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Race Relations Progress Report for Jacksonville, Florida

Sixth Annual Edition, 2010 Jacksonville Community Council Inc.


Table of Contents

Executive Summary

1

Introduction

2

Perceptions of Race Relations

3

Section

Champion

Education

W.C. Gentry

Employment and Income Housing and Neighborhoods

WorkSource 6 SunTrust 8

Health

Aetna

10

Justice and Legal System

The Justice Coalition

12

Civic Engagement and the Political System

Waste Management 14

4

About JCCI

16

JCCI Model for Community Change

17

The 2010 Race Relations Progress Report Review Committee was chaired by Cleve Warren.

Committee members included:

Inderjit “Vicky” Basra William “Casey” Bulgin Anthony Butler Adrienne Conrad David Crow Brenda Ezell Laureen Husband Mai Keisling Celeste Krueger Karen Landry

Isabelle Lopez Jennifer Mansfield Bobbie O’Connor Michele Snow Charlene Taylor Hill Michael Wachholz Dennis Wade JeffriAnne Wilder Antoinette Williams Dottie Wilson

JCCI, through its reliable research and decades of experience, provides the mortar that joins the best ideas with the best intentions to build a better future for our community. At Terrell Hogan, we are committed to this effort, so we congratulate JCCI for its exceptional and innovative work in identifying emerging trends and presenting a clear picture of our community’s progress in this 6th edition of the Race Relations Progress Report. We are glad to serve as Title Sponsor and to partner in this important work with the City of Jacksonville and the special Champions listed above. Wayne Hogan President, Terrell Hogan


This edition of Jacksonville’s Race Relations Progress Report provides the sixth annual report card for measuring our progress in reducing – and eventually eliminating – race-based disparities. It is meant to provide the facts upon which community solutions can ultimately be based. This Report, and the five that have preceded it, are valuable tools in documenting Jacksonville’s progress, or lack thereof, in addressing racial disparities in our community. The Report means nothing, however, if it is read once, then relegated to sit on a shelf collecting dust. Instead, it should serve as a catalyst for organizations and individuals throughout the community to stand up and do something about our problems. Each of us has a responsibility to help achieve a Jacksonville that provides equal opportunity and fair treatment for all of its citizens, regardless of race, ethnicity or income. We can no longer look to someone else to act. Trend lines indicate that progress in many areas is slow, stagnant, or even in a few cases deteriorating. Indeed, the gap between blacks and whites in the perception of whether racism is even a problem in Jacksonville widened by seven percentage points from 2009 to 2010. The indicators in this Report clearly show that significant racial disparities continue to exist in this community, and it is clear to the Review Committee that public accountability for dealing with these disparities is long overdue. A recurring theme in this year’s Review Committee meetings was the recognition that Jacksonville has truly become a multi-cultural community. In particular, the rapidly growing Hispanic and Asian populations – and the disparities they face – cannot be ignored and must be addressed. While data availability is regrettably scarce on some of the Report’s indicators for Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans, it is the stated goal of the Committee that the multi-cultural makeup of the community be thoroughly reflected in all future editions of this Report.

Executive Summary

“Race relations can be an appropriate issue, but only if you want to craft solutions and not catalogue complaints. If we use the issue appropriately, we can transform it from the cancer of our society into the cure.” - David N. Dinkins, former Mayor of New York City

Some of the specific challenges highlighted in the Report include: Education: Significant disparities exist in each education-related indicator measured, but particularly revealing are the shockingly low percentages of public school children reading at grade level. It is unacceptable that only one of two white and Asian tenth graders does so, but the picture is worse for Hispanic students with one in three successfully reading at the 10th-grade level, and worse yet for Black students with a dismal 17 percent reading at grade level. Employment and Income: The impact of the recent recession, overlaid by our problems in public education, continues to widen racial disparities, particularly unemployment and under-employment. Unemployment rates for blacks now exceed 17 percent, and over 8 percent for whites. Hispanics and Asians fare moderately better than whites. Housing and Neighborhoods: At first glance, it may seem encouraging that the percentage of black homeowners paying 30 percent or more of their household income for housing decreased by four percent over the prior year. The reality, however, is that many black families were forced from their homes and became renters, and the increase in the percentage of black renters paying 30 percent or more for housing more than offset the decrease among black homeowners. Health: While infant mortality rates declined for all racial and ethnic groups measured, the rate of decline was much higher for white infants, increasing the disparity. The number of new HIV cases increased rapidly among black residents in Jacksonville, and declines in the cancer death rates were largely replaced by an increase in the heart disease death rate among black residents. Justice and the Legal System: The gap in inmate admissions among white and black offenders narrowed slightly, but that’s hardly cause for celebration as the incarceration rate for blacks is still more than three times that of whites. Civic Engagement and Politics: Elected officials in Jacksonville in 2010 are 81 percent white and 19 percent black, representing a sharp increase of 13 points in the disparity between the two groups. Notably, no Hispanics or Asians occupy an elected office in City government. In summary, the members of the Review Committee urge each organization and citizen of Jacksonville to step up and identify the role you can play in helping to eliminate racial disparities in our community. We must all recognize that the disparities identified in this Report are not someone else’s problem, but rather a collective responsibility each of us shares to make this a better and more equitable place to live for all.

