THE HOUSE THAT BEEBO BUILT
Written by Miranda Armstrong and Julie Boyd
A STUDY OF HUMAN RIGHTS An Upper Primary Integrated
National Curriculum Unit • Studies of Society and Environment • Technology • Arts • English. • Mathematics. • Science
A rigorous learning experience designed to • ENGAGE students, capturing and sustaining their interest. • ENCODE the information in their memories by providing meaningful experiences set in appropriate contexts. • ENTHRALL and maintain student interest by immersing them in the learning journey • ENQUIRE by guiding students to achieve particular learning goals. • ENGINEER lifestyle changes based on the learning outcomes (action) • EVALUATE
THE HOUSE THAT BEEBO BUILT
By Julie Boyd and Miranda Armstrong
First published 1997 Second Edition 2000 Third Edition 2009 ÂŠ Lifeâ€™s A Beach Consultancy PO Box 66 Hastings Point, NSW 2489
1 876153 05 9
Originally published simultaneously in Australia, Japan, New Zealand and the United States of America.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, including electronic transmission or copying, photocopying or other means, without prior written permission from the publisher.
Please note: These units are designed for educators who have some experience in Integrating Curriculum and in Collaborative/Cooperative Learning. For those who are starting along this learning path we would be very happy to recommend resources which may be able to assist you further. This unit may be used according to the needs of the teacher and class for anything between a six week and 12 month period. The unit is designed not to be sequential, but so that you can choose areas of interest and appropriateness. For further resources to assist with facilitating face to face student learning go to resources at
Table of contents 1. Section 1: Unit Overview and Introduction Introduction ........................................................................... 7 Setting the scene ................................................................ 11 Conceptual Links ................................................................ 13
2. Section 2: Structure of the unit The story ............................................................................ 15 Adapting the principle of the story ...................................... 19 Essential and Optional Learning ........................................ 20 Structuring the learning environment ................................. 21
3. Section 3: Implementing the unit Getting started.....................................................................23 Step 1- Capturing student interest ...................................... 25 Step 2- Setting up home ..................................................... 29 Step 3- Setting up a village ................................................ 39 Step 4- Village life .............................................................. 45 Step 5- Losing the dream ................................................... 47
Extension Challenge: Wolves
National Curriculum Links
The unit is based on the picture storybook The House That Beebo Built. The original book has not been in print for some time, and we receive constant requests for it from those for whom it was a favorite childhood book. As such we have digitised a copy of the book. We are unable to track the authors or original publishers so all proceeds from the dissemination of the digitised version of the book are donated to Amnesty International and Medicines Sans Frontieres which we feel sure the authors would approve. Click below to go to the site to order the digitised book
http://www.julieboyd.net.au/Index.asp?pagename =displayprod&id=5584&category=Education+Res ources&categoryid=1937
INTRODUCING INTEGRATED CURRICULUM FOR MINDFUL LEARNING
The challenge for teachers now and in the future is going to be to create coordinated and integrated learning opportunities for students. As we learn more about the process of learning, and use this to integrate our responses to a rapidly changing world, teaching is becoming a process of facilitation of effective learning rather than simply the transmission of accepted, imposed, compartmentalized curriculum. We believe that successful learning and development requires a purposeful approach to learning, facilitated by teachers who have strong philosophical, theoretical and principle-centered bases. These educators work to create a powerful alignment between the learning environment, an integrated approach to conceptually based learning in interactive classrooms, and an approach to assessment in which the individual ultimately learns to assess and challenge themselves. We envision a coherent curriculum that would do justice to the integrity of each subject and also bring each to bear on all the others in a way that reflects an integrated, as opposed to compartmentalized, approach to real life. This curriculum was originally developed based on the National Curriculum which has been ongoing for some time. As the new National Curriculum has not yet been released, references in this relate to the integration of the fields identified in the new curriculum.
This approach to Interdisciplinary Curriculum includes: A. A conceptual learning basis based on key ideas and questions; focused on the learner, based on inquiry, questioning and experiential learning through participation in story. B. An emphasis on the processes of learning, as well as student retention and use of knowledge which seeks to develop student understanding. C. The incorporation of the most powerful learnings from the best researchers and advocate leaders in the field. These include Kieran Egan’s storyform (based on living within story), Susan Kovalik’s Integrated Thematic Instruction (based on brain-based learning), Renate and Geoffrey Caine’s focus on making connections and brain-based learning, Edward Clark’s circular matrix based on questioning, James Bean’s and Garth Boomer’s approach to negotiated curriculum, Briggs’ ProblemBased Learning, Lilian Katz’s project approach, Pigden’s use of process subjects as the focus for integration and Heidi Hayes Jacob’s emphasis on maintaining the integrity of the disciplines within an integrated context. D. Aligns a conceptually based curriculum with interactive, experiential and cooperative learning, a range of learning styles, extended thinking and problem-solving, and numerous other strategies found to enhance learning effectively. E. All units incorporate local, Australian National and International Curriculum Frameworks and include references to specific subject area disciplines of maths, language arts, social studies, science, technology and design, and the visual and perfoming arts. F. Provides strategies to aid the teacher in facilitating on-going, multiple forms of assessment. Each unit describes ideas for monitoring and documenting student learning growth as well as ideas for ‘performances of most worth’ that could be used for summative authentic assessment. 9
G. The units are developed around grade clusters, so that they may be used in multi-age classrooms and easily adapted to preceeding and successive grade levels. They are designed to be developmentally appropriate, while still being both flexible and adaptable. H. Each unit contains a matrix which outlines the major conceptual areas of the unit content, as well as key questions the students will study, debate or dialogue, problem-solve, research, develop projects about and/or become involved in relevant community action. Units are presented in such a way that the teachers and students can together â€˜peel backâ€™ layer after layer and go deeper into the process of learning. I. Most importantly, each unit has as an overriding focus, the development of young learners as competent, considerate and positively contributing local and global citizens who: * respect and care for self and others * participate in and contribute responsibly to society * sustain learning throughout their lives * Are competent personally, socially, economically, ecologically, culturally and morally.
