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El Heraldo de la Verdad VOL. I

NO. 1



The Harbinger of Truth


PH Nationalism ‘at its finest’

Andy Zapata Jr.

Historians, Academicians, Politicians attempt to define Philippine nationalism

FIRST PHILIPPINE FLAG? The flag raised during the declaration of Philippine Independence is said to be


―DEFINITIONS of the term [, nationalism,] are at best illusive and any attempt to define it to encompass the whole human experience, time, and space is a trying task.‖ In his book, Filipino Nationalism, Historian Teodoro Agoncillo said defining nationalism would be a trying task, reasoning that nationalism has connotations that shift according to time, place, and circumstances. Agoncillo deviated from attempting to philosophize on the subject and to define its broad multi-colored perspectives, adding that it is enough to affirm that the term must be explained in its

missing but the Suntay Family claimed that this flag was the first Philippine flag.



Founding a Drastic and Daring Fight for Freedom Decades after freedom, a wife’s cousin retells about the Supremo. By DENISSE JANE S. REMOLACIO IT TOOK three men to form the Katipunan.

BIRTHPLACE OF KATIPUNAN Residence of Deodato Arellano on Azcarraga (now Claro M. Recto Avenue), near Elcano Street, Tondo district

Contrary to beliefs that Andres Bonifacio was the only founder, the triumvirate founders were Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa and Bonifacio. It was their masonry effort that quelled the tyranny, someone among others who died for his motherland to soar to freedom. Perhaps nobody could tell the story of the “supremo” Andres Bonifacio better than his wife‟s cousin – Castor de Jesus, 78, who still in his age can vividly remember the happenings those times. Calling Andres Bonifacio as the „great plebian‟, De Jesus‟s retentive and sentimental FOUNDING /A5

SPECIAL REPORT: Spain’s Conditions lead to PH Nationalism By JAMES GIDEON A. TINSAY

In his book, Philippine Revolution, Historian Gregorio Zaide said Mother Spain 's empire is on the verge of decline as it gets consumed by its own corrupt system.

NATIONALISM does not develop overnight. Various European conditions in the 19th century contributed to the awakening of nationalism, and eventually, the rise of the Philippine Revolution.

19th Century Spain's unstable conditions made its way to the Philippines and



Treaty of Paris ends Spanish-American War

Mabini creates PH version of 10 Commandments



THE TREATY of Paris is the Protocol of Peace that ended the war between Spain and United States. On December 10, 1898 at 8:50 in the evening, Spain gave United States signed the treaty and gave the power over islands of Guam, Puerto Rico and Philippines and temporary control over Cuba after paying $20 million. Spanish American War was ignited when USS


APOLINARIO Mabini printed a pamphlet containing documents The True Decalogue and The Constitutional Program of the Philippines on the 24th of June 1898. These documents form the basic documentation of the programs pertinent to the revolutionary government being established

Aguinaldo’s Tax System By OLIVER V. PALILEO THERE are three things that you cannot escape from this world; change, death and tax. Tax is a charge usually of money imposed by an authority on persons or property for public purposes. Even in the time of the Malolos Republic, the government then instituted a system of taxation so that they would address the needs of its people. Various laws and decrees on finance of the Aguinaldo government showed how they financed the revolution. AGUINALDO/B1

WHAT WENT BEFORE: 1872 Motin De Cavite By ALAIN LOUISE C. GERONIMO ONE NIGHT in January 1872, soldiers and workers in Cavite rose under the leadership of Francisco Lamadrid, a Filipino sergeant. The mutineers secretly knew that the indios (Filipinos) would also start an uprising, the signal being

1872 MOTIN/A3

















The Harbinger of Truth

News 1760—1849


Spain’s Empire collapsed due to corruption from page A1

Spain's decadence is most conspicuously seen in its "corrupt colonial administration", characterized by "inefficiency and graft". Diplomats were "venal and incompetent." "The natives were oppressed and maltreated" and stripped off their human rights such as freedom of the speech, of the press, and of religion. Those who dared to defy would either face "death, exile, or imprisonment". These conditions imposed in the Philippines and in other Spanish colonies were echoed in an article by Fr. John N. Schumacher, SJ, titled "Rizal in the Context of NineteenthCentury Philippines", found in his book, "The Making of A Nation". He said that the Philippines became a "handy dumping ground to reward party-hangers with jobs." The bureaucrats were plain "job-seekers", "ready to line their pockets with Philippine money", and were "completely indifferent to the welfare of the Philippines". The corrupt government was unable to "provide for basic needs of public works, schools, peace and order, and other pre-requisites to even a semi-modern economy." The Guardia Civil failed to "rid the provinces of Tulisanes". Instead, they "became an oppressive force", abusing their positions by "harassing farmers" for personal profit.

Museo de las Cortes de Cádiz

contribute to the nation's nationalistic awakening. Zaide claimed that Spain's decadence was a result of "exhaustion of her naval and military strength, ineptitude of her monarchs and statesmen, and impoverishment of her people".

THE PROMULGATION OF THE CONSTITUTION OF 1812 Salvador Viniega depicted in his painting the establishment of 1812 Cadiz Constitution by the Cadiz Cortes on March 19, 1812. Another condition that contributed to the rise of nationalism, According to Zaide, was Spain's "instability in Philippine affairs". It was characterized by "frequent rise and fall of ministries", "frequent change of constitutions", and "periodic debacles of political parties." "From 1834-1862, Spain adopted four constitutions, organized twenty-eight parliaments, and installed 529 ministers with portfolios only to be changed by revolutions and party strife." There was also an "indefiniteness of tenure in colonial officialdom", wherein there was a frequent change in governorgenerals, whose span only last one year and three months. Governor-Generals



time were also regarded as cruel and unjust rulers. Examples are Governor Rafael de Izquierdo, who aroused public rage because of the execution of the secular priests, Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora (GomBurZa); General Fernando Primo de Rivera, known for "tolerating graft and gambling in Manila; and General Camilo De Polavieja, who signed the death sentence of Rizal. Discrimination was also dominant in the 19th Century Philippines, both in race and in social status. Zaide said that "Spanish authorities, who zealously preach Christianity, seldom practiced it, and regarded Filipinos as an inferior race, undeserving to enjoy rights and privileges extended by Spain to her Spanish subjects." Justice was slowly served,

if not totally deprived to the poor. "Money, social prestige, and skin color were preponderant factors on winning litigation," according to Zaide. Ultimately, the execution of the GomBurZa was the main cause for nationalistic movements. Rizal even dedicated his novel, El Filbusterismo, in memory of the GomBurZa, much to the displeasure of the Spaniards. Schumacher stated, "a major factor in giving nationalism the form it actually took was the experience of Filipino students in Spain. Rizal and the other intellectuals could no longer stand seeing their people suffer injustice that paved the way for a Philippine nationalistic sense.



The Harbinger of Truth




Philippine Almanac



From page A1 the firing of rockets for the walls of Intramuros. They were wrong. In Sampaloc, Manila, the people celebrated a fiesta there, with a brilliant fireworks display. Thinking that this is a signal from the troops in Manila, the Cavite mutineers killed the Spanish officers and took control of the arsenal. The following morning, government troops under Felipe Ginoves rushed to the scene and ensued a bloody battle against Lamadrid‘s army.

Lamadrid and his troops were killed in the fight and the survivors then were taken to prison. The Spaniards see this as a revolt, to show that the secular priests - Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora – are behind this all along. In reality, this mutiny done by the Cavite mutineers is to exempt them from forced labor and tributo. The Spanish writers, however, insisted that it was a revolt directed against the Spaniards and cemented by the 3 priests, as told by the ―state witness‖, Francisco Saldua.

The 3 priests carried on the nationalist movement by Fr. Pedro Pelaez, who was perished in an earthquake in 1863 when the ceiling rock fell down and pinned him. Their movement was popularly called the secularization of the 3 priests, which advocated the equality of the seculars and the friars. At that time, Filipino priests – seculars – were not allowed to have high positions in the church because of their brown skin and Asian ancestry. The priests are sentenced to death by the garrote, a strangulation machine, and were approved by the

governor-general at that time, Rafael de Izquierdo. Izquierdo then immediately asked Archbishop Meliton Martinez of Manila to deprive them of priestly robes before their execution. Martinez denied this, as he believed that the priests are innocent. On the morning of February 17, 1872, the priests have sentenced to death at Bagumbayan, including the witness, Francisco Saldua. Their blood has planted seeds for Filipino nationalism.

Historian questions authenticity of Burgos writings By OLIVER V. PALILEO IN HIS book, The Making of the Filipino Nation, Historian John Schumacher said there were many published documents from the Philippine National Archives and other depositories has made it possible to take another look at a number of writings about or attributed to Father Jose Burgos. Doubts have been expressed at different times and in various quarters as to the authenticity of some or all of these documents, but there seems to be no categorical agreement among historians as to their genuinely or falsity. There are three documents – printed books, manuscripts, typescript copies – that come under consideration are the following: (1) a narrative of the events immediately preceding and following the Cavity mutiny of 1872, allegedly written in 1873 by Francisco de Liñan; (2) the novel allegedly written by Fr. Burgos, La Loba Negra; and (3) a series of miscellaneous works on the most varied subjects –

Philippine history, ethnology, religious as well as antireligious works, etc. The Historica Veridica of Francisco de Liñan The first edition of this work is entitled A la memoria de los tres mártires del clero Filipino, Padres dr. Jose Apolonio Burgos, Feliciano Gómez y Jacinto Zamora. Leg. 117 – Causa Esp. 1455. Historia veridical de la sangrienta algarada de Cavite (1872) recopila por su autor Dn. Francisco de Liñan (1873) con la biografía de algunos, apéndice y anécdotas, recopilado para su publicación. It is said to be ―primera edición‖, printed in Bacolod with the date of 17 February 1933. The second editon of the work is substantially identical with the first, except that there is no indication of place, date, or publisher. A third edition was with published in 1963. The work consists essentially in four parts. These are the follows: (1) a prologue; (2) ―Biografía de P. J. A. Burgos y anécdotas históricas,‖; (3) the Historia Verídica of Francisco de Liñan, dated Balabac,1873, in which are narrated certain events leading up to the outbreak of the Cavite Mutiny and the subsequent arrest


and trial of Father Burgos and his colleagues; and (4) attached to this account and forming part of it are alleged excepts from the records of the trial of Burgos. In summary, the Historia Verídica of Francisco de Liñan, together with its annexes and ―documents‖, is a forgery and of no historical value. A careful comparison of the account given by Montero y Vidal in his Historia general de Filipinas with the work of Liñan will show the ineptness with which the latter work was composed. La Loba Negra This story revolves around the assassination of Gov. Gen. Fernando de Bustamente y Bustillo in 1719 by a mob led or instigated by friars. The so called ―original manuscript‖ reproduced by an offset printing in 1960 is a forgery, but so is the novel itself in all of its editions. None of the less, it is an apocryphal account of Francisco de Liñan. Other attributed works by Burgos were not yet confirmed to be his work.



The Harbinger of Truth



GomBurZa ignites Reform movements By ALAIN LOUISE C. GERONIMO PACIANO, Jose Rizal‘s older brother, told Jose the martyrdom of the three priests. Jose was 11 at that time, and was deeply impressed by them and carried on the work of the three priestmartyrs, Fr. Jose Burgoz, Fr. Mariano Gomes and Fr. Jacinto Zamora. To dedicate the priests, he would write his first novel, Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not) in 1886, and El Filibusterismo (The Reign of Greed) in 1891. The what-would-be-called the Propaganda movement was born in 1882. The Propaganda Movement was not a revolutionary or a seditious affair, it was pro-Spain in ambition. It requested the equality of Filipinos and Spanish before the law, the assimilation of the Philippines being a province of Spain, restoration of Philippine representation of the Spanish Cortes, the secularization of the priests and the expulsion of the friars, and the human rights of the Filipinos, such as freedom of speech, etc. Members include the Filipino expatriates in Europe, such as the famed Dr. Jose Protacio Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Graciano Lopez-Jaena, Mariano Ponce, Juan and Antonio Luna, Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo, Pedro Serrano Laktaw, Jose Ma. Panganiban, Fernando Canon, Jose Alejandrino, Isabelo delos Reyes, and Dominador Lopez. The most prominent ones include: Rizal, as mentioned, wrote the two novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo; Marcelo H. del Pilar, an excellent writer, who wrote satirical pieces such as Caiingat Cayo, Da-

salan at Tocsohan and Ang Sampung Kautusan ng mga Prayle, which aimed directly at the friars; and Jaena, an excellent orator, who wrote La Hija del

Ramos, a London-educated rich merchant-mason. The demonstrators, including the gobernadorcillos of towns in Manila,

NOLI ME TANGERE AND EL FILIBUSTERISMO Fraile, Fray Botod, and Esperanza, also aimed at the friars. Jaena‘s official newspaper, La Solidaridad (The Solidarity) was established in 1889 in Barcelona, Spain. He was also the editor in chief at that time. It had audiences between Spain and the Philippines. It aimed to stop the country from going backwards, to extol liberalism and defend progress. The Anti-Friar Manifesto In March 1, 1888, an anti-friar demonstration led by a lawyer named Doroteo Cortes, with secret assistance from Marcelo H. del Pilar, and Jose A.

Quotes on Nationalism “Neither is their liberty without struggle. Without liberty there is no light.” - Jose P. Rizal (1886) “We can combat corruption and national apathy by resurgence of nationalism. The only solutions to our problems are nationalist solutions.”

marched to the Ayuntamiento (city hall) and formally submitted to acting civil governor Jose Centeno of Manila addressed to Queen Regent Maria Cristina, titled ―Long Live the Queen! Long Live the Army! Down with the Friars!‖ This manifesto, which was made in the same year, denounce the friars, including the anti-Filipino Pedro Payo, in meddling in the movement and expel them, enriching themselves contrary to monastic vow of poverty, opposing the teaching of Spanish language to the natives, and keeping the Philippines in obscurantism. The friars avenged themselves by persecuting the demonstrators and

“As members of this great fraternity of mankind, it is our bounden duty to expedite the establishment of the reign of peace and order upon this world by fostering nationalism through our loyalty to the history , institutions, and tradition of our country and by cherishing everything genuinely and honourably Filipino. This is nationalism.” - Jose Laurel (1921)

- Manuel Roxas (1946)

“No doubt, we need nationalism—a chastened, enlightened, well-developed, humanized nationalism. We should disregard selfish individualism, narrow, prejudiced sensationalism, and exaggerated, superficial nationalism. A militant national spirit is necessary for the safety of our country, our homes and our people’s existence. We must preserve our good national traits, study the history and culture of our country, acquaint ourselves with the lives of our heroes and consecrate their memories, and, above all, safeguard our national welfare and strengthen our national existence.” - Nestor Santana (1946)

“True nationalism should be confined to the realization of national aspirations compatible with the formation of strong national states.”

“Rightly conceived, felt and practiced, nationalism is a tremendous force for good.”

- Adriano Garcia (1940)

- Manuel Quezon (1940)

- Renato Constantino “Patriotism and the national spirit must be broadened to include a fundamental understanding of democracy. Selfish provincialism, envy and arrogance must be eliminated. Patriotism and nationalism must be an emotional and intellectual conviction not an assured attitude. It can be firm, but tolerant and friendly; it should be gracious.”

had them thrown into prison. Fortunately, the Queen Regent released and pardoned them. La Liga Filipina In 1892, Jose Rizal created La Liga Filipina, a secret league which seeks peaceful reform movements and unite the whole country. It was derived from the Propaganda Movement and Graciano Lopez Jaena‘s newspaper, La Solidaridad. The league was to be a sort of mutual aid and self-help society, dispensing scholarship funds and legal aid. The Spaniards found the league a threat and arrested Rizal on July 6, 1892 on Dapitan by Governor General Eulogio Despujol. The league became inactive for a while. After his release, the group decided to support their own newspaper, La Solidaridad, and the reforms it advocated, raise funds for the paper, and defray the expenses of deputies advocating reforms for the country before the Spanish Cortes. Some members, such as Andres Bonifacio, did not agree, and wanted to resort to violence. Many of the reformists at that time showed a deep love for their country, but failed to maintain a united front, which became a hindrance to the movement. Lack of funds also made the group into disarray. After the group‘s disarray of leadership, the Supreme Council of the League abolished the society in 1896. The league was split into two groups – the Cuerpo de Comprimisarios, which still sought peaceful reforms and showed support for the newspaper of La Liga, and Bonifacio‘s own secret movement, the Katipunan, which aims for total freedom against the Spaniards.

“A nation like ours which is newly independent would naturally be prone to use nationalistic argument in support of policies designed to safeguard the national interest as against those of the outside world. Within reasonable limits, the wisdom of such policies cannot be denied. But to the extent that the temptation to its possible abuse exits, the need arises to place the sentiment of nationalism under proper regulation and control. Nationalism is a power which, unless put to sound and constructive uses, may easily lend itself to evil and dangerous ends. This neo-nationalist movement, therefore, is predicated in part by the desire to enable our people to avoid the pitfalls of traditional nationalism, so that by intelligent direction and by substitution of wholesome for iniquitous ends, we might be able to exploit this power to the utmost without abuse or danger. Nationalism does not connote unreasoning opposition to Americans or foreign cooperation to develop our country. Americans and Filipinos are so close to each other that all these years they have lived together in amity and understanding. There can be no Anti-American sentiment in the Philippines today. There must come to every newly emancipated nation a period of intense nationalism.

- Carlos Romulo (1950)

The Harbinger of Truth

News 1872—1896


from page A1

Discussing the issues of the weapons, Bonifacio admitted that ―the possession of a big stock of weapons is a factor in winning a war, but lack of it would not be a cause of vacillation. History bears tout the fact that the revolutions were won by rebels whose inferior weapons were compensated by their zeal and the righteousness of their cause.‖

National Historical Commission of the Philippines

La Ilustración Española y Americana

memory won‘t wrong him, then claiming that Andres Bonifacio was well known to him for him to be mistaken. In an exclusive interview of the Philippine Free Press last August 20, 1949, De Jesus recalled ―Bonifacio was an outstanding man out of my intimate relation with him developed a feeling of awe Blood Compact and veneration.‖ In the adjoining room With Andres Bonifacio lit only by a flickering gas not much satisfied with the lamp, hoisting a mahogany attainment of the La Liga table in which a human skull of Jose Rizal, he stepped and a pistol was placed over, out to the danger zone to in the table they cut through plan a jolting effort against their fore-arms letting the the Spaniards. blood drip to a catch. The Andres Bonifacio‘s blood will serve as the ink, the quick temperedness and ink that will merit their brothdefinitive hatred over the erhood as they sign the KatiSpaniards led him to hudpunan agreement, a brotherdle with Teodoro Plata and Ladislao Diwa in 752 TRIUMVIRATE FOUNDERS Andres Bonifacio (left), Ladislao Di- CRADLE OF KATIPUNAN The triumvi- hood of that offered blood not only in paper but in battle, Elcano accessoria house rate founders established Katipunan in the that later quashed the centuwa (right) and Teodoro Plata (no existing photograph) founded Katirented by Plata. It is in this ries of regime. plain huddle that became punan on the night of July 7, 1892 at Azcarraga Street, Tondo, Manila. house of Deodato Arellano. (inset photo) The signers were the first meeting of the orDeodato Arellano, Valentin ganization of Katipunan. Diaz, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Hiding from the plain Diwa and the ‗Supremo‘ Ansight of the Spaniards the dres Bonifacio. huddle then moved to 64 The rest was history. Azcarraga St. the home of a co-mason Deodato Arellano and joined by Valentin Diaz, pacifist attitude while the enemy are plan lies headlong in recruiting memin this meeting that Bonifacio anbrazenly debauching themselves on the bers from the rank and file. nounced his plan of organizing the resources of the people? We are comBut Bonifacio rivaled this and Kataastaasang Kagalangalangang Katimitting a sin of omission … At all costs said that: ―Our organization shall be the punan nang mga Anak ng Bayan we have to emancipate our motherforce to quell the forces of tyranny in (KKKANB). land.‖ this unhappy land … we are of the ―It was the place where the foundAll efforts are directed same blood we shall not be speaking ers of the Katipunan put their heads for the emancipation of Filipinos from we for ourselves by doubting the capactogether to plot a revolution against the the growing abuses and battering of the ity of unlearned to keep secrets … the Spain; a few historians may disagree colonizers in their very own land. ignorant and the poor are equal with the with me on this point. I do not think my The initials KKK sturdily learned and the rich in their respect … memory fails me,‖ De Jesus said, recolstand proud for Kataastaasang Kagayou cannot expect a society to carry on lecting the lofty initiative of Bonifacio. langalangang Katipunan nang mga its militant aim without the manpower. Anak ng Bayan. What do you intend to be- an army of KKK officers?‖ Recruitment The organizational structure of The initials K.K.K. were the idea Andres Bonifacio directed that the Katipunan entailed three ranks of from the Ku-Klux-Klan of in the Unites no social standing and birth is a hinmembership, with new members startStates of America. drance to joining their brotherhood. ing out as ―katipon,‖ then moving up to Bonifacio explaining the organiMembers were to recruit two ―kawal‖ and eventually to ―bayani.‖ zation of masonry effort, he said that: new adherents thus building a network Members were to pay a member―my Brothers have not the least doubt of ‗triangles‘ to keep the discreet moveship fee with a unit of currency equal to on each of us here is a true mason and ment of the recruitment, as well as to 1/8 of a silver real peso, as well as a worthy son of our Motherland. As keep the Katipunan principles. monthly dues and other fees paid exclusuch we cannot just fold our arms and The ‗triangle‘ method then sively to the Benefit Fund and collected sit in comfort while the abuses of the proved to be slow paced so they decidat every session or meeting. authorities and the friars are mounting COUSIN OF KATIPUNAN‘S LAKAMBINI ed to allow members to recruit as much day by day… The masons mostly from Weapons as they can. Lifted from PFP article. a photograph shows the upper strata of society cannot be Meanwhile, Diaz cropped out a The KKK mostly masons have Castor de Jesus, cousin of Supremo Andres questioned for their good faith and lofty concern over a threat that he foresees, less access to weapons to match the Bonifacio‟s wife Gregoria de Jesus . ideals. But it‘s right to always maintain a pointing out that the weakness of the might of the Spaniards.