JCCI 2010 Race Relations Progress Report

Page 1


Introduction

In 2002, JCCI released a citizen-led study, Beyond the Talk: Improving Race Relations. The study documented that racial disparities were prevalent locally in six areas: education, income and employment, housing, health, criminal justice, and the political process. Beyond the Talk concluded that quality of life disparities are caused by multiple factors: individual racism, individual behavior, and the practices of public and private institutions. Beyond the Talk presented a set of 27 recommendations to improve race relations in Jacksonville and to eliminate racial disparities. A primary recommendation stated that JCCI should convene citizens to create and distribute an annual report card on race relations in Jacksonville, modeled after JCCI’s Quality of Life Progress Report. The report card should measure race-based disparities as well as perceptions of racism and discrimination in the community. In 2005, JCCI released its first Race Relations Progress Report, using survey data and community data to measure racial disparities. Many people in the community were involved in helping identify indicators, conduct surveys, participate in focus groups, and understand the results. Others met after the release of the initial report to help guide the creation of follow-up reports, based on lessons learned from the first report. Their efforts on launching this ground-breaking undertaking were and are much appreciated. This is the 2010 update of the Race Relations Progress Report. Volunteer committees determined that the in-depth survey information from the first report should be repeated on a regular basis to update the community’s perceptions of race relations, every four years. In the interim, a clear report card, with concise information on each of the areas covered, should be presented annually to help guide policy decisions and community work, identify priority areas of concern for further investigation and effort, and measure progress toward an inclusive community, free of race-based disparities and discrimination. Committee members have been concerned that the Race Relations Progress Report shows as much information as possible about the various racial and ethnic populations in Jacksonville. In all cases where the data were available, this report shows trends among white, black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American residents of Jacksonville. In some cases, accurate data were simply not available. Caution should be taken in interpreting trendlines where there are large fluctuations in the graphs, which tends to occur when the base population is small. Also, because “Hispanic” refers to ethnicity and not race, care should be taken with population estimates. The 2009 American Community Survey provided the following information about Duval County’s population: 2009

White 58.5%

Black 28.9%

Hispanic 6.5%

Asian 3.8%

Native American 0.3%

Other 2.0%

The University of Florida’s Bureau of Economic and Business Research provided these detailed estimates and projections of Jacksonville’s population (non-Hispanic white and black populations represented): 2000 2005 2010 2020 2030

White 64.5% 60.8% 58.1% 53.8% 50.2%

Black 28.0% 30.1% 30.2% 31.8% 33.0%

Hispanic 4.1% 5.4% 7.7% 9.7% 11.6%

Other 3.4% 3.7% 4.0% 4.6% 5.2%

Total Population 778,879 861,150 899,535 1,007,613 1,120,624

Survey Methodology: The surveys in this report were conducted by American Public Dialogue for the JCCI Quality of Life Progress Report. The survey was designed to provide a representative sampling of the Jacksonville population as a whole, and is less reliable statistically when looking at sub-population responses. Standard deviations are +/- 5.5% for white responses and +/- 9.1% for black responses. For all other racial or ethnic categories, the margin of error is too high to provide any meaningful information. Every four years, JCCI conducts a more in-depth survey on perceptions of race relations and experiences with racism. In 2008, with help from new funding partners, JCCI was able to obtain statistically significant survey representation among white, black, and Hispanic respondents. Its results can be seen at www.jcci.org. JCCI would like to be able to conduct more detailed surveys among targeted populations. To assist in this initiative, please contact JCCI at (904) 396-3052. Page 2

JCCI 2010 Race Relations Progress Report


The Beyond the Talk study concluded, “The wide range of perceptions among Jacksonville’s citizens about past and current racial disparities impedes resolution of all problems in race relations.” Shared understanding of the extent of the problem is often a prerequisite to reaching agreement on how to solve that problem. JCCI has been tracking perceptions of racism in Jacksonville since 1985. The survey question asks, In your opinion during the last year, do you feel that racism is a problem in Jacksonville?

“Yes” responses (racism is a problem):

2009 2010 Difference White 49% 48% - 1% Black 74% 80% + 6%

See Survey Methodology on page 2 for more information about the limitations of the data for other racial or ethnic populations.

Source: American Public Dialogue

In 2009, 25 points separated white and black reported perceptions that racism was a community problem; in 2010, the gap had grown to 32 points. Perceptions reflect only what is on people’s minds, and may not accurately portray the extent of racism in the community.

Personal Experiences of Racism The Beyond the Talk study also found that differing perceptions about race relations are related to differences in experiences and perceptions of discrimination. Since 2000, JCCI has been tracking how people respond to the question, Thinking about your own possible experience with racism, do you believe that you have personally experienced racism during the past year while shopping, while at work, or while renting or buying housing in Jacksonville? “Yes” responses to shopping, which consistently have been the highest responses, are represented in the graph.

2010 “Yes” responses (personally experienced racism):

White Black

Work 4% 22%

Shopping 8% 28%

Housing 1% 15%

See Survey Methodology on page 2 for more information about the limitations of the data for other racial or ethnic populations.

Source: American Public Dialogue

Perceptions & Experiences of Racism

Perceptions of Racism as a Problem in Jacksonville

In 2009, 37 percent of black respondents said that they had personally experienced racism while shopping; in 2010, responses had decreased to 28 percent. Of the three survey questions, shopping reflects a more universal and constant activity, compared to work or those buying or renting housing.

JCCI 2010 Race Relations Progress Report

Page 3


Education

Reading At Grade Level, By Grade, 2009-10 During the course of a child’s experience in school, the expectations in reading become more difficult. The tests become harder. While more is expected of all students, the achievement gaps (already significant in the third grade) widen even further. By grade level, reading scores were as follows: Percentage of public school students reading at grade level (FCAT SSS), 2009-10: Native Grade White Black Hispanic Asian American 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

81% 82% 79% 75% 78% 66% 60% 50%

57% 53% 53% 46% 51% 35% 24% 17%

68% 72% 66% 60% 64% 50% 43% 33%

82% 79% 79% 76% 78% 64% 58% 47%

80% 94% 92% 82% 69% 67% 50% 54%

Source: Florida Department of Education

In third grade, 24 points separated the rates of white and black students reading at grade level, and 13 points separated white and Hispanic percentages, both improved from 2008-09. In 10th grade, the gap was 33 percentage points between white and black students and 17 between white and Hispanic students, compared to 33 and 19 points, respectively, in 2008-09.

FCAT Reading Proficiency The 2008 Strategic Plan for the Duval County Public Schools states, “The achievement gap in Duval County can and must be eliminated.” Reading scores at grade level (Level 3 or above on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test [FCAT], Sunshine State Standards [SSS], and alternative assessments) are a key measure of this gap.

The percentage of all students who were reading at grade level or above was: 2008-09 2009-10 Difference White 72% 72% + 0% Black 43% 43% + 0% Hispanic 55% 57% + 2% Asian 72% 72% + 0% Native Am. 75% 76% + 1% Source: Florida Department of Education In 2008-09, 29 percentage points separated white and black student scores; in 2009-10, the gap remained unchanged. In 2009-10, the gap between white and Hispanic scores was 15 points, down from 17 points in 2008-09. Page 4

JCCI 2010 Race Relations Progress Report


The Beyond the Talk: Improving Race Relations study found that “eliminating disparities in school performance is critical to ensuring a high quality of life for all Jacksonville citizens.” The following year, the Public Education Reform study called the achievement gap the “primary challenge facing the public education system,” and launched a further study on how to eliminate the achievement gap. Graduating from high school is usually a prerequisite to good employment and to furthering one’s education. In this area, graduation rates improved, but the gap between the four-year graduation rates of black and white students is larger. Graduation rates: 2008-09 2009-10 Difference White 74% 80% + 6% Black 58% 66% + 8% Hispanic 60% 69% + 9% Asian 83% 82% - 1% Native Am. 55% 82% + 27%

Education

High School Graduation Rates

Source: Duval County Public Schools In 2008-09, 16 percentage points separated white and black student graduation rates; in 2009-10, rates had improved, and the gap had decreased to 14 percentage points. The gap between white and Hispanic graduation rates decreased from 14 points in 2008-09 to 11 points in 2009-10.

Educational Attainment, 2009 Educational attainment measures the percentage of adults 25 years of age or older who have high school diplomas (or the equivalent) and those who have college degrees. The gap in educational attainment remains high and is increasing in the area of college degrees. Educational Attainment: High School Diplomas 2000 2009

White Black Hispanic Asian 86.1% 74.1% 79.0% 81.2% 91.0% 79.3% 77.9% 86.4%

Educational Attainment: Bachelor’s Degree or Higher 2000 2009

White Black Hispanic Asian 24.6% 13.1% 21.8% 34.4% 29.3% 16.2% 21.1% 48.1%

Source: American Community Survey

More details on these and other indicators can be found at www.jcci.org.

The education of Jacksonville’s children - all of them - is the responsibility of each of us. The resources they need now - through literacy, education and hope - come from us all, and will follow them for the rest of their lives. -W.C. Gentry JCCI 2010 Race Relations Progress Report

W.C. Gentry Page 5


Employment and Income

Unemployment Rates In 2004, the American Community Survey, a program of the U.S. Census, began calculating unemployment rates by race at the county level. While unemployment increased from 2008 to 2009, black unemployment rose at a faster rate, which meant that the gap in unemployment rates between white and black workers increased. Unemployment rates:

White Black Hispanic Asian

2008

2009

Difference

5.4% 11.4% 5.6% 4.8%

8.2% 17.1% 7.4% 5.5%

+ 2.8% + 5.7% + 1.8% + 0.7%

Source: American Community Survey In 2008, 6.0 percentage points separated white and black unemployment rates; in 2009, the black unemployment rate was 8.9 percentage points higher than the white rate.

Median Household Income Median household income, as measured by the American Community Survey and adjusted for inflation, declined for both black and white households in 2008, and the gap increased slightly. This meant that in 2008, black median household income was 62 percent of white median household income, down from 63 percent in 2007, while Hispanic median household income grew from 76 to 81 percent of white non-Hispanic household income. Median household income:

White Black Hispanic Asian

2008

2009

Difference

$58,978 $36,508 $47,742 $74,524

$55,177 $32,254 $38,253 $60,243

- $3,801

- $4,254 - $9,489 - $14,281

Source: American Community Survey

In 2008, $22,470 separated the median income for white and black households; in 2009, that number had risen to $22,923. The gap between white and Hispanic household income grew from $11,236 in 2008 to $16,924 in 2009.

Page 6

JCCI 2010 Race Relations Progress Report


Children in families with a household income of less than 130 percent of the poverty line ($28,540) are eligible for the free lunch program at school, and children in families with a household income of less than 185 percent of the poverty line ($39,517) are eligible for reduced-price lunches. For example, if the family had four people in it, the official United States poverty line in 2009 for a family their size was $21,954. 130 percent of the poverty line would be $28,540 and 185 percent would be $39,517 for this example family of four. Black schoolchildren in Duval County public schools participate in this program at more than twice the rate as white children, suggesting much higher rates of children in low-income households. Hispanic children participate at nearly twice the rate of white children. Free and reduced-price lunch participation rates: 2008-09 White 27% Black 66% Hispanic 55% Asian 27% Native American 37%

2009-10 31% 69% 56% 29% 36%

Difference + 4% + 3% + 1% + 2% - 1%

Source: Duval County Public Schools

This indicator excludes children in private schools, and may understate the need because older schoolchildren, especially in high school, may opt out of the program even if their family is eligible to participate.

Percent of Births Using Medicaid as Payment Source A pregnant woman qualifies for Medicaid if the total income for the family falls under 185 percent of the Federal Poverty Level . This indicator on births to mothers who use Medicaid as a payment source is one way to measure the percentage of children who are born into low-income households.

Employment and Income

Children in Low Income Households

Births paid for by Medicaid: 2008 2009 Difference White 33.0% 35.2% + 2.2% Black 63.9% 66.8% + 2.9% Hispanic 54.2% 51.9% - 2.3% In 2009, 35 percent of all white children born in Duval County had their births paid for by Medicaid, a measure of low family income. Just under twice that percentage of black children were born to low-income mothers, at 67 percent. Over half of all Hispanic children were also born to low-income mothers.

Source: Florida Department of Health

More details on these and other indicators can be found at www.jcci.org.

The foundation of a great community is eroded by poverty. Skills training and education, the keys to better jobs, are the cornerstone of economic success for all citizens. - Bruce Ferguson, CEO JCCI 2010 Race Relations Progress Report

Page 7


Housing and Neighborhoods

School Residential Desegregation By Zip Code One way of assessing Jacksonville’s progress in addressing residential patterns of racial desegregation is to examine where people live, based on the race and ethnicity of children attending Duval County Public Schools. The data demonstrate differences in school attendance patterns, from zip codes in which 94 percent of all public school children are black to ones in which 76 percent of all school children are white. This indicator excludes magnet or alternative school programs, allowing for a comparison of only neighborhood schools. Based on neighborhood school attendance, most Jacksonville zip codes are desegregated. A few zip codes are identifiably white or black (meaning that 70 percent or more of the students come from a single race or ethnicity.) In 2009, the racially identifiable zip codes were:

32208 93.5% Black students 32206 83.9% Black students 32204 78.6% Black students 32250 76.0% White students Source: Florida Department of Education 32234 74.0% White students

Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety The quality of housing and the quality of neighborhoods are important factors in the quality of life. One way to reflect the quality of housing is the perceived safety of neighborhoods. In surveys, Jacksonville residents reported different feelings of safety about their neighborhoods in response to the question, Do you feel safe walking alone in your neighborhood at night? “Yes” responses (feeling safe): White Black

2008 2009 Difference 65% 65% + 0% 43% 53% + 10%

In 2009, the gap between black and white respondents who felt safe walking around their neighborhoods at night was 22 points. In 2009, black respondents felt safer, and the gap decreased to 12 points.

Source: American Public Dialogue

More details on these and other indicators can be found at www.jcci.org. Page 8

JCCI 2010 Race Relations Progress Report


Purchasing a home is often the largest investment a person will make. In the Jacksonville metropolitan area, applications for conventional home mortgage loans are denied more often for black applicants than they are for white applicants. When the data is sorted by income levels, based on a median family income of $65,100 in 2009, the disparities are much higher among middle and high-income households.

Conventional mortgage denial rates in 2009 were:

Very Low Income (under $32,550)

White 29.5%

Black 26.7%

Hispanic 36.8%

18.9%

27.5%

20.9%

Middle income ($52,080-78,119)

15.6%

32.1%

19.2%

Source: Home Mortgage Disclosure Act

11.7%

20.0%

13.0%

Low Income ($32,550-$52,079)

High income (over $78,120)

In 2009, the difference between conventional mortgage denial rates between white and black applicants fell in all income categories, compared to 2008. The difference between white and Hispanic denial rates also declined in 2009, relative to 2008.

Households Paying 30 Percent of Monthly Income for Housing The cost of housing is generally the most significant item in a household budget. In general, housing is considered to be “affordable” if it costs less than 30 percent of the total monthly household income. In 2009, 37 percent of white homeowners in Duval County paid more than the “affordable” benchmark for housing, compared to 50 percent of black homeowners. Among those renting their housing, 49 percent of white households paid more than 30 percent of their monthly income for housing, compared to 64 percent of black renters. Data were not available for Hispanic or Asian homeowners or renters. Homeowners paying more than 30% for housing: White Black

2008 2009 Difference 36% 37% + 1% 54% 50% - 4%

Housing and Neighborhoods

Mortgage Denial Rates, 2009

Renters paying more than 30% for housing: White Black

2008 2009 Difference 48% 49% + 1% 57% 64% + 7%

Source: American Community Survey In 2008, the gap between white and black homeowners was 18 points; in 2009, the gap declined to 13 points. Among renters, the gap increased from 9 to 15 points in 2009. The percent of households paying 30 percent or more of their monthly income for housing rose for all populations except for black homeowners.

The American Dream is the promise of prosperity, where every citizen can achieve a better and happier life. That includes equal access to safe, affordable homes within the financial means of every family. -David Mann, CEO North Florida JCCI 2010 Race Relations Progress Report

Page 9


Health

Infant Death Rate The infant mortality rate (the number of infants that die before reaching one year of age per 1,000 infants born) is a sentinel indicator used to evaluate a population’s overall health and access to health care. JCCI’s 2008 Infant Mortality study concluded: “The failure of our community to successfully address the longstanding issues of racism, poverty, and socio-economic disparities is killing our babies. The high infant mortality rate is not merely a health problem and not merely a black problem, it is everyone’s problem.”

Infant death rates per 1,000 infants born:

2008 2009 Difference White 7.1 5.5 - 1.6 Black 13.9 13.6 - 0.3 Hispanic 7.7 6.2 - 1.5

Source: Florida Department of Health In 2009, the gap between black and white infant death rates increased from 6.8 to 8.1 points as infant death rates decreased, but white infant death rates decreased by much more than black infant death rates. Caution should be taken in interpreting trendlines where there are large fluctuations in the graphs, which tends to occur when the base population is small, such as the number of Hispanic infants born during the year. See page 2 for more information.

Rate of New HIV Cases The Human Immunodeficiency Virus, or HIV, is a disease which may lead to serious health consequences. People who test positive for HIV may or may not contract Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, or AIDS, a debilitating and often fatal disease. In Jacksonville, the rate of new HIV cases in the black population is five-anda-half times the rate of the white population, and the numbers are growing. New HIV cases per 100,000 population: White Black Hispanic

2008 2009 Difference 16.9 17.2 + 0.3 93.7 115.2 + 21.5 34.0 30.7 - 3.3

Source: Duval County Health Department In 2008, 77 points separated white and black rates per 100,000 for new HIV cases; in 2009, the gap was up to 98 points, with both white and black rates increasing. Hispanic rates for new HIV cases declined, with the gap 13 points above white rates. More details on these and other indicators can be found at www.jcci.org. Page 10

JCCI 2010 Race Relations Progress Report


Heart disease is the leading cause of death in Duval County. Between 1996 and 2005, the disparity in age-adjusted heart disease death rates between white and black residents shrunk from 95 points to 20 points, while overall death rates due to heart disease have been falling. In 2006 and 2007, disparities increased, but the rates converged in 2008.

Health

Heart Disease Death Rate

Age-adjusted heart disease death rates per 100,000:

White Black Hispanic

2008

2009

Difference

177.6 201.3 163.1

164.7 221.1 111.2

- 12.9 + 19.8 - 51.9

Source: Florida Department of Health In 2009, 56 points separated white and black age-adjusted heart disease death rates, up from 24 points in 2008. Hispanic death rates due to heart disease were 54 points below white death rates.

Cancer Death Rate Cancer is the second leading cause of death in Duval County. The disparity in overall cancer death rates had disappeared in 2001 before growing through 2005. The gap once again closed in 2007. Age-adjusted cancer death rates per 100,000:

White Black Hispanic

2008

2009

Difference

189.7 194.5 93.7

188.0 162.4 89.0

- 1.7 - 32.1 - 4.7

In 2009, with significant improvement in cancer rates among Jacksonville’s black population, 26 points separated white and black age-adjusted cancer death rates, a shift from 2008 when cancer rates were worse Source: Florida Department of Health for blacks than for whites. Hispanic cancer death rates remain far below white or black cancer death rates (respectively 99 and 73 points below in 2009.)

The elimination of health disparities in our community is critically important. It is imperative that we work together to ensure access to compassionate, quality and effective care for all. -Frank Cobbin, SVP Operations JCCI 2010 Race Relations Progress Report

Page 11


Justice and the Legal System

Inmate Admissions per 1,000 Population for Misdemeanors The 2002 Beyond the Talk: Improving Race Relations study found that “the disproportionate number of blacks who are incarcerated in Jacksonville contributes to the incidence of single-parent families, economic disparities, disproportionate disenfranchisement, and the perception that racial minorities should distrust the criminaljustice system.” Total inmate admissions for misdemeanors: 2008 2009 Difference White 16,241 14,379 - 1,862 Black 17,121 14,620 - 2,861 Inmate admissions per 1,000 population: White Black Source: Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office

2008 38.9 88.2

2009 34.3 77.8

Difference - 4.6 - 10.4

In 2009, more black offenders than white offenders were incarcerated for misdemeanors. The incarceration rate for black offenders per 1,000 people was more than double that of the white rate, but had declined 10 points since 2008.

Inmate Admissions per 1,000 Population for Felonies In 2009, total inmate admissions, compared to the general community population, were as follows: Total population Inmate admissions White 58.5% 45.5% Black 28.9% 53.5% The Department of Corrections does not currently collect data for other racial or ethnic populations. Total inmate admissions for felonies: White Black

2008 6,691 10,406

2009 6,253 9,644

Difference - 438 - 762

Inmate admissions per 1,000 population: Source: Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office 2008 2009 Difference White 16.0 14.9 - 1.1 Black 53.6 51.3 - 2.3 In 2009, 50 percent more black offenders were incarcerated for felony offenses than white offenders. The incarceration rate per 1,000 population was over three times that of white offenders, but the gap narrowed slightly from 2008. Page 12

JCCI 2010 Race Relations Progress Report


In 2009, the Florida Office of Vital Statistics recorded 117 homicides, down from 124 in 2008. A homicide is one person killing another person, no matter the reason. A homicide counts as a murder when the killing is determined to be criminal. Homicides also include justifiable, excusable or accidental killings, which are not included in the murder rate. Total homicides: 2008 2009 Difference White 35 27 - 8 Black 88 83 - 5 Hispanic 7 10 + 3 Homicide rate per 100,000 people: 2008 2009 Difference White 6.0 4.5 - 1.5 Black 28.2 26.4 - 1.8 Hispanic 13.3 15.0 + 1.7

Source: Florida Office of Vital Statistics

In 2009, 22 points separated white and black homicide rates, with the gap the same as in 2008 as both homicide rates declined. Hispanic homicide rates, however, increased, and were three times the white homicide rate.

Youth Referred to Department of Juvenile Justice In 2008-09, 4,821 youths ages 10-17 (both male and female) in Duval County were referred to the Department of Juvenile Justice. This represents about five percent of the total youth population. By race and ethnicity, the percentage of youth ages 10-17 referred to Juvenile Justice were as follows. Referrals to Department of Juvenile Justice: White Black Hispanic

2007-08 3.5% 7.8% 1.2%

2008-09 3.4% 7.9% 1.4%

Difference - 0.1% + 0.1% + 0.2%

Justice and the Legal System

Homicide Rates per 1,000 Population

In 2008-09, 4.5 percentage points separated the rates at which black and white juveniles were referred, up from 4.3 points in 2007-08. Hispanic youths were referred at much lower rates, at just over one percent of youth in 2007-08 and 2008-09. Source: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice

More details on these and other indicators can be found at www.jcci.org.

