residential developments in Hong Kong. Today, TaiKoo Place has become a vibrant locale for thriving businesses and diversified entertainment.

1910

1970

1990

2014

Victoria Habour

Taikoo Place 6 ha

Taikoo Shing 19.5ha

Quarry Bay MTR 24.0 ha Taikoo MTR Sau Kei Wan

TaiKoo Place, one of Hong Kong’s best planned and most efficiently serviced business districts, is a dynamic retail and office centre comprising commercial spaces, shopping mall and hotel accommodation. With a cosmopolitan atmosphere of public spaces, restaurants, cafés, hotel accommodation and extensive shopping facilities, this has become a high energy neighborhood for both business and pleasure.

Kornhill Garden

Context Map 1:10000

Business Community

Public Realm

Residential Community

Island East is developed into two parts, first with residential development in the mid 80’s and Grade-A offices are developed in the recent years. Between the two communities, Swire has introduced a public space as a transition between the two. Segregates the two and becomes civic icon and destination for both residence and office workers. Swire Island East Properties 1:5000


Street Pattern with Pedestrianised Area Streets being pedestriansed generally gives the community a higher quality of public space and stronger connections within the neighborhood. Vehicles only operates on the outer surface of the community, this would increase the activities on grade.

Exhibition at Bridge Link System

Designated Public Space

Elevated Bridge Link System

Civic plaza has been created to serve the office workers and the residence. Create public realm in the intersection between the two to give that tradition. Pedestriansed street also designated to the public for various events.

Tong Chong Street - Farmers’ Market

In Taikoo Place, all of the office building are interconnected to each other at the concourse level to create a second layer of pedestrian network. The circulation network stops in the heart of Taikoo arriving at the civic plaza.

Tong Chong Street

12. Via Fiori

53


Case 1 Swire Properties pedestrianised street

Quarry Bay MTR Station

high traffic of heavy vehicles

Tong Chong Street

54

Via Fiori

One Island East 85% public accessible area 15% privative space

=5.1ha =0.9ha

TaiKoo Place at Public concourse level 1:1500

indoor / outdoor : 25% / 75%

heavy vehicles circulation indoor public space outdoor public space


BRIDGE LINK SYSTEM TaiKoo Place has continuously promoted art by offering complimentary exhibition venue for artists to display their creativity. Provision of free venue and necessary administrative support has proved beneficial, especially to individual artists with small budgets, to reach out to the public. The linkage benefits the community for the ease of access to the MTR system at a elevated network, avoid ground level pedestrian traffic where heavy vehicles often operates during the office hours.

2 1 3

6 4 9

King’s Road

8 10

5

55

7

Pan H

oi S tree

t

11

Overall view of TaiKoo Place N.T.S.

Av en

ue

Fio Via

12

TaiK oo S

Tai Yue

12. VIA FIORI The four hectare plaza exemplifies the design objective of elegant simplicity for the thirty thousand office users and adjacent residents. 230 meter long promenade to the plaza and culminates at the tower’s podium base.

ri

TONG CHONG STREET Pedestrianized Street where outdoor events happens, from Farmer’s Market to Christmas Celebration at weekends and Festivals. The street becomes vibrant and festive, serve as a magnet during the office off hours.

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Landmarks 1. Cambridge House 2. Devon House 3. Dorset House 4. PCCW Tower 5. Warwick House 6. Lincoln House 7. Cornwall House 8. One Island East 9. Oxford House 10. Harbour View Gardens 11. On Shing Terrace 12. Via Fiori sun path pedestrian circulation access by car Elevated Walkway Open Public Space


3. Research

3.3 Local Urban Development Study Case 2 Hongkong Land

Project: Exchange Square Area: 15,000m2 Program: Office Complex Location: Central, Hong Kong Construction Date: 1981-2014 56

1985

2012

2010

Victoria Habour

Exchange Square is a major development that sets the benchmark in Hong Kong for a prestigious, globally oriented, 24-hour business complex. It is home to many leading international investment banks and financial institutions. The complex is linked via Hongkong Land’s unique pedestrian bridge network to virtually all major buildings in Central. It also provides access to the Star Ferry, the Mass Transit Railway and the Central bus station, located immediately beneath the development. The Forum redevelopment, including the plaza area, is the latest development added to Hong Kong Lands portfolio. The plaza allows public connection to International Financial Centre and to the waterfront of Central. It act as an important bridge link in the Central Elevated Walkway.

IFC

Ped d

er S tree

t

City Hall 6 ha

Statue Square

d

oa

tR

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na

n Co

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De

Context Map 1:10000

Hong Kong Lands Properties in Central N.T.S.

ad

Ro


Hong Kong Lands’ Properties Streets being pedestriansed generally gives the community a higher quality of public space and stronger connections within the neighborhood. Vehicles only operates on the outer surface of the community, this would increase the activities on grade.

1,2,3. Exchange Square Complex

Designated Public Space

Elevated Bridge Link System

Civic plaza has been created to serve the office workers and the residence. Create public realm in the intersection between the two to give that tradition. Pedestriansed street also designated to the public for various events.

In Taikoo Place, all of the office building are interconnected to each other at the concourse level to create a second layer of pedestrian network. The circulation network stops in the heart of Taikoo arriving at the civic plaza.

4. The Forum and the podium plaza

5. Podium Plaza

6. Bus Terminus

57


Case 2 Hongkong Land

IFC MALL

58

Podium Plaza

Exchange Square 3

Exchange Square 1 and 2

The Forum

Jardine’s House Bridge Link

heavy traffic vehicles circulation indoor public space outdoor public space

70% public accessible area 30% privative space Exchange Square Concourse Plan 1:1000

=1.05ha =0.45ha

indoor / outdoor : 20% / 80%


6. BUS TERMINUS The Central (Exchange Square) Bus Terminus is a major bus terminus located in Central, Central and Western District, Hong Kong. Situated on the ground floor of the Exchange Square commercial complex, the terminus is regarded as the central hub of bus routes in the Central District. With a total of 14 berths for franchised buses, it is now the largest bus station in Hong Kong which still functions as a bus terminus, in terms of the number of boarding platforms.

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3. EXCHANGE SQUARE 3 The 32-storey office tower came right after the other two, locate on the other end of the garden podium. Three Exchange Square is linked via Hongkong Land’s unique pedestrian bridge network to virtually all major buildings in Central. It has the same superlative workmanship and state-of-the-art communications, infrastructure and services as One & Two Exchange Square.

2

1

re St

59

7

3

4

5

8 6

ht

al

ntr d Ce Roa

et tre er S dd Pe

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Overall view of Hong Kong Lands Properties N.T.S.

1, 2. EXCHANGE SQUARE 1 AND 2 The Exchange Square complex, consisting of two 52-storey office towers, is located in the Central Business District of Hong Kong at Hong Kong’s harbour line. Built above a public bus terminal which extends over the whole ground floor, the project also incorporates the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.

4. THE FORUM The Forum redevelopment is a holistic design integrating the new office building with it surrounding and thereby revitalising the entire Exchange Square development. The new addition visually and physically opens up the site and creates a new element which is comfortable within its surroundings. Its form gently leanback and opens up from the plaza to a grand double height lobby space and covered walkway.

Landmarks 1. Exchange Square 1 2. Exchange Square 2 3. Exchange Square 3 4. The Forum 5. Podium Plaza 6. Bus Terminus 7. Hong Kong Lands’ Properties 8. Hong Kong Lands Bridge Link sun path pedestrian circulation access by car Elevated Walkway Open Public Space


4

POTENTIAL SITE STUDY

4.1 CENTRAL OASIS


4. Potential Site Study

4.1 Central Oasis To search for a site that corresponds with my thesis hypothesis, I have concentrated my site selection in the central urban area - Central. As the central business district of Hong Kong, it is the area where many multinational financial services corporations have their headquarters. Consulates general and consulates of many countries are also located in this area, as is Government Hill, the site of the government headquarters. The area, with its proximity to Victoria Harbor, has served as the center of trade and financial activities from the earliest days of the British colonial era in 1841, and continues to flourish and serve as the place of administration after the transfer of sovereignty to China in 1997. Central being the financial hub of Hong Kong, neighborhoods are being driven out the area, districts become commercialized. Street activities can hardly be found within the

neighborhood. The life within the district are being singled out by the financial activities during the day and left with almost nothing at night. Interaction between the public are minimized, with a very limited amount of public space. This area has the right ingredients to answer and use as a demonstration for the essential need of public space in the center of Hong Kong. Central Market and Statue Square both have a long history to Hong Kong but also lost it’s original purpose. Through this project, it becomes an opportunity to redevelop the area to create a public building that could retrieve the original identity. At the same time, creating a central oasis to provide the community with a different purpose other than the dominant financial activities within the area.


4.Potential Site Study

4.1 Central Oasis Site 1 Central Market

Site: Central Market Area: 5,000m2 Program: Market Location: Hong Kong, China. Construction Date: 1937-1939 62

1895

1939

Central Market was a fresh food market in Central, Hong Kong. Located between Jubilee Street, Queen Victoria Street, Queen’s Road Central and Des Voeux Road Central, it was the first wet market in Hong Kong. It is one of two existing Bauhaus market buildings in Hong Kong, being the forth generation of the market. It is now abandoned with few stores by a renovated pedestrian corridor inside, Central Escalator Link Alley Shopping Arcade.

2010

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It also serves as one of the important passage in the Central Elevated Walkway, allowing the pedestrians from Mid- Levels district directly connected to the edge of the Hong Kong and Victoria Harbor. Central Market Plan & Section 1:250@A1

ee

Aerial View of Central Market Complex N.T.S.

Ro n’s

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Building Plot 0.5 hectares of land locates in the center of Central District

1. Market

Central Street Pattern

Designated Public Space

It is surrounded by car roads at all sides of the plot, making it an island site. Tram Rail line is located at the North of the site, on Des Voeux Road Central.

The Market used up the entire plot providing nearly 4,ooo m2 of market area. Market serve as a public space itself, providing the area a social interaction venue.

2. Atrium

3. Elevated walkway

Elevated Walkway It became part of the Central elevated walkway, connecting the pedestrian from Mid - Levels to the Central promenade. Connecting nearly half of the Central District which covers 40 hectares of land.

4. Tram rail line

63


elevated walkway propose site

Victoria Harbour

Site 1 Central Market

Sheung Wan Central Market 0.5 ha

Central District 82.0 ha

64

Mid - Levels

Central Elevated Walkway Connection 1:5000

Admiralty


3. ELEVATED WALKWAY The building is largely abandoned with few stores by a renovated pedestrian corridor inside, Central Escalator Link Alley Shopping Arcade. The corridor is linked by two footbridges to Hang Seng Bank New Headquarters Building and Central Elevated Walkway, and another footbridge to the Central-Mid-Levels escalator. Shops in the arcade include tailors, 7-Eleven, cleanser, collectors and other trades. On Sunday, one side of the corridor is a popular gathering place among Filipino domestic workers.

Mid

- Le vels

1. MARKET The market is housed in a 4-storey reinforced concrete structure, and contains 200 booths inside. The market is spacious with a central court, high ceiling and window walls for natural light and ventilation. There are two entrances of the market. The Des Voeux Road Central entrance is one the ground floor while the Queen’s Road Central entrance bridges the first floor. 3 1

2. ATRIUM Introducing the pedestrian corridor connecting the back to the front of the complex makes the area fully pedestrianized. This help the ease of human traffic on grade and makes the entire ground floor easier to access.

Queen’s

Road Ce

ntral

4. TRAM RAIL LINE The tram rail service go pass Central Market on Des Voeux Road Central, from Kennedy Town to Shau Kei Wan, connecting the entire Hong Kong Island form East to West.

2

Des Voe

ux Road

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Overall view of Central Market N.T.S.

Central Elements 1. Central Market 2. Atrium 3. Elevated Walkway 4.Tram Rail Line sun path pedestrian circulation access by car

65


4.Potential Site Study

4.1 Central Oasis Site 2 Statue Square

Site: Statue Square (Central District) Area: 20,000m2 Program: Open Public Space Location: Hong Kong, China Construction Date: 1890 - Present 66

This served as a public pedestrian square in Central. Built entirely on reclaimed land at the end of the 19th century, Statue Square was redesigned in 1965 in an effort to generate new spatial and visual connections between the Square, the recently reconstructed Queen’s Pier, and the new City hall. The new plan was also part of a city-wide movement to provide more green space for Hong Kong’s fast growing populace. A pedestrian bridge built under Connaught Road along the historical axis of the Square ensured the site’s continued connection to the waterfront. Although the Square has no longer a significant component of the circulation route it once was due to the demolition of the Queen’s Pier, it is supposed to be reconnected to the waterfront when the new Central Reclamation Park is eventually completed.

1902

1950

1965

2014

The Cenotaph City Hall

Star Ferry Car Park

Statue Square

Section of Central District 1986

Isometric drawing of Central District 1983


S S

S

S

S

S

S

S

Statue Square and Star Ferry Car Park

Central Street Pattern with Pedestrianised Area

Central Elevated Walkway

Public pedestrian square in Central dated back from the 19th Century. It was located at the edge of central until the reclamation goes on, later a car park was built in front of the square to serve the Star Ferry Pier.

Chater Road is now became a pedestrian road on Sundays and public holidays to server the demand of domestic helpers gathering. With the public space at the ground floor of HSBC, the area is pedestrianized as popular public gathering space.

Elevated pedestrian connection serve from Mid- Levels to the edge of central waterfront, it also connects the majority of commercial area and offices. The site is closely located at the edge of the elevated walkway.

1. South Statue Square

2. The Cenotaph

Connaught Road Central

Underground Connecting Concourse Underground connection with the MTR service is spread across underneath the site, the connection links from Central to HK station. Star Ferry underground connection serving the crossing link of Connaught Road Central.

3,4. Star Ferry Car Park & Start Ferry underground connection

67


tram rail

visual corridor

access by car elevated walkway visual corridor

Site 2 Statue Square

propose site

2 IFC

Cen t

Central District 82.0 ha

ral

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2.0 ha

Jardine House

68

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Legislative Council HSBC Building

Mid - Levels

Central District (Statue Square) 1:5000

Road

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Headquarters

i By

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City Hall

Conn a Prince Building

Cha

Victoria Harbour

Des V oeux

Centr a

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Admiralty

Road

Centr a

l


1. STATUE SQUARE The square is flanked by several landmark buildings. It is an empty space in the heart of a city which, squeezed as it is between mountain and sea, has always valued developable land as the ultimate source of wealth and revenue.

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et r Stre Pedde

2. THE CENOTAPH The erection of a Cenotaph on a lawn just in front of the Hong Kong Club. And the modification in the lay-out was the disappearance of a wide alley which crossed Chater Road at right angle right in the centre of the Square and which provided the focal point where the monument to Queen Victoria once proudly stood.

3. STAR FERRY CAR PARK The two storey car park lies in the end of the axis of HSBC and Statue Square. This was built to serve the Star Ferry Pier back in the 70’s. Since the removal of the pier in 2006, the car park still reminds untouched. Small minibus and taxi stops are also located at the end and next the Edinburgh Plaza.

al

tr Cen

4. STAR FERRY UNDERGROUND CONNECTION This underground subway connects the two end of Connaught Road of Central together. The excess space on top of the subway is filled with a Jokey club betting branch.

4

3

o Lung W

Road

Elements 1. Statue Square 2. The Cenotaph 3. Star Ferry Car Park 4. Star Ferry underground connection sun path pedestrian circulation access by car

69


5

SITE UNDERSTANDING

5.1 OCCUPY CENTRAL 5.2 REACTIVATING STATUE SQUARE


5. Site Understanding

5.1 Occupy Central A century ago, Statue Square was the centre of Central. After many transformations of the area, it has become at the edge of Central. It is situated at the most premium land that is worth billions of dollars, yet it is remained as open space for the public with almost no activities expect the weekend. People see this as the holy ground for the historic purpose, but the context has evolved so much that the historic meaning has been lost through urban development. It is time to give this place a new identity as the “centre” of Central to reactive Statue Square’s original purpose and meaning. Occupy Central with a new urban experience but also an extra space for the citizens of Hong Kong.


5. Site Understanding

Transformation of Statue Square Statue Square was created in 1897 on land initially reclaimed by the city in the early 1890s. The square’s name derives from the fact that it originally contained the statue of Queen Victoria. Eventually it was removed by the Japanese in World War II. The Statue Square was only designated once the Supreme Court was competed in 1910 and had traditional ingredients of a city square: a central focal point, statues of national icons, green spaces, and a lining of prestigious buildings.

72

Statue Square was redesigned in 1965 in a effort to generate new spatial and visual connections between the Square, the recently reconstructed Queen’s Pier, and the new City Hall. The new plan was also part of a city wide movement to provide more green space for Hong Kong’s fast growing populace. A pedestrian bridge built under Connaught Road along the historical axis of the Square ensured the site’s continued connection to the waterfront, while a series of level changes and collection of asymmetrically placed rectangular pools and planting beds created interesting formal tension both with the site’s original curvilinearity as well as the new City Hall. New spatial enclosures without obstructing pubic mobility in and through the site. Although the Square is no longer a significant component of circulation route it once was due to the demolition of the Queen’s Pier in 2006, it is supposed to be reconnected to the waterfront when the new Central Reclamation Park is eventually completed.


1900

1910

Monument with Promenade connected to Pier

Supreme Court and the Cenotaph Addition

1950

Monument Removed

1955

1960

Public Carpark

Star Ferry Carpark Added

1965

1980

1990

2010

Future

Converted to Urban Square

Urban Square Connected to Pier

Underground Connection Added

Further Land Reclamation

Central Waterfront Masterplan

73


5. Site Understanding

1990s

200 0

196

s

0s

189

0s

s 2010

Statue Square was built on complete land reclamation, it was built on the edge of the coast 1890 connecting the waterfront and later with Queen’s Pier in 1950. After the removal of Queen’s Pier and further land reclamation projects, Statue Square has lost it’s purpose as a connection route of the city and water, it becomes neglected in the city.

2000s

History Of Open Space and Land Reclamation

s 50 19

196

ral

Lung

Pe dd

s

1950

-18

Pre

60

18

-W an

Cha

i By

Wo R oa

d

s

42

74

Cen t

er S tre et

0s

Conna u

ght Ro

Statu e

Queen

Square

Chate

r Road

’s Roa

Des Voe

ux Road

d Centr

al

Overview

ad 18

80

s

Central

pas

s


1960

1940

1960

1980

1980

0.9 km²

2 km²

2 km²

1980

Present

75


5. Site Understanding

Site Circulation It is important to understanding the site circulation in all aspects before approaching the design process. In the pedestrian circulation, segregations are clearly shown between the Star Ferry Car Park and the Statue Square, underground connection being the only connection to the waterfront and the Inner city. Vehicle routes that created the segregations are over Connaught Road and Chater Road, separating Square into two parts. l

entra ad C

1

Cha

oad

ter R

4

2

oad

ht R

ug nna

Co

al

tr Cen

4

3

Public transportations are densely located on Connaught Road and Des Voeux Road, creating a busy vehicle road network to within the site area.

o Road Lung W

Overview

t Stree

x Ro

u Voe Des

r Pedde

76

MTR underground system locate right below the site and provides many of the exits at Chater Road, this suggests a possible pedestrianized zone for this area and Statue Square and the underground system connecting the site together under Connaught Road.


underground level MTR exits

pedestrian route Walking Route

Underground Pedestrian Connection 77

tram line bus route mtr

car route

Vehicle Route

Public Transit


5. Site Understanding

Site Users

Interviewee 1 Jimmy - Office Worker

“ I am quite surprised there are so few people around.”

Jimmy is a white collars who works in IFC Central, only has not been to Statue Square a few times. Today he was waiting for someone to attend a meeting after lunch. “ I am quite surprised there are so few people around,” he answered when I asked for his opinion to the environment.

78

Central Waterfront -

chat smoke hang out

Statue Square is only a meeting point or sometimes a lunch spot depending on the weather. In Central, he mostly hangs out at Lan Kwai Fong with his friends after work or during weekend to social. For food and shopping, he prefers staying indoor near IFC and Exchange Square where air conditioning is provided.

IFC / Exchange Square -

But his most favorite destination is the waterfront promenade where he often goes with his friends or colleagues to hang out for cigarettes. “The waterfront is much comfortable than the lousy center,” he commented.

work eat shop social

Statue Square Lan Kwai Fong -

social hang out

meeting point lunch


79


Interviewee 2 Ada - Student

“ I am only meeting my friends here, then, we go elsewhere.”

Ada is a student who was enjoying her day off, meeting her friend in Statue Square to go round in Central.

Central Waterfront -

She told me “I am only meeting my friends here, then, we go elsewhere.” A students like Ada sees this place as a meeting point only, nothing would interest her to keep her lingering around. 80

chat hang out

Unlike the shopping malls or the waterfront, they see it as an destination rather than a transit point.

IFC -

eat shop hang out

Lyndhurst Terrace - shop

eat Landmark - eat

shop

Statue Square -

meeting point


81


Interviewee 3 Roxanna- Domestic Worker

“ I enjoy coming here every Sunday meeting my friends.”

It is well known that Central is often busy and vibrant filled with domestic workers. They make use of the public spaces in parks, squares and garden that allow them to congregates with friends.

82

Central Waterfront -

meet friends

Statue Square is the first destination for Roxana every Sunday, she gather and hangs out here with her friends after a regular routine at the St John’s Cathedral. Other destinations such as Chater Garden and the waterfront, also prime areas for them to gather and hang out.

World Wide House -

Statue Square -

lunch

shop social

Charter Garden -

hang out

St. John’s Cathedral -

gather hang out events

worship social


Interviewee 4 Peter- Tourist

“Although this is a nice place, it is missing something ...�

Central being one of the financial hub in the world, but also features a long history of Hong Kong. It attracts many tourists to the place for the numbers of interesting attractions.

84

Central Waterfront -

Peter from Belgium who comes to Statue Square for his lunch break during middle of his sightseeing route. He commented although the place has a nice environment, it is lacking something that make this a vibrant place. Peter is drawn to Central for the history and the modern of Hong Kong. Many of the buildings around Statue Square become the destinations for tourists like Peter.

IFC -

Statue Square -

lunch rest historic site

HSBC -

tourist spot landmark

transport view

landmark food City Hall -

museum tourist spot

Former Legco Building -

Bank of China -

historic value

tourist spot landmark


85


4

Connaught Plaza

3 Edinburgh Plaza

5. Site Understanding

5.2 Activating Statue Square

City Hall Memorial Garden

1

2

Connaught Road

Statue Square HSBC Covered Plaza

Lung Wo Road

Chater Road

Charter Garden

Des Voeux Road Central

Urban Strategies To activate the long neglected area of Central, it is important to increase the connectives between areas, using the site as an connector for the surrounding open public space to create a macro scale of public space in Central. Allow high permeability through the site, with the maximum of accessibility on grade.