Philippine Free Press(PFP)

Lakambini’s first cousin tells the Katipunan Founding Story

Who is the real founder of Katipunan?



DIWA FAMILY Cecilia and Edna Diwa (third and fourth from the right) when interviewed by historian Augusto De Viana (second from the left) in Cavite

LADISLAO Diwa, not Andres Bonifacio, is the real founder of Katipunan, Diwa‘s daughter claimed. In an interview by historian Augusto De Viana in Cavite, Cecilia Diwa, daughter of Ladislao, claimed that his father conceptualized the idea of forming a secret society, Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKKANB). Diwa‘s daughter narrated the

founding of Katipunan by telling that her father invited Bonifacio and Teodoro Plata to a convocation at the University of Santo Tomas. ―They were barely seated when they heard the priest hurling insults at Filipinos especially at the young women whom they accused of being easy-going and without virtue. By the time the three men left their anger against the Spaniards was seething,‖ Cecilia said. After the convocation at the University of Santo Tomas, Diwa met frequently with Plata and decided to form a surreptitious society whose goals and values would be patterned after the Ital-

ian ―Black Capes that was to rally the Filipinos by apprising them of the conditions of the time. Plata suggested to include Bonifacio in their undisclosed association that brought into the triumvirate of Plata, Diwa and Bonifacio of KKANB on the evening of July 7, 1892. ―Diwa assumed the symbolic name ‗Balite’ and Bonifacio took the name ‗Maypag-asa.’ When the council of government of the Katipunan was formed in October 1892 it was called ‗Kataastaasang Sanggunian.‘ Deodato Arellano was elected its President,‖ Diwa‘s daughter, a former Cavite elementary school principal, added.

News 1896—1901

The Harbinger of Truth MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

IN THE KNOW: Katipunan’s System SOURCE: The objectives of the Katipunan, as the brotherhood was popularly known, were threefold: political, moral, and civic. They advocated for freedom from the yoke of Spain, to be achieved through armed struggle. They also saw it as their personal responsibility to help the poor and the oppressed, and to teach them good manners, hygiene, and morality.


New recruits to the secret society underwent a rigorous initiation process, similar to Masonic practices. A neophyte, dressed in black and accompanied by his sponsor, was brought to a small room decorated with patriotic posters (1), in front of a cabinet draped in black. He was then seated at a dimly-lit table, on which rested a bolo (2), a revolver (3), and a set of questions which he must answer to the satisfaction of the members assembled: What was the condition of the Philippines in the early times? What is the condition today? What will be the condition in the future?


The candidate was expected to respond that the Filipinos were once independent, and that the Spaniard colonizers had not improved the conditions of the Philippines, but that soon the Philippines would be free once more. The master of ceremonies would once more try to discourage him by telling him to back down if he does not have enough courage; should he persist, he is led blindfolded into another room for a physical test. The final rites involved the neophyte signing the oath of membership in his own blood, usually drawn from a cut made by a scalpel to the left forearm.

The organizational structure of the Katipunan entailed three ranks of membership, with new members starting out as ―katipon,‖ then moving up to ―kawal‖ and eventually to ―bayani.‖ Members were to pay an entrance fee of one real fuerte, a unit of currency equal to 1/8 of a silver real peso, as well as monthly dues and other fees paid exclusively to the Benefit Fund and collected at every session or meeting.



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IN THE KNOW: Katipunan’s Hierarchy THOUGH the organizational structure of the Katipunan was constantly in flux, it is generally believed that they formed small branches, governed by the sangguniang balangay, and these small branches would form larger provincial councils, governed by the sangguniang bayan. All these would be overseen by the Supreme Council of the Katipunan (Kataastasang Sanggunian), which was composed of a president

(pangulo), secretary (kalihim), fiscal (tagausig), treasurer (tagaingat yaman), and six councilors (kasanguni). The legislative body of the Katipunan was known as the Katipunan Assembly, and it was composed of the members of the Supreme Council, along with the presidents of the popular and provincial councils. Judicial

power rested in the sangguniang hukuman, which were provincial courts that decided on internal matters; however, judgement on grave matters (such as betraying the Katipunan or committing acts penalized by the organization‟s laws) were meted by the “Secret Chamber,” composed of Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto, and Dr. Pio Valenzuela. (Source:

Mabini creates PH version of 10 Commandments from A1 By the revolutionary government of Aguinaldo, in order for the people, in Mabini‘s words, to ―understand that reason and your conscience constitute the only solid and true basis of your moral education, in the same way that honest work is the real basis for your material education.‖ Mabini continued by stating that what was contained in the documents were his proposals for the internal revolution for the people to adopt as their moral and behavioral guide, and for the external revolution for the revolutionary government to espouse as the framework of governance. The decalogue contains the following commandments. First. Love God and your honor over all things; God, as the source of all truth, all justice, and all activity; your honor, the only power that obliges you to be truthful, just and industrious. Second. Worship God in the form that your conscience deems most upright and fitting, because it is through your conscience that God speaks to you, reproaching you for your misdeeds and applauding you for your good deeds. Third. Develop the special talents that God has given you, working and studying according to your capa-

bilities, never straying from the path of good and justice, in order to achieve your own perfection, and by this means you will contribute to the progress of humanity:‖ thus you will accomplish the mission that God himself has given you in this life, and achieving this, you will have honor, and having honor, you will be glorifying God.

not recognize the authority of any person who has not been elected by you and your compatriots, because all authority comes from God, and as God speaks to the conscience of each individual, the person chosen and proclaimed by the consciences of all the individuals of a whole town is the only one that can exercise real authority.

Fourth. Love your country after God and your honor, and more than you love yourself, because your country is the only paradise that God has given you in this life; the only patrimony of your race; the only inheritance from your ancestors; and the only future of your descendants: because of your country you have life, love and interests; happiness, honor and God.

Eighth. Strive that your country be constituted as a republic, and never as a monarchy: a monarchy empowers one or several families and lays the foundation for a dynasty; a republic ennobles and dignifies a country based on reason, it is great because of its freedom, and is made prosperous and brilliant by dint of work.

Fifth. Strive for the happiness of your country before your own, making her the reigning influence for reason, justice and work; if your country is happy, you and your family will also be happy. Sixth. Strive for the independence of your country, because you alone can have a real interest in her aggrandizement and ennoblement, since her independence will mean your own freedom, her aggrandizement your own perfection, and her ennoblement your own glory and immortality. Seventh. In your country, do

the same happiness and sorrows, and by the same aspirations and interests.

Ninth. Love your neighbor as you love yourself, because God has imposed on him and on you the obligation to help one another, and has dictated that he does not do unto you what he does not want you to do unto him; but if your neighbor is remiss in this sacred duty and makes an attempt on your life, your freedom and your properties, then you should destroy him and crush him, because the supreme law of self preservation must prevail. Tenth. Always look on your countryman as more than a neighbor: you will find in him a friend, a brother and at least the companion to whom you are tied by only one destiny, by

THE SUBLIME PARALYTIC Former Secretary of State in Aguinaldo‟s cabinet, as he appeared in 1900 in his invalid chair at the Anda Street Police Station, Walled City, Manila

Treaty of Paris ends Spanish-American War from A1 measured and lined It happened on because of this treaFebruary 15, 1898 and ty. the Spaniards are blamed According to the Jus on the explosion. Cogens Doctrine apThe war officially plied to the Treaty of started on April 24, when Paris, 1898 it stated Spain declared war over that the marine area United States and on beyond three miles April 25 US acknowllimit from low water edged the war. mark part of the terriBecause Philiptory of the Philippines pines was owned by will be included. Spain, Philippines inHowever, most Filipivolved then, they call it nos then assumed Battle of Manila Bay (May that the whole territo1, 1898) and causalities ry including the vast were killed during that expanses of marine On December 10 the Treaty of Paris was signed, area within the drawn time. The American Peace Commission at a conference in their council- Spain ceded the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto lines as described in Spain is losing their room at the Continental Hotel, Paris. LEFT TO RIGHT: Whitelaw Reid, Rico (Cuba was granted its independence); in article III of the Treaships and over 300 sailors. On June 20, 1898, Sen. George Gray, John Moore (Secretary), Judge William R. Day, return, the US paid Spain the sum of US$20 mil- ty consists of the nathe USS Charleston captured Sen. William P. Frye, and Sen. Cushman K. Davis. tional territory of the lion for the Philippines. the island of Guam without Philippines. no bloodshed but this mark the first Pasigned to end the war and finally Dely interested in At that time three cific capture of the war. cember 10, 1898 cam and Treaty of the Philippines especially the United nautical miles rule was universally recAfter a couple months of bloody Paris was signed. States. ognized under the international law. war, on June 20, 1898, it paved the way 5 of the 17 articles, Philippines The national territory of the Philto peace talk and an armistice was was stated which means they were realippines was settled and was exactly

The Harbinger of Truth

News 1896—1901


OPENING THE LAW-MAKING BODY Malolos Congress opened at the Barasoain Church on September 15, 1898.

CRADLE OF DEMOCRACY IN THE EAST Barasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan is the capitol of the first Philippine Republic and the temporary residence of first President Emilio Aguinaldo.

Malolos Constitution prioritizes education By DENISSE JANE S. REMOLACIO YOUTH, a very significant factor in the Philippine Revolution that pressed education to become in the list priorities of the Malolos Government and the Malolos Congress. Most of the patriots were young men and aged under 40 but their education were interrupted. Owing the destruction of school houses and the unsettled condition, schools were closed during that time. Since the government of Aguinaldo was at war, it is the military who took a big slice of the cake in prioritizing the budget and so the Malolos Congress made remarkable provisions for education.

At the year 1898 in October 19, a decree was established which was the construction of the Literary University of the Philippines that contains professor appointed by Gen. Aguinaldo. Cayetano Arrelano, Pedro Paterno, Arsenio Cruz- Herrera, Pablo Ocampo, Hipolito Magsalin, Tomas Del Rosario and Felipe Calderon were assigned in the Faculty of Laws and Administrative Law. Dr. Joaquin Gonzales, Dr. Trinidad Pardo de Tavera, Dr. Jose Albert, Dr. Salvador Del Rosario, Dr. Ariston Bautista, Dr. Isidro Santos, Dr. Franciso Liongson with licentiates Justo Lukban and Jose Luna took the place in the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery. In the Faculty of Pharmacy, Dr. Mariano del Rosario and those with

licentiates: Leon Maria Guerrero, who became one of the rector of the said university, Alejandro Albert, Enrique Perez, Manuel Zamora and Mariano Ocampo were appointed. Dr. Antonio Luna also known as General Luna became the star professor of the Faculty of Pharmacy.

government. One the 7th day of June 1899 a decree was also passed that encouraged the attendance of pupils in the elementary schools established in areas that is under control of the revolutionary government.

Beside on providing school for tertiary education, Malolos Congress also provided for the segunda ensenanza. So the Institute Burgos was established on the 24th day of October, 1898.

Thus, the forming of Corporal punishment popped out which is most hated by the Children but Mabini and others like him drafted a decree dated on February 28, 1899 that forbids the whipping of school children because it can degrade human personality.

The lack of qualified teachers were encountered in the time so a decree was passed on November 4, 18988 that permitted public school teachers during the last days of Spanish regime to continue in the service or otherwise directed by the revolutionary

It is really difficult and impossible to asses this kind of education system in the Revolutionary Government but still it resulted out to be good having Filipinos of today that have been a better people and would have been deserved better leaders.

IN THE KNOW: Malolos Constitution Here is an excerpt of the 1898 Malolos Constitution:

Article 3. Sovereignty resides exclusively in the people.




Article 6. The following are Filipinos:

We, the Representatives of the Filipino people, lawfully covened, in order to establish justice, provide for common defense, promote the general welfare, and insure the benefits of liberty, imploring the aid of the Sovereign Legislator of the Universe for the attainment of these ends, have voted, decreed, and sanctioned the following:

Article 4. The Government of the Republic is popular, representative, alternative, and responsible, and shall exercise three distinct powers: namely, the legislative, the executive, and the judicial. Any two or more of these three powers shall never be united in one person or cooperation, nor the legislative power vested in one single individual.

TITLE I THE REPUBLIC Article 1. The political association of all Filipinos constitutes a nation, whose state shall be known as the Philippine Republic Article 2. The Philippine Republic is free and independent

TITLE III RELIGION Article 5. The State recognizes the freedom and equality of all religions, as well as the separation of the Church and the State.


1. All persons born in the Philippine territory. A vessel of Philippine registry is considered, for this purpose, as part of Philippine territory. 2. Children of a Filipino father or mother, although born outside of the Philippines. 3. Foreigners who have obtained certification of naturalization. 4. Those who, without such certificate, have acquired a domicile in any town within Philippine territory. It is understood that domicile is acquired by uninterrupted residence for two years in any locality within Philippine territory, with an open abode and known occupation, and contributing to all the taxes imposed by the Nation.

News 1901—1910

The Harbinger of Truth MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

Eyewitness tells Aguinaldo Capture By JAMES GIDEON A. TINSAY PALANAN, ISABELA — GENERAL Emilio Aguinaldo, president of the First Philippine Republic, was captured by American forces on March 23. According to the book, ―The full story of Emilio Aguinaldo‘s capture‖ by Lazaro Segovia, participant in the capture, Aguinaldo and his men were caught off guard as Macabebe soldiers, whom Aguinaldo thought were his reinforcements, open fired at them. An expedition was sent by General Douglas McArthur for Aguinaldo‘s capture. It was led by Colonel Frederick Funston and consisted of Lt. Col. Hilario Tal Placido and Captain Lazaro Segovia, former soldiers of Aguinaldo, Captains Newton and Hazzard, Liutenants Hazzard and Mitchell, and about 80 Macabebe soldiers, natives of Macabebe, Pampanga, former Spanish Civil Guards who swore allegiance to the Americans. According to Bonifacio Dizon, a Macabebe scout, in his account of Aguinaldo‘s capture, the Macabebes were skilled soldiers and were on the side of the enemy just because they don‘t want their countrymen to make unnecessary sacrifices brought by their resistance to foreign rule. Dizon said that they too must be called heroes. Aguinaldo sent his messenger, Private Cecilio Segismundo, to send letters to the officers in command of guerrilla forces in Central Luzon so that they may send reinforcements to be under command of Aguinaldo‘s chief-of-staff, Colonel Simeon Villa. Later did Aguinaldo know that his messenger was captured by General Funston and from there, the general planned Aguinaldo‘s capture. According to Aguinaldo‘s account of his capture, featured in the same book, on March 20, Aguinaldo receieved two sealed packagaes containing two letters, one from Gen. Urbano Lakuna, and another from from Lt. Col. Tal Placido. Unknown to Aguinaldo, the Lakuna‘s letter was forged by a man named Roman Roque, a clerk and interpreter at Funston‘s office in San Isidro, Nueva Ecija. Aguinaldo never doubted its authenticity since it contained the

seal of Lakuna. The American expedition went forth to Palanan aboard the

Lazaro Segovia

A sketch depicting warship ―Vicksburg‖. On March 23, Aguinaldo heartily welcomed this so called ―reinforcements‖, willing to give them rest. The Macabebe soldiers wore the blue ―rayadillo‖ uniforms and armed themselves with Mausers, Remingtons, and Krags, the very

items used by the Philipine Revolutionary soldiers avoid suspicion. The five Americans were tied

advisers, Col. Santiago Barcelona and Col. Simeon Villa. While Tal Placido spoke with Aguinaldo, Segovia gave the signal to the Macabebes to fire; surprising the soldiers and making them leave their arms behind. Some of Aguinaldo‘s officers escaped from the windows, while Barcelona and Aguinaldo were left behind. Aguinaldo, thinking that the Macabebes were just doing a gun salute, told them to stop firing, but to no effect. Villa escaped from a window, but was shot by Segovia‘s revolver before he surrendered. Villa was shot twice according to Segovia, but according to Aguinaldo, it was thrice. Tal Placido told Aguinaldo that they were now American prisoners. According to Dizon‘s account, he and his men entered the house to guard Aguinaldo while Segovia is untying the five AmeriEmilio Aguinaldo boarded USS Viscksburg cans. The Americans then entered looking for Aguinaldo. Colonel Funston introduced himself and told him that resistance is useless. Aguinaldo and his companions surrendered. The four other Americans searched the house for documents. According to Funston memoirs entitled ―Memoirs of Two Wars‖, Aguinaldo calmly accepted his defeat, which Funston admired. The group left with the the capture of Emilio Aguinaldo prisoners on board to Vicksburg on March 28. so that they will look like prisoners. The captors were paid handThe troops halted infront of somely by the American governAguinaldo‘s house and infront of his ment. men. Aguinaldo was brought to Segovia and Tal Placido asGen. Douglas McArthur in Malacacended in the house to converse ñan Palace and was made to take with Aguinaldo, who was surrounded an oath of allegiance to America. by some of his officers and his two

The Harbinger of Truth

News 1910—1921


US Gov’t Fosters Rizal as Nat’l Hero By James Gideon A. Tinsay

THE QUESTION "Who is the national hero of the Philippines?" is a no-brainer. An average Filipino child will easily answer Jose Rizal. But is he really the Philippines's national hero? Is it true that it was the Americans who caused such prominence on Rizal? First of all, our country does not have an officially recognized national hero. No legislation had been made making Rizal the national hero. Yet, it is widely accepted and is taught in elementary school as such. According to Chapter 16 of the book, Jose Rizal : The man and the hero by Ronni Espergal Pasigui and Danilo Hipolito Cabalu, the reason for such prominence on Rizal could be attributed to William Howard Taft, then American governor, advocating Rizal in order to reduce the influence of the friars. Rizal was merely advocated by the Americans for his peaceful, no-arms form of revolution, as opposed to Emilio Aguinaldo and Andres Bonifacio took part of the arms revolution. Moreover, the book tells that Rizal's detractors claim that Rizal was a "second-rate hero who has been deified by the American government for the pur-

pose of controlling public opinion." Renato Constantino, a well-known Filipino historian, expressed this view. "He blames Filipinos for succumbing to American rule and allowing Jose Rizal to be manipulated into a national hero. Other than being Americansponsored, attack on Rizal's national hero status was also made through his "Manifesto to the Filipino People", wherein he condemns the Revolution of 1896. According to the essay: "Was Jose Rizal an American-Sponsored hero?" of Ambeth Ocampo, a multiawarded Rizal historian, he said that this controversy is an attempt to "denigrate the level of Rizal's nationalism, and as a result, his contribution to Philippine history." Ocampo defended the hero by pointing out that "Rizal inspired the revolution and for this alone, his detractors should think of a new argument, rather than riding on the prevailing antiAmerican sentiment to denigrate Jose Rizal." The book also tells that Ocampo confronts the American-made controversy by stating the obvious. "Jose Rizal was the chief architect of the Philippine nationalism and indpendence long before the Americans arrived. He was recognized as the first

Malay son." Although Rizal may not the leader of the Katipunan. He didn't not believe that the 1896 revolution would succeed, he is still recognized by Filipinos "as their foremost native son". Although there is truth that Rizal's position as a national hero was fostered by the Americans, how come he continue to remain famous among Filipinos, given that he is not officialy recognized? The book tells us that "the main reason Rizal maintains a national hero status is that his ideas on education, economic independence and government continue to dominate in the Philippines." Rizal has the most ideal contributions among Filipino heroes. Filipinos are the very reason for Rizal's prominence. As long as Filipinos recognize Rizal's contributions and his prowess, he'll remain the country's national hero. Evidences such as the presence of Rizal Park, Rizal heritage sites, Rizal organizations such as Knights of Rizal and Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi (IWL) who live by Rizal's principles, and the mandatory study of Rizal's life and works in Philippine schools, will ensure that Rizal's memory as a national hero will remain.

US bans Philippine flag THE US colonizers outlawed the display of the Philippine flag for patriotism reasons last September 6, 1907. The Act No. 1696, or the Flag Law of 1907 as known to many, was passed by the Philippine Commission, who was urged by the American community. It states that it prohibits the use of the Philippine flags, banners, and emblems used in the Philippines for rebellion and insurrection against the American authorities. If caught and proven guilty on court, the offender is punished with a prison term of not less than 3 months and not more than 5 years. This could be with or without a fine of not less than 500 pesos, but not more than 5000 pesos. Americans feared that if the Filipinos still use the flag, they will show weakness and lenience as part of the conquering force. Filipino legislators made efforts to repeal the law, but to no avail. Occurrences Incidents had happened that urged the Americans to ban the use of the Philippine flag. As a colony, the flag of the colonizing country decides what flag or symbol the colonizers use. In this case, the Americans interpreted the sun and stars of the present flag as ―an act of freedom and rebellion‖. It was Rafael Crame, who in 1907 who first interpreted those colors,


when he saw Fernando Ma. Guerrero, a member of the Nacionalista Party, wearing a tricolored button on his coat. Crame asked Guerrero for his badge politely, and conferred it to the Chief of Police. It was given back to Guerrero half an hour later, but he was prohibited from using it. Another reason is that the guerilla groups will rebel against the colonizers, and will encourage the country to start another revolution. Governor-General James F. Smith has reacted to those situations and stated that he was interested in the welfare of the Filipinos, but he is more interested in his mother country and its welfare. ―…I wish to be tolerant, and when the army authorities told me that such tolerance would be of evil results in the future, I answered that we should not be very exacting because the Filipino flag symbolized an ideal bathed in blood and tears." He also said that in any way, they love their country more than most, and let not be treated unlikely. No Philippine flags are exhibited from 1908 to 1914 as assemblymen worked under the Flag Law. Repealed In 1919, Philippine Senator Rafael Palma sponsored the Senate Bill No. 1, which it repeals the said law following Governor General Francis Harrison‘s recommendation that the law should be repealed since the distrust between US and Philippines ended.


Rizal might have served an American purpose, but his legacy's lasting effects in the Philippine Independence and Democracy will forever serve the Filipino people, a mark of a true national hero.

The bill was signed by Harrison in October 24 of the same year. The ban ended in October 30, 1919, when Harrison declared the observance

of the Flag Day, thus, the law was repealed.