“Justice is the great interest of man on earth. It is the ligament which holds civilized beings and civilized nations together.� ~ Daniel Webster, 1782 - 1852 JCCI 2010 Race Relations Progress Report

Page 13


Civic Engagement and Politics

Voter Registration Engagement in the political process often begins with registering to vote. In 1994, 64 percent of the white population over 18 was registered to vote, compared to 62 percent of the black population over 18. In 2004, black voter registration rates reached 81 percent of the adult black population, exceeding white voter registration rates. Since then, rates have declined. Because reliable population estimates between Census years by age for Asian and Native American populations are not available, rates could not be calculated.

Voter registration rates in 2010:

White Black Hispanic Asian Native Am.

Registered

Percent

331,459 143,950 18,320 13,419 1,863

80% 76% 37%

Difference (2009) 0% - 3% - 1%

---

Source: Supervisor of Elections In 2010, white voter registration rates exceeded black voter registration rates by four points, up from one point in 2009. Hispanic voter registration rates declined by one point, and remained 40 points below white or black voter registration rates.

Voter Turnout Registering to vote is one step. Exercising the right to vote is the next step. Voter turnout rates in presidential election years, such as 2008, or state/congressional election years, such as 2010, are traditionally higher than in local election years, such as 2007. In 2009, no general elections were held, though a few special elections were held with limited turnout. Voter turnout rates in State elections: 2006 2010 Difference White 47.3% 54.9% + 7.6% Black 34.2% 44.3% + 10.1% Hispanic 25.3% 31.2% + 5.9%

Source: Supervisor of Elections

In 2010, the gap between white voter turnout (at 55 percent) and black voter turnout (at 44 percent) had decreased to 11 from 13 points in 2006; the gap between white and Hispanic voter turnout had increased from 22 to 24 points.

Page 14

JCCI 2010 Race Relations Progress Report


Elected officials in Jacksonville tend to reflect the black and white demographics used in developing designated minority-access districts.

Jacksonville elected officials, 2010

White Black Hispanic Asian City Council 78% 22% 0% 0% State legislators 82% 18% 0% 0% School Board 71% 29% 0% 0% Other elected officials 100% 0% 0% 0% “Other elected officials” refers to the five county-wide elected officials, Mayor, Sheriff, Property Appraiser, Supervisor of Elections, and Tax Collector. At the end of 2010, the City Council District 12 seat was vacant, as its Source: Supervisor of Elections former occupant (who was white) had been appointed to the State Legislature. In 2010, black residents made up 30 percent of Total elected officials: Jacksonville’s population, but only 19 percent of its elected officials, a gap that had grown from 4 2009 2010 Difference to 11 points from 2009. Hispanic residents, at eight White 74% 81% + 7% percent of the population, and Asian residents, at Black 26% 19% - 7% nearly four percent, were not reflected in City Hispanic 0% 0% 0% elected office. Asian 0% 0% 0%

Perceived Lack of Influence One key measure of civic engagement is the perception of one’s ability to influence government. Negative responses increased in response to the question, As a citizen of Jacksonville, how would you describe your ability to influence local government decision making? Would you say that you have great influence, moderate influence, a little influence, or no influence at all? Little or No influence survey responses: 2009 2010 Difference White 75% 78% + 3% Black 69% 68% - 1%

Civic Engagement and Politics

Local Elected Officials by Race

Totals may not add up to 100, as some respondents refuse to answer the question.

Between 2000 and 2010, the percentage of black respondents who reported having little to no influence in local government decision making rose from 19 to 68 percent.

Source: American Public Dialogue

More details on these and other indicators can be found at www.jcci.org.

We all have a personal interest in helping make our communities better places to work and live. Supporting efforts to make communities safer, stronger, better and more fun is our primary responsibility. - David McConnell, Vice President JCCI 2010 Race Relations Progress Report

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About JCCI

2010-11 JCCI Board of Directors President William C. Mason President-Elect John Hirabayashi Secretary/Treasurer Allison Korman Shelton Immediate Past President Christine Arab Vice Presidents Dorcas G. Tanner Juliette Mason Stephen Lee Rena Coughlin Lisa V. Moore JCCI Forward Development Officer Crystal Jones

Board of Directors Jeanne M. Miller Lee R. Brown III JF Bryan IV

Suzanne Montgomery

Moody L. Chisholm Jr.

Elexia Coleman-Moss

Adrienne Conrad

Ronald E. Natherson Jr.

