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yu:mi Photo Diary Camera

JASON CONNOLLY BA (HONS) PRODUCT DESIGN THE NOTTINGHAM TRENT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, DESIGN AND BUILT ENVIRONMENT


Acknowledgments The author would like to thank Jim Dale, for his constant advice and support throughout all stages of this project. Further acknowledgments are extended to all the technicians in the Maudslay workshop for their help and guidance during the model making process of the final design. Finally, the author would like to thank everyone that has participated in any research, discussions and observations that have helped shape the final outcome.

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Abstract This project looks at issues regarding communication between family, friends and partners over long distances. Through primary and secondary research, the report outlines issues regarding social interaction and in particular physical interaction between people in close contact and over long distances. The final outcome looks at the use of a product to mediate the day-to-day interaction between distant people through the use of mutually paired devices that communicate with each other via the means of abstract photography. The report documents all stages of the project from research, and concept generation and development, through to manufacturing and costing. The report concludes the final outcome through evaluation against the final Product Design Specification as well as a reflective evaluation. The final design is a photo diary camera: ‘yu:mi’. ‘yu:mi’ is a set of wirelessy paired cameras that allows separated people to document and share their day-to-day experiences through abstract imagery and Zink™ printing and paper technology.

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Contents 1.0 - Introduction 1.1 - Time planning 1.2 - Research Aims and Objectives

1 2 3

2.0 - Initial Research 2.1 - Brainstorming 2.2 - Observation 2.3 - Conclusions 3.0 - Initial brief

4 5 6-11 12 13

4.0 - Research 4.1 - Present Market Concepts

14 15-20

5.0 - Initial ideas

21

6.0 - Further Research - Researching Intimacy 6.1 - Cultural probes 6.2 - Cultural probe results

22 23-25 26

7.0 - Final Brief

27

8.0 - Initial PDS

28

9.0 - Initial Concepts

12.0 - CAD development

52-54

13.0 - Concept development - Dimension sorting 13.1 - Sketch model ergonomics 13.2 - Initial LED testing 13.3 - General assembly 13.4 - Material selection 13.5 - Sustainability

55 56 57 58 59 60

14.0 - Final design 14.1 - Concept explained 14.2 - System flow

61-62 63 64

15.0 - Component list 15.1 - Component breakdown 15.2 - Costing

65 - 66 67-70 71

16.0 - Branding

72 - 73

29-35

17.0 - Model making

74-88

10.0 - New PDS

36-37

18.0 - Project evaluation

89-90

11.0 - Concept development - Sketch work 11.1 - Further research 11.2 - Test photos 11.3 - Printing 11.4 - Zink™ paper 11.5 - Polaroid PoGo camera 11.6 - Polaroid PoGo printer 11.7 - Polaroid PoGo printer testing

38-41 42-44 45 46 47 48 49 50-51

19.0 - Summary 19.2 - Further development 19.3 - Time planning review

91-92 93 94

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1.0 Introduction

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“There is something distasteful about the very bustle of the streets, something that is abhorrent to human nature itself. Hundreds of thousands of people of all classes and ranks of society jostle past one another. Are they not all human beings with the same characteristics and potentialities, equally interested in the pursuit of happiness? And yet they rush past one another as if they had nothing in common or were in no way associated with one another� Friedrich Engels – The condition of the working class in England (1845) The above quite from Engels is the initial starting point of the project, which highlights the problems with social interaction amongst strangers in public environments. The initial aim of this project is to look at methods of encouraging social interaction amongst these strangers through an urban system or product. However the realm of social interaction and the aspects of human nature is vast and therefore the initial section of this report aims to gain a better understanding of crowd behaviour in public spaces, as well as initial brainstorming in order to further develop and narrow down the problem into a focused brief.

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1.1 Time planning

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The following time plan has been created to help organize the project and to ensure key tasks are completed on time.

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1.2 Research Aims and Objectives The hustle and bustle of city streets often cause for sensory overload, with people rushing past one another avoiding contact and interaction with focus on going from A to B. Isolating themselves form their exterior environment no interest is paid to their surroundings and the people passing by. Through the use of research, the aim of the research is to gain a better understanding of people and human behaviour in public spaces, in order to conclude prevalent issues and observations into a focused design brief. Initial Process: With such a vague brief, and with no focused direction to approach the research, the initial strategy was to spend time observing crowded places and to draw conclusions on human behaviour, in order to produce results that will hopefully provide a specific domain to carry out further research. The term ‘social interaction’ will also be identified and expanded upon in order to highlight opportunities for development.

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The following are the areas that will be initially focused upon during the research: • Identify the meaning of social interaction and Social behaviour and it’s different sub contexts. • Human values – the values that can be designed for and further researched • Identify the people that will be the focus of the project, as well as ascertain the activity involved, the environment and their cultures that will be affected by the final design. • Observing human interaction on a physical and non-physical level.

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2.0 Initial Research In order to gain a better understanding of human behaviour and interaction, the terms social interaction requires defining. With a basic better understanding of the term and its implications, a better understanding and foundation is built on which the rest of the research can be built. The term social interaction is well defined by R.J Rummel in his book ‘Understanding Conflict and War: Vol.2: The conflict Helix’ and is as follows:

4 However, it must be noted that social interaction, when taking place, is a very complex subject matter and takes shape in a variety of ways. This can include physical contact, facial expressions, eye contact, body language, verbal and written communication and so forth. With each method appertaining great depth into their study and research, and for the purposes of time constraints, these variations of social interaction will only be stated and not be further investigated.

‘Social interactions are the acts, actions, or practices of two or more people mutually oriented towards each other’s selves, that is, any behaviour that tries to affect or take account of each other’s subjective experiences or intentions. This means that the parties to the social interaction must be aware of each other-have each other’s self in mind. This does not mean being in sight of or directly behaving towards each other. Friends writing letters are socially interacting, as are enemy generals preparing opposing war plans. Social interaction is not defined by type of physical relation or behaviour, or by physical distance. It is a matter of a mutual subjective orientation towards each other. Thus even when no physical behaviour is involved, as with two rivals deliberately ignoring each other’s professional work, there is social interaction.” Source: http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/NOTE11.HTM

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2.1 Initial Research Brainstorming

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Having defined the term, it is now to be expanded upon and mapped in order to create a wider realm in which the project may take direction and so that research conclusions can be focused upon. This was achieved through brainstorming.

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2.2 Initial Research Observation

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In order to observe crowds unobtrusively and capture their behaviour, a social environment was chosen and people photographed without their knowledge, with the aim of capturing vital behavioural patterns. Elements that will be looked out for will included the aforementioned social behaviour patterns such as physical contact, body language etc. In order to achieve this, a suitable environment was required as well as an unobtrusive method of data capture. The chosen location was Nottingham’s market square in the centre of town. This deemed an appropriate environment, being the second largest public square In the United Kingdom after Trafalgar Square in London. Source: http://www.e-architect.co.uk/england/old_market_square_nottingham.htm

The Square is also renowned for it’s design having won numerous awards such as the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) award. The awards recognize design excellence and built projects, which make a significant contribution to the local environment. Over a period of 3 days, photos of crowds in the square were taken using a wireless remote trigger and digital camera, in order to avoid attention. A time lapse was also taken for later observation. (See accompanying CD-ROM)

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2.2 Initial Research Observation

7 The photographic research was focused on the north side of the Market Square, and was concentrated around the main seating areas, as well as busy intersection points. The path shown in red is the path that was taken when photographing the seated crowd. The two highlighted circles are the areas in which individuals were photographed from a distance. The bigger circle marks where a time lapse of the passing crowd was taken.

