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hnh¿Ø-I-bpsS Ipdn∏v \nc-h-[n-am-k-߃ \o≠ ]cn-{i-a-Øn-s‚-sbm-Sp-hn¬ Contemporary India: A sociological view F∂ ]pkvX-I-Øns‚ ae-bm-f-]-cn-`mj hmb-\-°m¿°p apºn¬ kt¥m-j-tØm-sSbpw H∏w A\-ev]-amb Bi-¶-tbm-sS-bp-amWv Rm≥ Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p∂-Xv. ]cn-`m-js∏-Sp-Øm≥ Ffp-∏-ap-ff ]pkvX-I-a√ CXv; Rm\m-sW-¶n¬ ]Ømw¢m-kn\p tijw Nn´-bmb coXn-bn¬ ae-bmf`mj A`y-kn-®n-´n-√mØ hy‡n-bpw. ae-bm-f-Øn-se-gp-Xm≥ Bh-iy-amb `mjm-]-cn-⁄m\w t]mc, ^e-{]-Z-amb ]cn-`mj \n¿Δ-ln-°m≥. At∏mƒ CØ-c-samcp kml-k-Øn\v apXn¿∂-sX-¥p-sIm-s≠∂v Bsc-¶nepw tNmZn-®m¬ Rm≥ kz¥w A⁄X shfn-hm-°p-Ibpw bmsXmcp i¶bpw IqSmsX am∏n-c-°p-Ibpw sNøpw. F¶nepw kz¥w _u≤nI]cn-an-Xn-Isf hI-sh-bv°msX Cßs\ FSp-Øp -Nm-Sm≥ Ft‚-Xmb Nne Imc-W-ß-fp-≠v. Rm≥ kmaq-ly-im-kv{Xm-≤ym-]n-I-bmbn {]h¿Øn®p XpS-ßn-bn´v GI-tZiw ]Øp-h¿j-tØm-f-am-bn. Xncn-™p-t\m-°p-tºmƒ, tIc-f-Ønse kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-]-T-\-cw-KØv kw`-hn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ am‰-ßsf hna¿i-\-]q¿Δw ho£n-°p-tºmƒ, B cwK-Øns‚ ka-Im-en-Im-h-ÿ-sb-°p-dn®v Nn¥n-°p-tºmƒ, Cu ]cn-{iaw Bh-iy-am-sW∂p tXm∂n. s]mXpth ]d-™m¬, Rm≥ Xncp-h-\-¥-]p-cØv kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-hn-Zym¿∞n-\n-bm-bn-cp∂ ka-b-sØ-b-t]£n®v (1980-I-fpsS HSp-hn¬) h≥am-‰-ß-fmWv Cu cwK-Øp-≠m-bn-cn-°p-∂-sX∂v tXm∂p-∂p. hnZym¿∞o-hn-Zym¿∞n-\n-I-fpsS kmaq-ly-kz`mhw amdn-bn-cn-°p∂p; a’cm[n-jvTn-X-]-co-£-I-fp-sSbpw imkv{X-km-t¶-Xn-I-hn-Zym-`ym-k-Øn-s‚bpw then-tb‰-Øn-\n-S-bn¬ ]cm-P-b-a-S-bp-∂-h-cpsS Ah-km-\-k-t¶-X-amWv kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-߃ F∂ ÿnXn H∂p-IqSn Dd-®n-cn-°p∂p. kmt¶-Xn-I-tIm-gvkp-Iƒ°v e`n-®p-h-cp∂ h¿≤n® {]nbw kmaq-ly-˛im-kv{X-tØm-Sp-ff