Wyman R. Duggan

Stephen Pollan

Micheal Edwards

Wade Rice

Allan T. Geiger

Mario Rubio

Nathaniel Glover

Derrick Smith

Rocelia Gonzalez

Susan B. Towler

Broderick Green

Board Interns Leah Donelan

Matthew Kane Joshua B. Lief

Gary Goldberg

JCCI Staff Charles R. “Skip” Cramer Executive Director Ben Warner Deputy Director

Demetrius Jenkins Administrative Coordinator

Katie Ross Community Planner

Amanda Mousa Communications & JCCI Forward Coordinator

Michelle Simkulet Finance Director & Director JCCI Forward

Steve Rankin Director of Implementations & Special Projects

Molly Wahl Director of Development & Community Outreach

Jacksonville Community Council Inc. (JCCI) was created in 1975 with the goal of improving the quality of life in Jacksonville through informed citizen participation in public affairs. JCCI is a nonprofit, nonpartisan, broadbased civic organization. It involves citizens in community issues through open dialogue, impartial research, consensus building, and leadership development. JCCI has been called Jacksonville’s “citizen think-and-do tank.” This is the place where community-minded people get together to explore issues of community importance, identify problems, discover solutions, and advocate for positive change. All are welcome to participate – every voice is needed and every thought matters. JCCI receives funding from United Way of Northeast Florida, the City of Jacksonville, grants, corporations, and individual members. JCCI membership is open to all interested in building a better community. For more information about JCCI and how you can get involved or to donate to JCCI, visit www.jcci.org. Page 16

JCCI 2010 Race Relations Progress Report


The vision provides a destination, but no more. We need to know where we are in relation to that vision. For that purpose, JCCI engages the community to develop and review community indicators every year that measure our progress toward our vision. We publish these reports annually as the Quality of Life Progress Report and the Race Relations Progress Report, as well as in the continuallyupdated Community Snapshot on our website www.jcci.org. With the knowledge we gain from the indicators, we can determine our priorities for action. The indicators by themselves don’t tell us what to do; they are descriptive, not prescriptive. They inform our planning processes through our community studies, where we can determine how we as a community need to move forward to address the issues identified by the indicators where we fall short of our vision. The community study process engages the community to develop solutions, by consensus, to get us moving in the right direction. The recommendations from our studies gain their power for change from the volunteers who work tirelessly to turn reports into action through our implementation advocacy process. JCCI reports never stay on a shelf; to continue our travel analogy further, our volunteers are the pleasing voice of the GPS unit helping our civic institutions with a cheerful “turn here.” It is because of this action component that JCCI is often described as a “think-and-do tank.” The actions get results. Recommendations are implemented. Policies change. Programs develop and respond. But that is not enough. JCCI monitors the results and outcomes of its study and implementation efforts and assesses results. You can read the assessments in the final implementation reports on our website. Beyond those reports, however, we are interested in lasting, sustainable community change. The community indicators reports serve as the final piece in the community change model, keeping us focused on measuring progress toward the vision. They serve as the ultimate evaluation tool to ensure that our efforts are making a real difference for the community. Community Works is the consulting arm of JCCI. We have over 35 years of experience in engaging residents to build better communities, and have been working with individuals and organizations around the world for the past two decades to replicate our success. In order to better serve you, we’ve launched a website to share the transformative power of people coming together to create a better future. Please visit www.communityworks.us.com to see how our Consulting, Community Engagement, or Indicators work might be part of your model for sustainable change.

JCCI 2010 Race Relations Progress Report

JCCI Model for Community Change

The JCCI Model for Community Change begins with working with the community to understand and articulate a shared vision for the future, based on the values and priorities of the people who live, work, and play in the area. Change must be driven by a vision of both what needs to improve and what needs to be preserved; the vision serves as a destination for the road map to follow.

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JCCI would like to acknowledge the many Community Focused Organizations that are working on eliminating race-based disparities in Jacksonville. 100 Black Men of Jacksonville African American Chamber of Commerce Asian American Chamber of Commerce Black Infant Health Community Council Boot Camp for New Dads (Shands Jacksonville) The CAUCUS Community Foundation in Jacksonville and Project Breakthrough Council on Social Status of Black Males and Boys Duval County Public Schools Office of Equity & Inclusion DEEN Wellness Center

Duval County Health Department E3 Business Group, Inc. Edward Waters College Healthy Mothers Healthy Babies Jacksonville Birthing Project Jacksonville Diversity Network Jacksonville Human Rights Commission Jacksonville Men’s Health Coalition LISC Jacksonville Living4Today Inspirations, Inc. MAD DADS NAACP New Town Success Zone

Northeast Florida Community Action Agency Northeast Florida Healthy Start Coalition Northwest Jacksonville Community Corp. OneJax Operation New Hope Project Male (Cage Consulting) Reclaiming Young Black Males Initiative SPARK, Inc. Upward Bound Urban League War on Poverty Women of Color Cultural Foundation

Did we miss someone? If your organization or initiative is not listed, please contact JCCI at info@jcci.org.

Title Sponsor

Champions W.C. Gentry

In-Kind Printing Sponsor: Special thanks to those whose generouse support made this report possible, including the Jacksonville Human Rights Commission and the City of Jacksonville, our Title Sponsor and Champions, and the Jacksonville community.


2010 Race Relations Progress Report