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2.2 Initial Research Observation

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2.2 Initial Research Observation

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2.2 Initial Research Observation

10 Individual subjects were photographed. The images demonstrate an appearance of solitude, feelings of being ‘lost’ as well as subjects distancing themselves from their surrounding environment.

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2.2 Initial Research Observation

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Contrary to the previous individual photos, groups and couples were also photographed. The emotions and interpretations in the photos make for drastic comparisons. The importance of physical contact is apparent as well as a general sense of happiness.

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2.3 Initial Research Conclusions Having a better understanding of social behaviour and interaction, coupled with the primary research carried out several conclusions and observations were made. The photographs taken provided vital cues to human behaviour and social interaction. It was noted that individuals that were alone recluse themselves from their environment, often through the use of portable electronic devices such as Ipods and mobile phones, inducing a form of cocoon in which they are not bothered by their environment. Alternatively individuals that were part of a larger group were more open to conversation and physical contact. Kids were seen running around playing with each other, couples were hugging and kissing, the elderly were having seated conversations next to one another.

12 Between the photographs, the time lapse observation and the brainstorm, an area that flagged up was the importance of physical interaction amongst couples in a relationship, and the effect that distance can have on this vital form of communication.

These observations brought up the importance of presence and physical contact as a form of interaction, where the people in question appeared to be happier and enjoying themselves more then the individuals. Another interesting observation, which was unintended but proved interesting, was the movement of the designer and his partners feet which were moving in sync with one another throughout the time lapse as they were caught in frame. This was interesting as it showed an unstated subconscious behaviour that was common between two people sharing the same experience (that of sitting down observing the crowd). (See accompanying CD-ROM for time-lapse sequence)

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3.0 Initial Brief

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Having completed initial research, a focused area of social interaction was highlighted and an initial brief set, allowing for more focused research.

Initial Brief: Consider the effect geographical separation has on the importance of physical interaction between couples. With physical interaction proving to be a vital aspect in a healthy relationship, the aim of the project is to design a product that encourages and enhances this important aspect over long distances.

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4.0 Research

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In order to gain further knowledge of the concept of alternative forms of communication, Anthony Dunne’s Hertian Tales provides an insight into the use of tangible user interfaces that focus on nonverbal communication. Much of Dunnes work is conceptual but provides an insight into how products should be designed to acknowledge their impact on the users lives and how they help with social interaction. Over the last few years there has been plenty of research and development into ways technology can be used to aid intimate couples in communicating over long distances. The devices in question focus on “play, natural gestures, personalization and an overall view on “enriching” and “developing” digital communication beyond it’s accepted role in society. The following section looks at some of these concepts.

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4.1 Research Present Market concepts

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IDEO Kiss Communicator The Kiss Communicator is a concept prototype that allows you to blow a kiss to your beloved when she/he’s at the other part of the world. To let a partner know that you are thinking of her or him, you squeeze the Communicator gently. It responds with a slight glow to invite you to blow into it and create your “message” in the form of an animated light sequence as the device responds to your breath. The “message” shows while you blow and if you are happy with it, you simply relax your grip and it is sent to the corresponding Communicator. Sensors in the handheld device pick up your kiss, translate the impulse into a series of randomly lit LEDs, which are then transmitted as a slow glow to your partner’s device. On the other end, the Kiss Communicator indicates that there is a message but waits until its owner squeezes it to play back the light sequence. Source: http://we-make-money-not-art.com/archives/2005/10/kiss-communicat.php

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4.1 Research Present Market concepts

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Media Lab Europe - Habitat Project “In family relationships, awareness of daily cycles and routines (or more importantly, deviation from these patterns) is particularly important. This awareness helps to convey reassurance and a sense of context for communication, and it provides a means for background synchronization of rhythms between those in the bond. Habitat explores the potential of using household furniture as a network of distributed ambient display appliances for conveying this kind of awareness between family members separated by a distance.”

Source: http://www.we-make-money-not-art.com/archives/2004/04/the-tableconnection.php

The current Habitat system comprises two geographically separate, networked café or kitchen tables. Each table integrates a computer, an ISO-standard RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tag reader, and a video projector. Unique RFID tags are embedded in objects typically placed on kitchen tables at each site, such as cups, plates, books, and so on. Placing these items on the table causes messages to be sent to the remote table, which displays a graphical representation of the objects. The system operates in both directions, conveying impressions of presence and activity around the tables at each site. When items are removed, their representations at the far end fade away slowly, enabling in a single glance an impression of the recent history of events and overall daily rhythms around the far table.

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4.1 Research Present Market concepts

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Distance Labs - Mutsugoto Mutsugoto is a new kind of communication device meant to be used only by romantic couples in long distance relationships. Breaking away from traditional systems intended for operation by any pair of people in any situation, the form and function of Mutsugoto is designed to more strongly reflect the character of an intimate bond. Mutsugoto is meant to be installed in the bedrooms of two remote partners. Each partner lays on their bed and wears a special ring that emits an infrared beacon, visible only to a camera mounted above. A computer vision system tracks the movement of the ring finger and projects virtual pen strokes on the user’s own body. The silhouette of the user is also captured and serves as the “canvas� for this drawing. The completed drawing is transmitted to the remote site where the same silhouette is projected softly on the bed. After laying in the same position, the distant partner can reveal the drawing by tracing their ring finger around their body. Special bed linens and curtains were crafted to enhance the mood of this romantic communication environment. Source: http://www.we-make-money-not-art.com/archives/2005/01/bodydrawingcom-1.php

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4.1 Research Present Market concepts

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Researchers at Carnegie Mellon - The Hug Pillow Robotics researchers at Carnegie Mellon have designed a pillow that uses sensing and wireless phone technology to provide a physical touch, and thus better social and emotional support, for distant family members. The Hug is shaped like a person about to give a hug, with two arms reaching up and out from a small torso. To send a hug, the grandchild would squeeze the left paw and speak her grandfather’s name into a microphone in the top of the torso. Voice recognition software identifies the name and matches it to a phone number corresponding to the other Hug. The grandfather’s pillow lights up and plays sounds. To accept the hug, he squeezes the left paw and says hello. When the girl squeezes or pats the device, sensors convert those motions into a data stream that is converted on the other Hug into vibrations. Thermal fibers around the Hug’s belly radiate heat that increases with time. If someone is not home to receive a hug, the other person can leave a message that includes voice and vibration patterns. Source: http://www.we-make-money-not-art.com/archives/2004/11/ith-email-cellp.php

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4.1 Research Present Market concepts