Ah-K-W-\ -X-s∂-bmbn amdn-bn-cn-°p-∂p. D∂-X-hn-Zym-`ym-k-Øn-te°v ]q¿Δm-[nIw kmaq-ly-hn-`m-K-߃ {]th-in-®p-sIm-≠n-cn°p∂ Ime-am-Wn-Xv. B¿´vkv-˛-k-b≥kv tImtf-Pp-I-fn-te°v ae-bm-fn-k-aq-l-Ønse IogvØ´pI-fn¬ AIs∏-´-h¿ IqSp-X-embn {]th-in-°p-∂p-ap≠v. F¶nepw kmt¶-Xn-ItIm-gvkp-Iƒ°v e`n-°p∂ Aan-X-{]m-[m-\y-Øns‚ ^e-ambn kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-]-T-\Øn-se-Øp∂ Zcn-{Z-cmb hnZym¿∞n-Iƒ°v kz¥w Ign-hp-I-fn-ep-ff Bfl-hn-izmkw Xosc C√m-Xm-Ip-∂p-sh∂v tXm∂p-∂p. Adnt™m Adn-bm-sXtbm Iem-e-b-Øn-\IØpw ]pd-Øp-ambn a‰p-f-f-h¿ ˛ A≤ym-]-I¿, Iq´p-Im¿, Nne-t∏mƒ A—-\-Ωam¿Xs∂ ˛ Ah-cpsS Bfl-hn-izm-k-sØ ho≠pw X√n-s°-Sp-Øp∂ coXn-bn¬ s]cp-am-dp-∂Xpw A]q¿Δ-a-√. hmkvX-h-Øn¬ CXv h√m-sØmcp Zpc-¥-am-Wv. kaq-lsØ hna¿i-\m-fl-I-ambn hne-bn-cpØn AXn¬ X߃°v A¿l-X-s∏´ CSsØ Bfl-hn-izm-k-tØmsS Bh-iys∏-Sm≥ hnZym¿∞o-hn-Zym¿∞n-\n-Isf k÷-cm-t°≠ kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-߃ Ah¿°v \mW-t°-Sn-\n-S-h-cp-Øpw-hn-[-amWv {]mtbm-Kn-I-X-e-Øn-se∂ Imcyw, kmaqlyimkv{X-ß-fpsS im‡o-I-c-W-km-≤y-X-sb-°p-dn®v ]q¿W-t_m-[y-ap-ff F\n°v AXy¥w thZ-\m-P-\-I-am-bmWv A\p-`-h-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-Øns‚ ‘{]tbm-P-\-iq-\yX’sb°p-dn®v \ne-hn-ep-ff sX‰n-≤m-c-W-Isf kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-]-T-\am-cw-`n-°p-∂-Xn\p apºp-Xs∂ bph-hn-Zym¿∞o-hn-Zym¿∞n-\n-I-fpsS a\- p-I-fn¬ \n∂v


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XpS-®p-\o-t°-≠-Xns‚ {]m[m\yw kmaq-ly-im-kv{Xm-≤ym-]-I¿ t]mepw a\- n-em-°p∂n-s√∂ hkvXpX AXn-e-[nIw hnj-a-I-c-am-Wv. bqPn-kn-i-º-f-Øn-te-°p-b¿∂-X-S-°ap-ff \nc-h-[n- Im-c-W-߃ aqew (A-h-bpsS DØ-c-hm-ZnXzw ]q¿Æ-ambpw A≤ym-]I¿°-s√¶nepw) hnZym¿∞o-hn-Zym¿∞n-\n-Ifpw A≤ym-]-Icpw XΩn-ep-ff ‘kmaq-lym¥c’ sØ IW-°n-e-[nIw h¿≤n-∏n-®n-´p-ap-≠v. Xo¿®-bm-bpw, Cu hnS-hns\ t_m[-]q¿Δw adn-I-S-°m≥ kZm {ian-°p-∂, ]e-t∏mgpw hen-sbm-c-f-hp-hsc hnP-b-˛ I-c-ambn AXp adn-I-S-°p∂, A\-h[n A≤ym-]-I¿ tIc-f-Øn-ep-≠v. F∂m¬ IqSp-X¬ t_m[-]q¿Δhpw, i‡hpw, k¿tΔm-]cn Iq´m-b-Xp-amb ]cn-{iaw Cu Zni-bn¬ D≠m-tI-≠n-bn-cn-°p-∂p. kmaq-ly-imkv{Xw \mw Pohn-°p∂ ˛ \sΩ sXm´pIn-S-°p∂ ˛ kmaq-ly-tem-I-Øn-t∑-emWv shfn®w hoip-∂-Xv. F¶nepw kz¥w temIsØ hna¿i-\-]-c-ambn hne-bn-cpØn hntam-N-\-I-c-ß-fmb Dƒ°m-gv®-Iƒ t\Sn-sb-Sp-°m-\p-ff D]-I-c-W-ambn AXns\ {]tbm-Kn-°m≥ \ΩpsS hnZym¿∞o-˛ hn-Zym¿∞n-\n-Iƒ°p Ign-bp-∂n-√. CXns‚ G‰hpw henb tZmj-^-ew, kvIqƒX-e-Ønem¿÷n® Ah-cpsS Ign-hp-Iƒ h¿≤n-°m-Xn-cn-°p-I-tbm -\-in-®p-t]m-hp-Itbm sNøp-∂p-sh-∂-Xm-Wv. ]T-\-Øns‚ kmt¶-Xn-I-hn-Zy-bn-ep-≠mb am‰-Øn\pw CXn-semcp ]¶p-≠v. HcpIm-eØv kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-hn-Zym¿∞n-Iƒ°v kzbw t\ms´-gp-tX-≠n-h-∂n-cp∂p; Ipd-™-]£w t\m´p-Iƒ ]I¿Øn-sb-gp-tX-≠n-sb-¶nepw h∂n-cp-∂p. AXv Ah-cpsS `mj-sb, hnti-jn®pw Cw•n-jv`m-j-sb, Hc-f-hp-h-sc-sb-¶nepw t]mjn-∏n-®n-cp∂p. F∂m-en∂v t^mt´m-tIm-∏n-Iƒ Ipd-™-hn-e-bvs°-Sp-°m-sa-∂p-h-∂-tXmsS B hf¿®bpw Ah-km-\n-®-a-´m-Wv. Kth-j-W-X-e-Øn-se-Øp∂ ae-bmfn hnZym¿∞o-˛ hn-Zym¿∞n-\n-Ifn¬t∏mepw ]e¿°pw ae-bm-f-Øntem Cw•n-jntem kz¥-ambn Hcp hmNIw sX‰p-Iq-SmsX Fgp-Xm≥ Ign-bp∂ns√-∂- kXyw Kth-j-Wm-≤ym-]n-I-bmb Rm≥ ZpxJ-tØmsS kΩ-Xn-°p-∂p. Cub-h-ÿ-bpsS DØ-c-hm-ZnXzw Cu hnZym¿∞o-˛ hn-Zym¿∞n-\n-Itf°mƒ (A-h-cn¬ `qcn-`m-K-Øn-s‚bpw kmaqly ˛kmº-ØnI\ne ]cn-KWn®m¬ CXp-Ss\ hy‡-am-Ipw) Fs∂-t∏m-ep-ff A≤ym-]-I¿°m-sW∂ Imcy-Øn¬ F\n°v kwi-b-ta-Xp-an-√. Ign-hp-I-fpsS Ipd-hns\ hnZym¿∞o-hn-Zym¿∞n\n-Iƒ ]et∏mgpw ad-®p-sh-bv°p-∂Xv hn]-Wn-bn¬ In´p-∂- \n-e-hmcw Ipd™ ssKUp-]p-kvX-I-߃ ImWm-]mTw ]Tn-®p-sIm-≠m-Wv. Cub-Sp-Ø-Im-eØv plagiarism \S-Øn-sb∂ Btcm-]Ww kln-t°-≠n-h∂ Hcp hnZym¿∞n-\n-tbmSv kwkm-cn-®-t∏mƒ a\- n-emb Hcp Imcy-am-WnXv: B sX‰v Ahƒ t_m[-]q¿Δw sNbvX-X-√. _ncp-Z-˛_n-cp-Zm-\-¥-c-]-T-\-Øn-\n-S-bn¬ B¿Pn® ]T-\-io-esØ ˛ a‰m-sc-¶n-ep-sa-gp-Xnb teJ-\-ßfpw a‰pw ImWmsX]Tn®v IS-em-kn¬ ]I¿Øn-sh-bv°p∂ B ioesØ ˛ Kth-j-W-X-e-Øn¬, XnI®pw \njv°-f-¶-amb coXn-bn¬, {]tbm-Kn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp∂p Ahƒ. ‘amUw, \nß-sfms° (A-Xm-bXv Kth-j-W-Øn-te¿s∏-Sp-∂ A≤ym]-Iscms°) ]e ]pkvX-I-ßfpw hmbn®v AXn¬\n∂p NneXp ]I¿Øp-I-bt√ sNømdv?’ F∂ Ah-fpsS A⁄-Xm-t{]-cn-X-sa-¶nepw \njv°-f-¶-amb tNmZy-Øn\p apºn¬ F∂nse A≤ym-]nI \mWn-®p-X-e-Xm-gvØn. Imc-Ww, _ncp-Z˛_ncp-Zm-\¥c Xew IS∂ hnZym¿∞n-\nsb kz¥-ambn hmbn-°m\pw Nn¥n-°m\pw Fgp-Xm\pw {]m]vX-bm-°p∂ ]cn-io-e\w \S-∏n-em-°p-∂-Xn¬ Rm\-S-°-ap-ff kmaq-ly-im-kv{Xm-˛ ≤ym-]-I¿ ]cm-P-b-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p-sh∂ kXyw ]I¬t]mse hy‡-am-bn-cp-∂p.


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kmaq-ly-Po-hn-I-sf∂ \ne-sb-°p-dn®v Bg-Øn¬ Nn¥n-®p-sIm≠v kPo-h-]u-c-Xz-Ønte°v Db-tc-≠p-∂-Xn-\p-]-Icw kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-hn-Zym¿∞n-Iƒ°v Xß-fpsS Ign-hp-tI-Sp-Isf Hfn-∏n-t°-≠n-h-cp-∂-Xns‚, kz¥w Ign-hp-Isf Xncn-®-dn-bm≥ IgnbmsX hcp-∂-Xn-s‚, ]cn-]q¿W DØ-c-hm-ZnXzw Ah-cpsS _p≤n-tbbpw `mh-\-tbbpw Bfl-hn-izm-ksØbpw {]tNm-Zn-∏n-°m≥ Ign-hp-sI´ R߃°p Xs∂. B sX‰n\v Aev]-sa-¶nepw {]mb-›nØw sNø-W-sa∂ tXm∂-emWv \√ Bap-J-]p-kvX-Ißsf ae-bm-f-Øn-te°v ]cn-`m-j-s∏-Sp-Ø-W-sa∂ B{K-l-Øn-\p]n-∂n¬. kXoiv tZiv]m-WvsU-bpsS ]pkvX-I-Øn¬ \n∂p XpS-ßm-sa∂p Xocp-am-\n-®-Xv, ]t£ bmZr-—n-I-am-bn-´-√. BZy- A≤ymbØn¬ hnh-cn-°p-∂-Xp-t]m-se, A≤ym-]-\-Øns‚ ]cn-an-Xn-I-sf-°p-dn®v hnj-an-®p-Nn-¥n® A≤ym-]-I-\mWv At±-lw. ka-Im-en-I -C-¥y≥ Pohn-XsØ Bg-Øn¬ a\- n-em-°m-\p-X-Ip∂ kaq-limkv{XcN-\-sb-bmWv At±lw D∂w h®-Xv. _m°n