The Harbinger of Truth



PH NATIONALISM ‘AT ITS FINEST’: Historians, Academicians, Politicians attempt to define nationalism from A1 The Batangas born historian described Filipino nationalism using periodization. He added periodization is not meant to ―compartmentalize history‖ but done for the sake of convenience and simplification. Agoncillo enumerated the stages of Philippine nationalism as follows: the awakening (1850 to 1872), reform movement (1872 to 1896), revolutionary period (1896 to 1901), era of passive or ―suppressed‖ nationalism (1901 to 1910), ―Filipinization‖ period (1910 to 1921), period of independence missions (1921 to 1934), period of the Commonwealth (1935 to 1941), Japanese occupation period (1942 to 1945), and Deep slumber period (1946 to the present). (El Heraldo de la Verdad uses this periodization in presenting the news section of today’s paper) ―Filipino nationalism cannot be understood apart from its historical antecedents, for any unique historical event does not happen in a vacuum but is the result of numerous complex little events which, taken together, produce a massive impact on the course of history. Thus, I have to telescope, in a manner of speaking, the distant events in order to capture the essence of Filipino nationalism,‖ the 37-year-old historian said. Evolving PH Nationalism He narrated the events that ―awaken‖ Philippine nationalism by stating that in the beginning there is ―no Filipino nation, nor a Filipino state, for what is now known as the Philippines was composed of communities called barangays with their rulers, datus or rajahs. He then stated that Filipino ancestors were colonized using both ―the incantation of the cross and the swish of the sword,‖ adding that the Spanish colonial policy, which was most humane in paper, was greatly at variance with actuality and the Spanirads adopted the policy of ―divide and rule.‖ ―The hundreds of uprisings and revolts that plagued the more than three hundred years of Spanish rule in the Philippines, before the revolutionary explosion of 1896, were dismal failures, for the Filipinos had no unity and ideology and, consequently, too weak to challenge Spanish authority. The Spanish chroniclers, lay and clerical, explained these failures either by attributing them to miracles performed by some saints who were obviously biased against the Filipinos because the latter were always defeated, or the superiority of Spanish military science and tactics,‖ Agoncillo said, adding that the policy of divide and rule was mainly responsible for the failure. Agoncillo added that ―a revolt or uprising in one province was put down not by the Spanish soldiers but by Filipino mercenaries hired by Spanish colonial officials to kill their own kinsmen. It was impossible for the Filipinos of the period to forge a unity that could respond adequately to the Spanish challenge, for the insular character of the country, the linguistic diversity, and the hold of the friars over the simple-minded Filipinos who had been conditioned to obey unquestioningly,

were responsible for the narrow localism which discouraged common action against the foreign intruder.‖ He also mentioned another development of 1872, which is the Cavite Mutiny that led to the martyrdom of the three priests, Fathers Jacinto Za-

Teodoro Agoncillo

Jose Arcilla

the century, Filipino nationalism entered a new phase. While the nationalism that was aroused by the Spaniards and the Americans in 1899 was active and led to armed conflicts, the nationalism of the first decade of the century may be described as passive or

Jose Abueva

Jose Laurel

mora, Jose Burgos, and Mariano Gomes and described it as the ―awakening of nationalism.‖ He then stated Arnold Toynbee‘s historical process, challenge and response, making the response, the Reform Movement that was meant not to drive the Spaniards away, but to persuade them to make the Philippines a province of Spain. Andres Bonifacio, who comes from the ―ranks of the prostrate and desperate masses‖ instinctively felt the failure and the usefulessness of the reform movement that paved the way for the foundation of the revolutionary Katipunan in 1892, he stated. ―The revolution against Spain lasted until 1898, with the Shaky Truce of Biyak-na-bató of December 1897 serving as an interregnum in which both sides tried to outwit each other,‖ the University of the Philippines (UP) professor said. On June 12, 1898, General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the independence of the Philippines and a few months later, he convoked Congress. ―In the meantime, the FilipinoAmerican dialogue was beginning not only to slacken but also to be heated. The dialogue ceased when President William McKinley announced his so called ―Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation‖ in December 1898 and made it clear that the Americans were in the Philippines to stay. Filipino soldiers and literary men reacted sharply to McKinley‘s proclamation and the nationalistic newspaper La Independencia, edited by the fiery General Antonio Luna started a scorching anti-American campaign designed to unify the people against the new enemy,‖ Agoncillo continued. He said, ―With the establishment of the American colonial government in the Philippines at the turn of

Horacio de la Costa

Manuel Quezon

―suppressed.‖ ―From 1919 to 1932, United States sent independence missions to secure a solemn pledge from American officials in Washington that independence would be given to the Philippines at the earliest possible time,‖ the historian stated. He continued that the commonwealth, the semi-independent government during the ten-year transitioned period which was framed by the Filipino delegates and was approved by President Roosevelt in 1935, was regarded as an experimental stage preparatory to political independence. ―Under the three years [of Japanese occupation], the Filipinos suffered untold misery, hunger, disease and brutality. For the third time, Filipino nationalism was aroused to the point of ferocity,‖ he said. With the active help and participation of Filipino guerrillas of varying hues and motives, the American forces avenged their defeat on Bataan and Corregidor and on February 1945, entered North Manila almost without firing a shot. On July 4, 1946, the Philippines regained ―her independence, the historian ended. Attempts in defining “nationalism” and “PH nationalism” Despite Agoncillo‘s disapproval on the idea of defining ―a term that would encompass the whole human experience, time, and space,‖ various historians, academicians and politicians attempted to bring about their individual definitions on nationalism and Philippine nationalism. UP President Jose Abueva defined nationalism as a sentiment, a feeling or emotion, a consciousness, an inspiration, a commitment, a motiva-

tion, the nation‘s collective conscience, the primal virtue of the citizen, a manifestation of the national soul or spirit. Historian Jesuit Horacio de la Costa said Nationalism is two things, adding that it is a commitment and an ideology. ―A commitment, that is to say, a recognized and accepted duty to develop and to help defend one‘s nation so conceived. An ideology, that is to say, a concept of what nation is, what it can be, and what it ought to be,‖ de la Costa said. The Jesuit added the Filipino national tradition can be summed up in five principles: pagsasarili, pakikisama, pagkakaisa, pagkabayani and pakikipagkapwa-tao. Academician Oscar Alfonso described nationalism as ―the product of the late 18th century revolutionary era‖ and ―a child of the French Revolution.‖ ―The concept of nationalism was diffused from France to others parts of Europe during the Napoleonic Wars, and then to most parts of the world, later. It is a phenomenon which has dominated the thoughts and actions of most peoples since the French Revolution,‖ Alfonso said. Jesuit Historian Jose Arcilla said classroom history credits Burgos, Rizal, Mabini, and others as having created a ―Filipino consciousness,‖ adding that they lived in the period strongly influenced by the Enlightenment and nationalism was in the air. ―How orthodox was their doctrine? Was their views similar to those who had confused confused ‗national‘ welfare with their own individual interests? Did they speak for the rest of the Filipinos? If one accepts they were the prophets of Philippine nationalism, have their words been a message of salvation? Or like, those of the Old Testament prophets, have they instead fallen on the stony ground?‖ Arcilla questioned. Politician Jose Laurel said nationalism is our bounden duty to expedite the establishment of the reign of peace and order upon the world by fostering it. Former President Manuel Quezon said nationalism is a tremendous force for Good. Quezon said, ― It strengthens and solidifies a nation. Community interest is made active. It preserves the best traditions of the past and adds zest to the ambition of enlarging the inheritance of the people. It is, therefore, a dynamic urge for continuous self -improvement. In fine, it enriches the sum total of mankind‘s cultural, moral and material possessions through the individual and characteristic contribution of each people. Rizalian Nationalism 60 years ago, National Hero Jose Rizal said that lack of nationalism breeds evil. Rizal said, ―Lack of national sentiment [nationalism] breeds evil which is the scarcity of any opposition to the measures that are prejudicial to the people and the absence of any initiative that will redound to their welfare,‖


The Harbinger of Truth MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

EHDLV EDITORIAL Nationalism is to Independence, as oxygen is to fire. There must be a fuel to pump a machine running.

Jose Rizal, Andres Bonifacio, Gregorio Del Pilar and more heroics were fueled by none other than nationalism that led to our so called independence. But these Filipinos and many heroics are dead, so is our nationalism? A big no of course, but in the wake of the mingling of other nations in our land can we still find nationalism? They fought with pen and sword, offered their lives, took blows and suffering, and hands tied but nothings stopped the pumping of the furious nationalistic blood on their hearts. As we grow deeper into our independence, many challenges are brought through. As it was said, that the declaration of Independence reminds us that it is one thing to gain independence and quite another to know what to do with independence. Our heroes and leaders thought us what we can achieve from independence, but they just ended a problem in their time, now is the time of our people. The challenge is on us now. It is one to learn nationalism; it is another to let it live so that our nation can deflect any harsh challenges that would stomp on the hard work of our heroics. As the new generation sprout they can be disheartened of the much problem that our young Republic is facing. ELHERALDO/A14



The Harbinger of Truth EDITOR-IN-CHIEF / PUBLISHER


BEFORE one must attain a sense of nationalism, an individual should first trace its origin from where it germinated and then, was eventually adapted by nations. So, where does nationalism come from?




At first, the word ―nation‖ comes from the Latin word, natio, literally ―birth.‖ In his essay, The Origin of ―Nation‖ and ―Nationalism‖ :What is Philippine Nationalism?, Jesuit Historian Jose Arcilla said ―Naturally, those who spoke the same mother tongue other than the official language of the school tended to group together. One mother tongue other than the official language of the school tended to group together. One‘s mother tongue other than official language of the school tended to group together. One‘s mother tongue served as a distinguishing mark among the different races in medieval Europe. Soon nationalism or love of one‘s nation was identified with language and place of birth.‖ Arcilla noted that people have always been loyal to their group. He cited examples like: ―In classical Greece, it was the city-sate,

like Athens or Sparta; in classical Rome, the empire especially in the Augustan world colossus; and in the Israel of the Old Testament, loyalty centered on the terrestrial people of God. Today, the object of one‘s loyalties includes the totality of one‘s state, territory, and culture. It is not easy to say which of these three is the most important.‖ During the Enlightenment of 18th century, modern nationalism was born. It is when everybody criticized everything and everyone. Due to the empowerment of the bourgeois class or the middle societal class in the 12th and 13th centuries, the monarch sided with the ―powerful‖ bourgeois and take against with aristocrats and clergy, scrapping their privileges.



Luchador Opinion


SPORTS DEPARTMENT HEAD RED, BLUE, white spangled with stars and a sun fluttered in a clothed that symbolized more than freedom. A cloth once draped with blood and tears, fooled by religiosity, and spitted with greed. Now it waves with the breeze, swaying, hanging, and proud. The cloth that curried the burden of our various Filipinos who dedicated their lives, in their desire to see these days, just did came true. The declaration of independence at Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898, led by the leaders of this nation served the Filipinos so well. At last, since 1521, when the first Espanol came to our land we were freed of oppression and colonialism. This I can say so far is the proudest

moment in every Filipinos, vividly reflected in their eyes. Republica Filipina got back to its foot, rejuvenated. But, there is a threat that I see is just lingering around. All Filipinos hope that this independence would last, long for good. With the battering and whipping the Philippines took over the last decades, do we still have enough to further our independence? We know that when the Espanol came they were amazed by the richness of our resources, and of course the gullible Filipinos those times. With the Spaniards colonialism in our islands they exposed how a much a powerful country can take a good interest to our resources, our people and our land. We had exhausted the first colonials, but, how about the next? Our nation though with its strife and struggle is still relatively young. Young in its government, foundation, and leadership and can hardly stand on its own. This shows a brittle crack to our new independence, that when struck with a heave of force will surely open up again. How can we protect ourselves from another blow of oppression? We have a tainted country, stained with blood and hurt with battles. I believe that we should stand on our own, let us depart from another country who will try to partake in our rise from the ground up. We have learned that when the Es-

panol came to Mactan in Cebu they bid to be our friends, but, what came through is that they started showing interest to our spices, our people and our natural richness and the rest was history. Now we knew, we should now learn. They conquered our freedom, oppressed us and stained us with their greed. Just like now in the time of rebuilding of our nation and hailing our independence we should first try to build within from ourselves. We have enough resources and brains to bring our tattered nation back up. Our nation is very brittle, as well as our independence. Surely this would be a long, hard and tedious process of recovery. But it will be even worse when we will again welcome another nation for a bid to help us and latter would be turnout to another kind of oppression and greed. We should not subjugate to another countries. We had declared that we were independent, let us now crown ourselves of our independence and glimmer the image of a free Republica Filipina to the world. What for is our independence if we will depend to other countries? We can build back up as we did rose from the ground, independently by ourselves. June 12, 1898 marked the declaration of Independence and reminds us that it is one thing to gain independence and quite another to know what to do with independence.


The Harbinger of Truth MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950



PHILIPPINES as part of the US map is not an overnight decision. November of 1899, when a group of protestant clergymen stood up for a courtesy call on President McKinley, was asked to stay as the president gave these thought on the Philippines. President McKinley narrated "Before you go I would like to say just a word about the bad bisine business. I have been criticized a good deal about the Philippines but don't deserve it. The truth is I didn't want the Philippines, and when they came to us, as a gift from the gods, I did not

know what to do with them. When the Spanish war broke out, Dewey was in Hong Kong, and I ordered him to go to Manila, and he had to; because if defeated, he had no place to refit on that side of the globe, and if the Dons [Spaniards] were victorious they would likely cross the Pacific and ravage our Oregon and California coasts. And so he had to destroy the Spanish fleet, and did it! But that was as far as I thought then. When next I realized that the Philippines had dropped into our lap, I confess I did not know what to do with them. I sought counsel from all sides - Democrats as well as the Republicans- but got a little help. I thought first we would take only Manila; then Luzon; then the other islands, perhaps also. I walked the floor of the White House night after night until midnight; and I am not ashamed to tell you, gentlemen, that I went down on my knees to pray to the Lord Almighty for light and guidance more than one night. And one night it came to me this way- I don't know how it was but it came: (1) That we could not give them back to Spain- that would be a cowardly and dishonorable; (2) that we could not turn them over to France or

Germany- our commercial rivals in the Orient-that would be bad business (3) we could not leave them by themselves- they were unfit to selfgovernment (4) there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, educate them, uplift, civilize and Christianize them. The next morning, I sent for the chief engineer (map maker) of the War Department and told him to put the Philippines into our map. And there they will stay while I am the President!" 1898, McKinley appointed a five-man peace commission that would meet with their Spanish counterparts is Paris to negotiate the terms of peace that marked the end of the Spanish-American War. One of the commissioners, Whitelaw Reid, recorded the following to his diary. "Finally, the President indicated his desire to begin business and mentioned us to seat about the table... he began by a reference to the peace protocol, and to the wide divergence of opinions that seemed to exist in the country as to unsettled questions concerning the Philippines. He said he had prepared some instructions covering the main points of our duty, but had left the final decision as to the Philippines to be filled out after the present consultation".

RICH PEOPLE, STOP FLAUNTING IN PUBLIC AND GO HOME How about you go get my meal instead? And now, it gets worse. There are people who endlessly show public display of affection while wearing gaudy top hats and scarves, there are drunkards who point other people of what they wear, the waiters and waitresses with extravagant uniforms giggle and gossip with the other customers (with some partly reveal their undershirts), and the list goes on. Same thing goes with some people outside. And yes, the meal was finally served by that same waitress earlier. She went away with a smile and told me to enjoy my meal. I was about to think other things that went wrong Yet these people still do it. here. The pub became too noisy and it I once entered a pub last week is unbearable. Before I forget, almost just for a 25 centavo meal. all customers here are Americanized An extravagant looking wait- Filipinos. ress asked for my order. Americans these days… She seemed very kind. I placed my order and happily They taught us so much about complied. their culture after they settled here. She then pointed to my floral Filipinos thought that they are going to shirt. liberate us from the bloodshed. Most of ―You must be one very eccen- the cities became modernized and tric customer. You don‘t wear like eve- more glamorous shops began to rise. ryone in town.‖ Now, people show off too much and I know right. began a new sense of taste.

Con Muchos Gustos

Which brings me to the point that we are becoming Americanized. Almost everything from them is brought here in the Philippines – fashion, cuisine – you name it. There is a big paradigm shift occurring here. It‘s because of the Americans who now became our friends (to some) and our ―only hope for the country‖. I fear that we are becoming more like them – wanting to be the top of the world with them. My understanding of the country today is this: We are copying the Americans because of what they have taught us. And we are flaunting to some local citizens what we learned from them. We know you‘re rich by your looks alone. But why do we care? Why do you need to look extravagant in front of your American girlfriend when she thinks you look good by just your face? Why do you have to blend in with the Americans? Why have you forgotten what happened before when you are now 40 years old or so? Why do you need to be as rich as those American businessmen? Worse, why be more American than yourself? To make the long story short, we are submitting ourselves to the Americans and gave us everything we or they thought we need. Period.

Filipinos Do Believe Or more, kill each other? Is the way that peace can be attained? Or is this was the only way so that peace can be attained? From the revolts of Lakandula to the revolts we are encountering now. All of this is for the Filipinos and for themselves because they want not victory for their names but be at peace. Lakandula, Rizal, Bonifacio nor any hero of the country did not aim for their names to sound that aromatic but they aim for the good of the country. Not all the revolts in the history were successful but luckily, many REVOLTS wants peace and peace is did. Those revolts are for the bettertowards progress because everything is ment of the country. in harmony. There were many struggles But in order to attain peace many tests that Philippines have enyou will die for it? countered but in God‘s favour, Philip-

Tet Manunulat

pines was able to free itself because of the Filipinos who has heart for the mother land. Filipinos had meandered in the past to reach the present but no matter what happens Filipinos will always live and Filipinos will be on top in the end but the thing is, Filipinos needed to crawl and die for the country. Nonetheless, because of them Filipinos continued to walk towards progress. If ever those unsung heroes was never been unsung then they will be gratified of the courage they have done for the country but if I was one of the unsung heroes I don‘t want to be called to be an unsung hero because I died because I am believing something and I have fought for it but because of that I need to face the consequences. Thus, if you have revolted and the Spaniards at that time will found

NATIONAL PRIDE & OFW A CLASSMATE of mine questioned me about if there is a Filipino that is nationalistic. I answer it by saying that there is a nationalistic Filipino, and the reason for my answer is that if you love your country and you are willing to do anything for your country, then you are nationalistic. But my classmate contradicts my statement. She said that ―No, we don‘t have a truly Filipino nationalist. When developed countries offered you a citizenship to their country, you will accept it.‖ This statement that my classmate had said made me realize some things. Does the ordinary Filipino ever thinking of leaving the country, that they will leave the Philippines in exchange of a prosperous and satisfactory life? In our country today, a person might have thought it. Because he or she believes that this will be the answer to their hunger, to satisfy the need of the children to go to a good school, to escape the poverty that has been deteriorating them since their childhood and until now that they had children, they still poor. On the other hand, my argument had made me realize that the parents are forced to sacrifice themselves so that they can help their beloved love ones that they have left in the country. Whether you are an OFW or an ordinary citizen that goes to another country to have vacation, it doesn‘t affect your identity. You may be fascinated about the elegance and the beauty of foreign countries but it always different when it comes to your country. The Filipino community in foreign lands always made a culture shows when they have time. They always showcasing our dances, our food, and most importantly, the warmth that we give especially to visitors. It great to see that even the young generations that had born in these foreign lands and live most of their lives in there recognizes their origins. So, the Filipinos in foreign lands always deliver a national pride even if they are far away from the archipelago. They introduce our culture to others so that they will also appreciate what we have.



THE COLONIZATION period, particularly the Spanish colonial, is a period of cruelty and injustice, characterized by gruesome wars, unfair laws and policies, and unjust capital punishments. But then, it was also a period of great intellectual enlightenment and nationalistic awakening. This period saw heroes rising up for liberty and equality. If it weren‘t for the social pressures imposed by the Spanish

colonial government, we won‘t have the heroes we honor today. If we weren‘t colonized, our people would still be blind pagans, lacking awareness and unable to catch up with the modern world. If it weren‘t for the Ilustrados who studied and wrote from abroad, we won‘t know of equality. Slavery would have existed until today. I‘m not saying that what the Spaniards did was right. Of course they are obviously wrong. All I am saying is that let‘s be thankful that these things happened for a nation‘s solidarity. God allows things for a reason. Heroes were created during those times so that we may have someone to emulate in the years to come. They are epitomes of the Filipino spirit and greatness.


The Harbinger of Truth MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950


from A12 As the bourgeois demanded equality with the upper class, the king promised them security in exchange for the middle people‘s taxes. It is said to be mutually beneficial. But in the case of the English Magna Carta of 12145, Charles I of England, who failed to provide the middle class the security they demanded, was put into death. The dissolving monarchs paved the way for the people‘s sovereignty. The 18th Century Enlightenment changed the old norm of Feudalism. The new paradigm was a capitalist economy that declined the medieval Christian values like clergy were no longer heralds of good life.

cess.‖ Arcilla enumerated the implications of nationalism: (1) consciousness of national unity and the disappearance other unities due to privilege; (2) the opinion that the propertied, if not all, were members of the ―nation‖ and should enjoy a greater voice in government, be considered ―citizens‖ with voting rights on matters of common interests, much like corporation stockholders; (3) a belief that the national government of the citizens, not just the monarch, was obliged to provide benefits to all through ―national‖ action; (4) an increased desire for a common language, literature, culture, etc.; and (5) the conviction that all were members responsible for and totally devoted to the nation. In the case of Philippine nationalism, French Revolution is one of the

origin of Filipino nationalistic sense. The French notion of ―Liberty, Equality, Fraternity‖ is the parent idealism that created the Filipino sense of nationhood as its offspring.

stated earlier it is the parenting idea, a pioneering one. French Revolution had undergone several developmental stages before it ripens.

Figuratively, the tree of French idea and ideals such as liberalism, enlightenment, nationalism and rights of man led to be beneficial not only to a national level or the France as a nation but also for the entire humanity.

When it became the tree of French idealism, then several fruits emerges such as Philippine nationalism and liberalism tracing back from the roots of Spanish liberalism as opposed by Spanish conservatism.

With this, the French milieu created a meshed influence to a global setting translating to nations such as Philippines.

In conclusion, Philippine nationalism originates from the roots of the idea from the period of Enlightenment.

With these contemplation, does it mean that the Philippines has no sense of uniqueness and just copied the idea of French liberalism and nationalism? The answer is No because as

The clash of different societal classes paved the way towards a nationalistic goal. Another point is that French Revolution is the parent of Philippine nationalism. Without it, there will be no concept of Filipino nationhood.


But let me tell this to our leaders, without our younger generation carrying nationalism in their hearts, our country will fail and would depend on other nations, then badly raising the possibility of colonialism. We should act in a great way to extend nationalism, that nationalism that will fuel us to a better nation and free of oppression.

I believe that the young have a clean slate in their minds that when stained with the bad image of a country will lose hold of their nationalistic virtue. We were the key; we have the nationalism that we should pass to the next generations so that this independence that we are holding will continue further, for good. The next generation is our stewards of freedom. Yes we can proudly admit that

nationalism runs through us but, if we don‟t regenerate it to the next generation all our hard work would be thrown into the deep sea of oppression again. This would be our greatest fear for our sons and daughters for they would be the one who will suffer greatly. While our sons and daughters are free we should quickly move so that they can be imparted with what Filipinos are truly are and what they, the youth, can contribute to the future of the coun-

TET MANUNULAT: FILIPINOS DO BELIEVE from A12 you, one in a grill of bars will really say that he doesn‘t want to be there and he isn‘t at fault. Well, being banged at your back while chained or handcuffed,

it‘s hard to be locked in a room and you‘ll be alone there until you will be insane. Therefore, it is hard to promote nationalism that time because life might be the price. But that price Filipinos can

Quotes on Nationalism “Nationalism is essentially the emotion of love. Even among men love ceases to be so when it begins to be unreasonable, to be negative and when it begins to destroy. Then it becomes selfishness. And so no nation will last long which stands on the selfishness of its people.

- Raul Manglapus “A true national awakening will doubtless come. The ranks of true nationalists cannot but increase; the collective conscience grows; the day of realization nears, for the protest against selfish designs of subtle colonialism cannot be smothered for long.

- Claro Recto

pay it, no matter how high it is and no matter how hard it is. Filipinos will always be Filipino, blood is thicker than water, this motherland will be protected by its natives, simply because they are mutual and it is just that there are

try that their mothers and fathers died for. It is our goal to keep our independence, but I tell our nation‟s leaders, the parents and the elders that to keep independence, we should keep its fuel nationalism - continuing to our sons and daughters who would take care of this beloved country that we died for and they will live for.

parasites. To conclude, the nationalism of Filipinos was very strong and it has been proven, many have died for the country because they want peace for their brothers and sisters and because they are believing on something and that something is worth dying for.

“I asked our students that they, as first generation of our sovereignty, press forward with all vigor and militancy the principle of positive Filipino nationalism. I stress the word positive because I feel that there has been no adequate recognition of those aspects of our racial and national heritage of which we justly can be proud. I ask for nationalism that is not apologetic, nor selfdeprecating. This does not mean that we must ignore our failings and our shortcomings. Rizal set us the example for all the time of being able to apply self-criticism fearlessly and constructively: Let us equally fearless without obscuring what is legitimately worthy of pride. What I mean by a positive nationalism is one which takes the best of our virtues, our institutions, regardless of how we acquired them, and develops from them a culture which truly reflects the national spirit and the national goals. I ask for nationalism which seeks to broaden our horizon, rather than retreat into the past. Unlike the world of our fathers, the world of today has shrunk until the exchange of ideas and experiences among the people of the earth is a matter of seconds, rather than months, or years. Let us, by all means, let our roots sink deeply and hold firm in the land of our fathers, but let the branches of our cultural tree seek light and sustenance wherever in the world they are to be found.” - Ramon Magsaysay

“I say that if we must be nationalists who will fight for our nationalistic principles until the bitter end and not simply pseudo-nationalists who will fight for nationalism only up to where it will not predjudice our partisan and individual interests. - Diosdado Macapagal


The Harbinger of Truth MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

Filipinos attempt to gain their independence against the Spanish Colonization By CZARINA CLARE D. DOLORES BY THE year 1574, in Tondo and Navotas, Lakandula stood as the leader of the revolution named after him. because of non compliance of Miguel Lopez De Legaspi's promise to Lakandula. Revolutions started to arise in many parts of the country rooted from different reasons. In Pampanga(1585), a revolution named after the province sprouted because of the abuse of the encomiendero. Filipinos cry for independ-

ence in Tondo, Cuyo and Calamianes in 1587-88, will of faith independence in Northern Luzon by the Igorots in 1601, denial of paying taxes in Cagayan-Ilocos Norte in 1589, abuse of tax collectors in Cagayan headed by Magalat in 1596. Abandonment of Catholicism also became an issue when Tamblot of Bohol(1621-22) and Bankaw of Leyte(1621) organized a revolution. Personal matters also became reasons for revolution, like the dispute between Andres Malong and Father Fajardo in

Pangasinan (1660-61) and Dagohoy revolution in Bohol( 17441829) because of not giving Dagohoy's brother a catholic funeral. Filipinos fight for their right of living and having means of earning for their family like the abolishment of sending workers to make boats in Cavite in 164950 by the people of Eastern Visayas, Northern Mindanao and Bicol headed by Sumuroy and Basi rebellion in Ilocos in 1807 headed by Pedro Mateo. The common reason of the uprisings occur is the abuse

of Spanish authority this lead to revolts in different parts of the Philippines Irraya revolt in Cagayan Valley (1621) lead by Gabriel Dayag and Felix Cutabay,Caraga revolt in Caraga and Northern Mindanao (16629-31), Cagayan revolt in Cagayan (1639), Ladia revolt in Malolos, Bulacan headed by Pedro Ladia (1643), Maniago revolt in Bacolor, Pampanga headed by Francisco Maniago (1660), Ilocos revolt in San Nicolas, Bacarra, Laoag headed by Juan Masanop(1661), Palaris revolt in Pangasinan headed by Juan dela Cruz Palaris(1762-65). All the revolts and uprising failed.

Filipinos resist US ‘colonization’ members of the Katipunan. Manalan got killed and his men got arrested.


MANILA, PHILIPPINES- REVOLUTIONS sprouted in different parts of the Philippines against the American forces. 1896-1907, a revolution headed by Dionisio "Papa Isio" Magbuelas started in Negros. This group helped to oust the Spaniards in Negros and continued fighting against the Americans. Papa Iaio failed to organize a revolt because he surrendered on August 1907 and got executed in October that same year. 1901-1910, Felipe "Apo Ipe" Salvador established Santa Iglesia to fight against the Americans and distribute the lands to the members but they were defeated by the Americans. he escaped but arrested in 1910 and got executed in 1912. 1902-1903, General Luciano San Miguel founded a New Katipunan in Rizal and Bulacan, with 150 armed members. the Government did a reconcentration, Gen. San Miguel was killed when the Americans raided their hide out. On the same year, two re-

Dionisio Magbuelas

Felipe Salvador

Simeon Ola

1902-1907,Faustino "Papa Faustino" Ablen of Leyte, founded va group named diosdios or pulajan which attracted many farmers because of the promise of improved life. The government posted Php. 2,000 reward for Papa Faustino. They sent four battalions to arrest him. He got arrested and his revolt was finished. 1903-1904, in Rizal and Bulacan, Faustino Guillermo, a former companion of Bonifacio in revolts in Marikina and Montalban replaced Gen. Luciano San Miguel. His group was called Diliman Gang. The revolt ended when Guillermo was arrested and executed in 1904.

1904-1911, Pablo Bulan and Isidro Pampac of Samar got the members of Pulajan, they raided many American Faustino Ablen Gen. Luciano San Miguel Faustino Guillermo bases and conquer many islands. Bulan got killed when the volts also took place, the firat is in two months after Toledo surrenAmerican soldiers got into their Bicol, headed by Simeon Ola and dered. hideout. the revolt waqs continued Lazaro Toledo, they were able to The second one is in Panby Pampac until he got killed in organize a group with 1,500 memgasinan and Zambales, headed 1911. bers and 150 weapons. After exby Roman Manalan. he got to atperiencing many defeat, Ola surtract many followers, some are rendered on September 25, 1903,

The Harbinger of Truth


Boxing enters PH in 1899

EVEN before the historic ers of top notch timber or the popubattle of Francisco ―Pancho Villa‖ larity of the scrapper." Guilledo and Jimmy Wilde on June ―There were a great many ambi18, 1923 to win the world flyweight tious Filipino lads who craved ring boxing champion, boxing is a budglory, even at the expense of a ding sport in the Philippines as early broken beezer or a vegetable ear. as 1899. These boys would storm the club Contrary to the concept of on Wednesday night, begging for a ―suntukan‖ or ―sapakan‖ as the origin chance to go on. Many of them of Philippine boxing, the US servicedidn‘t have money enough to buy men introduced boxing during the an outfit of ring togs, so we always late nineteenth and early twentieth kept a supply of trunks, shoes, centuries. etc., available for them. Lots of ‗em Before the formal boxing wouldn‘t use shoes. They were was introduced, Filipino martial arts accustomed to going barefoot and like Kali, a Filipino knife fighting techshoes cramped their style,‖ nique were considered as an implicit Churchill said in 1924 boxing due to its informality. Combative Sport expert Joseph The official boxing‘s permeaSvinth wrote an article describing tion in the Philippine archipelago is the origin of Philippine boxing. The side by side with the occupation of excerpt is as follows: the Americans in 1899. ―Nevertheless, several Filipino On April 27, 1898, the Unitfighters of the era were excellent, ed States declared war on Spain and the best of them all was the including the Philippines, a colonial future world flyweight champion territory of Spain. An estimated of Francisco "Pancho Villa" Guilledo. 16,000 Filipinos and 4, 243 AmeriBorn at Iloilo, Philippines, on Aucans were killed while 2, 818 were gust 1, 1901, Guilledo took up boxwounded. ing in 1917, turned professional in After the 1902 declaration of 1919, and died in July 1925 after victory by Theodore Roosevelt, US fighting a bout in the United States commanders began to think on how despite impacted wisdom teeth. to reduce the rates of desertation, Standing 5‘1" tall, his best weight suicide, sexually transmitted diswas 110-115. Technically, he was ease, drug abuse and drunkenness described as "a tireless offensive among their soldiers and soldiers. fighter with a strong punch in either Boxing was the potential left or right." He was also a consolution offered due to its discipline summate showman. For example, of avoiding tobacco, tobacco and he always had an open camp sexual activities. where he entertained paying fans ―Boxing also makes a man with his expert rope skipping, and self-reliant and resourceful when once, after knocking an opponent assailed by sudden or unexpected down, he astonished onlookers by dangers or difficulties,‖ writer jumping on the neutral corner post Charles L. Clay said in an account in to await the count. 1887. well-regarded bootleg boxHISTORIC BATTLE Boxer Pancho Villa, who stood only 5 feet and 1 inch (154 cm) tall Other According to Damon Runers include: yon‘s account, soldiers of the 11th US and never weighed more than 114 pounds (51 kg), rose from obscurity to win the World  Dencio Cabanela. Cabanela Cavalry found a pair of boxing gloves Flyweight Championship in 1923 with his opponent Jimmy Wilde was of Igoroto ancestry and in made by Sol Levinson of San Fran1920, at age 20, he weighed 128 cisco abandoned in the Luzon village of Americans as the all-black 9th and 10th was defeated by Harry Gordon in Madipounds and had a 17-inch neck. On San Mateo on November 18, 1899. U.S. Cavalry, 24th and 25th US Cavalry, son Garden. July 2, 1921, he became the first of Danyon added, ―gloves had and 48th and 49th U.S. Cavalry created a On 1921, Filipino flash Jose three Filipinos managed by Frank been brought in by the renegade soldier significant percentage of soldiers servJavier of the U.S.S. South Dakota won BOXING/A20 form the negro Twenty-fourth Infantry, ing in the Philippines between 1899 and the flyweight championship of the Atlanand that he had been schooling the Fili1902. These African American boxers tic and Pacific fleets combined. pinos in their use.‖ were Joe Blackburn, ―Craps‖ Johnson Other naval boxers were the The early boxers in the Philipand ―Demon‖ White. ―small but terrible‖ Young Dencio of pines were not Filipinos but African Also, Filipino war prisoners U.S.S. Mayflower and Juan ―Johnny‖ were taught how to box by U.S. guards Candelaria, who fought in 1919 and Maand other Filipino men were being hired nila in 1920. to work in kitchens of U.S. navy ships, Early Promoters like Frank where amateur bouts were often held Churchill, Bill Tait and Eddie Tait on ship decks. opened the Olympic Club in Manila According to stories, the first 1909. Now, the Olympic Club is the acFilipino to fight publicly wearing gloves tual location of the Mapua Institute of was the Boxing Promoter Frank ChurchTechnology. ill‘s driver, Leoncio Bernabe in 1916. ―We ran our big weekly show on But a more concrete historical Saturday night. On Wednesdays we 1903 telegraph of a US navy ship staged a bargain bill, on this night we named Burnside presented a 20-year would give all the would-be champions old Filipino named Eddie Duarte as an and amateurs a chance,‖ Churchill said amateur naval boxer where ―every in 1924. evening when the sailors were at leiJudges of the boxing fights of sure‖ amateur bouts were organized. 1920s were often from the US military The October 1911 Honolulu like John Greene, Sergeant Harry KontAdvertiser noted the less sophistication er, and Chief Petty Officer Joe Waterof naval boxing where boxers ―meet on man. Referees were Filipino Francisco deck when the spirit moves [and] take ―Paquito‖ Villa and a man named up the good natured challenges of their Gutierrez. shipmates as they feel inclined, and go Manila Daily Bulletin sports ediat it, to the intense entertainment of tor Norris Mills said Filipinos ―have been OLONGAPO KID Australian boxing PIONEERING PH BOXING PROMOTER their comrades.‖ ruined due to the management rushing analysts considered Filipino boxer DenFrank E. Churchill was one of the the imOn December 1920, Filipino them into the main event class before cio Cabanela as one of the world‘s best portant figures who helped develop the ear- boxer Maniel Soriano got as far as the they were ready. This rushing process bantamweights. He was the most rely Filipino boxing scene, along with Joe Wa- finals for the Bantam Fleet title when he was usually due to a shortage of fightmarkable hitter in the division ever seen terman and the Tait Brothers. in the Philippines.


The Harbinger of Truth


MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950 from A16 Churchill to die of ring-related causes. (The other two were Pancho Villa and Inocencio "Clever Sencio" Moldes.)  The Flores brothers (Francisco, Elino, Macario, and Ireneo). All of them started fighting professionally while aged 13 or 14, all of them fought in the US or Australia, and all were managed by their mother. "I can hit harder when mother is at the ringside," explained Macario Flores in 1922.  Sylvino Jamito. Boxer Elino Flores A featherweight, he claimed the lightweight championship of the Philippines. He started his professional career in 1916. As noted above he had a draw with Rufe Turner in 1919. He also fought in Australia in 1921 and the United States in 1923. According to Everlast Boxing Record Book 1923, he

had a career record of at least 49 fights, of which he lost only 5.  Pete Sarmiento (bantamweight). Sarmiento was born in Florida, Blanca, Philippines, on October 15, 1901. At age 22, he stood 5‘3" and weighed 118

the Philippines. The idea was that this would satisfy "the Filipino‘s natural love of sport which formerly found its expression in cock-fighting and other vicious sports of like nature. The code adopted was similar

Boxing ‘alive’ in PH pounds. Managed by Frank Churchill, he fought in California during the mid1920s. Macario Villon (lightweight). Around 1921, Villon fought a 20-round fight with Bud Taylor in Manila, and gave him a solid whipping. In 1922, he defeated Jerry Monohan in Manila. However, in 1923 he lost a couple 15-round decisions to Sylvino Jamito and Ireneo Flores. Villon later fought in San Francisco, where Frankie Farren knocked him out on June 2, 1925. Other early Filipino fighters about whom less is known are Frisco Concepcion, Cowboy Reyes, and Johnny Hill; the latter was the son of an African American sailor and a Filipino woman. In 1921, boxing was legalized in

to New York‘s Walker Law, with the exception that the Philippines allowed 20round fights and paid almost no attention to weight classes.‖ ―The Philippine code permits twenty round bouts to a decision, which goes the Empire State five better. Every champion of the Islands is obliged to defend his title every six months unless something beyond his control prevents him. If he fails to meet an accredited challenger within that period, the challenger acquires the title. There is one peculiar item in the code which may be due to an error in typing. One of the clauses reads: ‗There shall be a difference of no more than 18 pounds between two contestants except in the case of the light-heavyweights

Yoyo, First Filipino sport? By ALAIN LOUISE C. GERONIMO YOYOS are now becoming a big hit for today‘s children here in our country.

He immigrated into the United States in 1915 and began to study law in University of California and Hastings College of Law in San Francisco. He never completed his degree and started his yoyo business while

Many say that a Filipino invented the yoyo, but it existed way too long ago in another country.

and it became a craze. Donald F. Duncan, an entrepreneur and a co-inventor, first encountered the yoyo during a business trip to California. In 1929, he bought the company from Flores, including the toy and its name. He then improved it by introducing a looped slipstring, which allows the yoyo to rest, allowing it for more creative and sophisticated tricks.

Rolling back The first yoyos were from ancient Greece, where it became a favorite children‘s pastime.

His yoyos are available worldwide. They can produce as many as 60,000 yoyos a day in his factory with 640 workers.

As they grow up, they would give up these Still, even though it toys and offer them to the FIRST YOYO MAKER Ilocos Norte native Pedro Flores (Left photo) , a was owned by a FilipiUS-based inventor and yoyo patent holder, made a scene in yoyo manugods. no for only a short facturing, making his ―Flores Yoyo‖ (Right photo) an international craze. Some say that it while, it still continues came from China. However, there is no to be one of the greatest toys in Philipworking as a bellboy. proof that yoyos exist in China, but a pine history, with a large following. He called his business ―Flores similar toy. Its craze helped it survive, and Yoyo Company‖. Yoyos made its way into Euthanks to Flores‘ contribution, it will still The word ―yoyo‖ means ―come rope and into Asia, when the British call live on until the present. back‖ in Tagalog, according to Filipino it the ―bandalore.‖ yoyo enthusiasts, however, it was still It became a weapon during the not yet proven. 1500s and is used by the locals. The Flores yoyo had a string It consisted a round stone atlooped around the axle in place. tached to a rope, with studs. This allowed the yoyo to spin at The modern story the end of the string and pull it back again. The modern story of the yoyo began by an Ilokano named Pedro FloBest of all, to keep the loyal res. fanbase, he introduced yoyo contests,

IN THE KNOW: BASKETBALL IN THE PHILIPPINES By ROANNE THERESE R. ALMONIÑA UNITED States introduced the sport, Basketball through YMCA in the Philip-

and heavyweights. If this is true, all the good derived from the new law is nullified because such difference in weight invites casualties,‖ the June 1923 The Ring

pines in 1989. 1898 to 1900, Filipinos are familiarizing the sport. The first ever Philippine national basketball team was formed for the first ever Far Eastern Championship games held in Manila, Philippines on 1913. For the first time Philippines played to its first opponent, China. Philippines won over China and got the first basketball gold medal of the

Far Eastern Games. On 1915, second far Eastern Games held in Shanghai, China. Philippines defended it gold medal and able to retained it. For the third time, Philippines still own the bacon which is held in Tokyo, Japan. After host-switching, from China and Japan it goes back to the Philippines for the second time.

Bantamweight Boxer Pete Sarmiento

COMMENTARY By ROANNE THERESE R. ALMONIÑA SPORTS in the 1800s was not that rich because that time was when the Spaniards are controlling over our country. Sports in the Philippines can be counted in my hands. It can be Fencing, the sport of our hero or any unnamed sport back then. Children at that time cannot play sports outside not simple games because it was too dangerous at that time but less so, they play in their courtyard with simple games like Piko, tumbangpreso and many more as long as it is safe and not later than 6o‘clock because at that time there was a curfew for minors and they need to follow it or else they will be fire out and ran by the civilian guards like in the novel of Jose Rizal Noli Me Tangerethat Basilio was fired by the guards because it was too late for them to go out of their houses. However, they also have gambling in that time, which is cockfighting. They have much stuff to entertain themselves not just sports which can make them perspire. But when Americans came into action, there were many things that happened and many things have changed. Sports flourished because Americans introduced their own entertainment like sports even though they are still colonizing the country but the good thing was they have done it reversely. Sports like Basketball and other sports they have played they introduced it and knowing Filipinos are noble at it but somehow it decline in the late 1930s. Filipinos are really happy people because although they have suffered in the past they still tried to become happy and put back their rancorous memories that they have nearly destroyed their brains. Filipinos stand tall and pursue what they believe. Sports really relieves stress other than extra fats and toxins in the body. It helps your body to become healthier and stronger. It can boost your immune system. More so, playing any other sports can make you build comrades and widen your social life. Really, sports is helpful to us especially to Filipinos because it helped them to forget and concentrate onto moving forward.

The fourth Far Eastern Championship Games was held in the Philippines, year 1919. The Philippines still own the gold medal for the fourth time.

The Harbinger of Truth

World Views MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

US Journalist covers 1898 Independence Day our flag today. White noted that there was a massive of joyful crowd natives numbering four to five thousand who there to witness the proclamation. From the window, where the extemporize flag can be seen was accompanied by the music composed by Julian Felipe, the national anthem, played by San Francisco de Malabon band.

UNRECOGNIZED INDEPENDENCE BY AMERICANS United States did not recognize the 1898 independence but eventually gave our “official” independence on July 4, 1946. 1898 independence document (inset photo) By DENISSE JANE S. REMOLACIO

TRUMBULL White, an American journalist who covered the declaration of Philippine independency or known as the El Viego at Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898. White reiterated the Independence Day and stated some discrepancies of what most Filipino knew.

At that time, White was working on his research book, Our New Possessions, where he familiarizes the American Republic with the new colonies. Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo asked his advisers to decide on the proclamation date and came up with June 12 avoiding the unlucky date of June 13. Aguinaldo sent the invitations as early as 5th of June to the eight Luzon provinces which symbolize the rays of

the new movement and George Dewey, who is supposed to be the guest of honor, and the United States Asiatic squadron said they did not accept the invitation of Aguinaldo because their presence would suggest United States recognition not only in the Philippine Independence but also in the Philippine government.