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Aram Armstrong - Tok Tok Each partner owns a wooden box. Whenever one knocks on his/ her box, it transmits a sonar-like pulse, which is recreated in the other’s remote location. Once the pulse has been received, it responds by transmitting again the same pulse to the first box at the other part of the planet. What makes it special is that the pulse travels at what the designer (who might know what he talks about as he looks like some sailor who left a woman in every port) describes as the “speed of love�: faster than thunder, but slower than lightning. The time it takes to travel from, say, Tel Aviv to Turin and back again depends on the actual distance between these two cities. The longer it takes for the pulse to come back to you, the further away your darling is. Source: http://www.we-make-money-not-art.com/archives/2005/01/tok-tok-and-tug.php

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4.1 Research Present Market concepts

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Francesca Rosella - Ryan Genz - F+R Hugs F+R Hugs is a soft Lycra shirt with embedded sensors and electronics that allows to feel the physical closeness of a distant loved one, bringing the sensation of a hug The system works through a mobile phone network. The shirts receive the input of heart beat, touch and body temperature of the remote loved one, recreating (through actuators embedded in the shirt) over distance the pulsation, physical pressure, and warmth of a real hug. During the testing of the shirts, major intensity points were identified on upper arms, on the upper back part during a condolatory hug, around the waistline, neck, shoulders, and hips. In these strategic spots were placed soft technological sandwiches containing the hugging output actuators. Source: http://we-make-money-not-art.com/archives/2005/04/fr-hugs-could-f.php

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5.0 Initial Ideas

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From the preliminary research findings, the concept of physical touch and communication through the use of light was embodied into an initial design concept. The design features two paired ‘Jelly fish’ that when interacted with illuminates the other. The concept aims to encourage nonverbal physical communication through the medium of a ‘cute’ aesthetic product.

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6.0 Further Research Researching Intimacy

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As the brief deals with elements of intimacy amongst couples, it was vital to understand how these intimate relationships between family members and couples are supported by the use of technology. This research provided with an interesting challenge, as acts of intimacy are personal and vary greatly from person to person, wherein an act of intimacy may appear trivial to an outsider, it is often full of deep emotional meaning and history that only the people in question can understand. Intimacy is also often regarded as a private subject, and isn’t often disclosed openly, thus proving a hard subject matter to probe. In order to approach this subject matter, the use of ‘cultural probes’ was adopted, initially developed Gaver et al. and the Equator team. This method allows information to be extracted without interference from the researcher. They are useful as they provide an insight into people’s daily lives and situations that would otherwise be difficult to investigate using traditional research methods such as questionnaires and interviews.

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6.1 Further Research Cultural probes

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Cultural probes were made to extract information that is difficult to attain without being obtrusive. In regards to the project, it was vital to gain a deeper insight into the users daily lives, with a focus on their means of communication as well as the emotions attached to the context and method of that communication (be it through text message, phone call, verbal etc.) The aim of this research method was to delve into the daily lives of the user and to gain a better understanding of their personal relationships and environment with the hope of the results highlighting important elements that would help with concept generation.

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6.1 Further Research Cultural probes

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Two cultural probe packages were created with each pack containing the following: 1x Disposable Camera – Allowing users to take photos of situations and environments as they see fit. 1x Diary – An open platform for users to write in throughout their day and to make note of the moments of interaction. Catchphrases – A set of stickers were provided with key phrases to spur emotional reflections. These included sentences such as ‘I feel lonely when’, ‘I miss it when…’ Users were encouraged to fill these in daily and stick them in the diary. Various stationary including a pen, post it notes and a glue stick, for use in their diary or however they see fit.

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6.1 Further Research Cultural probes

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The diaries were used by the users to fill in their daily routine, as well as to make not of any form of communication (I.e E-mail, Sms) that has taken place during their day, and to make note of the time, date, location as well as what emotions and feelings they associated with that particular form of communication (i.e uneasiness, excitement)

Both subjects were female with different relationship types.

The cameras were to be used as the user saw fit, but were recommended to be used to take photos of physical elements or certain situations and environments that reminded them of their loved one. Where possible, users were requested to make note of the photo in their diary, with a brief description. The rest of the probe items (i.e stationary) were to be used however they saw appropriate.

Both subjects were briefed on the aim of the study and were given instructions prior to commencing their probes, and were contacted mid week to see how they were getting on, followed by collection of the probe packs at the end of the two weeks for analysis.

Subject A was a female, aged 22 years who currently see’s her boyfriend every other week. Subject B is female, aged 45 years, married with two children.

It was stressed to the participants that all the instructions were guidelines, and it was encouraged to use the probes in any way they chose. Due to time constraints, the time frame was limited to 2 weeks, with the users choosing how much or little information they wished to provide over this period. Once again, due to the nature of the project and time constraints, the research was limited to 2 subjects.

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6.2 Further Research Cultural probe results

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The selected participants both had used the diaries in a similar manner documenting their daily events in a fair amount of detail. Similarly the photographs taken were of events during that day and compliment what was written in the diary. The photos were taken on a cheap disposable camera, and therefore not many successfully developed, however those that have, pertained a nice nostalgic element with desaturated colours and vignetting. The most interesting findings from the cultural probes was not content related to intimacy or distant relationships, but more in the manner the subjects decided to use the provided tools. Although cues were given as to how the items were meant to be used, the subjects used the provided tools in a more traditional manner. The diary was used as exactly that, a diary documenting what took place that day. The photos that were taken were to compliment the diary and helped provide visual relevance. It was even noted that it was ‘good to look back over my day’ an important statement for further development and exploration as it implies the nostalgia associated with what takes place on a daily basis. Overall, the information gathered wasn’t entirely relevant to the initial aims of the research , however the outcome was successful none the less. The research has provided with new directions to explore and new ideas to generate particularly in relation to the use of diaries and cameras as ways of keeping memories.

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7.0 Final Brief

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Having completed the research, a final design brief was able to be written. The final brief doesn’t differ greatly from the initial brief, however after exploring a few concept ideas, a more specific direction was chosen.

Final Brief: With the ever increasing distance between loved ones in today’s society, technology has provided numerous ways to keep in touch with those we care about. The ease in which we can now share photographs, instant messages and conversations has led to a superficial means of keeping in touch with those that we care about. Long gone are the days of taking the time to write a letter, or send a postcard, and with the rise of social networking sites, keeping in touch has never been easier.

The final design will consist of a mutual or wirelessly paired device/ product that is shared by both partners that allows them to communicate with one another in a more physical manner .

Peoples requirements for fulfilling the human need for feeling belonged and love is mainly supported through physical interactions with others. However due to the obligations of our everyday life, emotional and psychological support isn’t always immediately available, and thus objects are often used to fulfil these requirements (I.e jewellery). The aim of the project is to explore the use of a personal object/ product as a medium of physically supporting the emotional and psychological requirements of people separated by long distances and physical interactions.

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8.0 Initial PDS

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Initial research has highlighted the importance of communication with loved ones, as well as the importance of physical contact and presence. Both the primary and secondary research has allowed for an initial Design Specification to be drawn up in order to progress with design concepts and carry out further specific research.