86

Create destinations in each of the sites as a magnet to draw the flow of the pedestrians. Allow the new linkage and connection between city and the waterfront through three horizontal layers of connections, underground, on grade and bridge link. A gradual increase of built form to demonstrate the urban experience of different public space form open softscape to enclose hardscape.

Connecting Surrounding Open Public Space

Creating Destinations in the City

Linked and Connection between City and Waterfront


Central Waterfornt

4

Connaught Plaza

3 Edinburgh Plaza City Hall Memorial Garden

1

2

Statue Square HSBC Covered Plaza

Charter Garden

Des Voe

Connecting Surrounding Open Public Space

Creating Destinations in the City

4 4 3 3

2 2 1 1

ating Creating Destinations Destinations in the in City the City

Lung WoLung Road Wo Road

Connaught Connaught Road Road Chater Road Chater Road Des Voeux DesRoad Voeux Central Road Central

LinkedLinked and Connection and Connection between between City and CityWaterfront and Waterfront

Sequence Sequence of of PublicPublic Experience Experience

Linked and Connectio between City and Waterfront 87


street life

land use diverse

Public Utilization

stewardship

evening use

neighborly volunteerism

6 fun

coperaative

Environment & Facilities

active

property values

vital

special

Public Utilization

Sociability

welcoming

Public Space proximity volunteerism

Accessibility

Accessibility

connected

safe

Environment and Facilities

building conditions

attractive

convenient accessible

pedestrain activity

sanitation rating

walkable

sittable

walkable transit usage

retail sales

real

historic

crime statistics

enviromental data

parking

prvate parking/ entrance

STAFF library

1 Underground Car park

jury spaces

3 Urban Landscapes/ Roof 2 Observation Deck

probation, health and welfare spaces

5 Retails 4 Restaurants

law enforcement spaces

6 Plazas

legal spaces

18 Observation space 17 Hearing room/courtroom 16 Jury space 15 Clerk’s office 14 Administrative office 13 Chambers 12 Legal spaces 11 Law enforcement spaces 10 Probation, health and welfare spaces 9 Legal Aid 8 Library/ Archive 7 Auditorium/ Conference Room

PROGRAM SELECTION

JUDEGE administrative office

Orignal Program

chambers

Judicial Program

Public Realm

clerk’s office Main Components

hearing room Private

Public

PRIVATE

ancillary spaces

parking

public

office

public parking/ entrance

PUBLIC auditorium

urban landscape

Public - Private

courthouses

observation space

archive

Semi public

supoort public service

courtroom legal aid

Judicial Program

observation deck

Judicial System

plazas

retails

restaurants

Program consolidation PUBLIC Public Realm

observation deck slowness foodwaiting

legal space courtcourt court public network privateroomroomroomLibraryarchive 24-hours roof garden

support chambers offices work enclosed space

permeability

waterfront

auditorium conference forum mediaspace events market event space c a f e sbridge

public squarecity center trade

street market

legal aid public service atrium exhibition space transport drop off area

Public Confidence

Judicial Assistance

Efficient Operations

Public confidence Maintain its vitality Responsive to the needs of society Offer helps to those in need Everyone treated equally Assistance takes an educational form Simplification of operations and court structures Competent Operations confront problems before court

general infomation

retail restaurant cultural space

parking Parking underground connection passage parking service

6.1 ACCESS FOR ALL 6.2 JUSTICE FOR ALL

Program reshuffle


6. Program Selection

6.1 Access for All From my previous research on public spaces in different scales, that a public space is crucial for everyone to freely access. Provide an equal opportunity for everyone to enjoy the space provided. Based on the spaces that been identified through the urban study, public space should possess four main qualities, of which accessibility is the first step, because people need to gain access to public space in order to enjoy the environment and facilities, which is the second level. However, even with facilities, without appropriate design, a public space may not still enjoy public utilization. Going further, if a public space is well utilized by the

public, but if everyone is carrying out individual activity with no interaction between one and another, they are all just living in their own world. As such, a public space needs to possess high level of sociability in order to be deemed successful, because social interactions are the best demonstration of public life. To summarize, an ideal public space should not lack any of these four qualities. Nevertheless, this is a step-by-step process; it must first possess the first quality in order to obtain the second, and so on.

Ideal Public Space

diverse

stewardship

evening use

stewardship

fun

neighborly

Public property Utilization

Sociability

vital

welcoming

property values

vital

fun

volunteerism

coperaative

land use

diverse landactive use

coperaative

special values

retail sales

real Public

welcoming

Public proximity Sociability Utilization volunteerism connected Public transit usage Space

law enforcement spaces

probation, health and welfare spaces

pedestrain activity

accessible jury spaces

prvate

Space special Accessibility

real

sittable

walkable convenient

safe

accessible

Environment pedestrain activity and Facilities walkable parking

sittable attractive KEY ATTRIBUTES historic

safe sanitation rating

Environment retailwalkable sales and Facilities

building conditions

attractive historic

crime statistics

sanitation rating enviromental data building conditions

INTANGIBLES

MEASUREMENTS

crime statistics

ground Car park

neighborly

proximity Everyone have the right to access to public space Accessibility Convenient geographical location volunteerism connected Accessibility Availability of transport links High visibility to the public walkable Provision of barrier-free access transit usage ref. Hong Kong Public Space Initiative/ Project for public space convenient legal spaces

active

local business ownership

Landscapes/ Roof vation Deck

Environment & Facilities

Appropriate recreational facilities volunteerism Performance venues Accessibility Safety, hygiene and comfort Attract people to stay for a longer period of time

street life

street life

Must be well utilized by the public, but not justPublic a Utilization particular group of people Utilize the space to enable their public life evening use As the stages for public life Environment & Becoming a “place” instead of merely a “space” Facilities