The eight delegates from Luzon provinces attended the Independence Day and thousands of soldiers were drawn in column that serves as a military impressiveness. Ambrocio Bautista and another adviser were asked by Gen. Aguinaldo to read the declaration of independence. As a contradict to what most of Filipino knows, White explains that Gen. Aguinaldo was not present on that day due to the possibility of being assassinated, so he stayed in his headquarters somewhere in Cavite. In addition, White also mentioned Colonel Johnson, an American officer, to be present which symbolizes the cooperation of the United States in


Trumbull White wrote a book of the new colonies of America, “Our New Possessions.”

French notes 1898 Manila events By ALAIN LOUISE C. GERONIMO

IT SEEMS that in our history, we do have unexpected guests knocking the door. In 1898, many Westerners have boarded here in our country to protect the citizens of Manila. Among them was the French, who are very sympathetic to the Filipinos. A French naval officer, Aime Ernest Motsch was on board the French vessel Bruix that year and kept a diary from April to August 1898. Using the pseudonym ―Lt. X‖, he took down his observations in the life and times of the Philippines during that same year. He described Emilio Aguinaldo as ―a 30 year old upstart‖, and he noted that ―rumours

of Aguinaldo arrived yesterday from Hong Kong in an American ship.

They will let the rebels enter and sack the city in two or three days.

It is alleged that Commodore Dewey treated him as a friend and ally‖ and provided 2 cannons and 500 rifles for the troops.

Once the soldiers arrive in Manila, they took over the city and remained there.

He also noted that Aguinaldo ―enjoyed the rapport with the Americans… but behind those declarations of loyalty lies danger and later betrayal. Here the Americans need Aguinaldo and his insurgents who in turn used the Americans to start the uprising.‖ According to Motsch, the Americans are waiting for certain developments before acting. However, it is unclear whether Dewey will activate his troops or not.

However, those events foretold by Motsch did not happen. He even observed that ―Aguinaldo assumed dictatorship in Cavite within a few days… These people have assiduously prepared the Republic on the basis of insurrection. The province of Cavite remains their fiefdom… The struggle of the Mexicans against Spain must be very similar to this revolution.‖ It seems that the French knew that this revolution was very inspired by theirs.

French vessel Bruix

The Harbinger of Truth

Wacky, Quirky & Weirds MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

EL PRESIDENTE, LA TRAIDOR COMMENTARY By ALAIN LOUISE C. GERONIMO PHILIPPINE history has been littered with accounts of traitors and heresy. We didn‘t even know that one of the famed people we know in history is one of them. In case you haven‘t guessed it, it‘s Emilio Aguinaldo. Yes, the first president himself, a traitor to Philippine independence. He is also a corrupt politician, blinded by lust of power and money. At that time, the secret society, KKK, had two factions: the Magdiwang (Andres Bonifacio‘s faction) and the Magdalo (Aguinaldo‘s faction, led by ilustrados). The Magdalo wished to replace Katipunan with an insurgent government, but to no avail. Aguinaldo took the position of Supremo of the KKK by force, citing Daniel Tirona‘s protest that Andres Bonifacio, who originally founded the secret society, had no education. Bonifacio declared the election void and left to form his own government. Aguinaldo directed his men after

him and succeeded in killing him. Aguinaldo then signed the pact of Biak na Bato, a non-aggression pact with the Spanish. When the Americans came, General Antonio Luna tried to cooperate with the Caviteno troops against them, but the Cavitenos refused. They seemed to follow only Aguinaldo‘s. Aguinaldo gave no order to engage the enemy. He disagreed with Luna with using guerilla tactics against the enemy. Eventually, they returned to that same tactic. Antonio Luna was at his headquarters discussing at Bayambang, Pangasinan, with General Makabulos on their next moves and strategies when he received a telegram by Aguinaldo to attend a conference. Little did he know that it was bogus. He arrived along with a few soldiers then entered the Cabanatuan convent, where Aguinaldo made his home. The sentry did not salute his entry, which brimmed Luna with anger and slapped one of his guards. Upon entering Aguinaldo‘s of-

fice, Luna saw that el presidente wasn‘t there but Felipe Buencamino, a revolutionary leader who hated Luna. Luna questioned him why Aguinaldo wasn‘t there, and began berating Felipe and insulting Aguinaldo.

the Philippines. It seems that it was very ironic that the first president, whom we called a hero when we are little kids, had done something treacherous, and thus, af-

They were arguing when they heard a rifle shot outside. Luna went down and investigated, and shouted one of the guards, whom he escaped Luna‘s punishment that made him even angrier. That same guard, Kawit Batallion Officer Pedro Janolino, pulled out his bolo and slashed Luna. Another set of gunshots were directed to Luna as well. When Aguinaldo heard about this, he sent out his men to investigate, and concluded without comment that Luna was the one instigated the attack and absolved the Kawit soldiers for any wrongdoing. Buencamino, Luna‘s blood enemy, escaped any blame. After being captured by the Americans, he swore his allegiance to the American government, left his presidency, and lived a private life. He even ironically promoted relations between the United States and

Former President Emilio Aguinaldo

Rizalistas believe Rizal, a Holy Spirit Incarnation By JEROME P. VILLANUEVA IF YOU think Jose Rizal is just a national hero, think again. For the Rizalistas of the Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi, a sect in Calamba, Laguna, Rizal is worshiped as a God. Rizal is the Alpha and the omega, King of All, King of Kings, Savior of the Philippines and the New Jerusalem. They also believed Rizal is the incarnation of the Holy Spirit and the man who was executed in Bagumbayan (now Luneta) in 1896 was a spiritual transfiguration. The proof to their claim is that when Rizal‘s body was unearthed in Paco Park, only a pair of shoes and a tree trunk was found. Rizal is believed by the sect members to be very old and still alive and thrives in the forest of Mt. Makiling. The sect is not just a mere group but a religion established on December 25, 1936 by Gaudioso Parabuac with their first Supreme Bishop, Rev. Fr. Luis Fabrigar, and first President Jose Valincunoza. The preachers of the Rizalistas were called ―banal na tinig‖, who were said to be able to communicate with Rizal who lived in Mt. Makiling. They used the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo as their bible. During their rituals, the members wear dresses with the colors of the Philippine Flag. The sect has established 100 chapters nationwide and the Vaticanlike center of their faith is in Lecheria hill.

The priests officiating masses in the Watawat ng Lahi were not mere ordinary natives but scholars who studied in an institution in Bicol to be able to deliver the gospel from the Noli and El Fili. They are allowed to marry only if they served for five years. Also, it is important to take note that the sect only relied on donations from their members. The chapels of the Rizalistas have an encarving of the traiangled eye as the symbol of Infinito Dios (Everlasting God). There are also other portraits of Filipino heroes like Andres Bonifacio, Marcelo H. Del Pilar, Gen. Miguel Malvar, Fr. Burgos, Gomez and Zamora, Antonio Ma, Regidor, Jose Maria Basa and Apolinario Mabini. In a typical Catholic-like chapel with a Risen Christ statue and a Rizal bust in their altar, one of their Parish Priest, Vicario Eusebio Bolante explained in his homily that Rizal sacrificed his life for the mankind. Bolante expounded his homily by citing the story of Rizal‘s birth from documented historical accounts. According to him, the real parents were truly Francisco Mercado and Teodora Alonzo but the real name of Rizal was Jove Rex Al. When Rizal is to be baptized, the Catholic baptizer changed the name because it is said to be too close with the Lord‘s name and eventually renamed the baby, Jose. December 30 is the biggest day for the Rizalistas. This is when they celebrated the ―Misa de Tres‖ followed by a grand

parade with offerings of flowers, flags and other treats. Rizalistas didn‘t observe Christmas Day on December 25 but on October 3, a day considered by Rizalistas as the true birth day of Christ. The sect members also celebrated Bonifacio Day every November 30, Gomburza Day every February 17 and other national holidays. The Rizalistas follow only three principal rules unlike the Christian tradition often ten commandments. These three are: love God, people and society. But not all Rizalistas agreed Rizal is a god, some consider him only as a spiritual guide making the sect split into several factions. Also, Rizalistas did not subscribe to the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God the Creator. They also published several doctrinal references as a guide like ―Ako si Yahweh, Ang Diyos ng Hebreo‖, and ―Mga Kaisipan ni Dr. Jose Rizal.‖ Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi is not only the Rizal sects; the others are called Lipi ni Rizal, Pilipinas Watawat, Iglesia Sagrada, Bathalismo, Iglesia Sagrada ni Lahi, Banner of the Race Church, Samahan ng Tatlong Persona Solo Dios, Ciudad Mistica de Dios, Adamista, Espiritual Pilipino Catholic Church, Knights of Rizal, Kababaihang Rizalista, Lapiang Malaya and the Molo. ―Receive, Oh God, the sacrifice which we are offering to Your Majesty, in honor of Our Father Rizal, the Christ of the Tagalog region.…Rizal is the Christ of the Tagalog region. He is the Lord of the whole world. He is the King

of Kings, the Lord of Lords. Because in Him is given by the Holy Bible the Spirit of God Almight,‖ a prayer stated by the Rizalistas. Historically, Noli and El Fili were used by Indonesians as their bibles in order to revolt against their conquerors. (Author’s Commentary: In the end, these Rizal sects are simply exaggerated way of combining patriotism and religion in using Rizal’s work as their Bible.)

A Rizal cult portrait (Courtesy of Dennis Villegas)

Wacky, Quirky & Weirds

The Harbinger of Truth MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

Last Rizal sister tells about PH nat’l hero By JAMES GIDEON A. TINSAY YOUNGEST among siblings, Trinidad Rizal was the favorite of his brother Jose. According to the book I-stories by Dr. Augusto V. De Viana, History Department chair of University of Santo Tomas (UST), Trining, as her family called her, was the tenth child in the family. His elder brother, Jose, was 8 years her senior and was very fond of her. She was the last living member of Rizal's immediate family after World War II. Born on June 6, 1968, she was 79 years old at the time an article about her was published in an issue of the Philippines Free Press. She resided in an ancestral house of the Rizals in O' Donell street Manila together with her two godchildren, which were boys in their late teens, and a 10 year old girl whom she adopted. She refused to be granted pension by the government. De Viana narrated that Trining house was a museum full of Jose Rizal's memorabilia. Most famous of them is the alcohol lamp where Rizal placed his elegy

entitled 'Mi Ultimo Adios" which he wrote in Fort Santiago on the night before his execution. This was handed to her when she and her mother visited Rizal in his prison cell. Other memorabilia include an oil painting of Rizal painted by Juan Luna in Madrid; a painting of Rizal's lady love, Leonor Rivera, done by Rizal himself; a clay model of a dog and a crocodile, and a figure of a Dapitan girl washing clothes. Trining scorned over the other memorabilia which were borrowed by her friends but were never returned. "These are my only treasures... plus the memories of my hapless brother," Trining weepingly said. De Viana furthermore told that Trining's memories of her brother were full of love and devotion, brought by his brother's irregular visits from abroad. She considered her brother so great that she was even reluctant to have her picture taken with Luna‘s painting of Rizal. ―I am not worthy to come even behind him. And what is more there‘s the saying that the living must give way to the dead,‖ She exclaimed. Jose Rizal‘s care for her sister is manifested in a letter he wrote on March 11, 1885 when he was in Don-

nerstag, Germany. He told her sister about the qualities of German girls her age, which exceeds Filipino women in education priority, but not in delicacy of heart. He even advised her study to develop the habit of studying. Trining confirmed Rizal being a ladies‘ man. Being friendly with women, he ended up being their confidant and shopping consultant. She also said that Rizal was the life of any party; ―A smooth talker and exceedingly charming among womenfriends.‖ His fondness of women is neutralized by his love for country. She also remembered Rizal‘s execution at Bagumbayan on December 30, 1896, where none of his relatives was allowed by Spanish authorities. ―My brother, out of great love for country, paid the supreme penalty.‖ Trining said. She believed Rizal was not given a fair trial. She said that Rizal was predestined to die, referring to the seemingly prophetic words of his baptizer, Father Rufino Collantes, parish priest of Calamba Laguna, ―This child will be a great man, and that greatness will cost

him great sacrifices.‖

Trinidad Rizal

Philippine Revolutionary Gays? By JAMES GIDEON A. TINSAY WITH the onset of gay awareness brought by the onslaught of gayoriented media in the Philippines, the Filipino mind is tickled by the thoughts of gay presence in various male dominated areas. Examples of which are ABSCBN's Praybeyt Benjamin, who talked about a gay in the military, Gloc-9's song Sirena, about gay child abuse and GMA 7's My Husband's Lover, who controversially tackled gay romance in monogamous relationships. With this mindset, it is inevitable to return to the past and think about the Philippine Revolution, which was mostly dominated by heroes and men of war. According to TV5's evening show, History with Lourd (De Veyra), in its episode titled "May Bakla nga ba sa Katipunan?", the Katipunan was stereotyped as an organization of masculine men. As featured in the show, Xiao Chua, assistant professor in De La Salle University, Manila (DLSU-Manila) and a graduate of University of the Philippines, Diliman (UP-Diliman), said that the closest "gay thing" in the Katipunan during the time of Cry of Balintawak of 1896, wherein Katipuneros cross-dressed to get pass Spaniards on their way to a meeting set by Andres Bonifacio. He also adds that if there were gay lovers in the Katipunan, they would not document it since it was a shame during the time. Featured also in the show is Dr. Luis Dery, President of National Historical Commission. According to him, it is

possible that there are many gays in on, who cross-dressed carrythe Katipunan since gays were reing a bilao and bayong crossspected in the Philippine society during ing American military lines. Pre-colonial times. He acted very much But then, all we can do is infer like a woman that he was able since there is no sufficient evidence. to eliminate suspicion. However, Dery gives two exToday, gays are slowamples of Philippine revolts that were ly being tolerated, if not acled by gays during the Spanish period, cepted, in the Philippines, but namely Tamblot Revolt of 1622, a reliis still marginalized. gious rebellion led by a gay Babaylan The gay stereotype is named Tamblot; and Sumuroy Revolt either a beautician at a parlor, of 1649 in Samar, led by Agustin Sua comedian in a comedy bar muroy. He further adds that after 100 or an entertainer in a group of years, gay presence in history would friends. Not the type to be be completely obliterated by the friars. associated with bravery and J. Neil Garcia, a Professor of Engnationalism. lish, Creative Writing, and Comprative What is the impact of posLiterature at UP-Diliman, agrees with sible gays in the Katipunan or Dery regarding gay status in Prein the Philippine Revolution in colonial times. In his article for the Ingeneral? ternational Institute for Asian Studies The History with (IIAI) newsletter titled Male HomosexuLourd episode ends by telling ality in the Philippines: a short history, us that we must understand he said that gays were highly respectathat being a gay in the revolution doesn't lessen a katipuble in the early Philippine society to the point that there were gay Babaylans nero's greatness. and Katalonans (modern equivalent of Bravery and Priests and shamans) even "genderone's love for country CRISPULO ‗PULONG‘ LUNA (1903—1976). A Filipino bakla or crossers" who dressed like women and is not defined by gender crosser from Paco, Manila. Luna is seen here in a native had a status at par with women, this is gender. Philippine costume (Courtesy of Victoria Studios, Paco, Manila) according to Spanish records.These social norms disappeared when Spaniards brought with them Catholicism and machismo. Women had an inferior status and gays were ridiculed as bayoguin, a kind of bamboo. or binabae. The term bakla also emerged as a name for gays, which is equivalent to a coward. In the book Dirty Dancing: Looking Back 2 by Ambeth Ocampo, a multiawarded Filipino historian, tells the Agustin Sumuroy story a man named Baldomero De Le- A Babaylan in Carlos Francisco‘s painting Tamblot, a babaylan

The Harbinger of Truth

Business MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950


A BUSY DAY IN AGUINALDO‘S OFIFICE The Malolos government officials looked busy in their office in Malolos, Bulacan in 1898 as the photograph shows. Another photograph shows Aguinaldo‟s office (inset photo) in Malolos, the capitol of the first Philippine Republic from A1 The sources of the income includes: railway and freight tax, rental on post-office boxes, unclaimed properties, property tax and tax on mines. Other sources of government revenue include forest products; coining of money; sale of stamped paper or ad-

hesive draft stamps (the equivalent of today‘s documentary stamps); registry and notarial fees; and even taxes and fees from labour works of prisoners.

Land and assets of religious congregations restored to the state were also taxes and there were the socalled ―contributions of war‖.

This may come as a surprise, but they have what we call ―sin taxes‖, where the government derived income from the sale of lottery tickets of opium.

The Malolos republic also passed some decrees for paper money, property tax, freight tax and the regulation of the sale and usage of stamped

documents. When you see all of these taxes, you start to wonder if the Filipinos would soon revolt among themselves. But the government was not very harsh; sometimes it corrected itself and made concessions when it graduated taxes on government salaries.

FILIPINO NUMISMATISTS COLLECT PHILIPPINE PAPER MONEY ENDLESSLY: THE MONEY OF THE 19TH CENTURY and the EARLY 20TH CENTURY IN THE PHILIPPINES By JEROME P. VILLANUEVA EVEN before 1929, numismatics or the art of collecting money, coins and medals is existent in the hearts of Filipino collectors. It is said that the first Philippine paper money with a serial number ―0001‖ is kept by the administrators of the El Banco Español de Isabel II, the bank that printed the first paper money. PNAS, THE SPARK OF FORMAL COLLECTING When the Philippine Numismatic and Antiquarian Society (PNAS) was founded in March 16, 1929, it was the start of the

formal collecting battle between numismatists making it one of the most oldest numismatic clubs in the world. The idea of building a club came from Dr. Gilbert S. Perez, Dr. Jose P. Bantug and Inocencio Delgado. Aside from the three, among the other prominent members of PNAS were National Treasurer Salvador Lagdameo, Teodoro Kalaw, Jose Panganiban, Luis Montilla, Felipe R. Hidalgo, Dr. Leoncio LopezRizal and Judge Simeon Garcia Roxas. The official description of the society read as ―…the main objective of the Society was to promote the science of numismatic and antiquary through the study and collection of coins, paper money, medals and other antiquities. The organization also showed great concern for the reservation of our cultural heritage and the promotions of the Philippine numismatics throughout the world and for many future generations.

At the initial organizational meethuge crowd from visitors, collectors and ing held on March 16, 1929, Dr. Bantug tourist alike. was elected first President of the SociePNAS met regularly until Decemty; Gilbert S. Perez, Vice-President, and ber 1941 when the Second World War Inocencio Delgado, Secretary Treasurer. At the start, it had only 18 members, most of them Filipinos but they also included a Chinese and Three Americans. The organization adopted a seal designed by Gilbert S. Perez when it decided to issue a medal to commemorate the visit to Manila of the Duke and Duchess of Brabant in 1932. This was PIONEERING PH NUMISMATICS Former President Emilio Aguinaldo (center) poses the first PNAS medal. The first public nu- with Dr. Gilbert Perez, Dr. Jose P. Bantug, Dr. Galo mismatic exhibit sponsored B. Ocampo, and other PNAS Officers . by the society was held at the National Museum in 1930 which drew a PAPER/B2


The Harbinger of Truth MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

from B1

broke out. Dr. Batug headed the association for the first ten years, after which Judge Garcia-Roxas took over the helm during the war years. The Japanese occupation of the country did not deter its member from holding sporadic meetings, but it was after the liberation when PNAS resumed its activities with even greater vigor. The PNAS is an affiliate of the American Numismatic Association (ANA) and a correspondent of numerous numismatic societies all over the world. It conducts auction meetings on a regular basis, aside from once-a-year international auction coinciding with its annual convention that features bourse-trading, horsetrading, exhibit of numismatic collections and fellowship dinner. It also publishes journals and newsletters and Philippine Numismatic Monograph that deals not only with numismatic information and studies but also about our country's rich cultural and historical heritage.‖ EVOLVING PAPER CURRENCY As a numismatist, I need to study my craft and enrich my literature of collecting money. In order to do that, I browsed and read several articles, books and monographs on collecting money in the National Library of the Philippines and a special library in the money museum of the Philippines. Also, I am engaged in auctions were I met several local and foreign numismatists. Allow me to introduce the three important phases of the evolving paper currency of the Philippines: the SpanishPhilippine Paper Currency, the revolutionary paper currency, and the Philippine Paper Currency Issues under the United States of America. SPANISH-PHILIPPINE PAPER CURRENCY No paper money was made in the Philippines prior to the issuance of the 10 Pesos Fuertos of the El Banco Español Filipino de Isabel II in May 1, 1852. The first banknote was numbered as ―0001‖ (See related article in this section) with an actual size of 4 x 6 inches. According to Dr. Arnold Keller‘s 1957 book ―The Paper Currency of

the First World War‖, the denominations issued by the El Banco included 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 Pesos Fuertes, payable in Mexican or Spanish-Philippine currency. Numismatist Neil Shafer added El Banco Español Filipino

de Isabel II had a virtual monopoly on the notes in circulation, and its officials claimed an excessive issuing privilege of three times its capital. Notes were issued intermittently from 1852 to 1896 under the


But not only had a banking institution issued paper currency, the Spanish colonial government in 1877 issued its own paper money known as the ―Billete Del Tesoro.‖ Specimens of this notes are rarely found today and believed to be destroyed and burned as time flies. REVOLUTIONARY PAPER CURRENCY In February 1931, the TRIBUNE MAGAZINE published an article on the monetary system of the Philippine Republic.

Here are some excerpts of the article: (PHOTOS BELOW, COURTESY OF DR. GREG PINEDA ―The Philippine Republic, and Harper’s History of the Philippines) as the revolutionary government founded by General Aguinaldo and his followers In Malolos, Bulacan, was euphemistically called by the filipinists, though not recognized beyond the frontiers of the archipelago as a government de facto et de jure had, nevertheless, undertaken certain governmental experiments worthy of a nation. Among these were the declaration of the independence, the creation of the trinity of governmental departments, the executive, judicial, and legislative branches; the organization of the provincial and municipal governments; the collection of taxes and duties; the establishment of the army, navy, and post -office; and the founding of a new currency system. The Constitution of Malolos, section 68 (subFRONT VIEW section 6) empowers the president of the republic by special legislation of Congress to coin money for the country. This particular provision of the Constitution was not put into effect due the the exigencies of the AmericanFilipino war. President BACK VIEW Emilio Aguinaldo, by the virtue of his dictatorial THE UNFINISHED TEN PESO NOTE powers, authorized a new THE ‗MYSTERIOUS‘ FIVE PESO RED NOTE system of coinage and the floating of paper notes.





From investigations it appears that only copper coins of the value of twocentimos were struck in the army arsenals of Malolos. These twocentimo coins were of two varieties. Due to the takeover of the Philippines by the UnitThe first has an ed States, the Aguinaldo government was not able obverse side where apto finish the 10 peso note for public circulation. pears the words Spanish, and all are very rare. At ‗Republica Filipina‘ with the ‗sun‘ least one issue with similar format and the ‗three stars‘ in the middle was made in 1904, during the and a ‗rugged island‘ underneath. American ownership of the Islands. Below is the date ‗1899‘, on the


The Harbinger of Truth MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

from B2 reverse side the words ‗Libertad‘ and ‗Centimos de Peso‘ appear around the periphery, the figure ‗2‘ is in the middle enclosed by interlacing olive and laurel branches. The second variety has an obverse side showing the sun and stars enclosed by a triangle while the reverse has a figure ‗2‘ in the center followed by a small letter ‗c.‘ The former coin is as large as the five-centimo piece of Spain, following the agreement of the Latin Union; the latter is about the size of the old-2 cuartos piece. This is all that we know about the coins of the Philippine Republic.

save things for their future historical value, yet some found their way into the collections of our historians and scholars. It must be noted also that the paper money was not issued to the full amount authorized by the law. To epitomize the observation of a Filipino numismatist, ‗our own investigation would appear to show that the notes were not issued in the total amount authorized by law, because soon after, on account of the successive onslaughts of the American forces, the government had to disperse and adopt a system of guerrilla warfare. The one-peso and five-peso notes freely circulated, however, in a several provinces, very probably in very limited amounts, as shown by the

knew the mystery surrounding this peculiar paper money.

of Philippine money and historians of the revolution had not known before.‖

According to him, the government first printed the one-peso notes.


After these were finished the printers (Z. Fajardo, Manila) began to print the five-peso bills though the usual procedure would be to print the two-notes first.

Numismatist Shafer said ―The United States government then began the task of establishing some sort of orderly monetary system that would suit the mutual needs of both countries. After much discussion it was decided to issue a peso currency payable in silver.‖

Several thousands of the fivepeso bills were finished. One day Don Hugo Ilagan happened to drop into his printing office and saw the finished notes. Immediately, he called his (Limjap‘s) attention to stop the work, for the two-fold reasons that the fivepeso notes were smaller in size than the one-peso bills and were printed in


The American-Philippine paper money was divided into 4 classifications: Silver Certificates, Treasury Certificates, Philippine National Bank (PNB) Circulating Notes and Bank of the Philippine Islands (BPI) notes.

Silver Certificates were govOf more unique interest were ernment sponsored dated the nascent attempts to isfrom 1903 to 1916. These sue paper money. The were made in denominaMalolos Congress passed a tions of 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 measure on November 26, and 500 pesos and was is1898 (text in El Heraldo de sued until mid-1918. la Revolucion, Dec. 1, 1898) authorizing the government Treasury Certificates were to issue paper notes to the series dated from 1918 to value of 3,000 pesos to be postwar VICTORY Series amortized in three years; No. 66. These represent the this Congressional Act was continuation of Silver Cersupplemented by a presitifictaes. dential decree dated in TarThe only major occurences lac, June 1, 1899 (Text in La are the addition of the One Independencia, July 27, Peso denomination in 1918 1899) providing for the foland a general restyling of lowing: (1) That the secremany denominations in tary of finance issue notes 1929 when the United immediately of the denomiStates initiated Philippinenations of 1, 2, 10, 20, 25, size currency. 50 and 100; These notes were to circulate as money PNB Circulating Notes were series dated from 1916 to and were not to earn any interest but which all proper1937. ties and resources of the Bank Notes backed by the government were placed as government, these issues securities; and (3) The notes were generally similar to were to be redeemed in time the Silver Certificates. by the Philippine Republic Outstanding differences and were to be received in are found in the portraiture the payment of taxes and of the One and 20 Pesos other obligations to the notes, as well as the omisstate. To supervise the floatsion of the 500 Pesos deing of the notes, President nomination. Aguinaldo released another An emergency paper isdecree at Tarlac on July 3, sue of 10, 20, 50 Centa1899, providing among other vos and One Peso was things for the creation of a PRICELESS TREASURES The author, Jerome P. Villanueva, showcases his own collec- made in 1917. financial committee or body composed of (a) one superi- tion of American-Philippine Paper Currency that dates back from the early 20th century. This gave the PNB the disor administrative officer; (b) tinction of having initiated the One two assistant administrative officers; fact that a few of the notes were coun‗red ink‘ unlike that of the latter. Peso denomination in paper a year (c) one chief clerk; (d) one clerk; and tersigned by either one of the three ahead of itself, in a way – for the very Don Ilagan suggested that € one messenger. directors (Paterno, Limjap and Chuidinext year, 1918, it authorized its first the five-peso bills ought to be of the an) while many more were preserved regular issue of a One Peso note, rePrecautionary measures were same size as the one-peso notes and as mere proof sheets.‘ leased simultaneously with the Govalso undertaken to prevent counterprinted of the same color of the ink. feiting. The same presidential decree, ernment‘s Treasury Certificate. An hitherto unknown fact reThis would then make all paas mentioned above, authorized garding the currency system of the BPI notes were issued in 1908 per money of the republic uniform. His Messrs. Pedro A. Paterno, Mariano republic was the untold story of the under the Spanish name. suggestion was amenable to Paterno Limjap, and Telesforo Chuidian to ‗red five peso bill.‘ In the parlance of and to Limjap and so the finished ‗red In 1912, the name of the bank sign their names distinctly upon each journalism this is a ‗scoop.‘ five-peso bills were all burned except was permanently changed as above, every note issued, with permission to Collectors of the money of the on which he (Limjap) accidentally kept and issues of notes were series dated use a dry seal or other means to best for himself, and new ones were made Philippine republic certainly possess from 1912 to 1933. authenticate them. – these were the black five-peso the five-peso bills which circulated Since the Government never According to recent historical during the times; these bills were notes. guaranteed final redemption of these findings, the Philippine republic had printed in black ink, hence they were Later Don Limjap gave the notes, their designs were completely partly lived up to the tenor of the prescalled the ‗black five peso‘ bills. only extant red peso bill to one of his idential decrees, inasmuch as some different from all other regular issues. intimate friends, a collector of historiNone of these collectors ever of the paper money that circulated However, their size and colors knew that there was a ‗red five-peso‘ cal documents. during the days of the republic is exwere kept similar to the rest. Denomibill of which only one copy exists totant to the present day. Such was the unique story of nations were 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and day. the red five peso bill o the Philippine 200 Pesos. Though many of them had Republic, a story which our collectors Only Don Mariano Limjap been lost due to the failure of most to


The Harbinger of Truth MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

OLDEST BANK El Banco Español Filipino de Isabel II, precursor of Bank of the Philippine Islands (BPI), was the first private commercial bank in Southeast Asia. (Courtesy of

Letter of credit, first Philippine paper money not a banknote By JEROME P. VILLANUEVA FOR MANY years we consider the first Philippine paper money from the banknote issued by El Banco Español Filipino de Isabel II (now known as Bank of the Philippine Islands or BPI) but two numismatists contested this idea. Numismatists Emmanuel Encarnacion and Antonio Manahan said paper money does not necessarily refer to only those debt instruments issued by a bank

TWO NUMISMATIC SCHOOL OF THOUGHT Numismatists Emmanuel Encarnacion (right) and Antonio Manahan contested Carlos Quirino‟s (left) claim that the first Philippine paper money is the 10 peso note during the Spanish Era. like El Banco in the form of bank notes because that time has a less sophisticated financial systems making paper money having other forms like drafts, promissory notes, treasury notes, bills of exchange, bills of payment, sight bills, hand-signed pay warrants, letters of credit, checks, bonds and coupons, and other forms of money transfers by letter and telegraph. In their article, Encarnacion and Manahan said, ―the use of paper money then provided many advantages. First, it served as a very efficient medium of exchange because it was a convenient way of carrying and transporting cash that could be readily exchangeable with metal coinage corresponding cash that could be readily exchangeable with metal coinage corresponding to stipulated value. Second, it permitted several means of payment to cover the liabilities

of banks and government which would have otherwise been more difficult with the recurring coin shortages. Third, those that were legal tender as currency money by decree continuously fulfilled the three other major functions of money …as a standard of value, as a unit of account, and as a store of wealth.‖ Encarnacion and Manahan suggested that the earliest known paper money used in the Philippines is possibly the letter of credit of $5,000 drawn in favour of Messrs, Russell and Sturgis of Manila in 1836. The letter was sent from Canton, China to London thru Rusell and Sturgis as forwarding agents.

50 pesos, 600 pieces of 25 pesos fuertes and 1,000 pieces of 10 pesos fuertes. ―The four denominations varied in the color of the paper used: yellow for the 10 pesos fuertes, blue for the 25 pesos fuertes, pink for the 50 pesos fuertes, and white for the 200 pesos fuertes. The wording on the face of the papers stated that the bank ‗upon presentation of this note will pay the bearer…pesos fuertes.‘ The term ‗pesos fuertes‘ meant Mexican or Spanish silver pesos, as differentiated from the debased peso circulating at that time in the Far East. The former was about two reales or 25 percent higher in value than DIEZ PESOS, 0001 the latter. No wording appeared at the back of the notes for the 1852, 1865 Years before Encarnacion and and 1883 series,‖ Quirino explained. Manahan‘s study, Carlos Quirino already In his study, Quirino added, LETTER OF CREDIT The earliest known money outlined hos own study about the first pa―No record can be found today as to used in the Philippines is possibly this letter of credit per money in the Philippines. where these notes were engraved and of $5,000 drawn in favour of Messrs, Russell and Quirino reiterated that the El Banprinted, although it is believed that they Sturgis of Manila in 1836. Th eletter was sent from co Español Filipino de Isabel II was the were engraved and printed, although it Canton, China to London through Rusell and Sturgis only entity to issue paper money during is believed that they were made either forwarding agents. (E. Encarnacion collection) the entire Spanish regime. in Paris or London by specialists in the The Rizal biographer explained field. The series all bore the date of the that the bank permitted to issue paper bank‘s founding, and were signed personCelis as cashier.‖ money for only money for only 100, 000 ally by Carlos Groizard as the royal com―The notes were believed to have pesos fuertes with a breakdown of: 250 missioner, Tomas Balabas as director and been ordered late in 1852, but were not pieces of 200 pesos fuertes, 500 pieces of concurrently general manager, and Jose signed by the royal authorization was received in 1855, and most probably not released until that year or early the following year. These notes had two stubs to the left and right of the paper. The left stub contained the date of actual emission to the buyer or holder, together with his or her name. Incidentally, the bank has an incomplete set of these early paper currencies issued under different dates, while the Central Bank of the Philippines acquired some years ago a set of the printer‘s proof of the 1896 and 1904 issues from a London antiquarian. The first 10-peso bank note bearing the number 0001 was acquired by the late Santiago Freixas, president of BPI from the grandson of Manager Tomas Balbas, who had apparently treasured it as a souvenir of his administration. All these Spanish paper currenFIRST PAPER MONEY? El Banco Español Filipino de Isabel II issued its first bank- cies together with the subsequent notes note, 10 peso note with the serial number “0001.” The first banknote is now in the vaults issued during the American regime, are kept in the steel vault of the bank,‖ Quiriof the Bank of the Philippine Islands. (Courtesy of BPI) no‘s article expounded.

The Harbinger of Truth

Arts & Culture MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950


auvent a la financiere; Abatis de poulet a la Tagale; Cotelettes de mouton a la papillote, pommes de terre paille; Dinde truffee a la Manil-

Releve-poisson sauce blanc (fish with white sauce), Croquettes a la Philippinoise (croquetas), Saucise de Poulet a la Republique (chicken

NICK Joaquin once said his effusive statement that the Malolos menu is a culmination and should stand side-by-side with the Malolos Constitution. The said Malolos banquet menu was the listing of food served on September 29, 1898 dubbed as the ―1898 fiesta nacional‖ or ―Solemne Ratificacion De La Independencia Filipina‖ (Solemn Ratification of Philippine Independence). There is an art in the way, the Malolos banquet menu was made. The designer of the menu was Arcadio Arellano. It is in the form of a foldable Philippine flag as its cover and the inside is the listing of the food. The side foldable paper revealed the date of the party, Sept. 29; the French Revolution motto: ―Libertad, Fraternidad and Igualidad.‖ More surprisingly, the contents of the menu were not typical native Filipino dishes nor Spanish cuisine but French cuisine. French cuisine that time is considered as the highest form of cooking. There are two types of menus still extant today. The first is the lunch menu, which was published by Harpers History of War in the Philippines in 1900 and the next is the dinner menu, which is now displayed in Xavier University Museum in Cagayan de Oro. There are only three existing original copies of the menu and a reproduction from Harpers book. THE



MENU The French lunch menu is as follows: ―Hors d‘Oeuvre: Huitres, Crevettes roses; beurre radis; olives; Saucisson de Lyon; Sardines aux tomates; Saumon Hollandaise. [Entrees] Coquille de crabes; Vol

The art of cruelty: a review of Juan Luna’sSpoliarium By ALAIN LOUISE C. GERONIMO

HIS ARTWORK will be nothing without political allegory. A prolific painter and a political activist, Juan Luna y Novicio became one of the most recognized artists in the country. Inspired by the artwork of the Renaissance painters, he established his artistic talent in 1878 with the opening of an art exposition called Exposición Nacional de Bellas Artes, or the National Demonstration of Fine Arts.


FIRST PAPER MONEY? El Banco Español Filipino de Isabel II issued its first banknote, 10 peso note with the serial number “0001.” The first banknote is now in the vaults loise; Filet a la Chateubriand, haricots verts; jambon froid-asperges en branche. Dessert. Fromages; Fruits; Confitures; gele de Fraises; Glaces. Vins: Bordeaux, Sauterne, Xeres; Champagne. Liquers: Chartreuse; Cognac. Café, The.‖ (oysters, prawns, buttered radish, olives, Lyon sausages, sardines in tomato sauce, and salmon with Hollandaise sauce. Entrees or main courses: crabmeat in its shell, filled pastry shells, chicken giblets, mutton chops with potato straws, stuffed truffled turkey a la Manilloise (pavo embuchado), beef fillet a la Chateaubriand with green beans, and cold ham with asparagus. dessert: cheeses, fruits, jam, frosted strawberries and ice cream. Wines: Bordeaux to Sauterne, sherry and champagne, then to the liqueurs Chartreuse and Cognac, and finally to coffee or tea. ) While the dinner menu is as follows: ―Portage-Consomme de Volaille a la Royale (Chicken Soup),

sausage or galantine), Boueff Ladre, Pigeons aux Champignons (stewed pigeons garnished with mushrooms), Roti Chapon Dore (a roast capon or castrated oversized fattened young cock glazed with egg and browned in oven), Saladesaison (fresh green raw salad served with the roast). Legumes (vegetables were Aubergines farcies (stuffed eggplant better known as rellenong talong), Haricortes Vertes Sautes (string beans sautéed in butter and probably garnished with parsley in the French tradition but could also be our everyday guisadong sitaw), Entrenets-glace Moka Parisenne (Mocha ice cream). For dessert they had fromage (cheese), fruit, confitures (jam or fruit preserves. The wines followed the same sequence as in the luncheon: Bordeaux, pagne. Liquers followed dinner: Green Chartreuse, Cognac and Anisette. And indeed, the dinner concluded with coffee or tea.

He produced a number of paintings in that exposition. One of these is the Spoliarium, Juan Luna‘s most recognized work, produced in 1884.

Its winning in the 1884 in the art exhibition in Madrid was celebrated by the Filipino propagandists wherein Jose Protacio Rizal included it n his opening toast, saying that it ―embodied the essence of our social, moral and political life: humanity in severe ordeal, humanity unredeemed, reason and idealism in open struggle with prejudice, fanaticism and justice.‖

This took him 8 months to finish it. Overall, it conveys humanity‘s darkest secrets. The darkness, the slavery, the anguish, the torture, the gore – our greatest fears, all wrapped up in this painting. The darkness of the setting is juxtaposed to humanity‘s situation in his work, where all hope is lost, humanity being exposed to the pains and evils of this world.

He had been toying that idea in a book, that would soon be called Noli Me Tangere, ―a Latin echo of the Spoliarium‖.

DIVISION OF SOCIAL CLASSES IN FOOD SERVED In the Oct. 2, 1898 issue of El Cometa, an article by a certain journalist under the pseudonym Karaukka explained that the printed menus were only for the VIPs and the ordinary people had a different set of meal which consisted of: tinola (native chicken soup), fish, agachonas (snipes), carabao brain, lengua de carabao, menodillos, tortillas, riñones, chicken, croquetas, ham in gelatin, capon with eggs, turkey and salad. The desserts for the locals were fruits like oranges, mangoes, bibingka, puto, turon and mazapan. Another primary source is the official newspaper of the Malolos Government, La Republica Filipina which stated that the spacious dining room was well adorned, featuring seals and flags on each trecho. Windows had tulle curtains to block harsh sunlight on the main table groaning under the weight of the finest vajillas, exquisite sweets, and bottles of various wines. Lorenzo del Rosario, in charge of the service, prepapred for 30 guests set with 200 utensils. Malolos Republic President Emilio Aguinaldo was at the center of the table with Generals Riego de Dios, Garcia, Torres, Noriel, Gregorio and Pio del Pilar. T.h. Pardo de Tavera and Jose Alejandrino sat across Aguinaldo. HIDDED ESSENCES Two things can be inferred from analyzing the context of the Malolos Banquet. One is the representation of the French cuisine that the Filipinos that time had known these as highest form of culinary and also created a banquet that is observed using international standards of cooking or thed ubbing it as ―world-class‖ quality of the banquet that can be shown to foreign groups . The negative side of this banquet is tolerating the social stratification among Filipinos, a Spanish concept of Principilia and indios as seen on the difference of the menus served with VIPs and local men.


This artwork is humanitarian in nature and will turn many heads to those who want to find inspiration for works that include darkness and treachery.

Arts & Culture

The Harbinger of Truth MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

Casino-goers urge gambling to be legal By DENISSE JANE S. REMOLACIO PHILIPPINE Gambling in casinos began as early as 1938. It is an activity where someone bets into something with value specifically money with the hope of either winning or losing, that depends on the result that is determined either by chance, skill or combination of both, as what many authors define gambling.

BAD CULTURE? Filipinos inherited the centuries-old gambling activity, cockfighting or locally known as “sabong.”

The activity aims to satisfy man‘s desire to take certain degree of risks in everyday activities. This is where thrill, amusement, fun and

excitement came from. In this time, gambling is an illegal activity, specifically casinos that is why for some, it is operated on the backrooms of established entertainment house. Nowadays, many protest to have it legalized because it is a source of livelihood for many in the private and it is said that it shall continue to be a world fascination and focus of intense human interest. Beside on providing fascination to human, this can also raise revenue for the government. On the other hand, there are also some people who oppose about the legalization of gambling because

for them it is vicious, rotten and corrupt activity that breeds idleness, thriftlessness, cheating and other forms of anti-social acts. They also argue about the opportunity to gamble so it must be removed so that the temptation to gamble will be lost. Casinos and other gambling institutions must be closed to protect the people from the addictive influence and tenacious hold of gambling especially those without self-control and discipline to resist temptations. But in contrary of it for some, nobody is forced to gamble anyway and to play this is something personal and voluntary.

RECUERDOS THE PATAY, SOUVENIRS OF THE DEAD BY JEROME P. VILLANUEVA Who wants to flip into the pages of a gallery of the dead? As early as 1890s, rich people commissioned artists and painters as a way of remembering the dead. One memorable painting was the 1896 post-mortem oil in canvass painting of Simon Flores named Dead Child, depicting a child dressed in formal clothes lying on a couch surrounded with flowers. The pre-war magazine El Renacimiento Filipino has a special section of ―recuerdos de patay‖, literally means souvenirs of the dead which was popular during the Victorian era. It has full coverages of the

funerals of the people of the Philippine Revolution. The El Renacimiento Filipino featured the funerals of Gen. Miguel Malvar, Rizal‘s mother Teodora Alonso, Rizal‘s brother Paciano Rizal, Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo, Mariano Ponce, and Emilio Jacinto. Is there a Rizal recuerdos de patay? The answer is no because the Spaniards refused to release the body of Rizal because they thought the wake of Rizal will lead to mass actions and revolts. In the magazine, Malvar was photographed in his sickbed a few moments before he died. The next

CREEPY PAINTING? Simon Flores depicted in a dead child in his painting, a form of souvenir.


pages covered the wake and interment of Malvar. In 1911, El Renacimiento magazine covered the death of Rizal‘s mother by releasing two issues. One full page photo photographed the weak Alonso in ―enfermedad‖ or sickness and other folio is a full shot of Doña Lolay Alonso in ―cadaver‖ or dead body. Paciano Rizal, who is not fond of photographs, has also a recuerdos de patay. It is said that the only surviving photo of Paciano Rizal is a stolen shot of him. ―A few moments after he expired,‖ this is the caption of Ponce‘s

recuerdos de patay. While, Emilio Jacinto, the Brains of Katipunan, was photographed together with his family members as well as Jacinto‘s pregnant partner, Catalina de Jesus as seen on the photograph. Also, the return of Hidalgo‘s body was reported by El Renacimiento while other Philippine periodical covered the return of other bodies like Marcelo H. Del Pilar (Barcelona to Philippines), Juan Luna (Hong Kong to Philippines) and Manuel Quezon (from US to Philippines).

DEAD BRAIN Emilio Jacinto, Brains of the Katipunan, died on April 16, 1899.

A HERO‘S MOTHER Remains of Teodora


Alonzo photographed for posterity in 1911.