Initial Design Specification: • The product will be initially purchased by one or both individuals involved in a romantic relationship between the ages of 18 to 30, however the product can be used by anyone 18 onwards. • The design must consist of two products that are paired with one another which communicate in a direct manner over long distances. 1. The products must communicate with each other in an abstract metaphysical manner. This includes elements of touch, light and sound in order to communicate the concept of emotion and thought. • The product must engage and encourage user interaction through it’s aesthetics. As the product deals with issues regarding intimacy, the design must play on the anthropology of romantic relationships and encourage emotional attachment.

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9.0 Initial Concepts

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Concept 1 - Fish Communicator This concept plays on the emotional attachment made with pet animals, in this case a pet fish. Each partner would own a pet fish and bowl (the fish could be bought as a couple or given as a present, setting an initial emotional attachment). By either tapping on the fish bowl, or when feeding the fish, the paired bowl would then illuminate allowing the users to visualise when their partner is either thinking about them or is interacting with their pet.

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9.0 Initial Concepts

30 Concept 2 - Mood Communicator This concept plays upon the child nature of keeping a ‘pet rock’. Each partner would have a ‘pebble’ or rock, which when interacted with would transmit a defined mood across to their partners ‘pebble’. I.e - Gently stroking the ‘pebble’ would evoke the emotion of happiness, whereas shaking it aggressively would convey anger. The emotions are then displayed through the use of colour, with the entire pebble emitting a glow.

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9.0 Initial Concepts

31 Concept 3 - Love Compass This simple concept mimics a standard compass, however using GPS technology. Two compasses are paired one to the other, and would then display the general direction, and distance of the other. The concept allows for couples to constantly know the general direction and distance of their lover, in order to create a sense of constant presence.

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9.0 Initial Concepts

32 Concept 4 - Marble Game Using a box/shelving design, each user would be able to place marbles into each section of the box which would correspond to a certain colour. The colours would then emit across to the paired device. The concept allows for the couple to create a personal meaning to the colours and patterns created, becoming personal to the couple. I.e colours can be attached to moods, a combination of colours can signify new emotions or meanings.

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9.0 Initial Concepts

33 Concept 5 - Social cooking utensils This concept plays on the notion that cooking is always more fun when the experience is shared with someone. Distant partners would have a set of kitchen utensils that when used, would emit a glow to the paired corresponding utensil. The concept allows for users to track when their loved one might have enjoyed a meal, or perhaps even allow for users to engage in a little cooking play wherein they are required to cook the same meal using the same utensils at the same time.

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9.0 Initial Concepts

34 Concept 6 - Secret Messages Little soft pillow devices contain a voice recorder and speaker. Users can purchase several of the devices which can be embroidered with little messages. The concept allows users to record a variety of messages to their partner, and hide them so that they are to be discovered. I.e hidden in a chest of drawers or a suitcase when travelling apart.

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9.0 Initial Concepts

35 Concept 6 - Note Keepers This concept allows users to create little notes and messages and stick them either in a diary or onto the product directly. When the two distant partners reunite, the products or diaries are exchanged for reading. When stuck directly onto the product, a new note can be peeled of every day revealing a new message, extending the product life cycle.

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10.0 New PDS

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After having developed a variety of concepts, the designer was able to narrow down the direction in which the project was headed, and thus a new Product Design Specification was created. Market

Aesthetics

The intended user of the product is anyone that is involved in a long distance relationship be it family, friends or intimate couples. The targeted age are those in the 18 to 30 group.

As the product is to encourage interaction between distant users and deals with various levels of intimacy, it is essential the final products aesthetic reflects this, providing a personal item that is cherished by the user.

Distribution The product will primarily be available through various retailers which sell similar products in nature. These include shops such as Urban Outfitters and John Lewis who feature sections devoted to ‘gadgetry’ and designer products and toys. Environment The final product will be portable in nature and is to be carried around with the individual throughout its use. As such it can be expected to be carried in pockets and bags (i.e handbags and backpacks)

Materials The final chosen material is essential in conveying the nature of the product, that of sharing and long distance between two separated people. It is also vital that the chosen material is able to withstand the aforementioned environment and the daily wear and tear of it’s intended use. Size The product is portable and to be carried around by the user, therefore it is vital that the products final size is kept to the minimum and that it can be hand held.

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10.0 New PDS continued

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Ergonomics The product is intended to be hand held when in operation, and therefore careful attention to the overall dimensions and ergonomics in relation to its use needs to be considered. Life span The product needs to remain functional for a long period of time, in order for the user to develop a relationship with the product and it’s significance,, and to build upon and increase it’s use in the users daily life.

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11.0 Concept Development Sketch work

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Based on concept 6, the use of ‘key rings’ to help keep a daily update of ones day for sharing, the idea was further developed with character illustrations, and the implementation of technology into the product. At this stage, designs that incorporated elements from other concepts were included. These include cameras, motion and light sensors, as well as connectivity to the Internet for information sharing.

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11.0 Concept Development Sketch work

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The implementation of technology was further developed, with particular concentration on the use of a camera within the product, and wireless connectivity between the two paired devices. The concept at this stage was to use photography as a means of sharing day-today experiences, as opposed to the use of text (i.e physical diaries, text messages and emails). The project took to this direction as a result of the cultural probe research that was conducted. It was noted that users appears to enjoy keeping a diary but also decided to use the provided camera to document their daily routine and events.

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11.0 Concept Development Sketch work

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With the further development, the concept of little characters as the primary aesthetic was re-considered. As the product was essentially turning into a camera, more traditional designs were explored as this stage, looking at different ways in which the camera could be used and carried around.

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11.0 Concept Development Sketch work

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The final concept that was generated was that of a wooden camera, incorporating a Zink printer that would allow users to feed the paper and print of the sent images themselves.

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11.1 Concept Development Further research

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Lomography The final concept aims to deliver photographic representations of your partners day directly to each others camera. The idea is an amalgamation of several of the initial concepts, however the concept of using photographs and photography to communicate stems from the results obtained from the cultural probes as well as the concept of a cultural probe itself. The idea of using a camera to photograph a subjects day to day life for research purposes developed into the use of a camera to record ones day so that it can be shared with a distant partner. The final concept aims to allow users to photograph elements of their day that they would like to share with their partner. The camera would then automatically create a single image with all the photos of that day layered atop one another, similar to multiple exposure photographs. The resulting photo is an abstract image which allows users to make interpretations and read further into that particular photo, ‘decoding’ what their partner has been up to. The resulting images are similar in style to those that are attained using lomography cameras.

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11.1 Concept Development Further research

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Lomography What is Lomography? It was in the early 1990s when two students in Vienna, Austria, discovered a small enigmatic Russian camera, the Lomo Kompakt Automat, and started a new style of artistic experimental photography of unorthodox snapshots. In the blink of an eye the Lomographic message spread around the planet and people from North to South were screaming for Lomo LC-A’s. So they hopped on a plane, flew to St. Petersburg and negotiated a contract for the worldwide distribution of this fantastic little camera. Then everything happened quickly for Lomography. We set up the 10 golden rules as our guiding principals, held numerous exhibitions, world congresses, parties and events. Mounted groundbreaking collaborations and projects, installed lomography.com as our communication hub, developed new products, films and accessories all while opening up Lomography Gallery Stores in metropolises worldwide.