A UNIT OVERVIEW and INTRODUCTION: SETTING THE SCENE A doctrine of human rights states what people can claim, to allow them to live decent lives. As we consider human rights, we must lead children to assess what is reasonable or not in this regard. If a 'right' is considered reasonable, individuals are more likely to accept responsibility for making the 'right' a reality. Human rights reflect minimum standards - the essential things in life seen as basic to human dignity in a humane society. Any declaration of human rights should work towards producing a set of fundamental standards without which human dignity and decency are destroyed. Clearly, establishing such a set of standards, applied globally yet addressing individual needs, is a tall order. Such standards must be subject to debate and review. They must be flexible and in constant evolution. There exist, as guidelines, several internationally accepted lists of principles, for example, the U.N. Declaration of Human Rights and the Rights of the Child. These lists presuppose that the individuals willing to act upon them, will do so because of shared values, attitudes and feelings etc. To become socially active with regard human rights implies an individual with a respect for justice, freedom, equality, well-being etc. These values are fuelled and fostered by feelings of empathy and compassion etc.
Applying human rights standards can never happen then in the absence of values and attitudes. Learning about human rights will be informative. But only in a classroom where teachers actively structure for the development of values and attitudes will this information be transformed into social actions and acceptance of our human responsibility to support these rights. This process can sometimes seem convoluted and even very distant from any 'higher goal' For example, some teachers have difficulty seeing that the building of self-esteem in every student is essential to teaching a unit on discrimination. Unless a child feels strong and positive about themselves they will not be able to take action, nor will they understand the need to allow others the right to feel strong and positive about themselves. Self-esteem is an essential skill for any child learning to become socially just and socially active. We can teach about humane values then, or we can teach for them. For example, every school has a predictable set of rules and regulations that govern what is acceptable behaviour by students. Much of what is expected is quite moralistic and totally dependent on attitudes of fairness. We can talk until we are blue in the face to children about all the rules and they, having assimilated this information, will successfully parrot the information back to us. They know all about rules and regulations. However, ONLY when we permit them to participate in the making and administering and evaluating of the rules will they feel the impact of the fairness, or lack of fairness inherent in the rules. Only by participating will they recognise the process of creating the rules and be willing to take responsibility for upholding them. Teaching for human rights is a small, yet utterly critical distinction to make, and grasping the subtleness of this distinction will be the difference between a teacher reproducing established attitudes (and therefore values) without question, or potentially transforming attitudes that warrant challenge. What have human rights and humane values then got to do with a unit on housing? And why, when so many of the activities suggested in this unit are practical and applied and informational, do we identify the unit as one of importance for 12
human rights development? The answer is simple. The 1948 , after the end of World War 11, governments of the world signed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights - a charter which was designed to ensure for every citizen of the world a minimum living standard. Article 25 of the declaration states : "Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his/her family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his/her control". Originally, early man moved in small bands, hunting and gathering, and finding whatever shelter they could. Changes in hunting patterns over the centuries brought about gradual changes in attitudes toward shelter. For example, groups stayed more than one night in areas that provided good hunting. Some groups began keeping animals, either as a food source or beasts of burden. These changes saw previously nomadic populations become partially settled. And at those settled times, the people needed somewhere to stay where they could be protected from the elements, and perhaps from predatory animals. In time, small settlements began to appear and as technology became more advanced and available, housing became more and more permanent. As time passed, homes became not only a place of security and refuge, but also a place to relax and feel contented. The desire to 'own' ones home, although a luxury in real terms, gained the same importance as a basic need. Homes now advertise the social well-being of the inhabitants and the status value of housing often clouds the genuine essential issue of shelter. Whereas homes once afforded security in the form of protection, now they offer dignity by allowing individuals to feel in control, have pride and a sense of belonging. Homes and what they have come to mean clearly have an enormous potential to impact economically and socially on communities and nations.
The issue of rights, responsibilities, politics, economics etc, centred around housing are complex and often emotional, fraught with myths and misconceptions, riddled with attitudes that are class-determined and frequently impede the process of providing for everyone's right to shelter. It is essential student recognise this complexity. Very few students in our schools will genuinely understand why the right to shelter is a stated human right. In writing this unit I have made the assumption that most children will be aware of issues of homelessness, and will probably have seen or read quite graphic stories about homeless people. These stories, except in a very few cases, will seem distant from our students' reality. It is an issue to know about but not one they will necessarily ever be involved with personally. For this reason, I have chosen to challenge children to explore the underlying values, attitudes, processes of providing housing etc through an ordinary story. The story is of someone who lives in a house you could find on your street. It could be your neighbour. It could be you. Yet the story we have to tell is, at the principles level, no different from a story about a homeless person - someone denied the right to shelter.
CONCEPTUAL LINKS: This unit is a study of human rights specifically centred around issues of housing and community rights and responsibilities. The important conceptual understandings are largely sociological in nature. The story looks at what shapes individual and societal attitudes toward human rights, what brings about social action, what has to be done to conserve or improve society, what roles and responsibilities individuals have in society. