(re)collecting rural — memory, heritage and a rural identify under threat [msd independent thesis]

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(re)collecting rural memory, heritage and a rural identity under threat

JEREMY BONWCIK Individual Thesis Semester 02 2021



Contents

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

Chapter One; inquiry Thesis Statement Research Questions Thesis Elaboration Warburton Existing architectural fabric Rural contextual inquiry Heritage and memory Museological approaches Program and function Art references

14 16 20 28 38 62 74 84 94 104

11 12

Chapter Two; concept Concept Design development Parti and concept

112 122

13 14 15 16 17

Chapter Three; development Artefact and Aspect Museological Methodologies Procession and Encounterment Micro-power generation Sketch Design Drawn Outcomes

148 160 208 232 240

18 19

Chapter Four; resolution Community and social function Final Drawn Outcomes

262 276

References List of Figures

318 320


When experiencing a work of art, a curious exchange takes place; the work projects its aura, and we project our own emotions Perception, memory and imagination are in constant interaction; the domain of the present fuses into images of memory”

Juhani Pallasmaa, Eyes of the Skin



one enquiry


Thesis Statement

In a climate of expansion and homogenisation of culture and the built environment, the continuing urban bleed of Melbourne into its surrounding rural towns threatens to supersede and suppress a local identity. This thesis examines the role of architecture and the museum typology in maintaining the local identity of Warburton — a peri-urban town on the outskirts of Melbourne — through interactions with heritage, relic and artefact. A disused food factory is taken as the existing architectural condition, imprinted with traces of past events, practices and paradigms, and transformed into a factory of identity. Through an experiential sequencing of spaces, exhibits and contextualising views, the scheme seeks to make sense of and re-collect past traces of industry, settlement, water and power — edifices of a rural identity considered at the scale of the wider ecology, the town, the plot and the brick.

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15


Thesis Questions

When engaging with heritage and existing built form, how does the architect preserve built fabric of meaning and memory? How is the surface considered and then framed as imprinted with history?

How can an institutional museum program resit its predisposition for static display and engage its community to be ‘useful’ in fostering knowledge, skill and engagement?

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How can the museological typology be tempered and examined for the dual purpose of protecting a foreseeable endangered yet esoteric sense of rural practice and culture and broadcast with a purpose of continual refreshing of this identity?

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and this threefold relationship of site, event and sign becomes a characteristic of urban artifacts” ~ALDO ROSSI Architecture

There is a relationship between a certain site and the buildings that are on it. Buildings may be signs of events that have occurred on the specific site;

of

the

City


Thesis Elaboration On heritage, memory and rural identity in regional Victoria

This thesis discourses on heritage architecture, museological practices and rural identity. These three threads become entangled around ideas of a ‘useful’ museum, a place that does not simply hold artefacts of memory but leverages its exhibition programs for social and community engagement and betterment.

Context; The Rural Regional and rural Victoria, especially along the banks of the Birrarung (Yarra River), has become a contested site, pulled between tensions of urban expansion, settlement and pre-European inhabitation. Reading the armature of the city as routes of settlement and expansion leads to Rosalea Monacella’s conceptualisation of the “transept” in landscape — a connecting path between symbiotic spaces (2021). The reciprocity of the city and rural town is one of production and consumption facilitated by infrastructural and natural connectivity — the river, road and rail. This intrinsic link and codependency has always been a threat to a rural identity as the city creeps ever closer. A series of maps and ambitions released as part of the Sate Government of Victoria’s “Plan Melbourne to 2050” (2016) reveals a complex balance between rising property prices, relocating business to outer suburbs and the city’s continual expansion. Despite an “Urban Growth boundary”, in expansion and development these boundary rings begin to overlap and congeal, smudging the boundary between urban, peri-urban and hinterland. These physical blurrings are reflective of a diluting of identity which follows, where local practices, operations and systems of connection 20

are disbanded for more centralised, homogeneous patterns of living and relating to others. The architectural implications of this can be felt already on the site of this thesis — the former Sanitarium Health Foods Factory. The Seventh Day Adventist movement made their seat on Signs Hill in Warbuton in the early decades of the 20th century (Parkinson 1993). The factory and other complexes followed, bringing industry and purpose to burgeoning settlement which was looking for purpose after the exhaustion of gold mining and lumber industries. The urban/rural tension is felt in the style of Edward Billson’s design for the factory and neighbouring Signs Publishing buildings — emulating the Ducth modernist style of Willem Dudok (Lewi and Goad 2019). Drawing on the trajectory of De Stijl and neoplasticism, Doduk’s own Silversum Town Hall exemplified ideas of universality and idealism in a formal composition of interlocking rectilinear masses, stretching horizontally and punctuated by vertical extrusions. For the writers of the De Stijl Manifesto (Van Doesdburg et. al. 1918), the “universal” resulted in “abolishing natural form”. In its context, the factory at Warbuton is somewhat jarring when seen in sequence with a main street consisting of typologies stretching from the gold rush to simple weatherboard buildings. The vernacular of rural Australia is even further removed from the cream brick of Billson’s design — a rural “Functional Tradition” being “a forthright style of building arising directly from the challenge of function” (Cox, 1988). A factory which takes its form as an expression of the conveyor belt, the railway siding shed or silo all fall into this typology. Certainly not the European influenced factory by Billson. 21


Heritage; The Memory The built fabric and its historical context and associations are crucial in beginning to understand its relationship to architectural approaches of heritage. The value in the existing has long been a concern of architectural practice — from the extremes of heritage conservation, to demolition and adaptive reuse. In the 19th century German academic Wilhelm Lübke first began to recognise the impacts of what he called “restoration fever” (1861). He laments the cleaning of ceremonial ash from burnt incense off chapel walls, “obliterating” the “incomparable patina” of a layered history. An engagement with heritage encourages more than pure resurrection of the ‘as-built’ and instead proposes an engagement with the existing that understands and protects its cultural and human heritage along with the material of its built form. John Ruskin asserts that we “cannot remember without [architecture]” (1853), alluding to a relationship between the heritage building and recollection, an architectural fabric carries with it a layered history of cultural practices.

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As Lübke begins to suggest, heritage practices must consider the material and immaterial in tandem. The architecture’s built fabric can be considered as both a physical solidity and a substrate which has been imbued with, and purveys a trace of the peoples and practices it has housed. David Leatherbarrow (2020) suggests through a reading of time in Sverre Fehn’s Villa Busk that memory contained physically suggests the traces of “forces” no longer present where “only the vestige remains” as “silent testimony”. The architectural and natural surface, yielding under forces, becomes a

Abbotsford Convent, Kerstin Thompson, 2018.

trace of memory. This can be understood semiotically — as signs; physical traces which serve as signifiers to a signified previous event, practice, occupation or purely passage of time. Rossi (1984) asserts that there is a relationship between “site, event and sign” in the “urban artifacts” — intertwined are the histories of the site and its occupation because of the signs left by these interactions. An example of this can be seen in Kerstin Thompson’s interventions at the Abbotsford Convent in Melbourne where the architect has maintained a layer of palimpsest in the internal walls, revealing traces of a staircase which previously occupied the space. Umberto Echo’s semiotic research points to the importance of the viewer in this kind of relationship (1989). ‘The Open Work’ in film theory allows space for a viewer to interpret and draw connections between sign and signified. The scarred and layered architectural skin operates in the same manner — an open text to be observed and read by the inhabitant of the space. Heritage, for the sake of this thesis, is defined therefore as the maintenance

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“My most important journey was perhaps into the past, in the confrontation with the Middle Age.

only by manifestation of the present, you can make the past speak. If you try to run afer it, I realized that

you will never reach it.”

~ S v e r r e Fe h n

Hedmark Museum, Sverre Fehn, 1979

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of surface and form with respect to its capacity to carry memory. The factory at Warburton, with its heavy masonry walls has the longevity to collect this memory as both abstract representation and physical evidence of a local identity.

but on the container and architecture’s capacity to convey meta narratives around the exhibition and object. The implant museum, such as Fehn’s Hedmark Museum, parasitically appropriates existing for both artefact and atmosphere. The found condition is exploited for a layering of meaning onto objects displayed.

Function; The Museum

Hans Obrist suggests that the curatorial practices of the museum is a process of “filtering, synthesizing, engaging and framing” (2014) — only in the final stage, in framing, the museum’s architecture, physical enclosure and atmosphere play a role in the key programmatic ambition of the typology — making sense of memory. The relationship between the past present and subsequent future is mediated by the museum’s ecology. For Remy Zaugg (1986) this ecology was limited to the ‘work’ and the human’. However in modern museum settings a third player enters this — the container, being the framing, contextualisation and codification of the memory. Rather than seeing the container as something static, the museum has been freed from its predisposition to present a taxonomy of fixed objects. Recent critical enquiry has questioned the contention of national histories in the museum setting seemingly resultant

Museological practices share an intrinsic link to aspects of memory which heritage architecture is concerned with. The pair work in tandem in the case of the “museum implant” — this approach intrudes “into places of the past, [which] like a parasite changes memory from the inside out” (Marotta 2012). These “memory machines” are “containers – contaminated, well worn and tragic”. The museum typology has evolved significantly; from the Wunderkammer, a product of colonial and enlightenment thinking which places the owner in the centre of their knowledge, to Libeskind’s Jewish Museum where the architecture plays an active role, atmospherically enveloping the visitor. The architectural idea of the sequence and storytelling in the latter makes for an atmospheric, phenomenological project that not only focuses on the display of artefacts

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“learn how to

MAKE things learn how to

MAKE SOCIETY together

~A l i s t a i r H u d s o n

from a disconnect from personal memory and histories told (Crane, 1997). The museum typology, rather than adhering to a strict objectivity in its ecology of human-work-contaner, can begin to pivot its role to something more functionally active whilst maintaining its role as a stronghold of artefact and knowledge. Theaster Gates’ envisions the Stony Island Arts Bank in Chicago as a space of community engagement, bringing together creatives to engage in practices as well as exhibition, all within a “contaminated” container of a former bank.

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These ambitions are parallel to the ideas of the ‘useful museum’ and the Art Útil movements. A significance is placed on the museum or gallery’s ability to operate as social infrastructure; where “authors [are replaced] with initiators and spectators with users”. A founding member of the movement, Alistair Hudson describes this mode of operation, where members of the community contribute and begin to define the gallery, as a process of “learning how to make things, learning how to make society” (2018). The musicological and curatorial roles of the scheme shift to encompass a new role in facilitating and providing spaces for social interaction and advancement, the

The Lost Trades Fair, Bendigo, regional Victoria

result being a connectivity and identity building exchange of knowledge, practices and ideologies rooted in a local identity, not defined by an extrinsic force but by the inhabitance themselves.

Proposal; The Warburton Museum The museum and heritage both play a significant role in identity and consequently this thesis will investigate these in relation to the identity of rural Victoria on the site in Warburton. Intervention and interactions with existing fabric will be considered to preserve and advocate the memory of the site, region and broadly rural identity and practice.

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Warburton, a settlement on the banks of the Yarra The sun shines, low in the sky as expected for mid-July. The crispness of the air is cut by a faint warmth in the solar radiation. Everywhere the faint trickling or heavy storming of the Yarra can be heard as it winds its way through the valley between Donna Buang and the Tugwell Ranges, heading to its inevitable marriage with the oceans some hundred kilometers away in Port Melbourne. It takes its time to get there, wondering backwards and forwards. There’s no rush. Trees loll backwards and forwards in a wind, shifting light over picnic spots and walking trails. A child tries to skim a rock. (Site observations, July 2021)

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The township of Warburton was not formally founded, however was born out of gold explorations in the Yarra Ranges in the late 1850s. The area had been surveyed by Robbert Hoddle in 1845, almost a decade after the settlement of Melbourne. Yankee Jim reported the first gold in the area around a creek which now bears his name. The township established there, named Warburton after Warburton Carr the mining warden of the distinct, grew to include homes and stables, infrastructure for mining operations and a number of waterwheels for power. As gold began to run dry Upper Warburton began to grow. This, the current site of

Dear old road, wheelworn and broken, Winding through the forest green, Barred with shadows and with sunshine, Misty vistas drawn between

Grace Jennings-Camichael An Old Bush Road

the township, grew in population as the forests in area began being felled for lumber. Thick ash trees were transported on tramways to the railway at Warburton where, from 1901, it was then taken on to the city for use in construction. Throughout the bush were dotted milling operations, boilers, steamdriven gears, sawing yards. This industry sustained well into the ensuing decades. (Parkinson 1993) 29


30 MOUNT DONNA BUANG 4080 ft

MOUNT VICTORIA

O’SHANNASSY AQUEDUCT CARRIED WATER FROM THE UPPER YARRA RANGES TO A RESERVOIR OUTSIDE OF MELBOURNE FROM 1911 UNTIL THE 1970s

SIGNS HILL SITE OF THE ORIGINAL ADVENTIST SETTLEMENT UNTIL FLOODS IN THE 1930s

WARBURTON ORIGINAL WARBURTON RAILEYWAY LINE CONNECTING TO LILYDALE AND HEALSVILLE

ADVENTIST SETTLEMENT CONSISTED OF THE CHURCH, SIGNS PUBLISHING, HEALTH FOODS FACTORY, SANITARIUM RETREAT AND LATER THE HOSPITAL

EXTENSIVE LUMBER AND TIMBER MILLING DURING THE LATE 1800s

YARRA RIVER

LITTLE JOE MOUNTAIN

OLD WARBURTON ORIGINAL SETTLEMENT WHEN GOLD WAS DISCOVERED AT YANKEE JIM CREEK IN 1859, NAMED AFTER THE MINING WARDEN WARBURTON CARR

HISTORIC RAIL TRAIL

OLD WARBURTON RD TUGGWELL RANGES

WARBURTON HIGHWAY

Warbutron Context

31


COMMERCIAL/CIVIC

32 EATERY/FOOD RETAIL VACANT

WARBURTON HIGHWAY ELEVATION NORTH SIDE

33

WARBURTON BAKER PRE-EXISTING DRIVE-THROUGH STRUCTURE

VIETNAMESE RESTAURANT

WARBURTON MECHANICS INSTITUTES BUILDING C. 1897-1912

ARTS HALL AND CIVIC CENTRE 1970S

BELL REAL ESTATE

AUSTRALIA POST CONTEMPORARY BUILDING

NEWSAGENCY

EMPTY RETAIL AND RESIDENCE POST-WAR BRICK

BENDIGO BANK RED BRICK VICTORIAN BUILDING

SECONDHAND STORE

INSURANCE FIRM

THE OLD TEA SHOP

VINTAGE BOOKSTORE

RETAIL

CAFE

CAFE

CAFE

RETAIL

SECOND HAND STORE

TAKE-AWAY FOOD

VACANT REATIL TIMBER CONSTRUCTION ORIGINALLY THE WARBURTON POST OFFICE

CONFECTIONERY STORE TIMBER WEATHERBOARD C. 1900

CAFE

REAL ESTATE AGENT

EDGEWATER DEVELOPMENT SHOWROOM SANITARIUM HEALTH FOOD DEVELOPMENT

TENNIS CLUB


1950

1983 FIRE

1934 FLOOD 1926 FIRE

1964 ALL ABOARD FINAL TRAIN SERVICE

1956

MANUFACTURER OF WEET-BOX AND OTHER CEREALS

FACTORY CLOSES

1990s

TELECOMMUNICATIONS ANTENNAE ATTACHED TO THE GRAIN SILOS

DEPART WARBURTON

UPPER YARRA DAM IS COMPLETED

1911

O’SHANNASSAY AQUEDUCT CONSTRUCTED TO SUPPLY WATER TO MELNOURNE

SANITARIUM HEALTH FOODS FACTORY

1936 SEVENTH DAY ADVENTIST SETTLEMENT IN WARBURTON BEGINS TO BRING NEW RESIDNETS AND A NEW MANUFACTURING AND WELLNESS INDUSRTY

ADVENTISTS

1912

THE SANITARIUM OR ‘HYDRO’ IS OPENED ON SIGNS HILL

ADVENTIST RUN SIGNS PUBLISHING BEGINS OPERATIONS ON THE NORTHERN BANKS OF THE YARRA

1906

WARBURTON RAILWAY LINE OPENS TO PASSENGERS

TIMBER MILLING BECOMES A PRIMARY OCCUPATION OF THE AREA WITH LARGE AREAS OF FOREST FELLED TO SUPPLY MELBOURNE

TIMBER

FLOODING CAUSES GREAT DAMAGE TO MINING OPERATIONS

1863

SETTLERS CALLED THEM THE YARRA YARRA TRIBE, THE WURUNDJERI PEOPLE LIVED ALONG THE YARRA RIVER, THE BIRRARUNG. THE CORANDERRK STATION WAS ESTABLISHED IN 1963 TO HOUSE AND TEACH FIRST NATIONS PEOPLE INCLUDING WILLIAM BARAK

EAPRY EXPLORATION OF THE UPPER YARRA VALLEY BY ROBERT HODDLE

1845

YANKEE JIM OPENS MINING OPERATIONS IN THE YARRA VALLEY THE SETTLEMENT AT YANKEE JIM CREEK IS NAMED WARBURTON, LATER OLD WARBURTON, BETWEEN THE TUGWELL RANGES AND MOUNT LITTLE JOE

1859 GOLD!

THOUSANDS OF YEARS

35

34

1850

1854 EUREKA STOCKADE

1900 1901 FEDERATION

1913 FIRE

1835 MELBOURNE ESTABLISHED

WARBURTON

-37.752889, 145.697695


2016 Census — Warburton

Population 2,012

Families 517

Male, 48.6% Femaile, 51.4%

Avg Children per family 1.7

Median age, 48 years

Over 70, 300

Average people per household 2.2 Median weekly rent $263

Unoccupied dwellings 222, 21.3% Avg number of bedrooms 2.8 Number of vehicles none, 6.2% 1x, 42.8 2x, 32.8 3+, 14.0%

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Occupations Professionals, 19.7% Technicians/trade, 15.9% Community workers, 13.2% Managers, 12.1% Labourers, 11.7% Clerical, 9.4% Sales, 7.8% Machine/drivers, 7.4%

Worked part time 36.8% Away from work 6.0%

Under 20, 491

Private dwellings 1,135

Work full time 49.9%

Unemployed 7.3%

Education Primary school 141

Median Weekly income Personal, $508 Family, $1,205 Household, $889

Secondary School 110 University or other 80

Ancestry English, 31.3% Australian, 23.6% Scottish, 9.5% Irish, 9.5% German, 4.4% Religion Catholic, 217, 10.9% Anglican, 156, 7.9% Adventist, 83, 4.2%

Identify as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Male, 8 Female, 4

Vic

Aus

Male, 23,622 Female, 24,159

322,171 326,996

Median Age, 40

37


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Existing architectural fabric In the first decades of the 20th century the Seventh Day Adventists settled in Warburton, Victoria. The religious group had previously operated in Sydney and Melbourne however a rural site in Victoria was selected as an expansion of their operations. The rural setting was ideal to put into practice the groups’ philosophies of living off the land and wider health benefits of self-sustaining living as well as the opportunities the Yarra provided for free energy generation. Along with the church building the first establishment was that of Signs publishing, uprooted from Fitzroy. The publishing house was soon followed by the food production factory for Sanitarium, producing grain based cereals in keeping with the Adventists lifestyle. These were both originally housed on Signs Hill on the north side of the Yarra on the slopes of Mount Victoria. These buildings were followed in subsequent years by the Sanitarium — a health retreat with a focus on hydro therapy — and the Warburton hospital. The two industrial buildings were however

destroyed in floods in 1934 which forced the Sanitarium Heath Foods Factory and Signs Publishing buildings to relocate to the southern bank. The same year Edward Billson, a Melbourne architect was employed to design new factory buildings for both. He opted for a modern aesthetic emulating the Dutch Modernist Willem Dudok with clean rectilinear compositions of horizontal blocks and plentiful windows all in a cream brick, accented with blue glazed bricks around the fenestration. These building endure to today, with Signs Publishing still in place but the Health Foods factory closing in the 1990s. During its operations the factory produced, amongst other things, Weetbix which was conceived in Australia before spreading to other Adventist run food manufacturers worldwide. Since its disuse, there has been plans to reinvigorate the building to a spa and resort which has until now been hindered by brushfire regulations. Sources; Parkinson 1993, AIA 2012, Victorian Heritage Database 1986.