What started out spontaneously as an artistic approach to photography in the Vienna underground scene developed into Lomography becoming an international socio-cultural movement using photography as a creative approach to communicating, absorb and capturing the world, photography and its further development. Today we are a globally active organization dedicated to experimental and creative visual expression, a playful combination of lo-tech and hi-tech and the amalgamation of a cultural institution with a commercial photographic and design company focussing entirely on the unique imagery, style and approach of analogue. Source: http://www.lomography.com/about

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11.1 Concept Development Further research

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Lomography The 10 golden rules of lomography • Take your camera everywhere you go • Use it any time – day and night • Lomography is not an interference in your life, but part of it • Try the shot from the hip • Approach the objects of your lomographic desire as close as possible • Don’t think • Be fast • You don’t have to know beforehand what you captured on film • Afterwards either • Don’t worry about any rules

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11.2 Concept Development Test photos

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The camera aims to create an abstract image that isn’t immediately obvious or recognizable, with a similar ‘arty’ and conceptual aesthetic to those of lomographic cameras. By layering several photos, there is an added element of intrigue and fun to the use of the product, whilst creating visually appealing photos which provide a visual summary to ones day that can be collected by the two partners. The following are some test photos that were created by layering several photo’s of a single day. The effect was achieved by creating overlays in photoshop, a similar effect to taking multiple exposures on a lomography camera. Several tests were made using a number of photos, however it appears that any more then 5 photos created an image that was to detailed and illegible, and any less then 3 photos produced a photo that was to obvious and ‘un-abstract’, and didn’t require much analysing.

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11.3 Concept Development Printing

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Camera Printing As the camera aims to encapsulate the entire experience of sharing ones day with a partner through the medium of photographs, it is essential that the photographs can be transmitted and viewed/developed immediately. Similar to the immediate print of the old polaroid cameras. Although possible to incorporate an LCD screen for viewing, the designer decided against this. As the camera aims to provide an emotional experience, it was vital that the photographs are tangible and can be physically stored without further actions required by the user. The camera therefore aims to incorporate a printer, similar to a polaroid allowing users to immediately print their partners photos. Polaroid have recently announced a digital polaroid camera, using new printing and paper technology that is more effective and cost effective then old polaroid film, using a technology known as Zink.

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11.4 Concept Development Zink™ paper

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What is Zink? ZINK™ stands for Zero Ink™ - an amazing new way to print in full colour without the need for ink cartridges or ribbons. The ZINK Technology encompasses both the ZINK Paper™ and the intelligence embedded in every ZINK-enabled device. The technology enables a new category of colour printing devices and paper that work as a system to print in a whole new way.

How Zink works: At the heart of the ZINK Technology is the patented ZINK Paper, an advanced composite material with cyan, yellow, and magenta dye crystals embedded inside, and a protective polymer overcoat layer outside. The crystals are colourless before printing, so ZINK Paper looks like regular white photo paper. Heat from a ZINK-enabled device activates the crystals, forming all the colour of the rainbow. Source: http://www.zink.com/how-ZINK-works

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11.5 Concept Development Polaroid PoGo camera

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Polaroid PoGO camera The Polaroid PoGo™ Instant Digital Camera is an integrated fullyfeatured digital camera and ZINK® printer designed for portable one-step printing anywhere. Powered by ZINK Technology, this digital version of Polaroid’s iconic instant camera allows consumers to capture, view, crop, add borders, AND print their memories in less than 60 seconds. The Polaroid PoGo™ Instant Digital Camera prints 2”x3” sticky-backed prints using Polaroid ZINK Photo Paper®. The Polaroid PoGo™ Instant Digital Camera easily connects directly to a computer (PC or Mac) so you can upload and manage your photos. Source: http://www.zink.com/polaroid-pogo-digital-camera

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11.6 Concept Development Polaroid PoGo printer

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Polaroid PoGO Printer The Polaroid PoGo™ - short for Polaroid-on-the-go - is a pocketsized, ink-free digital photo printer that produces full-color photos wirelessly from Bluetooth-enabled cell phones and via PictBridge from digital cameras. Weighing only eight ounces, Polaroid PoGo™ provides consumers with a convenient solution for sharing digital images trapped on cell phones and digital cameras. Connecting via Bluetooth or PictBridge, Polaroid PoGo™ uses a revolutionary ZINK® Zero Ink® Printing Technology to produce borderless, full-color, 2-inch by 3-inch prints in less than 60 seconds. Source: http://www.zink.com/pogo-mobile-printer

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11.7 Concept Development Polaroid PoGo printer testing

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Polaroid PoGO Printer In order to determine the print speed, and print quality of the Zink printer and paper technology, the designer carried out a series of tests using the photoshopped layered images and the Polaroid PoGo printer. This was essential to establish whether or not it was the appropriate technology for the final design. The prints was small enough to fit in the palms hand and measured: 4.7 x 2.8 x 0.9 inches and printed on 2 x 3 inches paper sheets with sticker back. The PoGo printer was capable of storing up to 10 sheets of Zink paper in a compartment, and thus the overall product dimensions can be greatly reduced if it were to hold a single sheet of paper.

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11.7 Concept Development Polaroid PoGo printer testing

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Polaroid PoGO Printer Test Results The photoshopped photos were printed via computer using bluetooth technology. The entire process took under 90 seconds, with the resulting images producing 2 x 3 inch colour prints. The prints colour tone was vivid, producing crisp abstract images; precisely what is required for the final concept.

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12.0 CAD development

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Photoshopped images of the front of the camera were produced exploring camera shape and aesthetic. Features include laser etching, a small camera lens on the front, and an LED display appearing through the wood displaying the distance between paired cameras. Also included are to LED lights, a green circle to show the camera in use, and a heart displaying an image waiting to be printed.

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12.0 CAD development

53 Further CAD development showing the progression to a more traditional rectangular camera shape, with a larger central LED number display. At this stage the printer was embedded into the camera body, being fed in one end and coming out the other, similar to the Polaroid Pogo Printer.

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12.0 CAD development

54 A metal trim was added in-between the front and back body of the camera. This was done as an aesthetic highlight as well as to provide a method of joining the front and back components together. This aesthetic trim was however disregarded, as it produced a typical aesthetic of common products with a split/join line, and due to the nature of the camera a single wooden body was more fitting; as it pertained elements of natural wood and hand craftsmanship as opposed to mass production and a commercial aesthetic.

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13.0 Concept Development Dimension Sorting

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As the camera is to house multiple components, with restricted dimensions due to ergonomic factors, a drawing was produced to house all the components required to produce a sketch model. As the camera is to house a printer, the minimum length and width could not be any less then 50.8mm x 76.2 mm (Zink paper dimensions). The drawing to the left displays the minimum dimensions required for the final model with all the electronic components installed.

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13.1 Concept Development Sketch models

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A sketch model was produced in a rectangle shape at the minimum dimensions for ergonomic comfort and to include the required electronic components. Sketch model dimensions : 100 x 75 x 20 The edges were chamfered for maximum comfort to follow the hands and fingers natural contours. The model was tested by various subjects for sizing and comfort with positive results all round. The following stage in the development was to identify all the required components and to create an exploded general assembly of the housing and internal components.