A≤ym-b-߃ CXn\p sXfn-hp-am-Wv. kaq-l-im-kv{XsØ bm{¥n-I-ambn ]cn-N-b-s∏-Sp-Øm-\-√, adn®v kaq-lsØ ]Xn-hp-[m-c-W-Iƒ°-∏pdw \nco-£n-°m≥ B ⁄m\-imJ Fßs\ DX-Ip-∂p-sh∂v Im´n-Ø-cm-\mWv Cu ]pkvXIw {ian-°p-∂-Xv. tIc-f-Øn¬ F√m kmaq-ly-im-kv{X⁄m\-im-J-Ifpw A`y-kn-®p-h-cp∂ hnZym¿∞o-hn-Zym¿∞n-\n-Iƒ°v CXv Gsd {]tbm-P-\-I-c-am-Ip-sa∂v Rm≥ Icp-Xp-∂p. Imcy-߃ sXfn-®p-]-d-bp-∂, F∂m¬ Aan-X-e-fn-X-h-Xv°-c-WsØ Hgn-hm-°n,- Im-cy-Ku-chw teiw-t]mepw Hgn-hm-°msX, hnj-b-ß-f-h-X-cn-∏n-°p∂ Cu ]pkvX-I-Øns‚ i‡n-Iƒ°v henb Ipd-hp-I-fp-≠m-ImsX ae-bm-f-Øn-te°v hnh¿Ø\w sNøm-\mWv Rm≥ {ian-®-Xv. F∂m¬ hnh¿Ø-\-e-£y-an-Xm-Ip-tºmƒ bm{¥n-I-amb ]cn-`mj Xosc h¿Py-amsW∂v hfscs∏s´-∂p-Xs∂ Rm≥ Xncn-®-dn-™p. teJ-Is‚ Cw•njvhmIy-ßsf ]et∏mgpw ct≠m aqt∂m \mtem ae-bm-f-hm-Iy-ß-fm-t°-≠n-h-∂n-´p-≠v; At±lw kzoI-cn® ssk≤m-¥n-I-Np-cp-s°-gp-Øp-Isf hnI-kn-∏n-t°-≠n-h-∂n-´p-≠v; Cw•njv ]mT-Øn-en-√mØ Nne hnh-cW ˛ As√-¶n¬ hni-Zo-I-c-W ˛ -hm-Iy-߃ tN¿t°≠n h∂n-´p-≠v. ae-bm-f-]-cn-`m-jm-{i-asØ Bth-i-]q¿Δw ]n≥Xm-ßn-b-Xp-sIm≠v CØcw am‰-ß-sf-°p-dn®v Rm\p-∂-bn® tNmZy-߃°v hy‡hpw IrXy-hp-amb adp-]Sn Xcm≥ At±-lw F√m-bvt∏mgpw {i≤n-®p. ae-bm-fn-I-fm-b, tIc-f-Ønse km[m-c-W-I-em-e-b˛ß-fn¬ ]Tn-°p∂, icm-icn hnZym¿∞o-hn-Zym¿∞n-\n-IsfbmWv Cu ]pkvX-I-Øns‚ hmb-\-°m-cmbn Rm≥ k¶-ev∏n-®-Xv. Ah¿°p-X-Ipw-hn[w ]mT-Øn¬Øs∂ sNdnb am‰-߃ hcp-Øm≥ At±-lsas∂ A\p-h-Zn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Cu ]pkvXIw as‰mcp ]mT-]p-kvX-I-am-Im-\n-S-bn√ ˛ ImcWw GsX-¶nepw kne-_-kns\ B{ibn®√ AXp \n¬°p-∂-Xv. Aan-X-amb ]mT-]p-kvX-Im-{in-X-Xz-Øns‚ A¿∞-iq-\y-X-sb-°pdn®v hnZym¿∞o-hn-Zym¿∞n-\n-Iƒ°v CXn-eqsS t_m≤y-ap-≠m-Ip-sa∂ Bi-bmWv Rß-fn-cp-hcpw Hcp-t]mse ]¶p-sh-bv°p-∂-Xv. ae-bm-f-Ønse kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-ssk-≤m-¥n-I-`m-j-bn¬ \n∂v hf-sc-b-I∂p \n¬°p∂ ]Z-{]-tbm-K-߃ Cu ]cn-`m-j-bn¬ hnc-f-am-Wv. F¶nepw IrXy-Xsb D∂wshbv°p∂ Nne {]tbm-K߃ CXn¬ kzoI-cn-®n-´p-≠v. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v ‘identity’ F∂ Bi-bsØ ae-bm-f-Øn¬ {]Im-in-∏n-°m≥ kzXzw F∂ hm°mWv hfsc km[m-c-W-bmbn D]-tbm-Kn-®p-Im-Wp-∂-Xv. kzXz-cm-jv{So-bsØ hna¿in-°p∂ {]ap-J¿ [mcm-f-am-Wt√m C∂v. ]t£ IrXy-a-√mØ {]tbm-K-am-Wn-Xv. ‘kzXz’ -sa-∂m¬


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Cw•n-jnse ‘self’ BWv; ‘self’Dw ‘identity’Dw ]c-kv]cw _‘-s∏-´mWv \n¬°m-dp-f-f-sX¶nepw XnI®pw `n∂-ß-fm-Wv. ‘identity’F∂ Bi-bsØ ‘X∑’ F∂m-Wv ChnsS ]cn-`m-j-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-f-f-Xv. ssk≤m-¥n-I\pw kmaq-ly-Nn-¥-I-\p-amb tUm. \nkm¿ Al-ΩZv {]tbm-Kn-°m-dp-ff Cu hm°mWv ‘kzXz’sØ°mƒ F¥p-sIm≠pw DNn-Xw. AXp-t]mse ‘kmaq-lyimkv{X’sa∂ hm°ns\ ‘social science’F∂-Xns‚ ]cn-`m-jbmbn {]tbm-Kn-°p-tºmƒ sociology F∂ ⁄m\-im-J-bpsS ]cn-`m-j-bmbn kzoI-cn-®Xv ‘kaql-imkv{Xw’ F∂ ]Z-sØ-bm-Wv. Fs‚ `mjm-]-cn-Nbw th≠{X ]Iz-a-√m-Ø-Xn-\m-em-Imw, ]e-t∏mgpw ssk≤m¥nI ˛ kmt¶-XnI ]Z-߃, Ah GXp `mj-bn-em-bn-cp-∂mepw, khn-ti-j-]-T-\-ØneqsS am{Xw hi-s∏-Sp-∂-h-bm-sW∂v F\n°p tXm∂n-bn-´p-≠v. B hnj-a-Øn\v ]q¿W]-cn-lmcw GsX-¶nepw Hcp ]pkvX-I-Øn-eqsS Is≠-Øm-\m-hn-s√-¶nepw. Cu ]pkvX-I-Øn¬ kmam\yw hni-Z-amb Hcp ]Z-tImiw IqSn Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. Ipe-kv{Xobpw N¥-s∏-Æp-ap-≠m-b-sX-ßs\? F∂ Ncn-{X-]p-kvX-I-Øns‚ Bi-b-]-camb \n¿Ωm-W-Øn-ep-]-tbm-Kn® AtX coXn-bmWv Cu ]pkvX-I-Øn-\p-th-≠nbpw Rm≥ kzoI-cn-®-Xv. Ic-Sp-cq-]-Øn-ep-ff A≤ym-b-ßsf tIc-f-Øn¬ ]Tn-°p∂ _ncp-Z˛ _ncp-Zm-\-¥c hnZym¿∞o-hn-Zym¿∞n-\n-I-sf-s°m≠v hmbn-∏n-®v, Ahsc ‘Kpcp-’hmbn kzoI-cn-°p∂ coXn-bm-W-Xv. Ah-cpsS \n¿t±-i-ßf\p-k-cn®v Ic-Sp-cq-]-߃°v sXfn®w hcp-Øp-Ibpw Cw•n-jv]-Xn-∏n-en-√mØ `mK-߃ Iq´n-t®¿°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. ]Z-tImiw thW-sa-∂Xv hmb-\-°m-cmb hnZym¿∞o-hn-Zym¿∞n-\n-I-fpsS Bh-iy-am-bncp-∂p. ‘Ipe-kv{Xo...-’bn-ep-f-f-Xp-t]mse IqSp-X¬ hmb-\-bv°p-]-I-cn-°p∂ Hcp bibliographic essay IqSn tN¿°-W-sa∂v Ah¿ \n¿t±-in-®p-sh-¶nepw, ]pkvX-I-Øn-ep-S-˛ \ofw kaq-l-im-kv{X-kw-_-‘n-bmb [mcmfw teJ-\-ßfpw ]pkvX-I-ßfpw t\cn-´p-˛ Xs∂ N¿®-sN-ø-s∏-´-ncn°p∂Xn-\m¬ AXv Bh-iy-an-s√∂v R߃ Xocp-am-\n-®p. Cu ae-bm-f-]p-kvXIw hmbn-°p-∂-h¿ XpS¿∂v Cw•n-jv teJ-\-ß-fn-te°pw ]pkvX-I-ß-fnte°pw IS-°p-sa∂ Bi-tbmsS Cw•njv kmt¶-Xn-I-]-Z-ßsf he-b-Nn-”-߃˛ °pf-fn¬ \ne-\n¿Øn-bn-´p-≠v. F√m-Øn-\p-ap-]-cn-bm-bn, kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-hn-Zym¿∞n-I-fn¬ kz¥w ]T-\-hn-j-bsØ°pdn®v A`n-am-\hpw kz¥w Nn¥m-ti-jn-bn¬ hnizm-khpw hf¿Øm≥ Cu ]pkvXIw D]-I-cn-°p-sa∂v Rm≥ {]Xym-in-°p-∂p. CXns‚ {]km-[-I-cm-Im≥ apt∂m-´p-h∂ tIc-f-im-kv{X-km-ln-Xy-]-cn-jXv {]h¿Ø-I-tcmSv Rm≥ \μn-]-d-bp∂p ˛ {io Imhp-ºmbn _me-Ir-jvW≥, {io sI.-sI. Ir-jvW-Ip-am¿ F∂n-hsc {]tXyIw kvacn-°p-∂p. Cu ]pkvXIw XpS°w am{X-am-sW∂pw CØcw ]cn-`m-j-Iƒ°mbn Fs‚ C\n-bp-ff _u≤n-I-Po-hn-X-Øns‚ Imcy-am-sbmcp `mKw \o°n-sh-bv°-W-sa∂pw Rm\m-{K-ln-°p-∂p. {io. _me-Ir-jvW-s\bpw IrjvtW-´-s\bpw t]mep-f-f-h-cpsS t{]m’m-l-\-amWv Fs‚ Bisb kPo-h-ambn \ne-\n¿Øp-∂-Xv. hne-s∏´ \n¿t±-i-߃ \¬Inb Sn.-Sn. {ioIp-am-dn\pw Cu ]cn-`m-jbpsS Ic-Sp-cq]w hmbn-®-`n-{]mbw ]d™ F√m hnZym¿∞o-hn-Zym¿∞n\okplr-Øp°ƒ°pw lrZ-bw-\n-d™ \μn. sP.-tZ-hnI sk‚¿ t^m¿ Uh-e-]vsa‚ v ÃUokv 22 BKÃv 2013

Translator's Introduction to Samakaalika India : Samoohasastrathilninnoru Veekshanam  

This are my reflections on translating Satish Deshpande's wonderful little volume on Indian Sociology, Contemporary India.

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