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40

41


42

43


Historic condition

44

Contemporary condition

45


Tectonic exploration of the existing fabric, pulling apart the compositional elements of the factory building to disassociate the skin from its formal and structural functions, considered purely signifier.

Contextual explorations of river and town, connections to the landscape and the built fabric of the street, river and existing architecture. https://youtu.be/w61NYxXzzp4 46

47


48 Original architetcural drawings from Edward F Billson viewed from the State Library of Victoria’s collection, used to construct the digital model of the existing built conditions.

49


0

50

2

5

10m

51


YARRA RIVER

THE FORMER SANITARIUM HEALTH FOODS FACTORY WARBUTON DESIGNED IN 1936 A SITE WITH THREE TENSIONS _THE RIVER, WATER AND POWER _INDUSTRY, PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION _THE LAND, AGRICULTURE AND FLORA Close your eyes, the trickle of the Yarra is at your ears, the wind through the trees, you can smell the damp earth.

9550

6960 6781

7315

6781 7315 6096

9125

2216

0

52

5

10

20

40m

6705

6858

7721

7721

5105

4087

3058

10000

WARBURTON HIGHWAY

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Material traces

Northcote Brickworks

Bricks supplied from Melbourn from The Northcote Patent Brick on Separation Street Northcote. Opened in 1873 on former railway land, 4 million bricks were produced per month. Materials were sourced from a huge mining pit on the site, now covered by a carpark. Steam engines were used for the dry press production, similar to the Hoffman Brickworks in nearby Brunswick. The brickworks closed in 1977 and the infrastructure, including chimneys, kilns and factory complex was demolished as the local council. The pit was used as a rubbish tip. The whole area is now home to a shopping centre and parkscape.

Left; Brick taken from site, Above; (top) view of the brickworks complex and smoke stacks, (bottom) the open cut pit in Northcote.

The most common colour bricks from this fatocry were red but, as with the S.H.F.F, cream was also produced. The bricks are identified by markings on the frog.

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European influence

Hilversum Town Hall Willem Doduk, Hilversum, Netherlands, 1928-1931

“The monumental is the purest expression of the human sense of harmony and order” Willem Doduk

The Hilversum Town Hall in the Netherlands by architect Willem Doduk very closely resembles the design for the S.H.F.F. Billson produced in 1936. The hall has a striking composition with a contrast between horizontal and vertical masses which interlock and overlap. The mono-materiality, the cream brick renders these rectilinear masses, with concealed flat roofs hidden behind capped parapets. As with the factory at Warburton, the hall has a tall extruded element and clock tower as a civic gesture. The hall, an exemplar of this movement of Dutch modernism

sits alongside the De Stijl and neoplastic movements of the same era, most notable for colour block paintings by Piet Mondiran and the Schröder House by Gerrit Rietveld. The movement aimed for a utopian pursuit of a universal style which moved from the individual to the collective as a reaction to the first World War. Bringing this style to regional Victoria was a deviation from the town’s existing architecture and the original factory and publishing building on the norther banks of the Yarra which were of more humble weatherboard construction.

De Stijl Manifesto, 1918

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Functional Tradition

Woolshed, Manaroo Station, NSW

Black Forest Sawmill, Black Forest, Victoria

“A close analysis of the needs it has to serve rather that from a preoccupation with embellishment”

Philip Cox’s book on the Australian Functional Tradition of the same name describes it as “a forthright style of building arising directly from the challenge of function”. These are buildings which arise from necessity, with a clear programmatic purpose which J. M. Richards says requires “close analysis of the needs it has to serve rather that from a preoccupation with embellishment”. These building can be seen as the vernacular of settlement, of agriculture, of industry and, largely, of rural identity.

J. M. Richards

is given priority over the function. However, it is of a similar genealogy, the silos sit somewhat cumbersomely next to the cream brick building in contrast to the more integrated smoke stack from the engine room which plays a part in the overall composition.

The S.H.F.F. sits outside this — it is certainly designed and its formal response

58

59


60

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Rural contextual inquiry THE LAND IS SMOTHERED ASPHELT AND CONCRETE OVER STREAM AND HILL

CORANDERRK

BIRRARUNG

CT DU E UE RN AQ BOU

L AY ME SS TO NA Y AN PPL SH SU O’ TER A W

0

-7

11

19

NAARM, COLONISED 1835

“DEAR OLD ROAD, WHEEl-WORN AND BROKEN, WINDING THROUGH THE FOREST GREEN, BARRED WITH SHADOWS AND WITH SUNSHINE, MISTY VISTAS DRAWN BETWEEN”

67 KM

TIMBER MILLING

THE YARRA RIVER FLOWS THE ASH OF DONNA BUANG GROWS SKYWARDS INDUSTRY GROWS FEEDING THE CITY

UPPER YARRA DAM

WATER WHEELS POWER TO THE GOLD FIELDS LOCOMOTIVE CONNECTION

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64 THE YARRA RIVER FLOWS THE ASH OF DONNA BUANG GROWS SKYWARDS INDUSTRY GROWS FEEDING THE CITY

“DEAR OLD ROAD, WHEEl-WORN AND BROKEN, WINDING THROUGH THE FOREST GREEN, BARRED WITH SHADOWS AND WITH SUNSHINE, MISTY VISTAS DRAWN BETWEEN”

UPPER YARRA DAM

THE LAND IS SMOTHERED ASPHELT AND CONCRETE OVER STREAM AND HILL

CORANDERRK

LOCOMOTIVE CONNECTION

WATER WHEELS POWER TO THE GOLD FIELDS

BIRRARUNG

NAARM, COLONISED 1835

TIMBER MILLING

67 KM CT DU E UE RN AQ LBOU AY ME SS Y TO A N L

1

0

-7

1 91

AN PP SH SU O’ TER WA

0 1 2 5

+400m +300m +200m +100m 000m

10

URBAN DENSITY

20km

MELBOURNE

BURNLEY

RICHMOND

KEW

HEIDELBERG

65

The Transept. Concept introduced by Rosalea Monacella in her work ‘Power Energy; Shaping the American Landscape’.

ELTHAM

WARRANDYTE

YARRA GLEN

WOON YALLOCK

YARRA JUNCTION

WESBURN

WARBURTON

UPPER YARRA DAM


43 datums along the Yarra In investigating the transept, the symbiotic arm of the Yarra as armature of the city, a series of 43 datums were investigated stretching from the mouth of the Yarra at Melbourne’s CBD to the Upper Yarra Dam. The line of inquiry was interrogated to examine the river’s relationship

66

to settlement, industry, agriculture and the morphology of city and land around its banks. This informed an examination of the gradient of urban to hinterland and pockets of settlements.

Imagery; NearMaps

67


MOUNT DONNA BUANG 4080 ft

O’SHANNASSY AQUEDUCT CARRIED WATER FROM THE UPPER YARRA RANGES TO A RESERVOIR OUTSIDE OF MELBOURNE FROM 1911 UNTIL THE 1970s

0

5

TELECOMMUNICATIONS ANTENNAE ATTACHED TO THE GRAIN SILOS

FACTORY CLOSES

1990s

UPPER YARRA DAM IS COMPLETED

1956

1964 ALL ABOARD

FINAL TRAIN SERVICE DEPART WARBURTON

SANITARIUM HEALTH FOODS FACTORY

1936

1912

THE SANITARIUM OR ‘HYDRO’ IS OPENED ON SIGNS HILL

SEVENTH DAY ADVENTIST SETTLEMENT IN WARBURTON BEGINS TO BRING NEW RESIDNETS AND A NEW MANUFACTURING AND WELLNESS INDUSRTY

ADVENTISTS

1911

O’SHANNASSAY AQUEDUCT CONSTRUCTED TO SUPPLY WATER TO MELNOURNE

1906

WARBURTON RAILWAY LINE OPENS TO PASSENGERS

ADVENTIST RUN SIGNS PUBLISHING BEGINS OPERATIONS ON THE NORTHERN BANKS OF THE YARRA

1863

YANKEE JIM OPENS MINING OPERATIONS IN THE YARRA VALLEY THE SETTLEMENT AT YANKEE JIM CREEK IS NAMED WARBURTON, LATER OLD WARBURTON, BETWEEN THE TUGWELL RANGES AND MOUNT LITTLE JOE

EAPRY EXPLORATION OF THE UPPER YARRA VALLEY BY ROBERT HODDLE

20

40km

SETTLERS CALLED THEM THE YARRA YARRA TRIBE, THE WURUNDJERI PEOPLE LIVED ALONG THE YARRA RIVER, THE BIRRARUNG. THE CORANDERRK STATION WAS ESTABLISHED IN 1963 TO HOUSE AND TEACH FIRST NATIONS PEOPLE INCLUDING WILLIAM BARAK

1845

1859 GOLD!

FLOODING CAUSES GREAT DAMAGE TO MINING OPERATIONS

TIMBER MILLING BECOMES A PRIMARY OCCUPATION OF THE AREA WITH LARGE AREAS OF FOREST FELLED TO SUPPLY MELBOURNE

TIMBER

10

2000

1950

1934 FLOOD

1926 FIRE 1913 FIRE

1901 FEDERATION 1900

1863 FLOOD

1854 EUREKA STOCKADE

1850

1835 MELBOURNE ESTABLISHED

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68

HWA

Y HIG TON BUR WAR

RIV

ER RA YAR

MOUNT VICTORIA SIGNS HILL SITE OF THE ORIGINAL ADVENTIST SETTLEMENT UNTIL FLOODS IN THE 1930s

WARBURTON, A TOWN ON THE BANKS OF THE YARRA...

-37.752889, 145.697695

ADVENTIST SETTLEMENT CONSISTED OF THE CHURCH, SIGNS PUBLISHING, HEALTH FOODS FACTORY, SANITARIUM RETREAT AND LATER THE HOSPITAL

EXTENSIVE LUMBER AND TIMBER MILLING DURING THE LATE 1800s

ORIGINAL WARBURTON RAILEYWAY LINE CONNECTING TO LILYDALE AND HEALSVILLE

The town

Narrowing the focus to the thread of the Yarra through the township of Warburton. Tracing the historical progression of the township as well as the morphology of the main street and settlements


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Expansion and urban sprawl Mapping to show the interaction between rail systems (in red), including the historic route (dashed) that connected the end of the Lilydale line with Healsville in the north and Warburton to the east. A series of tramways extended out into the Yarra Ranges from Warburton used to transport timber during 70

early tree felling. The Yarra (in thick black)and trains, as ethereal spines which hold areas of population growth, denoted by the City of Melbourne’s edge condition defined by the Urban Growth Boundary. Satellite imagery [Right] reveals urban expansion at Yarra Junction, 6km to Warburton’s west.

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CABINET-IN-CONFIDENCE

Melbourne's green wedges and peri-urban areas

CABINET-IN-CONFIDENCE

Melbourne's urban growth

Mount Alexander Mitchell

CABINET-IN-CONFIDENCE

Melbourne's urban growth

CABINET-IN-CONFIDENCE

Melbourne's green wedges and peri-urban areas

Murrindindi

Hepburn

Mount Alexander

Murrindindi

Hepburn

Greater Geelong

Golden Plains

CABINET-IN-CONFIDENCE

Melbourne's urban growth

Mitchell

Moorabool

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Port Phillip Bay

Port Phillip Bay Bellarine Peninsula

Frankston

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Greater Geelong Torquay

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Melbourne’s urban growth

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Urbanand growth boundary * Localised planning statements have been prepared for the Mornington Bellarine Peninsulas. Statements for the Yarra Valley and Dandenong Ranges and the MacedonPeri-urban Ranges aretown under development. Local government area boundary

Source: Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning Source: Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning

Source: Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning © The State of Victoria Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning 2017. * Localised planning statements have been prepared for the Mornington and Bellarine Peninsulas. Statements for the Yarra Valley and Dandenong Ranges Disclaimer This may be of assistance to you but the State of Victoria and its employees do not guarantee that the publication 88publication andkind the or Macedon are for under is without flaw of any is wholly Ranges appropriate yourdevelopment. particular purposes and therefore disclaims all liability for any error, loss or other consequence which may arise from you relying on any information in this publication.

Source: Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning 4 © The State of Victoria Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning 2017. Disclaimer This publication may be of assistance to you but the State of Victoria and its employees do not guarantee that the publication is without flaw of any kind or is wholly appropriate for your particular purposes and therefore disclaims all liability for any error, loss or other consequence which may arise from you relying on any information in this publication.

Melbourne to 2050 In 2016 the Victorian State Government released a series of documents which detailed their planning towards Melbourne in 2050. This included ideas of expansion and evaluations of the existing conditions, including the Urban Growth Boundary which skirts populations centers on the fridges 72

and into the Yarra Ranges. The planning defines the expansions of jobs in outer centers such as Dandenong and how populations may shift in higher densities towards these newly defined development zones.

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Heritage and memory

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The heritage facade

CaixaForum Madrid Herzog & de Meuron Madrid, 2001-2003

CiixaForum in Madrid by Herzog and de Meuron signals quite a radical approach to ideas of heritage. The exiting building, a brick power station, has been treated as a skin and site of architectural intervention. Interestingly the treatment of fenestration plays a meta-narrative around architectural element’s functions. The openings in the existing have been bricked up and the embellishments and markings of the lintels over then openings remain readable on the surface. Despite this, the new glazing is punches through as defined by the internal needs of the space, with disregard for the lintels —— there is a disconnect between the signified windows and the glazing which no longer obeys the lintels which are reduced to mere irregularities on the brick surface.

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The entire ground floor has been abandoned with an open space found underneath. The visitor to the museum having to move under the skin, through the ghost of the wall which is now vacant and into circulation spaces which ascend into the museum. The work is layered threefold; the liberated ground floor with a hanging veil of existing building as a skin above it. Inside and attaching itself with a new outer-lining above is the intervention of new space. The textured metal skin of the upper intervention interlocks with the existing facade yet very deliberately delineates itself. This is an example of the museum-implant, an architectural response that plays on its found conditions to build meaning and metaphor through a dialogue between existing and new.

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Palimpsest and memory

Sacred Heart Building Abbotsford Convent Kerstin Thompson Architects Melbourne, Australia, 2018

Kerstin Thompson Architects very delicate renovations and interventions into the Sacred Heart Building at the Abbotsford Convent in Melbourne uses as little force as possible to allow the existing building to tell its own story. In contrast to the Herzog and de Meuron approach previous seen, this intervention treats the surface of the existing as very significant. The surface can begin to tell stories and narrative as to its previous occupations and functions. In the example to the left the walls of the space reveal the line of a previously installed staircase who’s trace is only remnant in the painting which stops at its former edge. The layering of paint on the walls hint at a previous configuration and delineation of space within the confides of the skin, with a new, grated, permeable flooring running through it feels as if we are intruding

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into a confluence of previous times and congealed spaces. This plays into the idea of Palimpsest, the superimposing of writings over time on a surface. Here the words are swapped for paints and indentations in moldings which equally tell a narrative of the surface’s history.

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Memory in surface

Villa Busk Sverre Fehn Bramble, Norway, 1990

“An architect must move into the past as he must move into nature, aware that the traces of your footsteps will lead the next man to the same route” Sverre Fehn

“There is an active, extrinsic force and a passive yielding surface. The trace is the impression that appears, the rest of the movement, its remainder, or remnant David Leatherbarrow

Norwegian architect Sverre Fehn provides an insight into his interactions with heritage in a metaphor of footsteps suggesting that he must follow the footsteps left behind from previous occupation in order to lay down new footsteps to follow. He presents an understanding of the temporal nature of architecture and its ability to collect event as a “silent testimony”.

of great importance when designing for temporal aspects — not just that which is impressionable but also considering how a material may affect the existing conditions. At the Villa Busk concrete, massive and harsh is permitted to hit the ground whereas timber, skeletal and more delicate, is capped with metal pads which mediate its contact with the ground.

In his work analysing Villa Busk by Fehn, David Leatherbarrow suggest that traces of “forces” no longer present are visible in a building’s surfaces — “only the vestige remains”.

Temporally also, the building shows traces of its own construction, evidence of its assemblage which all flow into the overall narrative of the building and its site.

Material surface is the site of the effects of these forces. What is required? Something to resister a force — a surface which is impressionable enough to hold the imprint of such a force. Leatherbarrow also alludes to material choices being Concrete

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Timber

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Memory in surface Natural

force kiln drying surface brick headers remnant imperfect faces

force arachnid surface mortar gaps remnant web architecture

force oxidisation surface painted iron door remnant iron oxide

force photosynthesis surface mortar remnant weed infestation

force necessity surface compositional order remnant uneven panes

force globalisation surface silos remnant technology parasite

force re-roofing surface brick remnant drainage parasite

force bureaucracy surface borders remnant arbitrary delineation

force safeguarding surface weak fabric remnant barring

force stone surface single glazing remnant shatter pattern

force touch surface dust layer remnant clean surface

force disenfranchisement surface paint/render remnant spray-paint

Extrinsic

Societal

Applying the concept of force and surface from the Leatherbarrow reading to traces and imprints on the S.H.F.F. building. Categorising the forces into natural — caused by a natural process, extrinsic — 82

a bureaucratic or existential influence, and societal — caused by cultural or existential influences.

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Museological approaches

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Museum typology

The Wunderkammer Ferrante Imperato Dell’Historia Naturale, 1599

At the one end of musicological practices, the German Wunderkammer or wonder cabinet. These rooms were filled with collections of wealthy individuals of the spoils of colonial exploits, natural history and artifacts. These rooms were so designed that the owner was placed in the centre

of a sphere, a veritable cornucopia of knowledge. At the centre and in control of...

Jewish Museum Daniel Libeskind Berlin, Germany, 1999

In contrast perhaps is a reading of Libeskind’s Jewish Museum in Berlin. This building offers an architectural experience with no level of control, the visitor is at the complete mercy of the jagged, violently winding building, forced through spaces, evocative volumes and passages which are designed

to create a sensation. The artifacts are few and far between, intermingled with the experiential and phenomenological moves of the architecture.

“Arranging the world in the changing way we see it”

~Antonello Marotta

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The museum-parsite

Hedmark Museum Sverre Fehn Hamar, Norway, 1969-1973

Fehn’s treatment of the museum in Hedmark bring together ideas of the musicological approach and heritage intervention. The site deals with a layered history which Fehn engages in and adds to. The 13th Century Bishop’ fortress ruins form the first layer, followed by the concrete exhibition “ramp of the present” and capped with the barnlike enclosure recalling the 18th century and exhibition of rural life. These layered histories are conflicted temporally. The ruins show their age and narrative, the concrete of the walkway was chosen such that it would weather and begin to settle into the site. The rural vernacular structure has allusions to historical precedent and similarly blurs a boundary between new and old. As Fehn describes it; “when the past works in tandem with the past, it can be difficult

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to spot”. In his reading, Tandberg (2021) suggests that Fehn is successful on this front; “we read them as objects from the past, in the same way that we read the old barn walls and the ruins as objects from the past – they share a category. Rather than an old building with a series of new components, they appear as a series of human interventions accumulated over a millennium.” The intervention into the building’s fabric begin to support the musicological displays in the internal volumes. An additional layer of metal over the already established pallet houses glazed displays of artifacts, the new architecture somehow supports the new program of the building. There is more delicacy to these interventions though than the heaviness of the concrete walkway and the timber structure for the roof and enclosure.

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The respected ruins

Shelter for Roman Ruins Peter Zumthor Graubünden, Switzerland, 1986

Similar to Fehn’s Hedmark Museum, Zumthor Shelter for Roman Ruins provides an enclosure for an archaeological site in Switzerland.

skin which echoes Fehn’s own barn inspired construction. Zumthor’s is a simple timber frame with gladding spaced with gaps enough to allow a soft light to seep through.

Zumthor treats the ground and the ruin in a very delicate and sacrosanct manner, the interventions into the space are given the allusion of hovering over the surface of the site and the ruins. The lightness and robustness of the steel framed walkway and stairs give it a utilitarian feel whilst also a thinness which doesn’t impose onto the ground. It has the illusion of floating above the terra with the folded metal stairs supported off the ground by thin legs and seemingly terminating at the penultimate step. Similarly the cabinetry which holds artifacts on display utilises thin black metal legs which lightly touch the ground.

In this approach, the architectural intervention mediates how a visitor relates to the space and to the objects and ruins on display by given them the hierarchy in the scheme.

The space is enclosed with a

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Cultural interactions

Stony Island Arts Bank Theaster Gates Stony Island, Chicago, 2015

The Arts Bank utilises an abandoned imposingly classical building to house a exhibition and culturally activated museum space.

“We changed what we needed to, but we didn’t want to erase history” Mejay Gula [design team]

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The design, led by artist Theaster Gates, works with the existing form to reinvent the building. The layered histories of the site are left on show in both spaces that demonstrate the age of their skins through peeling paint and the isolation of now dissociated relics, in situ but deprived of their former functions and purpose. The intervention of new steel columns to support the hall is given an almost regal significance, a new colonnade which differentiates itself from the existing but does not hide away from its new role in supporting — heritage and restorative renewal on display. There is a recognition that the building brings with it a sense of memory and of past events with Gates asserting

that “the site is generous” (White Cube 2012). Gates conceived the social and community function of this building as one that abandons the static museum typology. He aims to have created “a repository for African American culture and history, a laboratory for the next generation of black artists [and] a space for neighborhood residents to preserve, access, re-imagine and share their heritage, as well as a destination for artists, scholars, curators, and collectors to research and engage with South Side history” (Jobson, 2015).

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Program and function

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Streams of memory

The land and predecessors to settlement

Settlement, early industry, timber milling

Program is treated as a culmination point — the traces of the site become driver for the archive and museum, bringing together ideas of rural identity, heritage and museum in a ‘cultural seedbank’. The archive and museum will focus on collection of the threads of the site — the land, settlement, early industry, water and power, agriculture, modern industry and dereliction.

Agriculture and adventist living off the land ideology

The S.H.F.F building, operations and style

Water, power and regional identity

Dereliction and urban expansion

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Program A cultural seedbank, and archive of rural Victorian identity, and museum displaying the subsequent cultural inheritance. Archive — Private A seedbank, as a typology, is a stronghold against the extinction of certain flora. In this case, the collection is a seedbank of cultural artifacts and practices from rural Victoria, a stronghold against globalisation, hemogenisation of culture and urbanisation. There is a focus on the interactions with the land, first nations inhabitation, agriculture, settlement and industry of the Yarra Valley. Display — Public The exhibition of artifacts from the archive. The public display encourages a making sense of memory through observation. Experience — Public Active and participatory engagements with aspects of cultural heritage — agricultural practices, industry, craftsmanship. Land — Public Interactions between the Warburton Highway and the Yarra River, drawing a circulation and public thoroughfare between the two boundaries of the site. Power — Civic Implementation of on-site power generation, echoing the Adventist use of the Yarra for hydro power during the early years of their settlement. A hydro solution on the Yarra banks.

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Spines of settlement

Tensions of the site

Rural morphologies; The Main street as spine and datum, compared to the expansion seen along the Yarra in patches of development on the banks.

The Yarra River — undulating, non-uniform, vector to the bay, natural, power The Warburton Highway — imposed order, linear, duo-directional, connectivity

Spatially, the site orients itself to two axes, the linear main street and the meandering river — both sharing a morphology of settlement along their edges and spanning outwards. Reminiscent of the idea of the museum-city, the scheme in someway can begin to reference the morphology of the rural town and river settlement,

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Cultural interactions

Dutch Embassy Berlin OMA, Rem Koolhaas Berlin, Germany, 2004

“Offering constantly varied aspect, unexpected and sometimes astonishing” Rem Koolhaas

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The unrolled plan of the Dutch Embassy Berlin by OMA begins to explore the idea of the architectural promenade or trajectory — a sequencing of program along a linear line which takes the visitor from point A to B. Here, Koolhass folds and confuses the trajectory by rotating the plan at junctures along its length. This is a “strategy to explore dynamism and motion in architecture by creating a spatial sequence, a kind of filmic reality that serves as narrative of historical events and layers.” Koolhaas references his ideas of the trajectory to Le Corbusier who spoke about Villa Savoye’s circulation as “a veritable promenade architecturale, offering constantly varied aspects, unexpected and sometimes astonishing.” (Le Corbusier 1946)

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Art references

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Industrial landscape

Coal Bunkers Bernd Becher and Hilla Becher, 9 photographs, black and white, on paper on board, 1974

One of a body of work of photographs by husband and wife duo Bernd and Hilla Becher. The Germans were famous for photographing with machine like precision industrial buildings. Presented in a taxonomy of similar forms or functions, these photos captured the rawness of industrial functional architecture. The pair described the subjects of their photography as “anonymous sculptures”, architecture of nondescript nature and without identity sitting in the industrialised landscape.

“by placing several cooling towers side by side something happened, something like tonal music; you don’t see what makes the objects different until you bring them together, so subtle are their differences.”

Almost as a form of advocacy as these building were beginning to fade into obsolescence. In the case of this work, within a few years almost all of the original building had been demolished leaving these photos as a static testimony. In relation to their presentation of typologies of buildings, Hilla stated that

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Rural and industrial

Container Train in the Landscape Jeffrey Smart, Oil on canvas, 1983-84

Australian artist Jeffrey Smart’s hyperrealist style is often deployed to depict images of contemporary life in an urban setting, however on occasion his brush turns to matters of industrial interruption to the rural. Container Train in the Landscape, an elongated scene of a line of brightly coloured and marked shipping containers striated by gum trees, conveys evocations of imposition and juxtaposition. The landscape is cut by the train and obscured by it as a human intervention into the rural setting. Smart’s work offers a commentary on contemporary globalisation, with the freight markings alluding to the transportation of goods long distance, the antithesis of working off the land.

to that seen in an urban setting. The power lines drooping and detached in the background suggest a severing from appropriate context — this assemblage of elements sees a clash of identity, a disconnect between a rural and a gentrified manner of living.

Wasteland II depicts an uneasy collage of a rural homestead, the iconography elements of rural existence seemingly clashed with a Victorian facade more akin

The wasteland II Jeffrey Smart, Oil on canvas, 1945

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Concept design phases

An immediate response The concept design phase, a short and sharp two week exercise allows a rapid and almost intuitive synthesis of research into design. The foundations of the project are developed formally and the program are solidified. An early interest emerged in the operation of the transept being drawn from the river to the existing building and allowing a connection and distinction to be explored. Early speculations teased the response of a bridge connection and of the importance of themes such as view and aspect as well as the experiential elements of entry sequencing and the theatrics of the museum as an experience.

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Questions tackled were that of the connection to water and landscape as well as the formal language of the museum bridge. The treatment of the heritage form went through a radical operation of hollowing out to create an internalaised forecourt which plays into the ideas of processional entry with layered thresholds.

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Iterative drawing explorations

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Drawing vectors and lines of influence on the site. Thinking about the rigid and static orders of the street and exiting set against the movement and dynamic flow of the Yarra.

Thinning out the transept expression, starting to imagine it as a loop — suspended and contextualized walkway which is rigid and angualr hovering over and cutting through the site. Transitioning at the river to a landscaped condition which winds under the bridge back to the origin.

Tracking lines of influence from the Yarra to the main street, intersecting and slicing the existing form. Thinking about the datum of the entry to the site from the road and the front door and their relation to the varied angles of the river.

More definition of a grid of influence. The red showing that born of the original facade. The blue a series of three grids existing as the direction of flow at datums along the river. The overlapping sections of the grid could begin to define walls in a series of smaller intervention.

Heavy expression of a transept between street and river. The form cranks along axes defined in previous drawings, some sense when traversing that there are multiple influences on the site dictating and influencing/altering the trajectory.

A graphic operation of the previous field condition. Walls filled to masses. A field of lines of influence populated with poche defining spaces/pavilions/ buildings across the site.

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116 Reaction to the ground datum as an undulating falling agent, descending towards the river. Closer detail of the transept entry at the existing building. Utilising existing walls to form a contained forecourt to the museum program and a cloistering of spaces along the south and eastern walls utilising existing built form which were already structurally independent. Transept punctures the earth at the north and then runs at a datum above ground level as the land falls away to the Yarra.

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Interactions with exiting mass

EXISTING EXISTING GROUND GROUND FLOORFLOOR

EXISTING EXISTING MASS MASS

WORKSHOP WORKSHOP BASEMENT BASEMENT FOUR STOREY FOUR STOREY

EXISTING EXISTING STRUCTURE STRUCTURE TO BE TO OBSERVED BE OBSERVED

OFFICES OFFICES CLOCK TOWER CLOCK TOWER

CUTTING CUTTING AWAY AWAY AT AT THE EXISTING THE EXISTING BUILDING BUILDING

CENTRAL CENTRAL COURTYARD COURTYARD

WALLEDWALLED COURTYARD COURTYARD

TREATING TREATING AN AN INTERNAL INTERNAL FORECOURT FORECOURT TO THE TOMUSEUM THE MUSEUM ENTRYENTRY

CENTRAL CENTRAL FISSURE FISSURE

FORECOURT

VISITOR FORECOURT JOURNEY PORTAL

COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

TWO CLOISTERS TWO CLOISTERS

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CENTRAL CENTRAL PORTALPORTAL TO BASEMENT TO BASEMENT

VISITOR JOURNEY PORTAL

WORKSHOPS

WORKSHOPS

COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

CENTRAL CENTRAL PORTALPORTAL TO BASEMENT TO BASEMENT

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Revisted tectonics of the site and existing conditions collage to focus more on themes of view, motion and landscape as well as surface of the original building and its role as a mediating shroud around the internal programs. 124

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Imagined Users

(re)collecting rural — memory, heritage and a rural identity under threat

jeremy bonwick

concept design

Dave Loader

Amelia Peravic

Rupesh Pant

53 WARBURTON, VICTORIA

28 LILYDALE, MELBOURNE

32 FOOTSCRAY, MELBOURNE

A resident of Warburton, born in the Adventist run Hospital and lived in the area for the majority of his life. Works on a local agricultural estate in both manual labour as well as an agronomist which he studied at an online university.

A research assistant at the University of Melbourne having graduated a few years ago with a degree majoring in anthropology and archeology. Currently working on a research project concerned with the early timber milling industry in regional Victoria.

Successful accountant who recently bought a weekender property on the outskirts of Warburton. A non-resident of the town who spends on average 4 weeks a year living at the property on Signs with his wife. Has an interest in the history and early settlement of the area as well as a general appreciation of art and museums.

A site which offers access to skills and training relating to practices of agriculture and working on the land as well as a community hub and landscaped space for weekend picnics with his family.

Imagined Users

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A site that encourages community interaction for ethnographic qualitative research as well as access to the collection and archive of early industry.

A site with rotating exhibitions to maintain interest.

Dave Loader

Am

53 WARBURTON, VICTORIA

28 LILY

A resident of Warburton, born in the Adventist run Hospital and lived in the area for the majority of his life. Works on a local agricultural estate in both manual labour as well as an agronomist which he studied at an online university.

A re Univ grad a de anth Curr proj earl in r

A site which offers access to skills and training relating to practices of agriculture and working on the land as well as a community hub and landscaped space for weekend picnics with his family.

A si comm ethn rese the earl

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128 03 SIGNS HILL AND ORIGINAL ADVENTIST SETTLEMENT

01 THE YARRA RIVER OR BIRRARUNG

05 BIRRARUNG

02 CONTEMPORARY BRIDGES OVER THE RIVER

05 FUTURE HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION

02 HISTORIC RAILWAY SIDING

06 DERELICT GRAIN SILOS 04 S.H.F.F BUILDING

Contextual Nodes

Museological Collection Artifacts

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The threads of the collection are arranged such that they are viewed in relation to a backdrop of their context, connected to a series of locales that act as nodes. The museum’s ambition is to play an active role is recontextualizing potentially dislocated practices, traditions and people through not only display of objects but in their sequence and connection to view or aspect along the transept.

001 Agricultural fence post c. 1902

002 Timber milling industry tram c. 1890

003 Weet Bix packaging produced by Sanitarium, c. 1950

004 Northcote Brick c. 1936

005 McVeighs Water Wheel slide c. 1890

006 Existing door to rear of S.H.F.F, 1936-2021


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B

A

A. South Datum T H E E X I S T I N G , I N D U S T R Y , R U R A L

B. The Transept

L I F E

THE EXISTING SANITARIUM HEALTH FOODS FACTORY FORMS THE DATUM AT THE STREE/TOWN/RURAL END OF THE TRANSEPT, HOUSING PROGRAMS RELATING TO CIVIC AND COMMUNITY INTERACTIONS AND HOUSING THE COLLECTION TO THE MUSEUM AS WELL AS... THE BEGINNING OF THE JOURNEY...........................................................

C O N N E C T I V I T Y , J O U R N E Y O F T H E

C. North Datum

M U S E U M

THE JOURNEY OF THE MUSEUM TRACK A PROGRESSION ALONG THE TRANSEPT, A MOVE FROM STREET TO RIVER, OR, FROM RIVER TO STREET. THIS IS A LINEAR PATH IN TWO DIRECTIONS. THE LANDSCAPE IS VIEWED FROM A DECONTEXTUALISING BRIDGE WHICH FRAMES THE TYPOLOGIES OF THE TOWN AND ITS OCCUPANTS, FRAMED AND CAPTURED AS... PART OF THE COLLECTION...................................................................

T H E R I V E R , D Y N A M I C , M E A N D E R I N G ,

E V O L V I N G

THE REVERSE END OF THE TRANSEPT, THE DATUM RELATING TO THE YARRA RIVER, AGRICULTURE, THE LAND AND NATURE. ITS MANNER IS THAT OF THE MEANDER, EVOLVING WITH THE TIDE AND EBB OF THE RIVER, RESPONDING TO THE WINDING PATH IT HAS CUT AND MAKING CONTACT WITH THE WATER FOR... HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION......................................................

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(re)collecting rural — memory, heritage

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SITE SECTION 1:500

SITE PLAN 1:500

Scheme Orthographic Representatio

25m


HERITAGE FORM INTERACTIONS WITH EXISTING FABRIC AND PROGRAM

(re)collecting rural — memory, heritage and a rural identity under threat

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Before and after aerial image of the existing conditions and heritage interactions. The existing facade is retained as a heritage shroud which mediates the experience of internal and external space. The courtyard opened behind the retained brick wall is filled with a gravel field with a singular cube form as portal to the basement and entry to the museum on the bridge which emerges from the ground at the rearProgram of and Form the building.

NOT TO SCALE

jeremy bonwick

concept design

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The floors above ground are reserved for community programs as well as workshops for research and conservation of the collections housed within the existing form of the factory building. 136

The ground floor houses front of house activities and the experiential journey of entry while the basement provides an open space for the open display of the collection in storage before the beginning of the museum on the transept bridge. 137


Site model 1:1000 Exploring the connection between the changes in level of the site down to the Yarra river and the opportunities of the bridge to take in views given its height running across the landscape. 138

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The transept bridge

“a veritable promenade architecturale, offering constantly varied aspects, unexpected and sometimes astonishing” Le Corbusier 1946

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The structure of the transept is honest and forthright, referencing Philip Cox’s ideas of the Australian Functional Tradition and Le Corbusier’s conception of the promenade. The infrastructure for power generation runs underneath the structure visible at moments from

the inside and from the landscaping below. A datum itself for observing the site and expanse — visible from the bridge would be places integral to the town and site’s history — the football oval, the main street, the back of the hardware store, bridges across the Yarra. 141


142 AMENITIES

EXISTING CAR PARKING

ENTRY

POWER GENERATION

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Reference is taken from the series of bridges across the river along the back of the site, connecting north to south. These form tangents to the flow of the river and provide passage.

PORTAL TO THE TRANSEPT

MUSEUM EXHIBITION SPACE

RIVER FRONT

TRANSEPT BRIDGE


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Yarra river grid

Parametric methods were utilised to create a series of grid vectors from the undulating for of the Yarra, tangentially extending over the banks and over lapping of diverging. Divide curve to create a series of points along the River in sequence.

Rotating segments of the centre line 90 degrees gives the tangent.

ITERATION 01

ITERATION 02

ITERATION 03

ITERATION 04

TWO STRUCTURES SEPARATED, LARGE DIFFERENTIAL IN SCALES

STRUCTURES CLOSER TOGETHER AND WITH GREATER COHESION

GREATER CONNECTION TO THE YARRA, JUTTING AND CROSSING, LARGER HYDRO POWER BUILDING

SINGLE BUILDING, LESS ARTICULATION OF THE FORM, FOLLOWING THE BEND, NOT JUTTING

This base grid was then used to iterate a series of forms which sat in correspondence with the movements and flows of the river.

These iterative forms will house the power generation program as well as an entry sequence to the reverse journey up the transept.

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three development


Program

Artefact and aspect The scheme has an interest in ideas of viewership and contextualisation through aspect. This draws on the idea of the open text by Umberto Echo who suggests that media is participatory in nature, that a viewer plays an active role in meaning making when presented with image and text. Echo’s theories are in connection to the field of semiotics; an active participant or viewer engages in the process of connecting signified to signifier in relation to a specific sign. This presents an interesting possibility in terms of the museum typology. The viewer or visitor is active in the process of making sense of the artefacts and objects on display in a sort of open work. What is presented is the object on display, the signifier. However there is the possibility to enhance the contextual understanding of the signifier and

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subsequently create a stronger link to its signified meanings like historical practices, paradigms and peoples. The open work would suggest that the viewer can take in information surround the object, the aspect, and build a deeper level of understanding. For this reason, and given the specificity of the museum’s collection relating to contextual ideas, the views and sightliness of the site were seen to be of key benefit in defining the arrangements and tectonics of the museum, the collection and its rooms. What follows is a series of speculative mapping analysis performed parametrically to analyse the vectors and lines of sight relating to places of significance to the collection and the constant vector of the river.

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Overlaid vectors

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Places of significance in context

MT DONNA BUANG

THE SANITARIUM RETREAT

SIGNS HILL

BRIDGE OLD PAVILION

WARBURTON HOSPITAL BRIDGE

FOOTBALL OVAL PLAYGROUND

SIGNS PUBLISHING CLUB ROOMS

RIVER BANK MECHANICS INSTITUTE BRIDGE

OLD HARDWARE STORE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH

SILOS CFA SACRED HEART

PREIST’S COTTAGE SEVENTH DAY ADVENTIST

VISITORS WHEEL

TENNIS CLUB

OLD RALEWAY STATION COMMUNITY GARDEN

BUS SERVICE

ST MARY’S CHRUCH

RAILWAY LINEt

ALPINE RETREAT

YANKEE JIM’S CREEK

OLD WARBURTON

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near far

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These diagrams draw correlation to a sequence of points along the length of the transept and places of significance. The series on the left edits these lines to display [top to bottom] the nearest influence site for each point along the transept to an overlay of the nearest 10. The former shows the immediate correlations. The latter, in overlaying and collecting show an intensity of sight towards certain points. 155


near far

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This pair of maps looks at the relationship with and proximity to the undulations of the Yarra. [top] draws vectors between the places of interest and a series of points along the flow of the Yarra. [bottom] draws vectors back to the points along the transept bridge which again suggests in their overlapping and intensities where influence of the river’s aspect is greatest. 157


“Museums are actually intensive care stations of art” Harry Gugger

Ètienne-Louis Boullèe

“Ever since art has become modern, it is both vital and ill, demanding and vulnerable. Thus every visit to see modern art in an

“Intensive Care Museum” is also a

visit to the hospital”

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Program

Museological methodologies From previous research and analysis of the museum typology it came time to define the function, form and methodologies of the museum for the scheme. This is based largely from the ideas explored on previous pages on ideas of aspect and bringing context into the museum experience to add a new layer of understanding. The simple relationship is viewer, object and surroundings where the surroundings are no longer the normal white cube with controlled lighting and plain walls. What developed, in response to a reading my Remy Zaugg was ideas of individuation and a rejection of homogeneity and sterility. The traditional museum gives an environment where distractions are minimised to let the work hang almost de-contextualised. The scheme explores a more

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dynamic relationship where a work exist in relationship with a view or aspect from the position of the transept bridge. The museum also continues ideas of procession in circulation by manifesting as a singular trajectory of spaces. This predicated an interest in the enfilade as an architectural device to connect a sequence of rooms. A historical analysis of gallery an museums through to the contemporary revealed an idea of ricochetting circulations — as first suggested in a lecture to the studio by Donald Bates. This allows for a bounding of visitor from room to room with no single line connecting spaces which leads to an experience of winding whilst moving, somewhat paradoxically, in a single direction along the transept.

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Museum enfilade circulation Enfilade tartan filament diagrams Enfilade tartan filament diagrams V&A Museum

NGV International

Bendigo Regional Gallery

V&A Museum

NGV International

Bendigo Regional Gallery

1901

1901

1962, 1997

1962, 1997

1890

1890

National Gallery, Sainsbury Wing

Jewish Museum Berlin

NGV Australia

National Gallery, Sainsbury Wing

Jewish Museum Berlin

NGV Australia

Venturi Scott-Brown, 1991

Venturi Scott-Brown, 1991

Representing circulation routes as filament running through adjoining, enfilade rooms of exhibition.

Daniel Libeskind, 1999

Daniel Libeskind, 1999

LAB Architecture, 2003

LAB Architecture, 2003

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The Warburton Museum of My Scheme or A Place for the Work and the Human Being and the Outside

A response to Rémy Zaugg’s The Art Museum of My Dreams.

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The wall The museum wall is the site of the work, it is conceived as a blank backing onto which the work can sit as an autonomous unit. Its vertical sets it in relationship with the eye of the human being, orthogonal to their gaze. The uninterrupted wall, matte and white does not distract and does not impose itself onto either the work or the human being. It is neutral and without agenda. The uninterrupted wall borders a spaces and conceals what is beyond creating the first boundary of the limit of space. The interrupted wall produces a gash, an interruption, a wound to the above relationship. No longer does it present as a singularity, now there is orientation, an above and a below. The wall does not delineate the human being from the work but gives passage to the outside. Now the human being sees through the neutral surface of the uninterrupted wall into the outside. The work no longer sits against the wall but against the outside. The wall’s new designation as delineatior to the outside gives it a coordinate in relation to the expanse beyond. The human being is datum 0, the work datum 2 and the wall datum 3. A myriad of datums exist beyond the wall as space expands to the theoretical horizon. The wall frames the outside. In some way it can be read as a vertical plane that sits behind the wall thus the vertical relationship to gaze is held. The gaze now extends past the work though, where it would operate in one vertical axis, to a series of vertical axes extending back into the outside. The human being sees the work and the outside simultaneously or is aware of the outside as they view the work. The gaze is not fixed or mono-focused. The gaze shifts in a constant process of contextualising and recontextualising. The work and the outside. The human being and the work. The outside and the human being. The wall is no longer opaque.

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The floor Flat and homogeneous. The floor serves a dual function of supporting both the work and the human being. As a neutral surface the floor does not preference either. The work and the human are given equal rights to exist in the space. Extrusions of the floor create hierarchy. The floor plane moves to accommodate. One of the parties takes control of the other. This is true, but also the floor is, in abandoning ideas of being impartial, providing an experience. The human being is moved vertically to occupy a different space which changes their relationship with an object. The object too may be shirted vertically to bring about new angles of relation to the human being. Imagine a coin sitting in exhibition on the floor. The use of a plinth may bring it to eye level but this somehow suggests an imposition on the space. The plinth as a continuation of the floor gives the architecture purpose, to bring the object closer, to step the human being down to the work’s eye level. The agency of the floor to move is determined not by the human being moving through space but by scale and relationship to the work. The work or the human being may move however the gaze is always taken into account. The gaze may be upwards or downwards depending on the relationship, the work may be suspend to be walked underneath or concealed within a cavity in the floor to be walked over,

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The ceiling The ceiling hangs above the human being and the work. As a neutral surface it provide the third limit to the space, after the wall and the floor. Being parallel to the floor there are commonalities to its purpose. The floor mediates a relationship between the human being and the work through the gaze, a physical response. The ceiling play a role in staging and sensorial perception. The flat ceiling creates another homogenised experience where the work and the human being are afforded equal hierarchy and space is left ambiguous and neutral, common with the flat floor and the uninterrupted wall. A ceiling with agency again begins to define a relationship between the human being and the work. The main operation is of compression and expansion. The ceiling which closes in and crushes space creates an intensity around it. The space is given a significance and afforded a separation from the rest. If this crush moved low enough it will begin to encroach into the space designated for the human being. The space underneath this portion of the roof will becomes either of two things; untrafficable and for the occupation of the work only; or accessible only by contortion where the human being must adjust their physical relationship with space to access a certain moment. The human being is not given significance in either of these scenarios, they look onto the work as something they cannot directly relate to or they must adapt themselves to do so. An expansion of space above or around either the human being or the work gives a similar sense of significance. The ceiling is in some respects connected inherently to the celestial expanse beyond, in lifting or even opening onto that expanse there is both a relief and exaggeration of the space beneath, The ceiling play a role in the demarcation of the space. Works and human beings in the space move and orientate themselves around parameters which define their physical relationships.

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The four walls Each of the edges of the container, whether interrupted or uninterrupted, congeal to create the limits of the container, of the room in which the human being and the work are brought together. The arrangements of these walls creates the figure of the internal space. Rather than analysing each of the possible configurations, perhaps more useful is divide these into figures; the rectilinear and orthogonal; the angled, either acute or obtuse; and the curvilinear. A square room, or a room with orthogonal edges is easy to orbit around. One wall follows the next in sequence. Introducing an angle gives this wall hierarchy but also suggest a direction or vector. The angle provides a slope along which the human beings and the works can slide and shift. Eventually this motion would lead them to the corners. The circular or curvilinear room also suggests a sense of motion. The radiality homogenises the walls and coalesces each into a single entity. It becomes difficult to tell where one surface begins and another ends.

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This is to consider only rooms of a four walled configuration. Expanding the number of walls opens a multiplicity of new arrangements. To begin with a square room, the addition of notches breaks down the singularity of the space. Now there are opportunities for the work to inhabit zones and the human being to inhabit others. The resultant zones in the space also have the ability to suggest motion, these are spaces to be moved through and between. The human being now is a kinetic force moving in a closed loop through space. This is before adding entrances. The space already suggests a sense of progression and motion through its zones.

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The proportion of the room Already setting up a multiplicity in how the human being relates to the work lends itself to rooms which are of varying sizes. Here perhaps it is useful to suggest some sense of regularity and of rhythm. The autonomy which is afforded to the walls, the ceilings, the floor must be held at bay by some force which sets up a continuity. Continuity can be afforded in a common ordering principal or a module which is the base for the differentiation of wall, ceiling and floor (and more to follow). To jump forwards a few steps, it is important to consider that these spaces exist in a relationship with one another; that is to say there is more than one space and the human being, as a singular entity, moves between spaces which contain works. Each of these spaces are individuated, not only by the works but in how the architecture of the distinct space responds to the forces of the human being, the work and the outside. Introducing a rhythm ensures cohesion between theses rooms in spite of their individuation and autonomy. This forms a datum which gives the human being means of understanding each individuation. Contrast only exists here in relation to a fixed and known condition. This could present as a homogenised series of mono-proportioned rooms, each the same as the next in their base form. The square of equal sides becomes a base of common dimension. This can be divided into a rectangle which describes half the height of the former cube. Now with translation we arrive at a space which shares the common dimension of the cube but is different in its proportions. A more radical translation sees the translation break two boundaries, expanding into the space beyond the original square on two sides. Arranging these rooms of common proportion in sequence creates a relationship between each, notches fit into one another, expanded spaces make connections to the outside.

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A. 7m square module

7x7

B, Successive spaces of difference

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The entrance(s) to the room The taxonomy of rooms separates into three categories; those with notches; those with expansions; and regular, four walled spaces. The inherent issue with either of the first two option is the positioning of the entrance aligned with the axis of the space or at a right angle to the overall. Both treat the ancillary space as a precursor to the main space which retains its integrity as a full rectangle which is intersected with another smaller rectangle. A linear navigation is possible where the door is positioned facing along the axis of the space. This brings into question whether the door should be oriented along a common axis or line. Such an arrangement would suggest a vector or direction of motion. The long portion of the space is relegated to the purpose of a corridor to be moved through by the human being. The zig-zagged flow of placing the doors either on different axes or on opposingly orientated walls allows the human being to move through a sequence of experiences in the room before exiting. There is a clear narrative to the space. A beginning, a middle and an end. The sequence of motion allows for the room to be explored fully before departing. The rectangular room faces primarily the single issue of the corridor effect. Placing the doors adjacent to one another creates a natural thoroughfare through the room; either down one side or through the centre. The latter is perhaps not a bad thing as each of the long, opposing walls is given a common hierarchy and can be experience simultaneously. This however does question the orientation of the human being to the work, which in most cases should be straight and not from an angle.

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Despite how these diagrams are drawn, it is important to remember that each wall has an added layer of heirachy given its relationship to the outside. The walls running vertically here have the ability to open onto the expanse. This sets up a relationship between those walls which divide outside from space (shown in red) and those walls which divide space from space in the progression of the museum (shown in black).

For spaces which are confined to the horizontal boundaries of the original square this means that each wall facing outwards runs in parallel. For those spaces which break and expand outside these bounds the walls which have a relationship to the outside are enclosing a zone which can be occupied by the work or by the human being. Important to note here that these walls merely have the ability to be uninterrupted and open to the outside. The walls are subservient to the works on display and respond as needed. A wall may remain uninterrupted despite its relationship to outside if that is required by the work, the human being or the space.

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The works can occupy spaces other than that of the walls which effects how the human being relates to and moves through the space. Sculptural pieces can occupy the central zones which subsequently pushes the human being to the periphery.

The works on display become mediators of the human beings motion through the space; this may be supported by undulation in the ceiling or floors as already suggested. The works becomes partitions in the space and set up new relationships between the human being and themselves. The human, standing static in a frontal gaze with a work is holding the work captive, static on both fronts. The human being who orbits the work experiences it in a new manner, from a multiplicity of angles and with evolving context to its view, a changing backdrop.

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The rooms in sequence Each of the rooms exists on a linear axis which the human being is aware of but their progression through each space forms a ricocheting motion which forces engagement in the room’s works. Entering along one axis the exit is never directly in eye line and instead works are positioned to take these prominent, frontal positions. Each room is an entity of its own, aided by the individuation it is afforded through the walls, ceilings and floors as well as its proportions. The sequencing of the rooms suggests a move from one self-contained narrative to the next. Suggested also is bother an intra- and inter-relationship between works of the same space and of subsequent spaces. They are read in context with the container which houses them and the context of that container. The rooms exist in a row or progression which naturally lends itself to a sequencing of works in an order. To reject a historical sequencing the spaces instead draw sequence from the relationship to the outside. Certain places along the length of sequence open onto views which correspond to works in the collection. These correlations will be used to arrange rooms and works in order than groups by theme and by location rather than timeline.

View to B

A

View to A

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View to D

B

C

D

View to E

E

View to C + E

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The spaces for moving about While the rooms themselves can orientate people the spaces between the rooms can also create a greater delineation between spaces by also altering the direction of motion. Similar to the rooms, the spaces for moving about can misalign entrances and change orientations. These in-between spaces provide a respite from the works but also can be seen as existing outside the environment of the rooms and thus have a greater connection to the context. From these points all walls are dissolved around such that the human being is in the outside for a brief moment before re-entering the lineage of the museum’s spaces. Given the importance of the outside in contextualising the works this is another datum point for the human being to establish and orient themselves through unframing and dissolved walls. The rhythm of the spaces predicates a need for these in-between spaces to also follow a common proportion. Like the spaces themselves these can expand and contract to multiples of half the base square but cannot break the boundary on the left or right sides. The surroundings The outside plays a crucial role in the museum spaces and the in-between. They lend a greater expanse of understanding and are integral to the dialogue of the human being and the work. The surroundings are to be experience from a distance in the spaces of the museum, contradictorily in an acontextual manner. They are viewed as a destination, an expanse to explore upon the termination of the museum’s journey. There is to be something familiar to the outside, almost banal, the sort of thing which the human being would take for granted. The places where his food is made and where he laughs at the end of a day.

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Taxonomy of spaces

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Museum rooms

Museum Themes

Iterations of rooms

WATER, POWER AND REGIONAL IDENTITY

THE LAND AND PREDECESSORS TO SETTLEMENT

AGRICULTURE AND ADVENTIST IDEOLOGY OF LIVING OFF THE LAND THE SANITARIUM HEALTH FOODS FACTORY

SETTLEMENT, EARLY INDUSTRY

DERELICTION AND URBAN EXPANSION

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Bridge plan detail

7425

FFL +0.4

6800

FFL +0.0

MUSEUM BRIDGE GALLERY ROOM LAYOUTS 1:100 @A3

1

188

2

5

The iterative plans were examined in closer detail to implement the set of rules determined in response to Zaugg. This drawing looked at the relationships between objects and spaces, the level changes and ceiling changes to house certain scale of objects and the fenestration and connection to view. 189


Scale of the object The collection will encompass the aforementioned threads relevant to the site and locale. Research into objects in current museum collections lead to an examination of what artefacts would be displayed, their context, connotations and scales.

Object Object scale scale

1866 1866 D 4mm x Dia D 4mm 39mm x Dia 39mm Metal - non Metal specific - non specific A silver Aagricultural silver agricultural medal medal with inscribed with inscribed text; ‘SEYMOUR text; ‘SEYMOUR AGRICULTURAL AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION ASSOCIATION INSTITUTED INSTITUTED 1858 — 1st 1858 Prize — 1st Prize for Potatoes for Potatoes A. CarnieA.1866’. Carnie 1866’. Part of the PartDavid of the Allen David Allen medals collection, medals collection, 111 prize111 prize medals from medals rural from andrural urbanand urban agricultural agricultural shows across shows across AustraliaAustralia in the 1850s-early in the 1850s-early 1900s. 1900s.

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no date no date L 380mm xL W380mm 210mmx xW D210mm 50mm x D 50mm Metal - non Metal specific - non specific

no date no date L 880mm xL W880mm 280mmx xW D280mm 130mmx D 130mm Metal - non Metal specific - non specific

17/12/1909 17/12/1909 W 140mm xW H140mm 89mm x H 89mm Paper andPaper ink and ink

Cootamundra, Cootamundra, New SouthNew Wales, South Wales, On a proprty On a called proprty‘Wood called ‘Wood Dale’ Dale’

Cootamundra, Cootamundra, New SouthNew Wales, South Wales, On a proprty On a called proprty‘Wood called ‘Wood Dale’ Dale’

Ready forReady the Saw, for the Warburton Saw, Warburton

Fence strainer Fence strainer

Silage/hay Silage/hay cutter cutter A long metal A long blade metal with blade a with a serrated serrated edge edge

“A postcard “A postcard featuringfeaturing a a black andblack whiteand photograph white photograph of a length of aoflength a large of a large being pulled beingalong pulled a track along a track by dollys, by in dollys, a forest in a forest landscape. landscape. A few simple A few simple wooden buildings wooden buildings are also are also visible in visible the photograph.” in the photograph.”

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Heritage bridge in Gundagai

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Museum pods

Allmannajuvet Zinc Mine Museum Peter Zumthor Sauda, Norway, 2016

Zumthor’s museum spaces are small micro interventions in a ravine in rural Norway, the precarious structure perched on the jagged and violent landscape are beguiling — seemingly primitive and crude in their structure yet delicately poised. The relationship between this structural system, the enclosure and internal environment is one of separation.

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without indication of its construction it is opaque to examination and understanding. The rectilinear form is, experienced internally and in section, carved away from a solid mass, leaving a cavernous, almost cave like interior environment with a thickness which belies the structure and skin.

The thin timber truss and posts touch the ground lightly and respond to the uneven and angled surfaces they come into contact with. There is an honesty to this structure; there simply as a support to the mass of the room. The allusion is to the tectonic assemblage of parts, the evidence of its construction, the work of bringing it into being echoing the physical labour of the miners.

“the architecture should speak a little bit of labour, simple things”

The enclosure is altogether different, a matte surface

Peter Zumthor

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The flood bridge

Riversdale — Bundanon Kirsten Thompson Architects Bundanon, New South Walves, 2021

Kirsten Thompson’s project at Bundanon in NSW which recently finished construction shares many similarities with the scheme.

“To register the fantastic undulating topography, letting the water flow underneath the building” Kirsten Thompson

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The project utilises a bridge form, referenced from flood bridges in the local context which allows rising waters to pass beneath and through the thin structure. This allows for a revitalization of the land as water body underneath and also as a point extending in a planar horizontal direction to perceive the undulations of the topography underneath it.

makes uses of subterranean spaces to further the overall ideas of integration with the landscape. The response to site leads to a design which is both subtle and extravagant — a balance winch is very admirable. There is a concern for material and tectonics which feels appropriate to the rural setting and a grain to the smaller buildings which sites neatly on the site whilst also allowing for the drama and singularity of the bridge form to exist.