89

local business number of women, ownership children and elderly

number of women, children and elderly

s urants

Public Utilization

Facilitate social interactions among people through accommodating voices of people Provide venues for performances Sociability Exhibitions and recreational activities which all encourage social interaction

rvation space ing room/courtroom pace ’s office inistrative office bers l spaces enforcement spaces ation, health and welfare spaces Aid y/ Archive rium/ Conference Room

Sociability

What makes a Great Public Space


6. Program Selection

6.2 Justice For All Looking at the judicial system in Hong Kong, it has a close relationship with the aim of my thesis project. It serve as an importance of the society, responses to the need of the society to maintain the vital role. Treat everyone equally and provide legal aid to those who is in need. Nowadays its not easy to bring matters to court without a long procedures. Therefore, the importance of linking the society to the Hong Kong judicial system is vital and not neglect but locate in the heart of the city, bring justice closer to the people.

90

Judicial system has a complex circulation with security and privacy, understanding the movement and access in the between programs are essential. Required programs of judicial system with additional public facilities that allow to provide an equal ground for its people.


Judicial Program probation welfare observation deck

plazas

retails

restaurants PUBLIC Public Realm

detention

Role of Judicial Facilities

law enforcement

Hong Kong Courts Structure

Judicial System

observation d

Relation between Court to the Community

support chamb

legal spa

priva

offices work enclosed spa

communication

Court of Final Appeal

permeabili

waterfront

public sq

legal aid public ser

Public Confidence

medical

Judicial Assistance

High Court

Efficient Operations

transport drop off area

governmental

Court of appeal Court of First Instance

legal commercial

probation

Public confidence Maintain its vitality Responsive to the needs of society Offer helps to those in need Everyone treated equally Assistance takes an educational form Simplification of operations and court structures Competent Operations confront problems before court

District Court

Lands Tribunal

91 welfare

court

detention

Labour Tribunal Magistrates’ Courts Eastern Kowloon City Kwun Tong Tsuen Wan Fanling Shatin Tuen Wan

Small Claims Tribunal

law enforcement

Obscence ArticlesTribunal Coroner’s Court

residential

court - legal - commercial - residential court - detention - law enforcement - welfare - probation medical - governmental - communication

medical

P


walkable transit usage

convenient accessible

pedestrain activity parking

6. Program Selection

I regard Court House as a complex and contradictory program, it needs high privacy for the judges’ chambers and security for the legal spaces, on the other hand, it is also open for public to participate. Two separate circulations need to be provided in the complex in order to avoid any disturbs for the judges and staff. Public are allows to enter the observation space to participates the court hearings.

legal spaces

prvate parking/ entrance

library

JUDEGE administrative office

chambers

Judicial Program clerk’s office courtroom

legal aid

hearing room Private

observation space

archive

PRIVATE

ancillary spaces

public parking/ entrance

PUBLIC auditorium

office

Plazas and soft landscape would provide the community an extra space for free intervention of public interactions, provoke the freedom of speech.

jury spaces

courthouses

To integrate judicial system with the community, commercial activities would fit well to serve and caters the visitors but also create new designations in the area to draw the flow of people.

probation, health and welfare spaces

STAFF

Other programs that would facilitate the public providing legal aid and archive of Hong Kong judicial system. Auditorium and conference room would be necessary for the announcements that associate with the freedom of press. 92

law enforcement spaces

18 Observation space 17 Hearing room/courtroom 16 Jury space 15 Clerk’s office 14 Administrative office 13 Chambers

Movement and Access between Programs

Judicial Program

observation deck

plazas

retails

restaurants PUBLIC Public Realm

observation deck slowness fo

support chambers

Judicial System

courtco

privateroomro permeability auditorium conf legal space

offices work enclosed space

waterfront

public squarecity center

legal aid public service atrium transport drop off area

Public Confidence

Judicial Assistance

Efficient Operations

Public confidence Maintain its vitality Responsive to the needs of society Offer helps to those in need Everyone treated equally Assistance takes an educational form Simplification of operations and court structures

Parking underg conne


parking

urban landscape

public

supoort public service

office

local business ownership

vital

retail sales

sanitation rating

property values

land use

special

real

safe

walkable

courthouses

number of women, children and elderly

fun

Public Utilization

Environment and Facilities

active

Public Space

diverse

stewardship

Sociability

coperaative

street life

use

neighborly

welcoming

proximity

Accessibility

sittable

building conditions

crime statistics

Program Reshuffled

attractive

historic

Orignal Program

Observation Deck Market Piazzas Retail Restaurants Urban Landscapes/ Roof Underground Car park

1 Underground Car park

walkable

convenient

accessible

enviromental data

Public Realm

Court House observation space hearing room/courtroom jury space clerk’s office administrative office chambers legal spaces law enforcement spaces probation, health and welfare spaces Legal Aid Office Library/ Archive Auditorium/ Conference Room