Arts & Culture

The Harbinger of Truth MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

PUTTING THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO ON THE MAP By Jerome P. Villanueva us to wonder about our unique being,‖ Garcia expounded. ―Cartography thrives from a certain ambiguity. Situated at the intersection of exact science and art, the study of maps relies on physical description and mathematical theory. Still, it finds it necPETRUS Kaerius, Insulae Philippinae, Amsterdam, 1598 essary to reintroduce the imagination.‖ Garcia continued: PLACING the Philippine archipelago in a map dictates a sense of nation―A map represents or, more al pride and identity. aptly, presents the world. Maps ren―Maps help us find our place der the world visible. But maps do in the world. They do not only point not only reveal but also conceal. out where we are and where we There are ―silences‖ in maps. Maps want to go but they also tell us who display the world, as when they we are. Maps instruct us about our warn us where not to construct our history and identity. They provide us homes. But they also can erase exwith a memory and a destiny. Maps isting landmarks and differences. give us a sense of self-esteem,‖ Here, one grasps what is truly writer Leovino Garcia said. unique to a map if one bears in mind Garcia added antique maps the important ―cartographic transacfascinates because their appeal tion‖—the change of the physical comes from the unique synthesis of world into a conceptual map. It geography, exploration, trade, travshould not surprise us then that el, history, culture, science and art. maps are used to serve the ideology ―Their appeal comes Antique of conquest, the rhetoric of nationalmaps continue to charm us because ism or the politics of cultural differthey are prized works of beauty, ences. documents of knowledge and covetThree conceptual stages ed instruments of power,‖ the writer comprise this ―cartographic transacexplained. tion‖: a first stage where space is ―A map is not only a physical measured; a second stage where object of beauty, knowledge and space is visualized; and a third power. It is also a ―metaphysical obstage where space is narrated. ject‖ which makes us aware of a reIn the first stage of measureality beyond the visible, prompting ment, the ―surveyor,‖ standing on

the highest vantage point—a hilltop or a church tower—makes accurate calculations of the landscape. With the surveyor‘s tools, the space of the world becomes quantifiable. In the second stage of visualization, the map maker creates images that later circulate in society to lure people to a life of adventure, stir up their pride of place, or strengthen their religious fervor. In the third stage of narration, space is recounted. There is a discourse of geography. Maps narrate a new social, economic, or political order. They forge an identity— both cultural and national.‖ EARLIEST MAPS The earliest extant map of the Philippines is the 1563 Ramusio -Gastaldi‘s map, where the term ―Filipina‖ appeared for the first time on a western document. It is followed by Abraham Ortelius‘s 1584 map of China, with only the seaboard of Luzon seen. While, the Petrus Kaerius‘s 1598 ―Insulae Philippinae,‖ was the first distinctly printed map of the Philippines. Another notable map was Abraham Ortelius, Maris Pacifici, Amsterdam, 1608 map that shows Magellan‘s ship, Victoria, cruising majestically to the Philippines. The 1613 Gerard Mercator-Jodocus Hondius ―Insulae Indiae Orientalis‖ map, which sets the Philippines at the very center of Asia, displays two sea crafts shooting at each other. It asserts Spain‘s naval capability, revealed in the sea battle off Manila Bay between Admiral Olivier Van Noort and Dr. Antonio de Morga in 1600. In the 1744 small version map of the Spanish Jesuit, Fr. Pedro Murillo Velarde , which we can see St. Francis Xavier approaching

Mindanao, augmenting the 18thcentury fond belief that the ―Apostle of the Indies‖ set foot there.

PEDRO Murillo Velarde, SJ,Mapa de las Yslas Philipinas, Manila, 1744

GERARD Mercator-Jodocus Hondius, Insulae Indiae Orientalis, Amsterdam, 1613

ABRAHAM Ortelius, Maris Pacifici, Amsterdam, 1608; map shows Magellan‘s ship, Victoria, sailing majestically to the Philippines.

RIZAL REVIVES HISTORY BY ANNOTATING MORGA’S SUCESOS By JEROME P. VILLANUEVA Contrary to beliefs, Rizal did not only published two books: the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. Rizal published another book, the ―Sucesos de las islas Filipinas por el Doctor Antonio de Morga. Obra publicada en mejico en el año de 1609, nuevamente sacada a luz y anotada por Jose Rizal, y precedida de un prologo del prof. Fernando Blumentriit‖ (Events in the Philippine Islands by Dr. Antonio de Morga. A work published in Mexico in the year 1609, reprinted and annotated by Jose Rizal and preceded by an introduction by Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt). The annotated book is so important to Philippine historiography because it contradicts the claims of the Spaniards that there were no civilization when the Spaniards came. In here, Rizal asserted that instead of progression as Spaniards would claim, the nation became retarded. Rizal painstakingly copied every single detail of the rare book after getting a reader‘s pass to the British Museum and began annotating by gathering all primary sources on the history of the Philippines. At first, Antonio Regidor, a wealthy man exiled in London after the 1871 Cavite Mutiny, promised that he would publish the annotated work when completed. Unexpectedly, Regidor backed out and he has no choice but to publish it by himself to Paris, where printing were lower than in London

and asked Ferdinand Blumentritt for an introduction of the eight-chapter book. Morga, a lieutenant governor in the Philippines who stayed for 10 years, described in his book the food of indios as ―composed of rice crushed in wooden pillars and when cooked is called morisqueta (the staple throughout the land); cooked fish which they have in abundance; pork, venison, mountain buffaloes which they call carabaos, beef and fish which they know is best when it has started to rot and stink.‖ Rizal rebutted Morga‘s claim sarcastically in his annotations and responded that: ―Estra es otra las preoccupaciones de los Españoles que, como cualquiera otra nacion, tratandose de las comidas hacen ascos de aquello a que no etan acostumbranos o que desconocen. El Ingels, por ejemplo, siente grima al ver un Español comer caracoles; a este la repugna al roastbeef y no comprende como se puede comer el beefsteak tartaro (carne crusa); el Chino que tiene tahuri y come Tiburon, no puede sportar el queso Roquefort, etc. etc. Este pescado que menciona Morga no sabe major cuando esta comenxado a dañar;todo lo contrario: es bagoong y cuantos lo han comido y probado aben que ni esta ni deber estar dañado. (This is another preoccupation of the Spaniards who, like any other nation, treat food to

which they are not accustomed or is unknown to them, with disgust. The English, for example feels horror to see a Spaniard eating snails; to the Spaniard, roast beef is repugnant and he cannot understand how Steak Tartar or raw beef can be eaten; the Chinese who have tahuri and eat shark cannot stand Roquefort cheese, etc. etc. This fish that Morga mentions, that cannot be known to be good until it begins to rot, all on the contrary, is bagoong [salted and fermented fish or shrimp paste used as a sauce in Filipino cuisine ] and those who have eaten it and tasted it know that it neither is nor should be rotten.)‖ These rebuttals by Rizal show the cultural difference of the nations and Morga‘s point of view as a Spaniard and not a Filipino making Rizal‘s work, truly a Filipino work. Rizal‘s annotated work is the first work coming from the perspective of a native not an alien colonizer like Morga. Also, it is important to note that Rizal chose Morga other than Spanish chronicler like Antonio Pigafetta. The reasons behind these were: Morga‘s book is rare and it is described by Blumentritt that it is ―so rare that the few libraries that have a copy guard it with the same care as thay would an Inca treasure,‖; Morga was coming from a layman‘s perspective not from the religious orders making it more ―objective‖ than religious ac-

counts due to the added ―miracle stories‖; Morga also was more sympathetic to Indios and a major actor and eyewitness that he narrates.

Antonio Morga (inset photo) and his book.

The Harbinger of Truth

People & Places MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

A LOVER TO FIGHTER: Bracken joins PH revolution By DENISSE JANE S. REMOLACIO EVEN HARD-NOSED rebels and heroes do have their love lives. Most may not have knew, Jose Rizal did marry a woman right before he was executed. That woman, who sparks the hero's heart, is Josephine Taufer Bracken. Rizal met Bracken in his exile in Perin, Dapitan. Bracken took care of his godfather Mr. George Taufer, who was a patient of Rizal. Bracken and Rizal became good friends, and eventually were engaged. Rizal was liberated, and was sent back to Manila; however, he was still held captive and his fiancé not beside him. Things turned sour and Rizal was in great banishment. Bracken was having difficulty visiting Rizal in prison and was later on the spotlight of execution. Rizal was placed to be executed

in Bagumbayan on 30th of December 1896, hours earlier; Bracken got the chance to meet her sweet heart, Rizal. Rizal grabbed the opportunity to offer his weary heart to his fiancé, he proposed and would Bracken after all had happened, would she say no? They were quietly married and took their vows till death later does them apart. Hours after, Rizal was shot by a firing squad in Bagumbayan, as he was waving his country goodbye and reminding them that the fight for freedom continues. And to Bracken, love never dies. Mrs. Taufer now Mrs. Rizal gathering on the death of a husband has planned to join the rebels, positioned at Imus, identifying herself as ‗a sister, Rizal‘s wife or widow‘ and she was well received. There she met General Aguinaldo. She was received with great demonstration staying on the convent and later was conducted to San Francisco de Malabon, there she spent twentythree days caring for the sick and

wounded. The Spaniards behave with shocking barbarity, killing members of old men, women and children. Children usually seven or eight months were grabbed by the hands and brains dashed against the wall, Mrs. Rizal stated. Besides that, Mrs. Rizal joined the fight also in Dasmariñas, riding out on a horseback and armed with Mauser rifles. She was lucky enough to kill a Spanish officer, she stated. After the encounter, she went back to San Francisco de Malabon. Same as her husband, her patriotism never fade. As long as she had breath it would be her endeavor to help the Philippines in their fight for the liber- A HERO‘S LOVER A photo of Josephine Taufer Bracken and his godfaty. ther, Mr. George Taufer (inset photo)

1905 RIZAL MONUMENT CONTEST, CONTROVERSIAL By JEROME P. VILLANUEVA ―To the memory of Jose Rizal, patriot and martyr, executed on Bagumbayan Field December Thirtieth 1896. This monument is dedicated by the people of the Philippine Islands,‖ the plaque on the pedestal of the Rizal monument stated. The original Motto Stella or Guiding Star which depicted the bronze sculpture of the national hero with an obelisk and a pedestal where the great Filipino is entombed was a product of a controversial contest during the early 20th century. United States President Theodore Roosevelt signed Act No. 243 on September 28, 1901 to grant the right to use Luneta as the place to build a monument of Rizal and as a bearer of Rizal‘s remains. The act also generated a committee to raise fund and organize an international design contest between 1905 to 1907 that invited world‘s leading sculptors from Europe and U.S. The committee formed consisted of Rizal‘s brother Paciano Rizal, Pascual Pob-

Abandoned Japanese foxholes around the Rizal Monument 1945. Photo taken from the photo collection of Mr. John T. Pilot

lete, Juan Tuason, Teodoro R. Yangco, Mariano Limjap, Maximo Paterno, Ramon Genato, Tomas G. del Rosario, and Ariston Bautista. The committee collected 135, 195.61 pesos fund from the 100 thousand target by getting several donations including the 30 thousand donation of the insular government. In 1907, forty artists from all over the world submitted their bozetos or scale models and only 10 entries made it to the finals. Some of the entries were ―Noli Me Tangere‖ (Rizal‘s first novel), ―Motto Stella‖ (Guiding Star), ―1906‖, ―Al Martir de Bagumbayan‖, ―Eripitur Persona Manet Res‖, ―F.F‖, ―Victoria‖, and ―Maria Clara and these are mostly sculpted in the Art Nouveau style. On January 8, 1908, the judging committee composed of then American Governor-General of the Philippines James F. Smith, John T. MacLeod and Dr. Maximo M. Paterno, which are all non-artists, officially publicized its verdict through the media. The grand winner of the contest

Al Martir de Bagumbayan by Carlo Nicoli The

design of Carlos Nicoli of Carrara, Italy was awarded the first prize, worth PhP5,000. His design depicted an 18m-tall monument, with its 12m base rendered in two shades of gray Italian marble, and the pedestal that held the entire structure to be rendered in two shades of white Italian thumb marble.

was the Italian sculptor Carlo Nicoli‘s ―Al Martir de Bagumbayan (To the Martyr of Bagumabayan),‖ while the second prize winner is Swiss sculptor Richard Kissling‘s ―Motto Stella.‖ Al Martir is a monument with a height of 59 feet and a base of 39 feet. The Carra native was awarded 5,000 peso grand prize while Kissling got 2,000 peso cash prize. Nicoli‘s sculpture is far more intricate than Kissling‘s simple design but critics said that Nicoli‘s masterpiece is more appropriate for European cities not with Manila‘s Luneta covered with grass then. The controversy of the design contest started when Kissling‘s bozeto was used as the design for building the monument not the grand prize winner‘s design. There are speculations like Nicoli‘s design would cost much higher than the gathered fund. Another speculation was Nicoli failed to put up the 20, 000 peso bond as guarantee to finish the monument. The other story was that Nicoli failed to come to sign the contract.

With these, the local media men lambasted Kissling‘s model to the extent that they created caricatures labelled as ―vulgar y Tosco‖ or lousy. The famous Filipino artist Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo was to inspect and modify the design but it is already in progress so no further modifications were taken Richard Kissling place.

The Committee on the Rizal Monument held an international design competition between 1905–1907. Forty entries were received, and the bozetos (scale models) of the shortlisted ten designs were displayed at the Ayuntamiento de Manila in Intramuros.

Felix Resurrection Hidalgo was sent to Switzerland to check on the progress of the casting of the Rizal monument.

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RIZAL, AGUINALDO LOVES TO EAT FILIPINO DISHES FOR BREAKFAST By JEROME P. VILLANUEVA BREAKFAST is said to be the day‘s ―energizer‖. Its etymological basis is the English combination of break and fast which literally means ―to break the fasting period of the prior night.‖ Now, I wonder whether what breakfast did Jose Rizal and Emilio Aguinaldo took during their time. RIZAL’s BREAKFAST, A FILIPINO BREAKFAST

Sardinas secas or tuyo Rizal is said to be the ―timeless‖ endorser of products not only matches, cigarettes, banks, universities, even cement but also food products like vinegar, softdrinks, strawberry drink and beer. Looking back, What was the breakfast of Rizal particularly his breakfast. According from his piles of letters and diaries, Rizal‘s breakfast menu consists of a hot chocolate, a cup of rice and sardinas secas or simply tuyo. Rizal, who belongs to the Principalia and Ilustrado class, ate tuyo which connotes to a poorman‘s breakfast. The salted dried fish resembles a true Filipino breakfast dish partnered with an egg, rice and hot coffee. Also, I would like to say that it is not a ―poorman‘s breakfast‖ but a ―Filipino everyman‘s breakfast‖ because it‘s aroma and saltiness is a must for the palate of all walks of life. The blend of the bland rice taste, salty aromatic fish and the

hot coffee makes a Filipino morning complete. During the lunchtime, Rizal ate rice and the fish ayungin. Accounts lifted from Rizal‘s letter to Ferdinand Blumentritt on December 19, 1893 described Rizal‘s way of life in Rizal especially the mornings of Rizal in Dapitan which he ate bread, sweets, cheese and tea for breakfast: ―I shall tell you how we lived here. I have three houses-one square, another hexagonal, and the third octagonal. All these houses are made of bamboo, wood, and nipa. I live in the square house, together with my mother, my sister, Trinidad, and my nephew. In the octagonal house live some young boys who are my pupils. The hexagonal house is my barn where I keep my chickens. From my house, I hear the murmur of a clear brook which comes from the high rocks. I see the seashore where I keep two boats, which are called barotos here. I have many fruit trees, such as mangoes, lanzones, guayabanos, baluno, nangka, etc. I have rabbits, dogs, cats, and other animals. I rise early in the morning-at five-visit my plants, feed the chickens, awaken my people, and prepare our breakfast. At half-past seven, we eat our breakfast, which consists of tea, bread, cheese, sweets, and other things. After breakfast, I treat the poor patients who come to my house. Then I dress and go to Dapitan in my baroto. I am busy the whole morning, attending to my patients in town.‖ Also, in Jose Alejandrino‘s narration of their travel in Belgium, Rizal would ask the manager of the cost of a room with and without breakfast. This somewhat describes the ―kuripot‖-ness or conservatively ―thriftiness‖ of Rizal because he chose a room without breakfast and the saved money was used in buying alcohol, tea and a box of biscuits. AGUINALDO’s BREAKFAST, BANAUE BREAKFAST During his escape from the capture of the Americans, the first Philippine president Emilio Aguinaldo went to Palanan, Isabela. Aguinaldo‘s aide Colonel Simeon Villa, who is the father of the famous writer Jose Garcia Villa, kept a diary while in Cordillera with the president.

In his diary, he described Aguinaldo‘s breakfast with the socalled ―Banaue Breakfast‖, which consists of milk, coffee, butter and fried kamote. Here are some of the lifted excerpts of the diary: ― The so-called ―Banaue Breakfast is enjoyed every morning by the President and [his] family during their stay in this rancheria [barrio]. It is tasty, light and digestible, cheap and easy to prepare. It Emilio Aguinaldo and Simeon Villa has been preferred by all who have tasted it and by the President himself whenever he comes to any of these mountains.‖ It consists of milk and coffee, fried kamote [sweet potato], and five to seven millimeters‘ thick of butter. It was named thus by the President.‖ ―There was an abundance of kamote, but rice was so scarce that our meals had been reduced to twice a day: the first consisted of kamote cooked at nine in the morning, and the seAguinaldo‘s Banaue Breakfast: Fried cond at three in the afternoon, conkamote (sweet potato) sisted of rice and meat. Our ration was one-half chupa [a third of a liter] only so we never felt satisfied. When meat was not available, and this was really scarce, we had kamote tops and pepper leaves cooked in salt and water. Sometimes when rice is scarce, kamote took its place in our afternoon meal.‖ ―Isang kahig, isang tuka.‖ (One scratch, one peck) This Filipino idiomatic expression summarizes the life of Aguinaldo in the Cordillera. One account in the diary described that they slaughter one of their horses just to survive. Also, they ate raw kamote and they gone very sick with malaria, hunger and thrist. Jose Rizal So, when they reached Isabela, the hard times were over because their rations of rice and meat became regular. Presently, the diary of Villa, which begins on 13th of November 1899 to 22nd March 1901, is now stored in the vaults of the National Library of the Philippines. The diary is placed in a box containing a yellowing leather pouch used by Villa during his Jose Rizal and Jose Alejandrino trips.

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An ad that appeared in the Jan. 17, 1924 edition of the Manila-based Spanish-language satirical magazine Aray.

San Miguel's old Manila brewery. NOT only the modern world is engaged in advertising but even before advertising prevailed even at the turn of the century. As a proof, even a revolutionary paper carried advertisements in order to support its publications. It is said that advertisers are the financers or the coals that heaten up the machineries of the newspaper industries. In the 1899 revolutionary paper La Independencia, a newspaper edited by Antonio Luna, revealed several advertisements gastronomic goodies or food for readers. Mostly visual in nature, advertisements entice readers by picturing a mouth savouring images of their products such as: Cervesa de San Miguel or San Miguel Beer which is available only

for 17.50 pesos. Could you believe that doctors recommend Cervesa negra for all kinds of ailments? Cervesa Negra can be bought at 21.50 pesos per case of fortyeight bottles. While, a barrel of lager beer, around 20 liters, cost 8 pesos. For expensive drinks, Barretto Hermanos of 14 Asuncion, Binondo sold gin from Rotterdam, port, champagne, Jalea de manzanas (apple jelly) from Australia and mantequilla or butter from America or Australia. Also, the El successor de la Viuda de Gomez shop in Escolta offered goods like Cognac J. Hennesy XXX; Cognac F. Martell; yellow Chartreuse; Benedictine; Orange Curacao; truffles; Salchichas de Paris; Sardinas francescas esquisitas; Mortadella de Colombini; Marmalade de Keiller; tomato soup; French cheeses in crystal and in cans and Quezo de bola from Holland. The hotel Fonda de Lala Ary mentioned in Noli Me Tangere also advertised its goods like boneless Bacalao; polvos de carik-carik (curry powder not instant kare-kare); mango chutney; fish from Bombay; and other Indian specialties. A British cake was also promoted with a statement: ―PLUM CAKE (Pudin de pasas de Corinto) confenctioned on English mode. For sale here PABST Café. San Sebastian 16.‖ In Manila, there are bakeries like Panaderia de San Sebastian of Telesforo Crisanto-Asico Hermanos advertised: ―assorted biscuits of all kinds and serves request for the interior or exportation (dine-in or take-out).‖ There were also relief water sold like El Remedio, aerated water produced by F. Crisanto and Co., and another brand from Fabrica de aguas gaseosas at Misericordia 43, Sta. Cruz. The natural sparkling water Aguas minero-medicinales de Malbog-Gazan or popularly known as ―Aguas de Boac‖ is prescribed for elephantiasis, herpes,

Hotel Fonda de Lala Ary skin diseases, diarrhea, etc. by drinking half a glass per meal. Also the 1902 Witton‘s Directory showcases advertisements from the one-kilometer street Escolta, the center of trade and industry that time. For clothings, the F. Gutierrez & Co. Paris Manila sold Dry Goods and Novelties. The store was located in 2 Escolta, Manila. For paper works, Chofre & Co of 121 Escolta Street offered printing services, lithography, book binding, blank book manufacturing, stereotyping, embossing, stationing, card board boxes, and halftone blocks. There is also a grocery store at 80 Escolta called Cortijo & Co. Greilsammer Brothers Jewellers of 34 and 36 Escolta offered ―the finest assortment in jewerly of the latest patterns of America and Europe: Diamonds, Pearls, and other Precious stones. Large Stock of the Best American and Swiss Watches. Sole Agents for the Renowned Watches LONGINES & MERIDIAN.‖ Another jewerly store is located at 23 Escolta named La Confianza Widget and Uebelhardt.

An advertisement of Ayala distellery The other store advertisers were Boei & Schandenberg Germany Dispensary, Juan Soler, La Campana, Rubert & Guamis Proprietors (146 – 150 Escolta), Adolfo Roensch & Co Outfitters (71-75 Escolta), El Louvre De G. Pereda (54 Escolta), Sombreria Secker (Gent‘s Furnishing Store – 131 Escolta), La Puerta del Sol Bazar, Escolta, Manila, Uncle-Sam‘s Loan Office, Till‘s Studio (105 Escolta), Terrel & Tutherly Attorneys (34 Escolta), Clark & Co. American Opticians (74 Escolta) and Dr. Clarence J. Miner (Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Doctor in 34 Escolta).

The Harbinger of Truth

Home & Living MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

Tropical PH gets ice as early as 1800


BIG BEN OF THE PHILIPPINES Insular Ice Plant and Cold Storage is considered as the “Big Ben of the Philippines” because it

serves as Manila‟s alarm clock that sounded three times a day.

WENHAM ICE Men handles large blocks of ice with large tongs . PHILIPPINES is considered as a hot country, with this many people aspire for a cold, thirst quenching drink, desserts and many more. In this tropical country, the Philippines did not have a regular supply of ice since 1800‘s. It takes a lot of months before it reached Philippines. The supplied ice came from the Boston lakes, the most famous of which was the Wenham Lake ice, believing that it is so pure but it does not only stayed cool longer than the other ices. It is also clean and is suitable for table use.

With that reason, Filipinos drank ―cooled‖ water in an earthenware tapayan. As centuries passed, the term ―the iceman cometh‖ became famous when people bought blocks of ice wrapped in cloth or rice husks from an iceman on a horse-drawn cart. So this cold storage made the sale of ice an important industry. In Barraca Street, Binondo an ice plantation was owned by Don Julio Witte on the year 1881 but there was no fixed price for it. Oriental Brewery and Ice factory in 57 Oral. Solano, San Miguel. The factory was originally based in Hong Kong, where it had been erected in New Kowloon in 1908 by an Americann consortium and was bought by a syndicate from Manila headed by Antonio Barreto, the cousin of ―Don Enrique‖ Barreto, who is the founder of the San Miguel Brewery. This factory was bought by the San Miguel Corporation in 1919 and was transformed as the building of Royal Soft Drinks Plant.

Fabrica Hielo de Manila, Ice factory located in 660, Echague, San Miguel. This is known for producing daily output of 20 tons ice, sold at 2 centavos.

bell served as the City‘s alarm clock. The building became very strong surpassing the bash of the World War II.

This was also purchased by the San Miguel in 1924 as an advent in going to the ice cream business. Insular Ice plant and Cold storage in the southern foot of the Puente de Colgante across the street from the Metropolitan Theater, built in 1902. This is considered as the largest project of Edgar Bourne, an American architect and the head of the Bureau of Architecture credited by the Philippine Commission in 1902 as part of the colonization efforts in modernizing the requirements for the new colony. Insular Ice plant is the first building built by American occupational army to furnish ice, distilled water and cold storage for the army, navy, and insular government as well as the general public at a cost of P2,000,000. It was a large, voluminous structure whose horizontality was broken by a slender 10-storey high smoke stack that became a famous city landmark due to its height and also the striking of the

M.Y.San (Escolta Ice Cream Parlor) serving ice cream at 69 Escolta. (courtesy P.Mar)

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Music and Literary Voices MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

The Evolving Philippine Hymn By ALAIN LOUISE C, GERONIMO

RAISING THE VOICE OF INDEPENDENCE The photo shows Aguinaldo‟s residence during the 1898 era when the flag was raised as a sign for the Philippine Independence on June 12, 1898. IT ALL started when the Philippines‘ revolt against Spain was in its second year, and victory is in sight. Emilio Aguinaldo, the president during that time, thought that to effectively rally the nation against Spain, there should be a need for national symbols.

name of Julian Felipe visited him, and brought him a letter signed by General Mariano Trias, introducing him as a good musician. Aguinaldo was looking for a composition that will show national character, something that encompasses the noble ideals of the Filipinos, something to inspire Filipinos to fight for freedom.

encia tried out the lyrics and became the first ones to sing the anthem. They begin with Tierra Adorada / hija del sol de oriente / su fuego

ing / Child of the sun returning / With fervor burning / Thee do our souls adore. This version is widely used in schools under the American educa-

He then commissioned Felipe to make a musical piece that will motivate the nation for a revolution. Felipe worked on this for 6 days, and then, in June 11, 1898, played his final piece to Aguinaldo in his living room. Aguinaldo was finally satisfied with Felipe‘s work.

La Independencia, the publication of the Philippine Republic

Felipe will then name it as ―Marcha Filipino Magdalo‖, after Aguinaldo‘s nom de guerre.

Julian Felipe

Jose Velasquez Palma

It was adopted on the spot, and renamed it ―Marcha Nacional Filipina‖.

It was played to the public during Aguinaldo‘s proclamation of Philippine Independence. There are no lyrics for the composition yet during that time; it was not yet to be sung. Lyrics by a soldier Near the end of August 1899, a soldier-poet by the name of Jose Palma wrote the poem Filipinas in the Spanish language. It was a poem that devoted patriotism to the people. It was first published during the first anniversary of the Declaration of Philippine Independence published in La Independencia, the Filipino Republic‘s organ on September 3, 1899 in Bautista, Pangasinan, and original musical piece of Himno Nacional Pilipino edited by Antonio Luna. It became the Spanish lyrics of Juan Felipe‘s composition. Then in June 5, 1898, 7 days before then president Emilio As soon as the lyrics were Aguinaldo declared independence, a completed, the staff of La Independmusic teacher from Cavite by the

inside of the original musical piece of Himno Nacional Pilipino ardent / en ti latiendo esta. Translated into English In 1918, Senator Camilo Osias, a Filipino writer, and A.L. Lane translated Palma‘s lyrics in English, albeit inaccurate. In 1938, the National Assembly enacted a law that the Anthem should be coterminous with the life of the country. The lyrics are now translated into Tagalog by Filipino poets Julian Cruz Balmaceda and Ildefonso Santos. It begins with Land in the morn-

tional system. The University of the Philippines have found the Osias-Lane version wanting and tried to introduce another version by Paz MarquezBenitez. It begins with O Land beloved / Child of the sunny orient / Whose ardent spirit / Ever burns in thy breast. However, this version did not catch on.

The Harbinger of Truth

Entertainment MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

PH Cinema originates from Spain By ALAIN LOUISE C. GERONIMO MANILA, as of today, is sprawling with cinemas. Ever since in the late 1800s, we have now developed a sense of entertainment. From theatres in the Spanish era to modern-day technology that includes televisions and colored films, the world of film and cinema is constantly evolving, attracting more and more bypassers.

Early producers and directors in the country were wealthy entrepreneurs, mostly foreigners.

Quiapo (Quiapo Fiesta), Puwente de Espana (Espana Bridge), and Escenas Callejeras (Street Scenes).

In the middle of 1897, 2 Swiss entrepreneurs, Liebman and Peritz, along with Ramos, presented the first four films in the Philippines using a Lumiere cinematograph (that was invented way back in 1862) at a hall formerly occupied by

With these, he became the first film producer in the country. Many other films were shot with the same themes as Ramos‘s. Most of the films at that time were silent films, having no sound whatsoever. Advancements in the American

country. More of these ―actuality films‖ were still shown to the public. In 1919, Jose Nepomuceno brought home newly-imported film equipments here in the country and filmed Dalagang Bukid, the first ever film to be produced, financed, and directed by a Filipino. It was based off from a popular musical. Nepomuceno then became the father of Filipino film. This era started a new age of significant discovery and a new art form. By the turn of the 1930s, films are now based on popular literature, making it very Hollywood-based.

We should now see how it all started, up to this generation‘s evolving technologies that mesmerize the people with vivid colors.

Later that year, talking and sound pictures, called ―talkies‖, began to rise.

Theater, the cinema before: Moro-moro and zarzuela Before motion pictures were widespread, the Spanish gave us moro-moro and zarzuela. Early theatre productions feature the Spanish language, with some words in Tagalog borrowed from the Spanish.

“Moros-Moros au Théâtre d’Albay,” 1886.

It was a year old with the release of Syncopation, a well-known American film that was released as a ―Radio Picture‖ using the first commercial test of the Photophone sound system at the Radio Theater, Plaza Santa Cruz, Manila. This incited filmmakers and producers into competing with one another as to who would create the first Filipino talkie.

The moro-moro is a comedic act which portrays Muslim locals defeated by the Spanish Christians. The zarzuela was a more dramatic genre that featured dance and song. The Late Spanish era: the start of it all


Lumieres Cinematographe poster

It a shop in 1901 Pertierra Advertisement started in JanEscolta, cor. uary 1, 1897 San Jacinto, Manila. with the introduction of the first movThe following year, local ing pictures to the country by a scenes were shot by Ramos for his Spaniard named Pertierra at the Safirst documentary film Escolta. It lon de Pertierra in Manila. showed flickering images of carIt was two years after elecruaje (horse-drawn carriage) traveltricity was generated in the Philipling the cobbled streets of Escolta. pines. The first films were mostly There were women wearing baro’t French, such as Un Homme du saya and men wearing camisa de Chapeau (The Man with a Hat), Une chino and stared at the camera with Scene de Danse Japonaise (Scene much curiosity. from a Japanese Dance), Les BoxBesides Escolta, there are ers (the Boxers), and La Place de other local documentary shots by L’Opera (The Place of L‘Opera). Ramos in Manila, such as Fiesta de

1910 Escolta

They answered with Ang Aswang (The Ghost), created by Graphic Magazine in 1932. It did not

colonial period to the present

turn so well however.

The Edison company was one of the first American companies to film in the Philippines. Prior to 1901, they filmed ―actuality films‖ – films that show city scenes sround the country.

From 1934 to 1941, it was a time of important development in our local cinema.

They began working on films then that feature Americans squashing the insurgency of the locals. It showed that the colonizers are educators and the natives being savages.

Local film studios came up with two to three productions at the same time. They brought Ay! Kalisud, Giliw Ko, and Diwata ng Karagatan.

More and more cinemas were built the following years and in 1903, Jose Jimenez founded the first Filipino owned theatre in the

During that time, filmmaking became more organized, and the films are more Hollywood-like.

It was a time that Filipino filmmaking started to make a name for the people.


The Harbinger of Truth MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

Jose Nepomuceno launches Dalagang Bukid trayed by the Queen of Kundiman, Atang De la Rama as Angelita and Marcello Ilagan as Cipriano.

which nowadays shortened into ‗cine‘-a term that is generally called movies.

The film is about the forbidden love story of Angelita and Cipriano where Angelita‘s parents want her to marry Don Silvestre.

This Cinematografo showed documentary sceneries from United States and Europe but it shut down because the owners were unable to import enough movies.

The movie showed the importance of courting as true and unending. It is also highlighted by Ilagan that money can‘t buy all the happiness in the world. Dalagang bukid is one of the most popular operettas written by Hermogenes E. Ilagan, known as the father of Tagalog Operetta.

Jose Nepomuceno By DENISSE JANE S. REMOLACIO The first Filipino-produced film, Dalagang Bukid, was released by Jose Nepomuceno under the production of Malayan Movies in 1919. The most-awaited film was por-

The movie in operetta was first shown in Teatro Zorilla in 1917 and it almost took more than two years to launch it as a film. The first films were first shown in August 31, 1897 when Monsseniur Leibman and Peritz, two Swiss businessman who sponsored a movie house in Manila where they called it, Cinematografo

At the turn of the century, cinema struggled to compete with the dominant entertainment, the zarzuela. Zarzuela is a Spanish influence lyric-dramatic genre that alternates between spoken and sung scenes, as well as dance. It is believed that the name is originated from the name of a Royal hunting lodge, the Palacio de la Zarzuela near Madrid where it was first seen or performed in the court. Sometimes, Zarzuela usually have a happy ending that became enHonorata ―Atang‖ Dela Rama tertaining for some.


The Harbinger of Truth MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

HORÓSCOPO Aries (March 21 – April 9) Things are looking bright as the week begins, but caution is warranted.

Leo (July 23 – August 22) You can sometimes be a bit too forceful in expressing your opinions.

Sagittarius (November 22 – December 21) It's wonderful that you want to help people, but sometimes it's better to offer practical assistance instead of financial assistance.

Taurus (April 20 – May 20) There is more depth to your personality than some people give you credit for.

Virgo (August 23 – September 22) Virgo isn't always known for being spontaneous, and so you may hesitate to step outside of the norm, but in this case, your "crazy" idea at the beginning of the week will pay off.

Capricorn (December 22 – January 19) As the week begins, you may feel a lot of satisfaction at the progress that you're making.

Gemini (May 21 – June 21) You can be the consummate diplomat, but when you're focused on a project, you can have a tendency to block off those around you.

Libra (September 23 – October 23) Your nostalgia is understandable, but it must be kept in check.

Aquarius (January 20 – February 18) It is time to seize control of your own life and your own schedule.

Cancer (June 22 – July 22) It can be difficult when your family and friends conflict with your professional obligations, especially for you.

Scorpio (October 24 – November 21) Now is the time for vision. Whatever ideas you have are not big enough.

Pisces (February 19 – March 20) This is not a good week to be a shrinking violet.


The Harbinger of Truth MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

SPOTLIGHT: MANUEL CONDE By DENISSE JANE S. REMOLACIO and ALAIN LOUISE C. GERONIMO Manuel P. Urbano also known as Manuel Conde is one of the most popular icon in the showbiz industry, he is an actor, director and also a producer from Daet, Camarines Norte. A product of an Italian mestizo, Dionision Urbano and a Pampango, Lucia Pabustan. Their family owned a shoe shop and a rice cake store (bibingkahan) before but in an early age he was orphaned because of the loss of his parents and so he was raised by his sister Nena and Carmen being the youngest of the five children. With that reason Conde never knew how to live with luxuries and at a very young age he was working already selling banana fritters (maruya) with his Ate Nena beside the movie houses. They chose to sell there because after the show their banana fritters were very marketable and so while waiting Manuel always had the chance to see the posters outside the movie house. ―I was obsessed with the ambition of being an actor.‖ Little Manuel Conde recalled where he always wear the clothes of his elder brothers and put a mustache in his face glancing in the mirror practicing all kinds of faces. Despite of working, Conde was able to attend and finish his studies at Daet Elementary School, where he used to play different roles during plays. When he was as first grader, he appeared as Old Black Joe. The thing intensified Conde‘s fascination in the stage when he studied in Camarines Norte High, he took the audition separately with several teachers for a part in a play which had seven principal characters and he qualified for all of the roles. Aside from that, Conde also wrote and directed his own dramas in high school. As he stays in the school he was adjudged too young but nevertheless he graduated salutatorian in his high school class. And so after high school Conde left for Manila and enrolled in geological engineering at Adamson University, The mining boom at this time pursues Conde to take up the course. To support himself at school Conde still tried many roles in reality being a pier laborer, errand boy, rig driver, taxi driver, and sidewalk vendor, also he worked at United Paracle Mines in Camarines Norte for an American George McIlvan where he was paid fifty pesos for going into mines and making a report. As he stays in the university, he often skip classes to hang around the Filippine Films Studio and so at the year 1935 he signed a contract with George Harris, the studio‘s executive where he will work here for six months. His first job is to hold the spotlights, evolved in becoming a crew, janitor, carpenter, painter and a clapper boy. He was also assigned in the wardrobe which gave him ideas about costumes. Apart from that he also work as a stuntsman where he was being paid off seventy pesos a day. Upon playing different roles, acting is the job that he liked the most even if he was just an extra and upon the recommendation of Don Danon, he apperead in 1934 as an extra at the movie ―Sa Tawag ng Diyos‖ (On God‘s Call) by Carlos Vander, working five hours on the film earning P1.20. The following year,

1935, he worked as an extra again at the movie ―Kwintas na Hinumok‖ (Necklace of Sighs) where he will deliver just one line and he memorized it for seven days but when the time came that he has to say it he remained silent and cannot utter any word. On July 1935, he got another part as a detective in ―Mahiwagan Violin‖ (Mysterios Violin). While he was working, he was also enrolled at Halinka Desaruba school of acting on Marcelo H. Del Pilar where Don Danon was teachin but he did not last long. Still, Conde was able to finish his studies at Adamson University and worked for Marsaman and Co. for two years. Having a stable job, Conde

again, with that reason, Conde was asked for direct another movie,‖ Maginoong Takas‖ (Gentleman Fugitive) in the same year, this was his first ―sophisticated comedies‖. This film opened on October 17, 1940, with this Conde was awarded by the Philippine Movie Newsreel the ―Best Director of 1940‖. After the great success of Conde, he felt that he was ―the greatest director in the world‖, He threw his whole life into directing, aiming to improve his craft and widen knowledge as he direct in the LVN films. ―Hiyas nd Dagat‖ (Treasure of the Sea) was Conde‘s third film, shown at the Grand Thea-

Manuel Conde

deciced to get married by a beautician, Julita Salazar where he got a first born son. Besides on working on the company, he was also a ventriloquist so at the year 1938 he asked his friend, Tony Dumlao to make a doll that would look Filipino and funny where it ―Manuel Conde‖ because he found ―Urbano‖ to be difficult to say. They play their act, together with Kiko for so many years on the Purico Hour over the radion, at stage shows, and on special occasions. After all the years Conde had played, one incident happened that made Conde had a big shift: In 1938, he was about to sail for Jave as a mining prospector, a day before he has to leave, he anf his friends in the Filippine Films went drinking until he got drunk and woke up eight in the next morning. By that time, the bout was about to leave carrying his suitcase. But this thing turned into a blessing. He was asked to be an assistant director in a new movie by Carlos Vander Tolosa, where he used to work before. He accepted the offering and worked on their first script with Tolosa in the film ―Giliw ko‖ (My Beloved), shown in August 1939 and it was a success so he continued to work with Tolosa producing a movie again titled ―Hali‖ but his coworker, Carlos left LVN and transferred to Filippine Films.On the LVN opening of ―Giliw Ko‖, Kiko and Conde were asked to perform and afther the opening, Doña Aurora Quezon invited the two to meet President Quezon where the conversation did not go well. With Conde‘s good directing, Doña Sisang gave him his own project having ―Sawing Gantimpala‖ (Tragic Reward) as his directorial debut, an LVN super-production shown on July 25, 1940. Again, this became a success

tre from January 16 to 23, 1941. The movie is about the story of the carefree lives of people who depend on the sea for living. Conde was named the best director of 1941 with his third film. Binatillo, Conde‘s fourth film for LVN Pictures from March 28 to April 3, 1941, was written by Miguel Anzures, and was played at the newly opened Dalisay Theatre, which belonged to Dona Sisang. This is a light comedy set which shows that Filipinos can make movies that are on par with Hollywood ones. It tells of a rich woman‘s son who just reached adolescence and with his good looks ―starts to conquer girls‘ hearts‖. It is described as a ―local version of the famous Andy Hardy series‖ in Hollywood. Conde‘s situation comedies proved to be so successful that LVN asked him to make two more of these in 1941. Another situation comedy by Conde, Villa Hermosa, tells a story about a conventbred woman from a province who inherits a mansion in a city. She then meets a playboy and is enchanted by him. But she gets into a scuffle with a taxi driver then. In the end, the taxi driver‘s sister now falls for the playboy, while the ―heiress‖, the convent-bred woman, ends up with the taxi driver, who is the real heir. The second comedy Conde made in 1941, Ararong Ginto (Golden Plough), which played from August 8 to 18 at the same year. It highlighted why the foreigners, especially the Chinese, Japanese and Americans control mostly our resources and economics, and urged Filipinos to be proud of their land and not to be ashamed of getting their fingernails dirty. It tells of an ambitious young man migrates to Davao and farms a homestead. He mets a charming teacher and they fall in love. City gangsters then frame him for being ―a dummy of the

Japanese‖ but things are righted and ends happily. But 1941 became one of the most noted year for Conde‘s career when he directed his first costume picture based on a famous Tagalog korido. Ibong Adarna was a big budgeted film, with carefully chosen costumes, camera tricks by Richard Abelardo and the sequences of the Adarna changing color were painstakingly hand-painted by Ramon Monroy, making the film the first ever ―color‖ movie in local film history. It closely followed the sequence of events and cast of characters of the original. Tenoso was shot after the Japanese occupied Manila, with film stock bought from the rig drivers of Binondo after the Kodak store was looted. At that time, Japanese censors always intervene the media, wondering if they are going to use their finished product for propaganda purposes. The film opened in October 3, 1942 and became a hit. It would be one of the last non-propaganda films premiered during the Japanese Occupation. Except for films sponsored by the Japanese, film production went into a halt. Conde decided to start another business while he was out of film work and met Carlos V. Francisco, a visual artist. He first met Francisco through Pedro Coniconde, who brought him to work for Conde‘s advertising outfit, Kiko art, based in Conde‘s house on Ma. Cristina St. behind University of Santo Tomas. Conde and Francisco became fast friends. In 1943, Conde produced and directed stage plays, such as Kayumanggi (Brown), Timbangang Bakal (Scale of Steel), and Bakia Mo, Neneng (Your Wooden Clogs, Neneng).For these stage show, Conde‘s kumpadre, Francisco, designed and executed the stage sets and posters. Towards the latter part of 1944, Conde joined the underground guerillas and rose to the rank of major in Marking‘s guerillas. He had to leave Manila to avoid arrest. In October of the same year, he evacuated his family to Angono to live with Carlos Francisco‘s family. To feed those families, the two kumpadres would buy and sell rice and pigs. In early 1945, Conde was one of those who liberated the American prisoners of war in Los Baños, Laguna. He also joined in the battle of Bay, Laguna, where the 13th Regiment of the Japanese army incurred heavy losses. Soon after the Battle of Manila in February 1945, Conde brought his family back to Manila, resettled, and was raring to make films again. In 1946, Movie companies ―begged, borrowed and bought‖ equipment from the black markets, despite the fact that the cost of production went up to Php 75,000 compared to 30,000 before the war. After reorganizing in late 1945, LVN asked Conde to write and direct Orasang Ginto (Clock of Gold) the first of the war hits about the Pacific war, which played from March 4 to 12, 1946. Conde, who was still a regular major in the Armed Forces in the Philippines, used an entire battalion for the scenes in the movie without permission from his superiors. He almost got court-martialed due to this. He then worked on to finish 3 more films His last film for LVN was Principeng Hindi Tumatawa (The Prince that Never Laughs) which was based on a story by Aurora A. Quezon and adapted it on screen. It was the first of its kind to be filmed in varicolor – filmed in parts, according to the Manila Times. It was played from October 11 to 14 and 25 of 1946.

The Harbinger of Truth

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The Harbinger of Truth MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

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The Harbinger of Truth MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

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The Harbinger of Truth

Obituary MANILA, MARTES, 10 DE ENERO DE 1950

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