As an art gallery as well as store for a collection of Arthur Boyd’s works, the project engages with curatorial ideas. The gallery spaces utilise windows and opening in the architectural fabric to frame views over the landscape which reference back to the landscape paintings of Boyd on display. The gallery also

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Museum as journey

MONA Fender Katsalidis Hobart, Tasmania, 2011.

The Museum of Old and New Art in Hobart, Tasmania operates on ambition to create an experience for its visitor. The art, although interesting in itself, is set in a sequence which begins from car or ferry entry to the site.

of uncovering something hidden and safeguarded in the side of a mountain. The journey back to the surface is a wander through the galleries of the museum.

The series of choreographed steps which lead up to the visitors first encounter with the artwork sets up a phenomenological and experiential journey of encounterment. The ground level building hug the terrain, low and almost unassuming. The visitor is taken down a portal, a glazed lift and staircase, descending to the bowels of the peninsula, rock expressed cut and ragged on either side. The cavernous expanse of the underground museum is revealed as the journey begins. Moving deep into the ground gives a sense of exploration,

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1:200

2

5

10

20m

Tectonics of the bridge reveal a structural framework in an honest and forthright style which bares the technology of its construction, bracing and supports visible and legible. This supports the museum rooms which are discrete masses along the length, more integral boxes which are supported by the bridge structure and are defined as clearly distinct. 200

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Drawing the bridge transept in section to examine its relationship to scale and views to the surrounding context, maintaining a low floor to ceiling height to exaggerate horizontal aspect. Also the visibility of the power generation infrastructure running along the underside.

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The Useful Museum

Alistair Hudson Whitworth and Manchester Art Galleries We Are Museums talk, 2018

In his talk on the idea of the useful museum, Alistair Hudson first questions the validity of the white walled, isolation chamber which is prevalent in museological practices throughout the twentieth century. This formal space is beyond interpretation and accessibility. It is sterile and develops a power relationship between viewer and object which leaves no room for multilayer understanding and cross contextual approahces. He deviates to the idea of the mechanics institute around the industrial revolution and its role in teaching the skills required for the industrial society. Furthermore, the mechanics institute was a site for self-organisation — art has in some way a social purpose of bringing meaning and use to the individual. The Arte Útil movement (which Hudson was intrinsic

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in developing) advocates for art as tool or device. Their aims include; to “propose new uses for art within society” by using “artistic thinking to challenge the field within which it operates” and for art to have a “practical, beneficial outcomes for its users.” Direction turns to the intrinsic idea of making and craftsmanshio — the museum as a place of the hand, mechanics and making and the idiom of learning through making. Extending beyond the physical making process, Hudson suggests that practices such as this and at the mechanics institute during the industrial revolution were process of learning how to be a society together. He says that we should use museum spaces to “learn how to make things, learn how to make society” and not rely on the function of exhibition alone. In this way the art produced is not art in the contemporary

sense, it needs no critic to make sense of it and tell us how to view it. The “meaning comes from how you use it”. Hudson makes mention of the Manchester Athenaeum, built in 1937, which bares an inscription above its doors in Latin. The English translation reads; for the “advancement and diffusion of knowledge.” A backer and outspoken advocate of the gallery, Richard Cobdon, described it as...

“a manufactory for working up the raw intelligence of the town” Richard Cobdon

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Curatorial practices

Natural History Herzog & de Meuron 2002

Archeology of the Mind Herzog and de Meuron draw a correlation between their work’s physical evidence, the archaeology of the mind, and natural history in the role of the curator. In bringing understanding, the cutor brings meaning and significance. The artefact would be ”lifeless waste” without the curatorial “gaze — the creative, attentive, sometimes even loving gaze of the interested beholder who is able to interpret and interrelate the moulded shapes, grooves, indentations, and discoloration.” Meaning is built and not intrinsic. The Tate Modern The gallery conversion in London provides an example of the museum being concerned with itself. The vast chamber of the turbine house is an indulgence which heroes the architecture. At the beginning of the museum, ”architecture puts itself on display - before assuming,

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in the exhibition halls, the function so often and so readily assigned to it, namely, that of serving.” The turbine hall is an outlier in the museum typology, a spice where the architecture does not serve as “intensive care stations of art”, as Harry Gugger suggests the modern art museum has become. His reading of the gallery in this way is based on the sterility of the environment in which the art must be kept and maintained. Any outside force or influence would somehow threaten the life of the art that is contained in the space. Instead it must be kept in stasis. The Tate rejects this. The metaphoric instability and fragility of the modern art museum is abandoned “when architects insist on claiming a suitable portion of the building for their own art,” the building itself, as with the turbine hall at the Tate. Stacking The pair suggest that a

natural consequence of making is the object which must be stored, collected, archived and stacked. That one predicates the next. The distinction is drawn between the active nature of making and the passive nature of stacking and storing — something that can be critiqued. Bringing the ideas of storage closer to sculpture and form are suggested. Instead of obscuring, the stack is revealed. What occurs is a “carnivalesque inversion” where the turning inside-out of the store. Reference is made to the Ricola Storage Building which uses the facade to represent the stacking of materials and reference its former quarry use in the layering of masonry. A layered history of the site is embodied in the facade which allows the memory of site to be carried into a new purpose...

“The facade is just like a large storage shelf. There is the further fact that the rock itself, too, is also in a storage mode since it is limestone, a stone sediment which occurs. One could say that the rock is related to the concept of the building and that in this way the architecture increases an understanding of the site.” Jacques Herzog

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Experience

Procession and encounterment The museum and site are to be experience and design in a phenomenological manner which has concern for sight and motion. Key to this is the idea of procession as a move through a series of choreographed thresholds which play into a operations of obscuring and revealing. The entry to the site and progression through to the start of the museum bridge (and beyond) is considered as the key axis of experience which moves through a sequence of encounters which are frame, obscured, suggested or inferred by the architecture. The new intervention and existing form are the devices used to set up this relationship between inhabitant and surroundings which engages an experiential encounter with the building and place. This stretches from the entry ramp, through the skin of the existing building to a olfactory forecourt garden.

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Decent through the polycarb portal leads to the bowels of the collection and out onto the bridge, completing the experience. In focusing on the idea of viewership and aspect the visitor is engaged in the ideas of sight which are integral to the aforementioned positioning of the museum as a oculocentric experience connecting views and objects.

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Sequencing in plan

6 EXHIBIT BRIDGE AMENITIES

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The internal void

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Tate Modern Herzog & de Meuron London, 2000

Herzog & de Meuron’s alteration to the Bankside Power Station in London to house its new purpose as the Tate Modern Gallery play with ideas of scale related to its prior use. Perhaps the most striking space of the project is the old generator hall which extends across four floors and provides a centralised void of movement through the building. The vacant space dwarfs the human figure and echoes the building’s prior occupation being something unrelated to the human scale, instead proportioned to house massive mechanical generators. This space places the architecture and nature of the building on display. As a break from gallery spaces, the void and its expanse provide a moment of awe at the architecture itself through a progress of transference and motion between one gallery space and the next.

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The experiential profile of this vast space is exaggerated as the entry sequence of the building takes its visitors through a compressing, narrow passage under the existing skin. The preceding tightening of space is contrasted to the release at the point of entering the turbine hall which forces the visitor to engage in the architecture and spatial experience. The movement and circulation of people through the turbine hall also somehow symbolically recaptures the process of generation and flow of materials the building’s original purpose was concerned with. Metaphorically visitors are pumped through the spaces by the turbine hall.

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Supporting the skin

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Recovery of Merola’s Tower Carles Enrich Studio Puig-Reig, Spain, 2019

This project in Spain deals with the ruins of a watch tower and a process of reclamation of purpose and form.

“Like a scaffolding, it structurally stabilizes the pre-existing construction, recovers the original volume and restores its function in the territory as a lookout and defense point”

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The architectural response utilises a timber scaffolding structure to stabilise the remnant wall whilst also mimicking the original footprint and height to restore the original silhouette of the structure. The design provides stepped access up the structure to a deck on the top from which the tower is once again affording humans a wide view over the landscape. The relationship between the existing and new materials suggest a solidity and integrity to the original, that which has survived and endured and is truthful. The supporting framework is hierarchically second to the masonry and legible as a supporting structure rather than equal or similar.

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Phenomenological garden

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Serpentine Pavilion Peter Zumthor London, 2011

Zumthor’s Serpentine pavilion in 2011 is a phenomenological resting place of contemplation — a respite within the gardens and the city beyond. The hollow central space, cloistered by a simple walkway houses the garden by Piet Oudolf. The planting creates a sensory space of olfactory and colour. The cloister and seating around provides space for contemplation and circumambulation. The environment is internalised and contained by the surrounding form, suggesting a centrality and focus on the garden as an object to be observed with almost a sense of reverence.

essentially a single corridor entered through unframed entrances on the outside. The visitor must move through this decontextualising space before emerging into the garden. The reveal of the garden is exaggerated by the contrast to the dark, contained space winch precedes it.

Zumthor also plays with the experiential encounter with the garden interior with surrounding form which elongates a dark threshold between the context and internal environment. The blackened timber clad form is

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Polycarbonate shroud

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V&A Storehouse Diller Scofidio + Renfro London, 2024

This yet to be completed project by Diller Scofidio and Renfro seeks to reimagine the museum storage as an open and accessible space. The open storage idea gives a sense of democratisation of the museum’s collection, especially within contexts of decolonisation of the museum’s historic exploits. On display are the extents of the collection, traversable and legible to the visitor. The exhibit is the bulk of the collection itself, unframed and unmediated. The work spaces for the maintenance and conservation of the collection are also visible as another display of the workings of the museum.

“Turn the storage inside out. A rich array of objects will be on display for visitors to explore – from some of the smallest curiosities in the collection to the largest and most significant rooms and building fragments”

on entry as a precursor to the collection. Whilst on the entry stairs, the collection is partially shrouded still, its ghostly silhouettes congealing and projecting onto the sheeting as a mesmerising and alluring shimmer of objects housed beyond. This is revealed upon entry into the main space where glass provides fill transparency to the collection. The staircase tracks a progression from opaque to open symbolic of the scheme’s ambition to democratise the collection.

The design response deals with ideas of transparency as metaphor for the opening up of the museum. The architecture facilities freedom of vision through use of glass, void and minimalist structure. Polycarbonate is used as a cladding material

Diller Scofidio + Renfro

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Inside out collections

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Artbank Melbourne Edition Office Collingwood, Melbourne, 2018

Similar to the V&A project, Artbank in Melbourne suggests a sense of openness through the utilisation of sliding art storage. The mobility and agility of the stage gives a sense of temporal activity and fluid arrangements. The sliding shelves allow for a rearranging of the space as well as a sense of transparency for those works not on display — they are not hidden away in closed store but glimpses are visible constantly when moving through the space.

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Collection and program

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Dangrove Art Space Tzannes Alexandria, NSW, 2018

The storage facility for Chinese contemporary art provided mix functions which flowed in and around the primary aspects of storage. A choreographed circulation route leads through the building in a manner that allows its operations to be observed. The main Great Hall provides facilities for exhibition and display as well as performance. This anchoring space gives rise to a series of subsequent rooms which provide for the operational programs of art storage, curatorial practices, conservation and research as well as library, workshop spaces. The architecture creates its hierarchy by use of volume and light which begins to delineate the myriad of spaces throughout. Operability plays a role too in creating spaces of varied function and affordances.

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Heritage response

Kirsten Thompson Open House Melbourne, Heritage Address 2019

In her lecture on heritage at the 2019 Open House Melbourne event, architect Kirsten Thompson prefaces her statements with the reminder that she is not a heritage professional, but instead that it forms an intrinsic part of practices when encountering a given site. More so, she suggests that her understanding of heritage is “more than what things look like, style and technique. Its also uses, practices, events, associations.” The built form is a vessel which has held prior occupation and inhabitation which can be read in its material presence. There is a sensory component to recollection and engagement with existing suggested here. She also suggests an affinity not for monument and reverence in the heritage form but a concern for “yhe ordinariness of daily life and activity lived through time” which can be evidenced

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through the architectural engagement with the physical remnant. She describes her project at the Broadmeadows Town Hall, a striking brick building in which she cut a circular portal to bring transparancy, as a “repository of social memory”. For her, the “gravitas, weight and thickness especially of its masonry” lends to its enduring ability to recall the past, that its “material presence” provided a substrate for generations of activity. Precisely its “Resilience as an envelope and as a container of memory” brought about its significance to the community. A project already discussed, the Abbotsford Convent conversions were addressed as a light touch approach where the act of the architect was to reveal rather than to impose. As a result Thompson outlines their intention

that it be “very clear what’s been added in our layer over the top of the other things that were found there”. The result is a design which respectsfully positions the existing surface to be seen and observed. At Bundanon Thompson was interested in the “tension of the manicured site and one that has had an ancient existence”. Although not as overtly a heritage project, she view the site itself as an agent, evolving and changing in relation to built forms. A Landscape heritage — “not in a picturesque sense but as an ecology”. The design response situates itself in this landscape as a new layer of this ecology. Finally, she notes that at her project for the Holocaust Museum in Melbourne the existing “building becomes an artefact that is important to the museum” and is such curated and framed by the form to house it.

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Heritage response

TICCIH’s Dublin Principals

Adaptive re-use

The International Committee for the Conservation of Industrial Heritage

Benjamin Fragner, in Industrial Heritage Re-tooled, 2013

Established in the 1973, TICCIH or The International Committee for the Conservation of Industrial Heritage are an advisor to ICOMOS and UNESCO on issues of industrial world heritage. In their document, The Dublin Principals (2011), they outline methodologies and practices for the operation and conservation of sites of industrial heritage and archaeology.

the former processes and practices. These form aspects of intangible heritage — the non-material remnants of a place which gives it significance and is somehow suggested and maintained in material form. The existing built form stands as a signifier for these aspects of intangible heritage — legible in its skin are some of the traces of past inhabitation and operations.

The process of adaptive reuse reconciles the industrial relic and puts it to use again in the contemporary world. The balance must be struck between retaining original value and purpose with its relevance to the current time and needs.

One of their key suggestions is around the importance of learning and teachings as can be facilitated by the site and its heritage value. Recognised is the negative perceptions around these sites, especially in derelict form, and the need to re-frame and re-purpose these sites in the wake of the deindustrialisation of society. The document says that material, machinery and objects that provide physical evidence should be maintained and displayed on the site as testimony to

Practices of adaptive reused of industrial sites are seen to be regenerative and positive however must be done with respect to former uses and maintain wherever possible as close a link to its prior operations and pragmatic layouts.

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A common approach is to take industrial buildings with no ongoing use as sites for museum and memory. The physical form already stands as a remnant of the past, an artefact itself — “memory of place becomes just an isolated or even fragmented reminder of a defunct human activity.” There is an inherent interest in the industrial relic, as with other places of history, to be observed as reminders of a prior time and of traces and reminders of defunct activity where “wall structures, chipped and stained with paint, have been preserved as autonomous artistic artefacts.” This occurs in “the immediate

vicinity of contemporary art” a temporal dialogue occurs. Adaptive reuse as a practice also makes use of original material and maintains the embroidered energy of a structure, rather than demolishing and starting anew. The reuse of building materials and physical remnants performs a very valuable environmental function as well as the social role in maintaining heritage and memory.

“adaptive reuse constitutes an unfinished dialogue on continuity” Benjamin Fragner

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Power Generation

Micro-Hydro power When the Seventh Day Adventist movement was selecting a location for their operations in Victoria power was one of their greatest requirements. With the ambition to produced food and publishing material from the Sanitarium Health Foods Company and Signs publishing in particular, the Yarra Valley provided opportunity through a number of water wheels and hydro-electric generators in the early decades of the twentieth century. The implementation of a mirco-hydro power plant into the site not only serves a museological purpose as a reminiscence on a prior occupation of the site but also plays into the significance of the Yarra as a water body armature of the city, settlement and early industry. The provision of on-site power generation will be supplemented with solar panels on the buildings on the northern banks of the

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river, overall generating sustainable power for the site and feeding into the local grid. The power system will use a diversion channel whcih takes water from the river at a higher point and runs it along to a generator house where its falling velocity back down to the river level will produce electricity. To supplement the sometimes variable speed of the water, a solar array will drive pumps that keep the water moving to the impulse turbine. Infrastructure for the generation will be on display to the public as they move through this portion of the site and from the transept bridge.

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234 Hydro-electric power generation DIVERSION SET-UP USING THE GRADUAL LEVEL CHANGE OF THE YARRA AS IT ROUNDS THE BEND AT THE REAR OF THE SITE A SMALL HYDROPOWER SYSTEM WILL GENERATE BETWEEN 100 KILOWATTS AND 10 MW

RIVER WATER INTAKE

GENERATOR BUILDING TO HOUSE A IMPULSE TURBINE WHICH RELIES ON THE VELOCITY OF WATER TO ROTATE THE RUNNER, THE TURBINE WHEEL

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Water pumping on display

Skjern River Pump Stations Johansen Skovsted Arkitekter Skjern River, Denmark, 2015

With increased aquaculture on the Skjern River in Denmark and a subsequent increase in tourism, a series of pumping station were transformed into exhibition spaces. The original precast concrete and brick buildings were constructed in the 1960s and were repurposed to a dual function with their pumping facilities remaining operational and expressed. The new additions make the machinery and pumping process visible through the small series of spaces, taking part of the pumping room for a large exhibition space as well as viewing platforms on the roof. The original fabric remains largely intact and the new architecture references the ribbing in the precast with a use of vertical timber battening. Sectionally visitors are given access to processes beneath them, with water as a datum that changes level with the pumping, and the machinery at surface level.

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Sketch design: drawn outcomes

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Museum Sequence 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13

Site entry from Warburton Highway Ramped access to the public Forecourt behind industrial shroud Decent portal to the basement Moving through the bowels of the collection as precursor to the museum Beginning of the transept bridge underground The bridge emerges from the earth affording views to the surroundings Breaks in the museum rooms to covered outdoor spaces which provide relief Termination of the transept bridge portal to descend to ground level again Walkway over the diversion channel for the hydro power generation Turbine building with views to the generator Return journey path through the landscape Return to the existing factory building

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Museum Sequence

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01 02 03 04 05

Site entry from Warburton Highway Ramped access to the public Forecourt behind industrial shroud Decent portal to the basement Moving through the bowels of the collection as

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1. South Datum

THE EXISTING INDUSTRIAL SHROUD AND RURAL LIFE THE EXISTING SANITARIUM HEALTH FOODS FACTORY FORMS THE DATUM AT THE STREET/TOWN/RURAL END OF THE TRANSEPT, HOUSING PROGRAMS RELATING TO CIVIC AND COMMUNITY INTERACTIONS AND HOUSING THE COLLECTION TO THE MUSEUM AS WELL AS... THE BEGINNING OF THE JOURNEY.

2. Transept bridge

JOURNEY OF THE MUSEUM AND CONNECTIVITY Programs _Museum entry _The collection, open and housed in the basement _Front of house and information _Restaurant and amenities _Community _Function rooms _Workspaces _Research and management of the collection

THE JOURNEY OF THE MUSEUM TRACK A PROGRESSION ALONG THE TRANSEPT, A MOVE FROM STREET TO RIVER, OR, FROM RIVER TO STREET. THIS IS A LINEAR PATH IN TWO DIRECTIONS. THE LANDSCAPE IS VIEWED FROM A DECONTEXTUALISING BRIDGE WHICH FRAMES THETYPOLOGIES OF THE TOWN AND ITS OCCUPANTS, FRAMED AND CAPTURED AS... PART OF THE COLLECTION.

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Programs _Museum journey _Sequence of connected enfilade exhibition rooms _Outdoor covered spaces as relief

THE RIVER, SETTLEMENT AND POWER THE REVERSE END OF THE TRANSEPT, THE DATUM RELATING TO THE YARRA RIVER, AGRICULTURE, THE LAND AND NATURE. ITS MANNER IS THAT OF THE MEANDER, EVOLVING WITH THE TIDE AND EBB OF THE RIVER, RESPONDING TO THE WINDING PATH IT HAS CUT AND MAKING CONTACT WITH THE WATER FOR... HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION.

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Site plan 40m

C. North Datum Power generation and the River

B. Transept Bridge The museum

A. South Datum The existing industrial shroud

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Museum portal detail 2m

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Phenomenological journey of descent into the museum’s collection in the basement. Moving through3.the forecourt native garden to the polycarb portal which blurrs and suggests the forms contained beneath.

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NATIVE GARDEN AS A FORECOURT TO THE MUSEUM SITTING WITHIN THE EXITING BUILDING’S SHROUD DECKED CLOISTER RUNS THE PERIMETER POLYCARBONATE CLADDING TO ENTRY PORTAL NATIVE GARDEN AS ASTAIRS FORECOURT WITH TO THE TIMER MUSEUM TREADS AND STEEL FRAMED SITTING WITHIN THE EXITING BUILDING’S SHROUD CONCEALED LIGHTING DECKED CLOISTER RUNS THE PERIMETER POLYCARBONATE CLADDING TO ENTRY PORTAL EXISTING SLAB THICKENED TO SUPPORT LOADS FROM STEEL FRAMED STAIRS WITH TIMER TREADS AND NEW GARDEN PLANTING ABOVE CONCEALED LIGHTING NEW DEPTH 1200 TO SUPPORT LOADS FROM EXISTING SLAB =THICKENED NEW GARDEN PLANTING ABOVE TRANSLUCENT CLADDING REVEALS GHOSTS OF SHELVED NEW DEPTH = 1200 COLLECTION STORAGE BEHIND TRANSLUCENT CLADDING REVEALS GHOSTS OF SHELVED COLLECTION STORAGE BEHIND EXISTING STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS AND BRICK WALL EXISTING STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS AND BRICK WALL GROUND FLOOR RESTAURANT GROUND FLOOR RESTAURANT UPPER WALKWAY AROUNDAROUND THE CLOISTER THE FORECOURT UPPER WALKWAY THEOFCLOISTER OF THE FORECOURT

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Transept bridge composite detail 4m

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The transept draws a line between datums on the north side and the south side of Birrarung. The bridge which connects these describes a linear journey of the museum. The arrangement of objects is determined by themes not chronology. The views to each side are crucial in determination of the themes of each room.

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SECTION

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Site section 20m

The section of the scheme follows the trajectory of the museum and runs along the transept between the river and the existing heritage form. The changing levels of the site are referenced from the vertical datum of the bridge which begins subterranean in the basement of the existing factory and then moves aerial over the river and expanse of Transept bridge tectonics landscape. Metal deck roofing

The sequencing of spaces in the experience of the museum sets a phenomenological significance on withholding vision and view.

Obscure and reveal.

The exiting industrial building is reduced to a shroud which holds internal space.

Threshold and progression.

A series of delineations exist on entry section of the scheme follo to the museum, passing from exteriorThe to trajectory of the museum and ru the transept between the river forecourt, to portal, to subterranean to existing heritage form. The cha levels of the site are referenc bridge. the vertical datum of the bridg

Inference and interference.

begins subterranean in the base the existing factory and then m aerial over the river and expan landscape.

Polycarbonate sheeting is used to distort and silhouette vision, providing an evocation but no solidity.

Timber framing structure with diagronal metal bracing

Museum pods as discrete forms in charred timber cladding

Framing and clarity.

The sequencing of spaces in the experience of the museum sets a phenomenological significance o withholding vision and view.

Unobstructed views are afforded to the Obscure and reveal. The exiting industrial building context through the museum, positioning reduced to a shroud which holds space. the visitor in relationship with object and aspect. Threshold and progression.

Circulation to for an enfilade of museum rooms

A series of delineations exist to the museum, passing from ext forecourt, to portal, to subter bridge.

Inference and interference.

Polycarbonate sheeting is used and silhouette vision, providin evocation but no solidity. 1:200

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Plan: Ground Floor

Plan: First and Second Floors

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Circulation core, existing Open workspace and research into regional history Amenities Viewing portal

Main entry ramp Fissures cut into the existing industrial brick skin Native garden featuring sculptural relics/artifacts Portal staircase to beginning of the museum in polycarbonate Timber reinforcements skeleton to existing skin wall Front of house and museum information Circulation to community rooms on level 1 Restaurant servery and seating Kitchen and store Original entry and circulation core Rotating exhibition and gallery space Services, amenities and fire stairs Landscape path return point

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Suspended walkway Small community room/workspace Medium community room/workspace Large community room/workspace

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Ground floor plan 1:200

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Plan: Basement and Bridge

Plan: River buildings

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Entry portal in polycarbonate Museum storage behind polycarbonate screen Display racks opened to reveal different objects and artifacts Additional large museum storage Amenities Museum origin and beginning of the transept bridge Covered glazed connecting portals Outdoor covered breaks in the museum journey Museum termination on the northern banks of Birrarung

Path from existing public carpark Hydro power generator building Bridge to southern banks Channel for diverted water covered with mesh walkway Community events pavilion Power storage and solar array Museum reverse entry or exit at the end of the transept bridge Water intake and pumping to diversion channel

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SETTLEMENT AND EARLY INDUSTRY

Hydro-electric power generation

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Transept bridge museum and basement 1:200

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Artifact and relic

Memory as

Artifact and relic

Agricultural Medal

McVeighs water wheel

Silage

Warburton Postcard

Weet bix

1866 D 4mm x Dia 39mm Metal - non specific

c. 1870s unknown Timber — local ash

no date L 880mm x W 280mm x D 130mm Metal - non specific

17/12/1909 W 140mm x H 89mm Paper and ink

c. 1950s unknown tin and printed label

A silver agricultural medal with inscribed text; ‘SEYMOUR AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION INSTITUTED 1858 — 1st Prize for Potatoes A. Carnie 1866’.

Remnants of the original McVeigh's water wheel which was used at Yankee Jim’s creek during alluvial mining explorations. Moved to various locations during subsequent years. Replica stands at the Warburton information center.

Cootamundra, New South Wales, On a proprty called ‘Wood Dale’

Ready for the Saw, Warburton

Through its operational period, the Sanitarium Health Foods Factory produced the culturally ubiquitous Weet-bix. This packaging is from an era when tin was used as a recyclable container.

Part of the David Allen medals collection, 111 prize medals from rural and urban agricultural shows across Australia in the 1850s-early 1900s. Agricultural Medal

Long metal blade with a serrated edge used for hay cutting in local agriculture.

“A postcard featuring a black and white photograph of a length of a large being pulled along a track by dollys, in a forest landscape. A few simple wooden buildings are also visible in the photograph.”

McVeighs water wheel

Silage

Warburton Postcard

Weet bix

1866 D 4mm x Dia 39mm Metal - non specific

c. 1870s unknown Timber — local ash

no date L 880mm x W 280mm x D 130mm Metal - non specific

17/12/1909 W 140mm x H 89mm Paper and ink

c. 1950s unknown tin and printed label

A silver agricultural medal with inscribed text; ‘SEYMOUR AGRICULTURAL 1858 — 1st Prize for Potatoes A. Carnie 1866’.

Remnants of the original McVeigh's water wheel which was used at Yankee Jim’s creek during alluvial mining explorations. Moved to various locations during subsequent years. Replica stands at the Warburton information center.

Cootamundra, New South Wales, On a proprty called ‘Wood Dale’

Ready for the Saw, Warburton

Through its operational period, the Sanitarium Health Foods Factory produced the culturally ubiquitous Weet-bix. This packaging is from an era when tin was used as a recyclable container.

Skin and impression ASSOCIATION INSTITUTED

Part of the David Allen medals collection, 111 prize medals from rural and urban agricultural shows across Australia in the 1850s-early 1900s.

Long metal blade with a serrated edge used for hay cutting in local agriculture.

“A postcard featuring a black and white photograph of a length of a large being pulled along a track by dollys, in a forest landscape. A few simple wooden buildings are also visible in the photograph.”

Skin and impression

The original brick, formed from clay dug from the Northcote brickworks in Melbourne, forms the modular element of construction for the original building. Symbolically each brick holds a story of its life in the building.

As an assemblage, the mass of the existing building is respected as a sturdy and robust material which has endured. The surface bares its age and offers a skin of industrial history to be read and treated.

The existing conditions offer relics which document the inherent process of abandonment and dereliction which came with the deindustrialisation of the site and of society more generally.

The original brick, formed from clay dug from the Northcote brickworks in Melbourne, forms the modular element of construction for the original building. Symbolically each brick holds a story of its life in the building.

As an assemblage, the mass of the existing building is respected as a sturdy and robust material which has endured. The surface bares its age and offers a skin of industrial history to be read and treated.

The existing conditions offer relics which document the inherent process of abandonment and dereliction which came with the deindustrialisation of the site and of society more generally.

The new... Materials which will be temporally specific and reference their age and moment on the site. Timber and corten steel are used primarily because of their ability to develop a patina.

The new... Materials which will be temporally specific and reference their age and moment on the site. Timber and corten steel are used primarily because of their ability to develop a patina.

[left] Timber and concrete aging in-situ Villa Busk, Norway, Sverre Fehn [right] Corten cladding Caixa Forum, Madrid, Herzog & de Meuron

[left] Timber and concrete aging in-situ Villa Busk, Norway, Sverre Fehn [right] Corten cladding Caixa Forum, Madrid, Herzog & de Meuron

257


Bridge physical model

258

259


four resolution


“a

m a nu f a c t o r y

for working up the raw

i nt el l ig enc e of the town”

Richard Cobdon on the Manchester Athenaeum The musicological approaches of the scheme engage in bringing to life the display and exhibition of artefact, but — as with Theaster Gates’ Stoney Island Arts Bank — the project can begin to engage community and locals beyond the museum’s display rooms. This plays into the idea of the Useful Museum, a space which allows for the development of knowledge and intellect. The museum becomes whatever the region requires. This is particularly relevant in the context of an evaporating regional identity. The museum becomes a space to recover and continue practices and ideologies key to the local identity.

Lost Trades Fair, Kyneton now Bendigo

The research for the scheme after sketch design focused on the development of spaces which fostered this community and collegiality supplementing and running alongside the main museum experiential journey.

262

263


Warburton Mechanics Hall These ideas are hardly new. The idea of a space to advance the learning and intelligence of the local vicinity is premise of the mechanics institutes which front every main street of every small town in the country. Out of the industrialisation of society came the need to gain new skills for employment. Trades halls and mechanics institutes filled a vital need to develop a labour force but also focused on building a community. The mechanics institute taught how a society should function in a modern world. The scheme proposes a museum which continues the lineage of the mechanics institute, a place for the advancement of its region and the pleasure in both community and work echoing ideas of William Morris and John Ruskin in the 1850s. Morris’ idea of useful work brought joy to the craftsmanship which was so quickly evaporating at the hands of industrialisation.

264

“learning how to be a society together [...] learn how to make things, learn how to make society” Alistair Hudson on The Useful Museum

265


266

267


The workshop museum

Windermere Jetty Museum Carmody Groarke Lake District, England, 2019

The Windermere Jetty Museum set amongst the picturesque landscape of England’s Lake Distinct mixes programs of museum and display of artefacts of local maritime history with a productive workshop for the upkeep of boats. The mixing of typologies exists in the plan, where a series of rectangular spaces are arrayed and overlapped to mimic the overlapping of programs. The sequencing of visitor experience mixes also the active and observation programs. The productive workshop is laced in with a public program seamlessly which suggests that the work itself is on display and to be appreciated. Tectonically also, the scheme explores the shed and lake-side typologies in a playful manner that both beguiles the contained program and expresses a singular architectural idea. The horizontality of the collected forms also has an

“Both foreground and background — foregrounds the visitor experience [...] the background to a beautiful landscape and collection” Andy Groarke interesting relationship with the river edge, both eating up the bank for moorings and somehow respecting the river’s agency. Overhangs cut into the sides of the pitched forms disrupt the simple silhouette and provide outdoor covered spaces and a sense of the skin of black zinc cladding being deleted to provide passage or entry.

Museum/ experience

Productive/ workshop

268

269


Infrastructural re-purposing

Danish National Maritime Museum Bjarke Ingels Group Helsingor, Denmark, 2013

“Infrastructural projects that have a positive human, social, environmental impact [...] pieces of infrastructure as a cultural buildings” Bjarke Ingels

270

In a lecture on the idea of social infrastructure, Bjarke Ingels introduces the Danish National Maritime museum which utilises its industrial heritage as void around which both musicological and social functions can operate. Taking the infrastructural term literally, social function plays a role in reinterpreting a space which has been designed for and scaled for an in-human object, the ship. The scale feels distanced from the human figure and an active form of reconciliation must occur to reposition the space as one from community and interactions. The project must in a way reinvest to reconcile the industrial heritage’s negative associations with poor working conditions and inequality. The social building operates as an infrastructural one, treating people as part of a greater whole that interact and relate to form a society.

271


The working museum

The Bourke Museum Olson Kundig Seattle, USA, 2019

The museum plays a function in itself, external to ideas of building society. Its role curatorially and conversationally is another opportunity to build connection to visitors. The Bourke Museum in Seattle places on display the bowels of its collection as well as its inner workings as a productive space for the investigations and research into natural sciences. In the plan, what occurs is a rhythm of spaces; exhibition and display is looked onto by, and in turn observed by, spaces of conservation and research, followed by stores. Operable walls and doors which open into these spaces allow for an informal exhibition, where working

tables also become display cabinets for the work of conservation. The informality allows for a rolling and evolving display to build up, ensuring no two visits to the museum are the same, even with permanent exhibitions on display. The project description for the museum describes it as breaking “traditional museum barriers between public and ‘back-ofhouse’ spaces, integrating collections and research labs with traditional galleries and enabling visitors and the surrounding community to engage with the process of scientific discovery”.

Display

Movement

Labs/work

Collection

272

273


Industrial silver screen

Kent Brewery Tzannes Associates Chippendale, Sydney, 2014

As a new part of a cultural institution, visibility become a major consideration. The Kent Brewery in Sydney utilises its facade as a projection screen for the display of work. The industrial surface becomes backdrop to the new function and reposition of the building as a cultural space rather than one of production or industry. A link is drawn between the experiential elements of the museum and its community, providing a space for the display of values and identity of the region very visible from the street. Such an opportunity exists in the factory building’s bare wall facing west on the site. Warburton’s arts hall already hosts an annual film festival which could be run in conjunction with projection displays at the museum.

274

275


276

Final Drawn Outcomes

277


A negotiation between two DATUMS A connection between either end of a TRANSEPT Road to river, Existing to new, Industry to power, Town to hinterland, tied together with the threads of their likeness and their difference A collection and a continuance of the RURAL LIFE...

278

279


The transept of expiry, the town and the site

280

281


282

283


Site Perspective Section 1:75 10m

SHELVING WITH GLAZING TO ENCOURAGE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MUSEUM VISITORS AND THE OPERATIONS OF THE MUSEUM 10. STORAGE RUNS AROUND THE PERIMETER IF THE BASEMENT WHICH MUST BE MOVED THROUGH BEFORE BEGINNING THE MUSEUM SEQUENCE OPENING UP THE ARCHIVES TO THE VISITOR 11. THE MUSEUM BEGINS AS THE VISITOR STEPS INTO THE TRANSEPT BRIDGE SIGNALED BY A CHANGE IN SURFACE TO A POLISHED BLACK CONCRETE SCREED 12. SEQUENCES OF ROOMS ARE PUNCTUATED BY EXTERNAL, OPEN-AIR SPACES WHICH PROVIDE RESPITE AND ASPECT 13. MUSEUM PODS PUSH UP AND PUNCTURE THE ROOF TO PROVIDE SKYLIGHTING TO EXHIBITS

1. DECKING TO FRONT FACING FACADE, SERVICED BY THE CAFE SPACE AND ENGAGING THE STREET 2. KITCHEN 3. CAFE SERVERY AND SEATING, PIVOT DOORS TO DECKING INSIDE 4. OPEN COMMUNITY ROOM FOR EVENTS, FUNCTIONS AND PERFORMANCES 5. BALCONY RUNNING AROUND THE INTERNAL COURTYARD 6. TIMBER STRUCTURE SCAFFOLD TO STABILISE FREE-STANDING FACADE BRICKWORK WALLS AFTER SLABS REMOVED 7. INTERNAL FORECOURT PLANTED WITH OLFACTORY NATIVES AND GRASSES 8. MUSEUM ENTRY PORTAL CLAD IN POLYCARBONATE SHEETING 9. CONSERVATION ACIDITIES INTEGRATED WITH STORAGE

14. OBJECTS ARE HELD IN CONNECTION TO VIEW WITH A SERIES OF WINDOWS OPENING UP TO THE LANDSCAPE BEHIND 15. COMPACTED GRAVEL PATH LEADING BACK FROM THE RIVER TO THE FACTORY BUILDING 16. COMPLEMENTARY POLYCARBONATE ENTRY POD AT THE NORTHERN ENTRY TO THE MUSEUM WHICH CAN BE EXPERIENCE IN SEQUENCE FROM EITHER DIRECTION 17. SUBTERRANEAN CHANNEL FOR DIVERTED WATER TO PASS THROUGH THE HYDRO-ELECTRIC GENERATOR, VISIBLE THROUGH GRATING WHICH DEFINES A PATH ABOVE 18. BATTERY STORAGE BUILDING AND SOLAR ARRAY ABOVE

TRANSEPT ASPECTS Connecting contextual views to the transept, placing objects and artefacts in relation to their aspect and regional memory.

-37.751040 N, 145.696634 E

-37.751279 N, 145.699314 E

-37.751916 N, 145.697325 E

-37.752799 N, 145.696669 E

DOWNSTEAM TOWARDS THE RECREATION CENTRE

WARBURTON REDWOOD BRIDGE OVER BIRRARUNG 1998

RED GUM TREES LINING THE EDGE OF THE RIVER Age, 500-1000 years old

REAR OF CAFES

Constructed by the Army Reserve Revitalisation program’s Sappers of the 4th Combat Engineer Regiment and the 22nd Construction Regiment of the Royal Australian Engineers.

Large Eucalyptus camaldulensis parade down the banks of the river, a species often found in flood planes and along the edges of water bodies. Harvested in the late 1800s and early 1900s for timber along with local Ash (Eucalyptus regnans).

The river, unlike the main street, undulates and twists its way through the landscape. At the northern end of the transept the river cranks, seemingly around the football oval. The peri-urban condition finds use for the 300 metres of oval shaped space left behind by the ancient meanderings of the Birrarung.

IGA,

HARDWARE

STORE

AND

A mix of buildings along the highway pushed up to the boundary of the peri-urban spine with their staggered of levels and layers on their rear-facing forms indicative of their commercial uses mixed with dwellings.

-37.752359 N, 145.698542 E

-37.752359 N, 145.698542 E

SANITARIUM GRAIN SILOS 1942

SANITARIUM HEALTH FOODS FACTORY WARBURTON 1936 Architect: Edward Fielder Billson

The six silos adjacent to the Sanitarium Health Foods factory were constructed in tandem with the main building and replaced a site operations office originally design for the east side of the site. Currently used as a telecommunications tower.

A cereal factory built to replace a smaller more humble previous building destroyed by flooding in the late 30s. Producer of weet-bix amongst other things until its closure in the late 90s. Abandoned since, despite development plans to be re-purposed as a spa and resort,

1940

1942

JULY 2021

A relic of a deindustrialising economy left to degridation in a small country town on the outskirts of an every expanding urban condition. A manufactory. Without anything manufacture.

to

6. 5.

4300

14.

13.

11.

1.

10.

8.

9.

ENTRY DETAIL 01

EMERGE SUBTERRANEAN

15. 18.

2.

12.

TRANSEPT BRIDGE

16.

3.

DECENT

7.

4.

BASEMENT AND COLLECTION STORAGE

SOUTHERN DATUM The street, factory and peri-urban industry

17. 1500

NORTHERN DATUM The river, power, rural settlement and life

LEVEL CHANGE TO ALLOW HYDRO POWER GENERATION AVOCA

PERSPECTIVE SECTION 1:75 02

284

05

10m

285


286

287


Ground Plan 1:100

Factory Section 1:100

10m

10m

+20.1

288

+18.8

ROOF

+12.8

L3

+08.6

L2

+04.3

L1

+01.5

STREET

+00.0

ENTRY

-04.3

BASEMENT

289


feet as I step into the garden, headed for the portal to the museum.

POLYCARBONATE CLADDING

shrub with dark green leaves and deep purple mass of flowers and sweet scent. HIS GRANDFATHER MOVED TO WARBURTON JUST AFTER THE WAR IN SEARCH

Pittosporum revolutum (Yellow Pittosporum). Sweetly perfumed yellow and orange flowers with distinctively wavy leaves.

South Datum; The Factory 1:150 10m

OF

A

WIFE

AND

OF

A

JOB.

BOTH

WERE

HARD

TO

COME

BY...

THE FACTORY OPENED ITS DOORS AND WOMAN OPENED HER HEART. PACKING WEET-BIX BOXES WAS NOT HIS DREAM, THAT WAS TO TEACH. BUT HE MADE

IT

HIS

WORK.

EACH

YEAR

HE

4.

STORED AWAY A SINGLE BOX AS A REMINDER OF HIS TIME AT THE FACTORY. HE WOULD ALWAYS ASK

HOW

MANY

WEET-BIX

YOU’D HAD FOR BREAKFAST

STEEL FRAMING

Forecourt garden The smell hits me first, turning the corner the colours flood in. Blues and yellows dotted almost the shimmering grass. A bee buzzes past my ear, heading towards what the garden. In the centre, a beguiling shape. Angled slightly and with an enticing door framed in black. The earth and fallen twigs crunch under my feet as I step into the garden, headed for the portal to the museum.

BLACK POWDER COATED STEEL PORTAL WITH SLIDING DOOR TO INTERNAL EDGE STEEL FRAMED STAIRS VIC ASH STAINED TREADS

BEFORE

Prostanthera ovalifolia (Oval-leaved Mint Bush). Purple flowers and a dense foliage with minty scent.

REMARKING

HE’D

HAD

MORE BOXES NOW

ONE

HIS GRANDFATHER MOVED TO 5. WARBURTON JUST AFTER THE WAR IN SEARCH 1. ENTRY RAMP FROM THE STREET OF A WIFE AND OF A JOB. BOTH WERE HARD TO COME BY...

THAN

THAT.

Hymenosporum flavum (Native Frangipani). Taller shrub, trimmed, with heavy fragrance and cream turn yellow flowers.

Sequence of entry and experience

CHUCKLING

AND

HIS

2.

ARE

HIS DREAM, THAT WAS TO TEACH. BUT HE

Backhousia citriodora (Lemon Myrtle). Fluffy white flowering blossoms and a lemon citrus scent.

MADE

YEAR

HE

ASK

HOW

MANY

WEET-BIX

YOU’D HAD FOR BREAKFAST CHUCKLING

AND

REMARKING

HE’D

HAD

MORE

POLYCARBONATE CLADDING

BOXES NOW

ONE

THAN

THAT.

Hymenosporum flavum (Native Frangipani). Taller shrub, trimmed, with heavy fragrance and cream turn yellow flowers.

HIS ARE ON

D I S P L AY

Backhousia citriodora (Lemon Myrtle). Fluffy white flowering blossoms and a lemon citrus scent.

4.

STEEL FRAMING

Boronia ‘Purple Jared’. Compact POLYCARBONATE CLADDING shrub with dark green leaves and deep purple mass of flowers and sweet scent.

3. 4.

BLACK POWDER COATED STEEL PORTAL WITH SLIDING DOOR TO INTERNAL EDGE

5.

STEEL FRAMED STAIRS VIC ASH STAINED TREADS

BLACK POWDER COATED STEEL PORTAL WITH SLIDING DOOR TO INTERNAL EDGE STEEL FRAMED STAIRS VIC ASH STAINED TREADS

3.

2.

N

D

IS

PL

AY

INTERLOCKING NEUTRAL PAINTED SHELVING TO HOUSE COLLECTION OBJECTS

O

DATE: 1866 COLLECTION: SET TLEMENT ROOM: 02 SIZE: 39 diameter, 4 thick

EACH

REMINDER OF HIS TIME AT THE

2.

Pittosporum revolutum (Yellow Pittosporum). Sweetly perfumed STEEL FRAMING yellow and orange flowers with distinctively wavy leaves.

Agricultural Medal

WORK.

FACTORY. HE WOULD ALWAYS

BEFORE

Prostanthera ovalifolia (Oval-leaved Mint Bush). Purple flowers and a dense foliage with minty scent.

HIS

2.

O

N

S

ER

VA TI

INTERLOCKING NEUTRAL PAINTED SHELVING TO HOUSE COLLECTION OBJECTS

N

corner the colours flood in. Blues and yellows dotted almost the shimmering grass. A bee buzzes past my ear, heading towards what the garden. In the centre, a beguiling Angled slightly takes a visitor THEshape. PORTAL of descent with to anbasement, enticing moving from a fromand garden door of framed space HIGHin black. STIMULATION to a The earth andwhich fallenblurs on its walls NUMBING tunnel crunchwith under my the twigs two layers, swaying silhouettes of feet as I step into the garden and of thethe collection shelves garden, seen headedprojected for beneath on the the portalsheets to the polycarbonate museum.

IT

STORED AWAY A SINGLE BOX AS A

Boronia ‘Purple Jared’. Compact shrub with dark green leaves and deep purple mass of flowers and sweet scent.

O

Forecourt garden

3. 4. 5. 6.

HEART. PACKING WEET-BIX BOXES WAS NOT

D I S P L AY

Pittosporum revolutum (Yellow Pittosporum). Sweetly perfumed yellow and orange flowers with distinctively wavy leaves.

INTERLOCKING NEUTRAL The smell hits me PAINTED SHELVING TO first,COLLECTION turning OBJECTS the HOUSE

EXISTING FACADES RETAINED AS AN INDUSTRIAL SHROUD OLFACTORY FORCOURT POLYCARBONATE PORTAL BASEMENT COLLECTION AS A PRECURSOR MUSEUM TRANSEPT BRIDGE

THE FACTORY OPENED ITS DOORS AND WOMAN OPENED HER 3.

ON

C

A silver agricultural medal from the Seymore Agricultural Association (1858). 1st Prize for Potatoes goes to A. Carnie in 1866. From the David Allen agricultural medals collection from across Australia in the 18050s-1900s.

THE PORTAL of descent takes a visitor from garden to basement, moving from a space of HIGH STIMULATION to a NUMBING tunnel which blurs on its walls the two layers, with swaying silhouettes of the garden and of the collection shelves beneath seen projected on the polycarbonate sheets

THE PORTAL of descent takes a visitor from garden to basement, moving from a space of HIGH STIMULATION to a NUMBING tunnel which blurs on its walls the two layers, with swaying silhouettes of the garden and of the collection shelves beneath seen projected on the polycarbonate sheets

1.

POLYCARBONATE CLADDING

PL

10m

4.

A silver agricultural medal from the Seymore Agricultural Association (1858). 1st Prize for Potatoes goes to A. Carnie in 1866. From the David Allen agricultural medals collection from across Australia in the 18050s-1900s.

C

290

STEEL FRAMED STAIRS VIC ASH STAINED TREADS

AY PL D N

N

S

ER

VA TI

O

N

O

3.

ITEM NO. 1309

A silver agricultural medal from the Seymore Agricultural Association (1858). 1st Prize for Potatoes goes to A. Carnie in 1866. From the David Allen agricultural medals collection from across Australia in

O

BLACK POWDER COATED STEEL PORTAL WITH SLIDING DOOR TO INTERNAL EDGE

5.

1.

IS

Agricultural Medal DATE: 1866 COLLECTION: SET TLEMENT ROOM: 02 SIZE: 39 diameter, 4 thick

EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC 1:150 02

05

10m

C

STEEL FRAMING

O

N

S

ER

VA TI

O

N

O

N

05

IS

02

AY

EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC 1:150 Agricultural Medal DATE: 1866 COLLECTION: SET TLEMENT ROOM: 02 SIZE: 39 diameter, 4 thick

D

ITEM NO. 1309

291


Portal Detail 1:20 02m

0092 RAILWAY BOLTS

After the sensory engagement of the olfactory forecourt, the feel of crushed gravel under foot as they walk through the smell of native flours, the visitor crosses the threshold into the entry portal to descend...

The PORTAL diffuses the prior context and mutes the vision to the outside. Allusion takes over as the shapes and forms of the surroundings are abstracted by the polycarbonate sheeting. Sensation is DULLED as the visitor takes a breath before the musicological journey continues...

The found conditions of the factory building are ideal for a contemporary museum which engages with the rough, the dirty and the unexpected — spaces of architectural cross contexualisim

The forecourt creates a central space around which the community programs pivot — workshop rooms, performance and display accordances, cafe and meeting halls.

1201 MAGAZINE

ANTICIPATION

IN

TR

IG

UE

D

1863 MINING WHEEL

900 WIDE POLYCARBONATE SHEETING FIXED TO A STEEL FRAMING SYSTEM PUNCTURED THROUGH AN OPENING IN THE SLAB

CU

RI

0562 LUMBER HAMMER OU S

800 DEEP PLANTING SUPPORTED BY 500 CONCRETE SLAB

0092 RAILWAY BOLTS 1492 FLOUR GRINDING

6000K COOL TONE LIGHTING 0231 HORSE STIRRUP

1201 MAGAZINE ANTICIPATION

IN

TR

IG

UE

D

1863 MINING WHEEL

0652 GOLD DEPOSIT

TIMBER SHELVING INTEGRATED WITH THE PORTAL

CU

1898 CANISTER

R IO

0562 LUMBER HAMMER US

POLYCARBONATE sheeting fixed with a proprietary bracketing system to steel horizontal sections. Transept Equal angle bolted diagonally to internal side of portal for lateral bracing. LED strip lighting screw fixing to rear of timber shelving unit. Shelves painted in a white stained finish WEET-BIX TIN c.1950

292

FORECOURT AND ENTRY DETAIL 1:20 01

02m

293


294

295


Community Detail 1:20 02m

A. LOCAL SPEAKER AND PERFORMANCE SPACES

B. GROUP MEETING AND COMMUNITY BUILDING

C. CREATIVITY, SELF-ORGANISED DISPLAY AND EXHIBITION

TOM KUMAR

MARTA HOFFMAN

JAKE HOSIER

The son of immigrant parents, Tom was raised in the city but chose to move to the outskirts of Melbourne to raise his own children. They attend Warburton Primary school where his daughter has fallen in love with dancing. For months she has been counting the days until the end of year school Christmas show and now it has finally come. She waves to Tom in the crowd as her song ends.

Marta’s grandparents moved to Warbutron in 1912. One of the original employees at Signs Publishing, the Hoffman’s moved to the region when the business closed up their the premises in Fitzroy and relocated to Warburton to take up a self-sufficient style of living. She volunteers with the Church opposite the factory building as a youth councilor

Studied teaching in Melbourne where he was given a placement in Bendigo. He fell in love with the country life and working with children of working families and remote learning with those being raised on farms. Now at Wesburn Primary, Jake organises an annual art show to raise funs for transport for students who live greater distances from the school.

SANITARIUM HEALTH FOODS FACTORY BRICKS SOURCED FROM NORTHCOTE BRICKWORKS IN MELBOURNE, CLAY EXTARCTED FROM A PIT ON THE SITE OF MODERN DAY CARPARK AND SHOPPING COMPLEX

Northcote brick DATE: c.1930s COLLECTION: S.H.F.F. ROOM: 05 SIZE: 220 x 90 x 76

ITEM NO. 0720

Communities spaces are arranged in a cloister around the forecourt which serves as a mixing chamber, sending people onto the sequence of the museum or up to the the first floor community rooms for interaction SOCIAL AND COMMUNITY FUNCTIONS DISPLAY/EXHIBITION PERFORMANCE SEMINAR/GROUP

Scarring on the original surface of the factory wall displays where intervention has been made by the removal of a concrete slab. Suspended railing system allows for easy coopting of the space to suit the needs of the event or program to be housed, such as hanging curtains to create a back-stage area

WARBURTON PRIMARY SCHOOL Winter talent show

YOUTH GROUP Local at risk teens social evening

WESBURN PRIMARY Annual fund raising art show

“Sometimes I feel like there isn’t a place for me here, you know, in the future” “Opportunity will come”

PRIDE

Sliding partition moved into position via suspended tracks in the ceiling allow for exhibition walls and division of space

Original wall conditions maintained, in their current state of repair or disrepair as imprints of the building’s memory

Original windows operable and pivot to the street to create engagement with outdoor seating area at the front of the old factory building

Cafe provides a space for the local community as well as catering for the visitors to the museum program

02

01

296

02m

MRS GUILDFORDS BOOKCLUB READING PICNIC AT HANGING ROCK

05

10m

TOURISTS FROM BAIRNSDAY A family who grew up in the Yarra Valley

297


298

299


MATTE PO

South Datum; The Factory 1:150 10m

GALVANISED STEEL ROOFING FACE FIXED TO BATTENS AND RAFTERS GALVANISED STEEL 15 DEGREE SLOPE TO ROOFING THE EAST FACE FIXED TO BATTENS AND RAFTERS NO GUTTERS TO SLOPE ALLOW WATER 15 DEGREE TO THE EAST TO NO GUTTERS TO ALLOW WATER TO CASCADE IN FRONT OF MUSEUM WINDOWS CASCADE IN FRONT OF MUSEUM WINDOWS

INTERNAL WALLS CLAD IN CORK SHEETING TO DEADEN SOUND

The forthright construction of the transept references the AUSTRALIAN F U N C T I O N A L TRADITION and historic timber framed bridges on the region. Visually, the simplicity of its construction acts as a reminder of trade, work and human construction that the museum and the regional identity reflect

The forthright construction of the transept references the AUSTRALIAN F U N C T I O N A L TRADITION and historic timber framed bridges on the region. Visually, the simplicity of its construction acts as a reminder of trade, work and human construction that the museum and the regional identity reflect

EXHIBIT TABLES AT VARIABLE

INTERNAL WALLS CLAD IN HEIGHTS DEPENDING ON SCALE AND CONTEXT CORK SHEETING TO DEADEN SOUND

MUSEUM A ROUGH BLACK

STRUCTURA SOURCED VIC ASH L C

EXHIBIT TABLES AT VARIABLE HEIGHTS DEPENDING ON SCALE AND CONTEXT

MUSEUM RO ON SUPPORTIN PERPENDICULA

MATTE POWDER COATED STEEL SHADING TO WINOWS

MUSEUM ROOM CLADDING IN A ROUGH BLACK PIGMENTED RENDER

MATTE POWDER COATED STEEL SHADING TO WINOWS STRUCTURAL SYSTEM IN LOCALLY SOURCED VIC ASH LAMINATED MEMBERS COATED IN CREOSOTE

WEIGHTED SLIDING DOOR ROLL SHUT AFTER BEING OPENED TO PREVENT GUSTS OF WIND

MUSEUM ROOM CLADDING IN A ROUGH BLACK PIGMENTED RENDER

MUSEUM ROOMS VISUALLY REST ON SUPPORTING BEARERS RUNNING PERPENDICULAR TO THE TRANSEPT

BOLTED CONNECTION AND POCKETING SLOTS FOR STRUCTURAL TIMBERS

WEIGHTED SLIDING DOOR ROLL SHUT AFTER BEING OPENED TO PREVENT GUSTS OF WIND

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM IN LOCALLY SOURCED VIC ASH LAMINATED MEMBERS COATED IN CREOSOTE

The museum and its context

The museum its context

ARTEFACTS on display are seen in connection to view and aspect, instead of a white walled gallery space, the museum design builds the connection between the WORK, CONTEXT and and VIEWER

BOLTED CONNECTION AND POCKETING SLOTS FOR STRUCTURAL TIMBERS

MUSEUM ROOMS VISUALLY REST ON SUPPORTING BEARERS RUNNING PERPENDICULAR TO THE TRANSEPT

ARTEFACTS on display are seen in connection to view and aspect, instead of a white walled gallery space, the museum design builds the Context connection between the WORK, CONTEXT and VIEWER

Viewer

Context

Viewer

Work Hand turn grain mill DATE: c.1910s COLLECTION: INDUSTRY ROOM: 05 SIZE: 350 x 890 x 210

ITEM NO. 1492

Work Hand turn grain mill DATE: c.1910s COLLECTION: INDUSTRY ROOM: 05 SIZE: 350 x 890 x 210

ITEM NO. 1492

Hand turn grain mill Hand

DATE: c.1910s COLLECTION: INDUSTRY ROOM: 05 SIZE: 350 x 890 x 210

turn grain mill

EN

DATE: c.1910s COLLECTION: INDUSTRY ROOM: 05 SIZE: 350 x 890 x 210

TE R G

EN

IN E

TE

TH

R

U

IN

M S

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E

FR

TH

M

M

E E A TH

M

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301

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TH

05

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02

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300

S

EN

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B

M

M

EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC 1:150

E H AT T

EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC 1:150


Transept Plan 1:100 10m

+00.0

SOUTHERN ENTRY

-04.3

BASEMENT

-12.0

NORTHERN DATUM

-13.2

RIVER SURFACE

ENTRY PORTAL

ROOM 10

ROOM 09

ROOM 08

ROOM 08

ROOM 07

ROOM 06

ROOM 05

ROOM 04

BREAK 01

ROOM 03

ROOM 02

ROOM 01

4.

5.

3. 2.

8. 1.

9.

6.

1. DESCENT PORTAL FROM THE FORECOURT ABOVE 2. SHELVING FOR THE COLLECTION LOOKING INTO THE CONSERVATION SPACES 3. DOORS LEFT OPEN ALLOW FOR DIRECT INTERACTIONS BETWEEN VISITORS AND WORKERS RESTORING AND CARING FOR EXHIBITS 4. MORE SECLUDED STORE AND WORK 5. RACK STORAGE OPENED TO DIFFERENT DISPLAYS 6. AMENITIES 7. LIFT TO MAIN ENTRY AND UPPER FLOORS 8. PAUSE MOMENTS IN THE ENFILADE OF MUSEUM ROOMS ALLOWING RESPITE AND ASPECT 9. BRIDGE CRANKS AT THE HALFWAY POINT TO ALLUDE TO THE DUAL INFLUENCES OF TWO END-POINTS ON DIFFERING AXES AND TO AVOID RED GUMS ON THE RIVER BANK

7.

02

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05

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DERELICTION AND URBAN EXPANSIONS MUSEUM ROOM THEMES

SETTLEMENT AND EARLY INDUSTRY

THE S.H.F.F

AGRICULTURE AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY THE LAND AND PRE-SETTLEMENT WATER AND POWER

10m

303


Transept Detail 1:20 02m

SKYLIGHT DRAINS TO CONCEALED DOWNPIPE

EXTERNAL RECTILINEAR FORM IS FRAMED INTERNALLY TO CREATE A SENSE OF INHABITING A CARVED OUT SPACE THE INTEGRITY OF THE FORMS IS BROKEN BY WINDOWS TO CONTEXTUALISING VIEWS AND PUNCTURES TO THE SKY McALPIN’S FLOUR SACK c.1987

CORK PANELING FIXED TO PLYWOOD SUBSTRATE PLYWOOD CLADDING

DISPLAY ITEM NO.2339, SILAGE BLADE CLEAT PLATE SCREWED TO BEAM AND FIXED INTERNAL TO FRAMING

Silage blade DATE: c.1910 COLLECTION: AGRICULTURE ROOM: STORE SIZE: 880 x 280 x 130

Long metal blade with a serrated edge used for hay cutting in local agriculture. From a property called ‘Wood Dale’.

LAMINATED VIC ASH COLUMNS

SERVICES RUN ON A TRY FIXED TO THE UNDERSIDE OF THE BEAMS BRINGING POWER FROM THE RIVER TO THE FACTORY

ITEM NO. 2339

CAST-IN BOLT CONNECTION

01

304

BACKSAWN VIC ASH BEARER LAMINATED BEAM COATED WITH CREOSOTE STAIN

02m

STEEL STIRRUP WITH CRUCIFORM CONNECTION SLOT

CONCRETE PAD

REVERSE JOURNEY BACK TO THE ORIGIN POINTS ON COMPACTED GRAVEL PATH THROUGH THE LANDSCAPE

305


306

307


308

309


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311


River Detail 1:20 02m

The museum sparks an interest... the collection of buildings along the river are put to use generating POWER and fostering KNOWLEDGE and ENGAGEMENT. The corten clad pavilions each house workshop and event spaces to be used by the local community for the advancement of skilled labour.

“On the weekends there’s kayaking on the river, you interested?”

CONCEALED GUTTERS IN ROOFLINE MAINTAINS AN UNINTERRUPTED FACADE AND ROOF ENVELOPE

“Yeah, I’m here again on Saturday for a class” “What for?”

METAL GRATE WALKWAY TO ALLOW VIEWS TO CHANNEL BELOW

“Taking up a language, thinking of working in German at some point; there’s a big grain expo next year — gonna see what comes up”

CORTEN CLADDING FIXED OVER A 10mm PLYWOOD SUBSTRATE WITH CONCEALED JOINS AT 1200mm

“LOOK up there, you can see the wheel?” “That what?”

RU SH

IN G

WATE R

“The water wheel... in the museum. There through that winodw.”

SOLAR ARRAY OF 62 PANELS 1300x670

BATTERY STORAGE FOR ELECTRICITY GENERATED IN THE SOLAR ARRAY AND IN THE HYDRO GENERATOR

EXTERNAL CORTEN CLADDING WRAPS UP AND JOINS COHESIVELY WITH ROOF

01

312

GLAZING FOR VIEWING INTO THE BATTERY STORE

FOLDED METAL PORTAL WINDOW IN POWDER COATED STEEL

SLIDING TIMBER SCREEN

Concrete lined DIVERSION CHANNEL takes water at a constant height from further up stream. The level change as it falls back to the natural water drives the generator and creates electricity for the site and local grid.

STAINED ASH INTERNAL TIMBER CLADDING TIMBER FRAMED SUBFLOOR WITH STUMPS TO PAD FOOTING

TRAVIS’ class on the mending of electric fence transformer boxes. This device sits at the power source and sends pulses around a properties electric fences. “When the lights blinking you hear a click; then ya know yer in business”.

02m

313


River Plan 1:100 10m

314

315


316

317


Foods Company Complex.” Nationally Significant 20th Century Architecture. repository.architecture.com.au/download/ chapters/vic-chapter/vic-notable-buildings/sanitarium-healthfood-company-complex.pdf

References

Diller Scofidio + Renfro. “V&A Storehouse, London, UK.” Diller Scofidio + Renfro. Accessed September 20, 2021. dsrny.com/ project/v-and-a-east-collection-and-research-centre DOCOMOMO, “Sanitarium Health Food Factory”. docomomoaustralia.com.au/dcmm/sanitarium-health-food-factory/ Fragner, Benjamin. 2013. “Adaptive Re-Use” in Industrial Heritage Re-Tooled: The TICCIH Guide to Industrial Heritage Conservation, edited by James Douet, 110-117. Walnut Creek: Taylor & Francis Group.

Elaboration Cox, Philip. 1988. The Australian Functional Tradition. Fitzroy, Five Mile Press. Crane, Susan A. 1997. “Memory, Distortion, and History in the Museum.” History and Theory 36, no. 4: 44-63. Eco, Umberto. 1989. The Open Work. Harvard University Press. Hudson, Alistair. 2018. “The Useful Museum.” We Are Museums, July 13 2018. YouTube, 29:47. youtu.be/AmpCURA9nFw Leatherbarrow, David. 2020. “Tempered Terrain: Sverre Fehn’s Villa Busk” in Building Time: Architecture, Event, and Experience. London: Bloomsbury Academic. Lewi, Hannah and Goad, Philip. 2019. Australia Modern: Architecture, Landscape & Design 1925–1975. Melbourne: Thames & Hudson. Lübke, Wilhelm. 1861. “The Restoration Fever”, Allgemeine Zeitung. Munich. Marotta, Antonello. 2012. “Typology: Museum”. The Architectural Review. Accessed Aug 7, 2021. www.architecturalreview.com/essays/typology/typology-museums. Monacella, Rosalea. 2021. “Power Energy Shaping the American Landscape.” Lecture, University of Melbourne, Online, August 17, 2021. Obrist, Hans Ulrich. 2014. Sharp Tongues, Loose Lips, Open Eyes, Ears to the Ground. MIT Press (for Sternberg Press). Parkinson, Earle. 1993. Warburton Ways. Warburton: Signs Publishing. Ruskin, John. 1853. The Stones of Venice. New York: John B. Alden Publishing (1885). Rossi, Aldo. 1984. The Architecture of the City. MIT Press. State Government of Victoria. 2016. “Plan Melbourne 2017-2050.” Accessed Aug 11, 2021. planmelbourne.vic.gov.au/home. Van Doesburg, Theo, et. al. 1918. “Manifest of Style (De Stijl Manifesto)”. Reading Design. Accessed Aug 9, 2021. www. readingdesign.org/de-stijl-manifesto. Zaugg, Rémy. 1986. The Art Museum of My Dreams. London: Sternberg Publishing. Further Reading Arte Útil. 2021 “About.” Arte Útil. Accessed September 21, 2021. www.arte-util.org/about/colophon/ Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2016. “2016 Census Quick Stats: Warburton”. quickstats.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census _ services/getproduct/census/2016/quickstat/SSC22676

Herzog and de Meuron. 2002. Natural History. Canadian Centre for Architecture. Herzog, Jacques. 2013. “Herzog & de Meuron: Myths and Collaborations over Time.” Columbia GSAPP, Wood Auditorium, September 9, 2013. YouTube. youtu.be/khwQ9lf2DJQ ICOMOS and TICCIH (2011). “Joint ICOMOS – TICCIH Principles for the Conservation of Industrial Heritage Sites, Structures, Areas and Landscapes: The Dublin Principles.” Paris: ICOMOS General Assembly. Ingels, Bjarke. 2016. “Social Infrastructure.” TEDxEast, July 19, 2016. YouTube. 21:07. youtu.be/8PItGf69eaw Jobson, Christopher. 2015. “Artist Theaster Gates Bought a Crumbling Chicago Bank for $1 and Turned it Into a WorldClass Arts Center.” Colossal. www.thisiscolossal.com/2015/10/ stony-island-arts-bank/ Le Corbusier. 1946, quoted in Jones, Peter Blundell and Meagher, Mark. 2015. Architecture and Movement: the Dynamic Experience of Buildings and Landscapes. New York: Routlege. Lefaivre, Liane and Tzonis, Alexander. 2003. Critical Regionalism: Architecture and Identity in a Globalised World. Michigan: The University of Michigan. Tandberg, Jørgen. 2012. “Revisit: Hedmark Museum in Hamar, Norway by Sverre Fehn.” The Architectural Review. www. architectural-review.com/essays/revisit/revisit-hedmarkmuseum-in-hamar-norway-by-sverre-fehn Tate Gallery. nd. “Who are Hilla and Bernd Becher?” Tate Gallery online. Accessed Aug 12, 2021. www.tate.org.uk/art/ artists/bernd-becher-and-hilla-becher-718/who-are-bechers Thompson, Kirsten. 2019. “2019 Heritage Address.” Filmed at Open House Melbourne, Victoria Heritage Council. openhousemelbourne.org/on-demand/2019-heritage-address-withkerstin-thompson/ Victorian Heritage Council. 1986. “Sanitorium Health Foods Company and Signs Publishing.” vhd.heritagecouncil.vic.gov.au/ places/1184. White Cube. August 2012. “Theaster Gates On Stony Island Arts Bank”. Video, 6:18. whitecube.com/channel/channel/theaster _ gates _ on _ stony _ island _ arts _ bank Yarra Ranges Council. 2021. “Warburton Place Plan”. shaping. yarraranges.vic.gov.au/warburton-place-plan Zumthor, Peter. 2016. “Allmannajuvet.” Interview, Nov 23, 2016. YouTube. youtu.be/dSfkim0mohA Zumthor, Peter. 2015. “Lecture by Peter Zumthor.” Centre for Fine Arts, Brussels, November 29. 2010. YouTube. youtu.be/ N4QsGTZJwuA

Australian Institute of Architects. 2012. “Sanitarium Health 318

319


List of figures

DellHistoria-Naturale-Naples-1599 _ fig8 _ 266238029 86 Daniel Libeskind, Jewish Museum, 1999. Retrieved from; uiucgoesbarcelona.weebly.com/uiuc-blog/jewish-museumberlin 88 Sverre Fehn, Hedmark Museum, 1968-1973. Retrieved from; www.atlasofplaces.com/architecture/hedmark-museum/ 90 Peter Zumthor, Shelter for Roman Ruins, 1986. Retrieved from; www.archdaily.com/884003/explore-peter-zumthors-1986shelter-for-roman-ruins-in-quiet-solitude 92 Theaster Gates, Stony Island Arts Bank, 2015. Retreived from; www.thisiscolossal.com/2015/10/stony-island-artsbank/

Page number 23 and 78 Kerstin Thompson, Sacred Heart Building Abbotsford Convent, 2018. Retrieved from; kerstinthompson.com/index. php?id=359 24 Sverre Fehn, Hedmark Museum, 1979. Retrieved from www. claudejobin.com/architect-sverre-fehn/architect-sverrefehn-1979-hedmark-museum-hamar-norway-presented-by-themolly-claude-team-realtors-ottawa/ 27 “Kyneton’s Lost Trades Fair highlights special skills of craftspeople”, Bendigo Advertiser, 2019. Retrieved from; www.bendigoadvertiser.com.au/story/5861662/lost-tradestake-the-focus-in-kyneton-next-march/ 44 Sanitarium Health Foods Factory historic imagery, 19361945. Retrieved from; docomomoaustralia.com.au/dcmm/ sanitarium-health-food-factory/ 44 S.H.F.F. historic imagery. Retrieved from; repository. architecture.com.au/download/chapters/vic-chapter/vicnotable-buildings/sanitarium-health-food-company-complex. pdf 48 Author’s photo of; Edward F. Billson, architectural drawings, State Library of Victoria, accenssion no. LTAD 109/36. Viewed July 8th, 2021. 55 Northcote Brickworks, aerial view and complex. Retrieved from; heritage.darebinlibraries.vic.gov.au/article/294 56 Willem Doduk, Hilversum Town Hall, 1928-31. Retrieved from; www.archdaily.com/777559/willem-dudok-meet-thefather-of-dutch-modernism 57 Theo Van Doesberg, et. al. De Stijl Manifesto. 1918. Retreived from commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:Manifest _ I _ of _ De _ Stijl.JPG 58 and 59 Black Forest Sawmill and Woolshed Manaroo Station, Scans from Cox, Philip. 1988. The Australian Functional Tradition. Fitzroy, Five Mile Press. 64 State Government of Victoria. 2016. “Melbourne’s green wedges and peri-urban areas.” Retrieved from planmelbourne.vic.gov.au/ _ _ data/assets/pdf _ file/0007/376648/Map _ 19 _ greenwedge _ periurban.pdf 72 State Government of Victoria. 2016. “Melbourne’s Urban Growth.” planmelbourne.vic.gov.au/ _ _ data/assets/pdf _ file/0003/376653/Map-1-Melbournes-urban-growth.pdf 76 Herzog & de Meuron, CaixaForum Madrid, 2003.Retrieved from; www.herzogdemeuron.com/index/projects/completeworks/201-225/201-caixaforum-madrid/image.html 80 Sverre Fehn, Villa Busk, 1990. Retrieved from; archeyes. com/villa-busk-sverre-fehn/ 86 Ferrante Imperato, Dell’Historia Naturale, 1599. Retrieved from; www.researchgate.net/figure/Ferrante-Imperato320

102 OMA, Dutch Embassy Berlin, 2004. Retrieved from; thedesignedplace.wordpress.com/2012/10/23/theory-of-thederive/ 106 Becher, Bernd and Becher, Hilla. 1974. 9 photographs, black and white, on paper on board. Coal Bunkers. Retrieved from; www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/bernd-becherand-hilla-becher-coal-bunkers-t01923 108-109 Smart, Jeffrey. 1983-84. Oil on canvas. Container Train in the Landscape. Retrieved from; i.pinimg.com/ originals/13/c1/96/13c196a8a31211f2767c87e8fc175e3d.jpg 108 Smart, Jeffrey. 1945. Oil on canvas. The wasteland II. Retrieved from www.artgallery.nsw.gov.au/media/collection _ images/7/7825%23%23S.jpg 162-63 Museum plans; V&A Museum, 1901. Floorplan. Retrieved from www.britishhistory.ac.uk/survey-london/vol38/plan-sheet-a NGV International, 1962 and 1997. Floorplan. Retrieved from www.ngv.vic.gov.au/plan-your-visit/access/ Bendigo Regional Gallery, 1890. Floorplan. Retrieved from accessiblegraphics.org/research/3dprints/bag/landing/ Venturi Scott-Brown, National Gallery, Sainsbury Wing, 1991. Floorplan. Retrieved from www.bdonline.co.uk/ buildings/in-defence-of-the-sainsbury-wing/5021891.article Daniel Libeskind, Jewish Museum Berlin, 1999. Floorplan. Retrieved from www.inexhibit.com/case-studies/daniellibeskind-jewish-museum-part2/ LAB Architecture, NGV Australia, 2003. Floorplan. Retrieved from architizer.com/projects/federation-square/ 190-91 (And 1888-89, 256-57) Museum collection objects; Agricultural medal. Photograph. Retrieved from collections.museumsvictoria.com.au/items/1804723 Fence Strainer. Photograph. Retrieved from collectionsearch.nma.gov.au/icons/piction/kaui2/index. html#/home?usr=CE&umo=83720685 Silage/hay cutter. Photograph. Retrieved from collectionsearch.nma.gov.au/icons/piction/kaui2/index. html#/home?usr=CE&umo=23071244 Postcard. Photograph. Retrieved from ccssc.gov.au/ object/127254 194 Peter Zumthor, Allmannajuvet Zinc Mine Museum, 2016. Retrieved from www.atlasofplaces.com/architecture/ allmannajuvet-zinc-mine-museum/ 196 Kirsten Thompson Architects, Riversdale, 2021. Retrieved from kerstinthompson.com/index.php?id=428 198 Fender Katsalidis, MONA, 2011. Retrieved from aasarchitecture.com/2012/11/museum-of-old-and-new-art-byfender-katsalidis.html/ 205 [left] frame from; Hudson, Alistair. 2018. “The Useful Museum.” We Are Museums, July 13 2018. YouTube, 29:47. youtu.be/AmpCURA9nFw 205 [right] Manchester Athenaeum, 1837. Photograph. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_Athenaeum 321


List of figures [continued] 207 Herzog & de Meuron, Ricola Storage Building, 1987-1987. Retrieved from www.atlasofplaces.com/architecture/ricolastorage-building/ 214 Herzog & de Meuron, Tate Modern, 2000. Retrieved from www. archdaily.com/429700/ad-classics-the-tate-modern-herzogand-de-meuron 214 Herzog & de Meuron, Tate Modern, 2000. Retrieved from www. pinterest.com.au/pin/334040497345332126/ 216 and 217 Carles Enrich Studio, Recovery of Merola’s Tower, 2019. Retrieved from www.archdaily.com/931955/recovery-ofmerolas-tower-carles-enrich-studio 218 Peter Zumthor, Serpentine Pavilion, 2011. Retrieved from www.dezeen.com/2016/02/12/video-interiview-peter-zumthorserpentine-gallery-pavilion-2011-solitude-calm-movie/ 218 Piet Oudolf landscape plan for Peter Zumthor, Serpentine Pavilion, 2011. Retrieved from www.serpentinegalleries. org/whats-on/serpentine-gallery-pavilion-2011-peterzumthor/ 220 Diller Scofidio + Renfro, V&A Storehouse, 2024. Retrieved from dsrny.com/project/v-and-a-east-collection-andresearch-centre 222 Edition Office, Artbank Melbourne, 2018. Retrieved from edition-office.com/archive/art-bank/ 224 Tzannes, Dangrove Art Space, 2018. Retrieved from www. archdaily.com/930458/dangrove-art-space-tzannes 228 Kirsten Thompson Architects, Jewish Holocaust Centre, 2020. Retrieved from mccorkell.net.au/jewish-holocaustcentre-redevelopment/ 236 Johansen Skovsted Arkitekter, Skjern River Pump Stations, 2015. Retrieved from www.atlasofplaces.com/architecture/ skjern-river/ 256 Weet-bix container. Photograph. Retrieved from www. thefedoralounge.com/threads/vintage-food-packaging.11859/ 263 Lost Trades Fair, Bendigo. Photograph. Retrieved from ozevents.online/event/lost-trades-fair-bendigo-2/ 264 Warburton Mechanics Institute Hall. Photograph. Retrieved from Yarra Ranges Heritage Database, vhd.heritage.vic.gov. au/yarraranges/result_details/115931 268 Carmody Groake, Windermere Jetty Museum, 2019. Retrieved from www.carmodygroarke.com/windermere-jetty-museum/ 270 Bjarke Ingles Group, Danish National Maritime Museum, 2013. Retrieved from www.dezeen.com/2013/10/18/danishnational-maritime-museum-by-big/ 272-73 Olson Kundig, Bourke Museum, 2019. Retrieved from olsonkundig.com/projects/burke-museum-of-natural-historyand-culture/ 274 Kent Brewery, Tzannes Associates, 2014. Retrieved from www.archdaily.com/770027/the-brewery-yard-tzannes

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