3 Urban Landscapes/ Roof 2 Observation Deck

connected

usage

Judicial Program

Public Realm Main Components

Public - Private

Program consolidation

parking

6 Plazas

5 Retails 4 Restaurants

Public

urban landscape

18 Observation space 17 Hearing room/courtroom 16 Jury space 15 Clerk’s office 14 Administrative office 13 Chambers 12 Legal spaces 11 Law enforcement spaces 10 Probation, health and welfare spaces 9 Legal Aid 8 Library/ Archive 7 Auditorium/ Conference Room

parking

Semi public

supoort public service

public

Judicial Program

office

Private

courtcourt court public network

observation deck slowness foodwaiting

privateroomroomroomLibraryarchive 24-hours roof garden market auditorium conference forum mediaspace event space

legal space

support chambers

offices work enclosed space

permeability

courthouses

pedestrain activity

UBLIC Realm

Program Distribution

Public - Private

93

Program consolidation

observation deck slowness foodwaiting

courtcourt court public network privateroomroomroomLibraryarchive 24-hours roof garden

support chambers

legal space

offices work enclosed space

market audi t ori u m conference forum mediaspace events c a f e sbridgeevent space public square

permeability

waterfront

city centertrade street market

legal aid public service atrium exhibition space transport drop off area

Parking

underground connection

passage

general infomation

parking parking

retail restaurant cultural space

service

Program reshuffle


7

CONCEPT DESIGN

7.1 HONG KONG CIVIC CONCOURSE


Concept Design

7.1 Hong Kong Civic Concourse

The combinations of judicial program and public amenities would bring justice closer to the society, but also provide an extra space for the city of Hong Kong. Civic Concourse serve as an idea of a large open space for accommodating crowds but within a building. It would serve the place as a connector and linkage between the city and waterfront but also accommodates the public interactions in varies point of the building.

Publicness is essential for this complex, to allow free access through out the clock to provide the true connector of the city. Between controlled hardscape and softscape to suggest different activities throughout the complex, creating a new urban experience for the city and the public. Offering a new urban experience, proposing a unique space that transcends traditional court house. An interior urban street with an extra space for the city of Hong Kong. The concept of new civic concourse as an opportunity to create a linked connection not only between city of the harbor but people and the core value of Hong Kong through public realms.

This is also a meeting place of major social significance, the complex should be generous, adaptable and multi functional. Its not about designing a court house, its about designing a new utopia of urban experience for the citizen of Hong Kong. The respect the original historic axis, vistas and connections of the context, a gradual increase of built form to demonstrate the urban experience of different public space from open softscape to enclose hardscape. Bridging over and under several traffic segregations to provide the connectivity through out the site.

95


Charter Garden

Des Voeux Road Central

Chater Road

Connaught Road Central

Lung Wo Road

Hong Kong City Hall Central Waterfront Masterplan

Hong Kong Club

Edinburgh Plaza

City Hall Memorial Garden

The Cenotaph City Hall Library

Judical Complex

Garden Bridge Link

96

Former Legislative Council Building (Proposed Heritage Museum) Statue Square Marketplace

Statue Square Garden

Bridge Link

Waterfornt Plaza Roof Top Garden Public Deck

HSBC Headquaters “Rialto” Bridge Link

Connaught Plaza

Jardine’s House

10

25

50

100m

Mandarin Oriental

Prince’s Building


+240m

+170m

+170m

+150m

+91m

+95m

+85m

+91m

97

+62m Observation Deck

+42m Observation Space

Special Courts

Chambers

Legal Aid

+0m

Office

+40m

+36m +30m Observation Space

Support Space

Legal Space +8m

Public Roof Garden Observation Space

Final Appeal

District Court

Public Concourse

Public Concourse

Market Bridge Food Beverage Market Hall

2010s

Civic Plaza

Amphitheater

Library

Exhibition Space

Archives

-18m

MTR Connection

Underground Retail Arcade

-7m -16m

Car Parking

Statue Square

Central Waterfont Master Plan Lung Wo Road

Connaught Road “Star Ferry Car Park”

Urban Landscape

Built Form

“Chater Road” Pedestrianised Road

Des Voeux Road Central HSBC Headquarter

Urban Landscape

Project Scope

6 Waterfront Plaza 1950s

5 Garden Bridge

4 Public Deck

3 Judical Program/ Public Realm 1890s

2 Statue Square Marketplace

1 Statue Square Garden 10

1860s

25

50

100m

1 : 7 5 0 Site Section


8

BIBLIOGRAPHY

8.1 BOOK 8.2 ARTICLE 8.2 WEBSITE 8.4 OTHERS


8. Bibliography

8.1 Book

Background Land Administration and Practice in Hong Kong - Hong Kong University Press, Roger Nissim, 2008 Uneasy Parters: the conflict Between Public Interest and Private Profit in Hong Kong - Hong Kong University Press, Leo F. Goodstadt, 2005 Land and the Ruling Class in Hong Kong - Enrich Professional Publishing , Alice Poon, 2005 Hegemony - Ellis Horwood Limited, Robert Bocock, 1986 Research Liverpool One, Remaking A City Center, David Littlefield, 2009 Quincy’s Market, john Quincy,Jr. 2003 Pedestrian Mall, Streetscapes, ad Urban Spaces, Harvey M. Rubenstein, 1992 Over Hong Kong Volume 6 & 8, Kasyan Bartlett, 2007 Norman Foster Building and projects Volume 3, Ian Lambot, 1988 Coastline of Hong Kong, Yu Chun Yu, 2014 The American Courthouse, Planning and Design for the Judicial Process, 1973

8.2 Article Background Inequality Fuels Protest, The Wall Street Journal Volume 36, 2014

8.3 Internet Research Hong Kong Public Space Initiative - http://www.hkpsi.org/chi/main/ Project for Public Space - http://www.pps.org/ Gwulo: Old Hong Kong - http://gwulo.com/

8.4 Others

Research Central Waterfront Masterplan - Aedas & HKSAR Planning Department

99


9

APPENDICES

MONLOPOLIZED HOSUING MARKET HONG KONG RICH POOR GAP HONG KONG GROWTH OF OPEN SPACE


9. Appendices

Hong Kong Wealth Gap Statistics According to HKSAR Government statistics, 20 percent of Hong Kongers are living below the poverty line and 50 percent of the population earns less than $14K / month. While 77.5 percent of the city’s assets are controlled by the wealthiest 10 percent of its people.

20%

50%

90%

$22.5%

Hong Kong City Wealth Assets

Billionaire Net Worth as Percent of Gross Domestic Product by Nation 77.5%

101 500

56

152

45

47

492

30

%

0 32

20

%

24

400

%

63

% 13

18

300

%

1,3

00

69.3%

30%

6%

1,40

100

60%

40%

76.4%

20%

$200 M

$600 M

$1,000 M

17,000

$1,400 M

80%

7 $1,800 M

$

%

15%

This shows how much authority, control or influence by one dominant group over another.

12

200

0

65.6%

14%

In 2000, 65.6% of the it’s assets were controlled by the wealthiest 10% of its people. In 2007, the figure was 69.3% and this year it is 77.5%, making the concentration among the highest the world and the growth among the fastest.

$77.5%

$2,0

00M

Hong Kong

B

00

2,50

00M

0

When this figure of control is so high, the society should show reflection the imbalance of wealth distribution through both physical and mental elements.

4.2%

$6

$6,0

9,0

11% 0B

,80

$1

00

,00

0M

28

0

%

$18

,00

2000

2007

2014

2021

0M

230

0

150

190

375

210

India

%

00 $14

0M

6.2

1,7

$1

,00

China

0B

,20

$10

0B

,40

$2

14

United Kingdom United States


Hong Kong Private Residential Market Percentage HKSAR Government and others With the small amount of 30 percent of Hong Kong’s private residential developments, the Government is the major player in this group along with other small private developers. Such low figure shows how monopolized the city’s private residential market is by the 5 major developers.

Wharf $7 Billion The company also holds many properties in the Tsim Sha Tsui area of Kowloon, including the flagship commercial property in the Harbour City and Times Square shopping centres in Hong Kong island. Although the focus of the company is in commercial sector, 5 percent of private residential of Hong Kong comes from Mr. Peter Woo and the family.

30%

102

Cheung Kong $32.2 Billion One of the world’s great empire builders Li Ka-shing oversees a far-reaching conglomerate with 270,000 employees in 52 countries. Cheung Kong owns one forth of the entire private properties development of Hong Kong. Cheung Kong also has the largest shares out of the major 5 developers of Hong Kong.

New World Development $15.5 Billion Although Mr. Cheng Yu-Tung has the bulk of his wealth lies in Chow Tai Fook Jewellery Group, still providing 11% of private residential for Hong Kong; top 4 of the private developers.

70% Henderson Land $20 Billion 15 percent of the private residential market is controlled by Lee Shau Kee which puts Henderson Land Development the second largest developer in Hong Kong. Financial properties investment has a great assets on the company’s profit making.

Sun Hung Kai Properties $17.5 Billion It specializes in premium-quality residential and commercial projects for sale and investment. It employs more than 37,000 people and has in-house expertise in land acquisition, architecture, construction, engineering and property management. Providing 13% of the private residential for the citizens of Hong Kong making them the third largest developer in Hong Kong.


9. Appendices

Hong Kong Rich Poor Gap 1,400

Billionaire Net Worth as Percent of Gross Domestic Product by Nation

5 different counties have been compared to Hong Kong in terms of their Billionaire Net Worth as Percent of Gross Domestic Product. The greater the percentage is, the greater gap between rich and poor. Two aspects of data needs to be look at to make some conclusion. Data on the people between the rich and the poor such as the population of the nation, total number of billionaires, the percentage of people living under poverty line, the other aspect is the economic side, data such as the gross domestic product and the total net worth of billionaires.

320

25

125

103

Gross Domestic Product (Billion)

280

300 2,500

210

150

27 45

375

2,300

SINGAPORE

N A P A J

UNITED KINGDOM

UNITED STATES

N I

4%

6% 15%

9,000 17,000

H

Billionaires Net Worth as Percent of GDP

5,000

Billionaires Total Net Worth: $210 Billion The sum of 45 Billionaires in Hong Kong has the total of $210 Billion of wealth. This is the highest ratio of billionaires to net worth of billionaires between the six countries.

C

HONG KONG

SINGAPORE

N A P A J

UNITED KINGDOM

UNITED STATES

A N I H C

HONG KONG

Billionaires Total Net Worth (Billion)

A

Living Under Poverty Line

Number of Billionaires SINGAPORE

N J

A

P

A

UNITED KINGDOM

UNITED STATES

A N I H

15

6

Population (million)

Gross Domestic Product : $280 Billion Economic performance of Hong Kong is the lowest out of all, showing Hong Kong isn’t much of a competitor to other countries in the world.

Billionaires Net Worth as Percent of GDP : 75% The billionaires total net worth of $210 billion, terrifyingly equals 75% of the entire Hong Kong’s GDP. This shows the rich in Hong Kong has great power over the economic system, with a great distance between the rich and the poor. The society is being monopolized by groups of corporate giants.

50

45 60

7

C

Living Under Poverty Line : 20% 20 percent of people are living under poverty in Hong Kong. Although Singapore has a higher percentage, the case in Hong Kong is much more alarming compare to other metropolitans.

20% 16% 15% 14% 13%

HONG KONG

Number of Billionaires : 45 Within the 7 million of people, a great number of billionaires lives among us. 45 out of 7 million is the highest ratio between the 6 countries.

28%

150

Together, it will show the quality of life the people are living under. How influential and powerful the rich are to the society, and how close the rich and the poor are. Population : 7 Million Hong Kong is clearly one of the places that has the less people after Singapore due to the size of the country. With the frightening 7 million people living in only one thousand kilometer of area.

490

75%

2% 16%


The Past 30 Years of Public Open Space per Capital in Hong Kong

Area of space is decreasing, where are our spaces gone?

1.2 sq. m. 1981 Public Open Space per Capital

3.1 2.8 104

2.6 sq. m. 2014 Public Open Space per Capital

2.0

1.2 1981

1990

2000

2010

Profile for Jim Lau Pui Yin

Thesis project research book  

A Research documentation of the thesis project- Hong Kong Hegemony

Thesis project research book  

A Research documentation of the thesis project- Hong Kong Hegemony

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