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13.2 Concept Development Initial LED testing

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As the camera is to feature LED lights displaying through the camera body, tests were done with various veneers to determine how thin the wood is required to be before light begins to shine through. The light appears to be glow strongly when the wood is at less then 1 mm thin, however this depth could be reduced if brighter LED’s were used (SuperBright LED’s) The test was flawed as there was plenty of ambient light behind the LED’s and therefore a lot of the light emitted was lost at the back of the LED’s, and therefore when encased in a solid object, the red LED’s will provide stronger illumination.

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13.3 Concept Development General Assembly

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The rough general assembly was produced to map out all the components of the final camera prior to producing final technical drawings and producing accurate dimensions. Please view technical specification document for detailed drawings.

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13.4 Concept Development Material selection

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The final camera body is to be constructed out of wood. The reason wood was chosen as a material over traditional plastic and steel cameras, was due to the associations with wooden products. Wood provides for a more personal aesthetic, as opposed to traditional consumer cameras. Furthermore, during the cameras lifecycle, it is expected for the wood to show signs of use and aging, further enhancing the connotations associated with the product, and making the product unique to each and every individual. Laser etching on the wooden surface also provides users the opportunity to personalise their cameras with whatever graphic or text they please. The aesthetic provided is that of knife carvings on trees, once again enhancing the overall purpose of the camera. The chosen wood for the final concept was Indian Rosewood, and was selected due to it’s rich dark colour and contrasting grain. Furthermore, the name ‘Rosewood’ also enhances connotations of relationships and romance (The giving of roses to loved ones)

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13.5 Concept Development Sustainability

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As rosewood is an exotic wood, it is essential that it is acquired from a sustainable source. Much controversy has surround the foresting of rosewood, and in general supplies are poor as a result of exploitation. A recent example is the controversy surrounding intensification of rosewood logging in Madagascar’s national parks which was linked to criminal syndicates. Source: http://www.eia-global.org/PDF/Report--Madagascar--Forest--Aug09--English.pdf

The selection of Indian rosewood was chosen in this particular instance due to it’s high quality and rich colour. It is possible to acquire sustainable rosewood. Other varieties such as the rosewood called Santos Palisander has been found by countries seeking sustainable forestry practices. http://www.eamesfoundation.org/ultimategift/index.html

Sustainable rosewood can also be sourced locally within the UK. Companies such as Brooks Brothers UK, Ltd, remove timbers such as rosewood from old buildings by hand and resupply them. “This material conforms to the highest environmental standards available for timber, thus ensuring no tree has been cut and no building of cultural and historical value has been dismantled,” Hans Ng, head of environment for Brooks Bros UK, Ltd. Source: http://www.treehugger.com/files/2007/09/guilt_free_teak_and_rosewood.php

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14.0 Final Design

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14.0 Final Design

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14.1 Final Design Concept explained

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The final product is a camera that allows friends, family and couples separated by long distances to communicate their day-to-day events through the use of wirelessly paired camera, abstract photography and Zink™ paper technology.

Once both cameras have received their daily image, users are then allowed to feed in a Zink™ paper through one end, which then feeds through the camera, and using an internal heating element, the final photo is produced and fed out the other end.

The cameras would be paired to one another using unique identifier codes and GPRS technology.

The final design didn’t allow for storage of multiple Zink papers as the process of developing the pictures on a daily basis was an important one. The idea was to develop a ritual for the user, in which they could manually feed in the Zink™ paper everyday, which would then disappear into the camera, develop, and come out the other end.

The cameras work by allowing users to take a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 5 photos on a daily basis, any less or more then this would produce images that are either to obvious in nature or conversely contain to much detail and colour, producing an abstract mess. The aesthetic of the design provides no visual reference to what the photo’s will look like. This was intentional and done to further promote the abstract and spontaneous nature of the camera. Once a user fills up his daily 5 photos, the cameras image processor overlays the images creating a single abstract photo. At this stage the image is transmitted across to the paired camera using the embedded GPRS technology. The image will remain unprintable at the other camera until that cameras 5 daily photos are used and sent back across. The reason for this decision was to encourage the use of the camera by both partners.

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14.2 Final Design System flow

64 Yu:mi concept system flow

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1. Paired cameras take between 3 and 5 photos a day 2. The photos are stored on board the cameras flash memory

2 3

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3. The yu:mi image processor automatically creates an image overlay after a period of 24 hours or 5 images, whichever comes first. 4. Once the paired cameras have processed an image, they are sent across to each other using GPRS. Users are only allowed to print the received photo if they have sent a photo across on that same day (reciprocal system) 5. Once both cameras have sent across the image, the user is able to feed a ZInk™ paper through one end of the camera. The paper is then fed through, developed with a heating element inside the camera, and then fed out the other end. The entire process takes up to a minute.

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15.0 Component List

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Components list: 1. Camera back 2. 7 Segment Red LED 3. LED Circuit board 4. Printer top casing 5. Heating element 6. Print roller 7. Printer bottom casing 8. Mini USB port

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2 3 4

5 6 8

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15.0 Component List

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Components list (Continued): 14 16

9. Camera Board

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10

15

10. Lithium Ion Battery 11. Camera Lens/Image processor 12. Pressed Metal housing 13. Shutter release button 14. Power button 15. Glass lens protector 16. Camera front

9 11 12

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15.1 Component Breakdown

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Component 1 - Camera Back

Component 3 - LED Circuit Board

Material: Indian Rosewood

Manufacture: Custom wired circuits

Manufacture: CNC Router

Component 2 - RED 7 Segment LED

Component 8 - Mini USB Port

Quantity: x5

Manufacture: Out sourced

Manufacture: Out sourced

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15.1 Component Breakdown

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Component 5 - Heating Element

Component 7 - Printer bottom casing

Manufacture: Out sourced

Material: Polypropylene (High heat resistance) Manufacture: Injection Moulding

Component 6 - Print roller

Component 8 - Printer top casing

Quantity: x2

Material: Polypropylene (High heat resistance)

Manufacture: Out sourced

Manufacture: Injection Moulding

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15.1 Component Breakdown

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Component 9 - Camera Board

Component 11 - Camera Lens/Image Processor

Manufacture: Out sourced

Detail: 2MB resolution - Fixed focal length Embedded processor

Features: Embedded GPRS/GPS module Flash memory - 4MB

Manufacture: Custom manufacture due to image processor requirements

Component 10 - Lithium Ion Battery

Component 12 - Pressed metal housing

Manufacture: Out sourced

Material: Mild steel Manufacture: Press brake

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15.1 Component Breakdown

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Component 13 - Shutter release button

Component 15 - Glass lens protector

Material: Indian Rosewood

Manufacture: CNC diamond cutter

Manufacture: Laser Cutter

Component 14 - Power button

Component 16 - Camera front

Material: Indian Rosewood

Material: Indian Rosewood

Manufacture: Laser Cutter

Manufacture: CNC router

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15.2 Component Breakdown Costing

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Refer to Technical Specification Document for full technical drawings of components. Component 1 - Camera back

Projected Cost: £3

source: n/a (estimate)

Component 2 - 5no 7 Segment red LED

Projected Cost: £12

source: http://uk.rs-online.com/

Component 3 - LED Circuit Board

Projected Cost: £0.20 Projected Cost: £10

source: Maudslay Technician source: Estimate based on existing products

Projected Cost: £0.85

source: http://uk.farnell.com/

Projected Cost: £7 £15 £0.97

source: Haoze Technology Co., Ltd source: http://uk.rs-online.com/

Component 4, 5, 6, 7 - Zink Printer Component 8 - Mini USB port Component 9 - Camera PCB Board GPRS/GPS Module Flash memory

Component 11 - Camera Lens/Sensor

Projected Cost: £12 Projected Cost: £10 Projected Cost: £2.5

source: http://www.littlebirdelectronics.com (estimate) source: http://www.metalsdepot.com

Component 12 - Pressed steel housing

Projected Cost: £0.03

source: n/a

Component 13 - Shutter release button

Projected Cost: £0.02

source: n/a

Projected Cost: £1 Projected Cost: £3.50

source: http://www.miror.com/estimate.asp (estimate) source: n/a (estimate)

Component 10 - Lithium Ion Battery

Component 14 - Power button Component 15 - Glass lens protector

source: http://www.batteryship.com/

Component 16 - Camera front

TOTAL MANUFACTURE COST: £78.07 RETAIL COST (20% Mark up + 17.5% VAT) = £110.50 (rounded to nearest decimal) Due to price variations in sourcing Indian rosewood, an accurate cost could not be predicted, and is based on rough estimates All costs are based on single component prices, and would be greatly reduced if ordered in bulk.

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16.0 Branding The final product was named ‘yu:mi’ and was kept as a simple greyscale font. This was also done as the name was to be etched onto the front of the cameras and needed to be kept simple. As the camera works in pairs and is targeted to those involved in long distance relationships, abstract words surrounding ‘‘you’ and ‘me’ were explored.

Some of the initial product names were: miyu yoomee meeyou myu yumi yoomi The final chosen word was yumi, and was further developed with a colon to split up the word: yu:mi or You and Me. A Yumi is also the japanese term for ‘bows’. Traditionally manufactured out of bamboo, wood and leather, the ‘yumi’ is often treated with great regard by practitioners.

72 ‘Serious kyūdō practitioners treat the yumi with reverence, as pieces of great power, and as teachers with much to impart to the student (a yumi is said to hold within it part of the spirit of the person who made the yumi). A kyūdō student will never step over a yumi which lies on the ground (that would be considered disrespectful), and will typically treat a yumi as they themselves would wish to be treated (e.g. kept away from excessive heat or cold, kept dry, kept away from excesses of humidity or dryness, carried upright). It is also considered disrespectful to so much as touch another person’s yumi without his/her permission; yumishi (yumi-maker) Kanjuro Shibata has said this is tantamount to touching someone else’s spouse in a sexual manner.’ Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yumi

The term fits nicely with the concept of the camera that deals with intimate relationships and long distance, implying that it is a product that should be treated with respect and taken care off. ‘Yumi’ being the japanese term for ‘bow’, also fits nicely with the concept of ‘shooting’ across photos to one another, like launching an arrow from the bow.

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16.0 Branding

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Final brand name and font: Font: Myriad Pro - Bold

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17.0 Model making

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The front and back components were created using a router and feature a recessed edge on the front as well as the hole for the camera lens with a recessed larger cut on the outside. The back of the camera has a rectangle that was cut in slightly deeper for the LED’s to be mounted, so that only that particular section remained paper thin after sanding so that the LED’s could show through.

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17.0 Model making

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The edges of the front and the back of the camera where then chamfered to a 5mm diameter on the router. The left and right edges of the extrusion on the front of the camera were milled out. These provide the input and output of the Zink™ printer and is where the paper is fed.

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17.0 Model making Laser etching

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The laser etching was designed using Adobe Illustrator and AutoCAD and features floral designs for both cameras and the yu:mi name on the bottom right corner. Test pieces were done on MDF board testing an outline and a fill etch. It was vital that the positioning of the document was accurate when etching the final piece and these tests were to ensure the layout was set up correctly.

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17.0 Model making Laser etching

Laser etch 1

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Laser etch 2

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17.0 Model making

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Whilst attempting to plane down the surface of the back component, in order to achieve a thin section in the middle for the LED lights to shine through, the wood began to warp and split. This was due to lack of support on the inside, as well as the nature of the selected wood. This posed a problem as an alternative solution was required to achieve the desired effect of the LED’s glowing through the material. Further LED testing should have been done with the final selected wood, and as such the initial LED light testing was flawed. In manufacture, the final design would be planed down accurately using CNC machinery, and would feature a clear plastic/glass support on the inside holding the wood grain together. This is an area that will require further research and design.

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17.0 Model making Further LED testing

79 At this stage new options needed to be tested in order to achieve the effect of the LED lights shining through the wood. As the rosewood was not capable of remaining intact when paper thin, other options other then wood were looked at: Fablon sticky back paper with a wood effect, and decal transfer paper.

1. Fablon with wood effect and laser jet decal transfer paper

2. Fablon and decal on clear acrylic

Fablon is a self adhesive coating often used for decorative effect. In this instance an accurate rosewood effect could not be found, and therefore black and red paint were applied over the Fablon to darken the colour. The colour match could be easily adjusted with the paint however attained an ‘un-smooth‘ surface. The decal transfer paper was easier to obtain an exact wood and colour match as scans of the existing components were made and adjusted on screen prior to print.

3. LED through Fablon.

4. LED through decal

Both options tested positively when shining an LED through.

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17.0 Model making

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A 3 mm clear acrylic sheet was cut to the exact dimensions of the cut out made in the back of the camera body. This fitted in place and will be between the LED’s and the decal paper.

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17.0 Model making Buttons

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The camera shutter button and power button were created using the same block of rosewood. These were drawn on AutoCAD and cut using the lasert cutter. A hol was drilled into the top of the front body of the camera to allow the power button to be recessed in the wood. This was done to avoid accidental powering on/off. The power button and shutter button were then glued on to the front body.

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17.0 Model making

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The final model was then waxed with natural beeswax in order to enhance the colour and the grain and to provide a protective coat. The back was then scanned into a computer and the colours were adjusted and matched by creating numerous contact sheets. This brought up numerous problems due to inaccurate screen calibration to the printer being used as well as the effect of light on the white balance. The colours of the wood and the prints varied differently under different lighting (i.e tungsten, fluorescent and daylight). Once the grain and colour of the print relatively matched the camera wood, it was then printed on waterslide decal transfer paper, and applied to the clear acrylic cut out.

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17.0 Model making

83 The internal LED components were produced using a series of 5 red SuperBright LED’s. These were mounted on a custom circuit board and connected to 3 AAA batteries located around the LED’s. In manufacture and in the final design, the batteries would be replaced with a single Lithium Ion battery, and thinner LED’s would be used to maximise internal space. The final electronics were merely to produce a visual prototype of the intended aesthetic.

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17.0 Model making

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The camera lens was the final item to fix onto the camera front. In order to achieve a lens effect, a print out of a camera lens was made and stuck onto some black card. The camera lens glass is a component removed from a disposable film camera which was then fitted in the cut out hole. The lens print was then glued over this in order to show through the other side.

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17.0 Model making Final model

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17.0 Model making Final model

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17.0 Model making Final model

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17.0 Model making Final model

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18.0 Project Evaluation

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Market

Environment

With the intended market being between the ages of 18 to 30, the final product has provided for an enriching and fun way of using photography to communicate. With the current trends in the use of social interaction websites to post photos and provide constant updates to ones peers, the camera targets the market through it’s ability to produce instant visual updates as well as a abstract creative photo, replicating images with a similar effect found in lomography products, an increasing market amongst young adults.

Being a camera, the product can be taken out with the user whenever they please in order to document their day. It’s size allows the device to be portable and easily placed in a pocket or bag.

Distribution The final aesthetic and concept is similar to the ‘gadgetry’ often found in retailers such as ‘Urban Outfitters’ which remain a popular stockist of lomographic equipment and various other ‘trendy’ toys. An online shop would also allow users to order the products online where they could order custom etching on the front facade of the camera. However little research and development into the cameras intended retail environment has been done, and therefore lies as an area for further development.

Aesthetics Manufactured out of wood, the product has a more personal aesthetic then your traditional consumer camera. An added feature to the design was the ability for users to order the cameras with a custom etching, thus making the product personal to the users.

Materials The final chosen material was rosewood. With a deep brown/ red colour with thick grain, the chosen wood provided for a rich appearance and has aided the overall aesthetic for a camera of it’s nature. Wood, being a natural occurring material is also very strong and long lasting, however is subject to fading, scratching and indentation. However these are all positive assets to the product, as it enhances the concept of long distance, time and relationships through it’s aging appearance.

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18.0 Project Evaluation

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Size

Life span

The camera has been design to accommodate all the required electronics, whilst keeping ergonomic factors into consideration. The final design is similar in size and form to existing consumer cameras and is small enough to fit in the users palm, keep in ones pocket or to transport in a bag.

Due to the nature and speed of the development in technology, the product will eventually become obsolete. However this is a long term future projection. Similar to the Polaroid, which has seen a recent revival, the Zink™ paper technology is still in it’s early stages. Similarly, as the camera is only capable of printing fixed resolution images on 2x3 inch Zink™ paper, there is no need for updating the camera lens and sensor to one of higher Megapixels or better image processing. As long as there is a need to fulfil the lack of emotional and physical interaction in long distance relationships, the yu:mi camera should prove to have a long life span.

Ergonomics The cameras overall dimensions were kept to the minimum required to accommodate the internal electronics, however no sacrifice was made to the overall ergonomics, which were based on hand anthropometrics, as well as the dimensions of current consumer point and shoot digital cameras.

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19.0 Summary The early stages of this project were very vague and undefined, however at that stage my interest lay in social interaction as a general subject. Through initial research, I have managed to narrow down a specific interest, in particular the use of technology as a medium of either encouraging or isolating oneself from interaction with other people. It was clear at this point which direction I wanted to take the project, and that was to deal with social interaction between people that are separated by long distances. Initial research showed the importance of physical contact, and its role in relationships to our general happiness and well being. At this point the initial brief aimed to design a product that would encourage communication through physical interaction between separated partners. Further research, in particular the use of cultural probes allowed me to develop and generate ideas, and although not carried out to the depth and extent I would have liked, it has proven an invaluable turning point in the decision making of the final concept. The nostalgia that is associated with diaries and photography, and what was noted through the results of the cultural probes is the primary reason for the use of photography as a means of communication in the final product.

91 I feel that I have successfully achieved this with the final design, which although doesn’t provide for an immediate form of communication, and does not provide for immediate physical feedback (I.e vibration or light), the yu:mi camera has provided separated people with a way of letting each other know what they have been up to during their day, through the use of a photograph. This daily visual update provides the users with mementos that they can collect, and physically keep. The abstract nature of the photographs has created what I feel to be a beautiful final image, with a certain ‘romance’ associated to it. The abstract nature adds an element of fun and intrigue to each photo. The inclusion of the GPS system further reduces the feeling of distance by providing users with a visual reference as to how far they are from each other, which conversely reminds them that they are only a yu:mi photo away, thus encouraging the products use. The reciprocal nature of the product (a photo can only be printed if one is sent) means that it takes two people to make the product work and therefore encouraging the use of the device, and the constant daily communication with each other.

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19.0 Summary

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Overall I am very pleased with the final concept both in terms of the system as well as the final design. When the final model was produced, it was difficult to not see the design as a mere ‘wooden box’, and I needed to remind myself of the reasonings for the aesthetic and material selection, and when putting the product into the context of it’s use, a box turns into an object with much deeper meaning with positive implications and repercussions on our long distance relationships. Admittedly, the project was very slow to start, with initial research taking place at the beginning of the year, and then put on hold until after Christmas. The reason for this was that my second project took over and much time developing and researching took priority. At this stage, I was advised to produce two equally weighted projects, at which point the yu:mi project took priority. Due to the project weighting, amongst numerous deadlines, the reports has not been as in depth as I would have liked, particularly in the areas of development and research into the workings and electronic components. This would have been essential in order to determine the commercial viability of the final product, as well as provide a platform for a possible full working model or system, key to determining the market potential and success of the product. As such, the following pages highlight areas for future development.

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19.1 Summary Areas for further development

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Key areas for further development: Aesthetics

Marketing

Although pleased with the final design aesthetic, with numerous positive feedback, I would have liked to have further explored finer detailing into the manufacture of the camera out of a single piece of wood so that the grain would remain a perfect match when assembled, giving the appearance of being hand carved out of a single solid piece of wood. Different types of timber would also be considered creating different aesthetics with the possible use of different woods used together as well as inlaid veneers.

Further brand development as well as accurately establishing the products retail environment are required in order to further establish the success of the product from a commercial point of view. More time is required developing a strong brand for the yu:mi cameras, along with packaging and promotional material, and selecting retail stores in which the product would best be sold.

Technology Due to the ‘blue sky’ nature of the project, I would have liked to have fully researched the internal components in order to turn the concept into a viable product for manufacture. One disappointing factor of the project was to not be able to produce a working prototype for testing, due to my limited knowledge of electronics and system programming.

yu:mi


19.3 Summary Time planning review

94 The final time spent on the various sections of the design process vary slightly towards the end of the project. The majority of the research was carried out in the first term, prior to the Interim project presentation. However at this stage there was no clear focus or direction for the project. The initial concepts and development didn’t beginning until the second term. The reasons for this are due to focusing on the other 40 credit project. The time plan on the left shows the initial schedule (in grey) with the actual time plan (in red). Overall, I feel the project was well managed, however Initial concepts and development should have begun at an earlier stage. This would have allowed for more concept models and testing to be produced in the workshop in December.

yu:mi


Yu::mi project report  

Final year project report

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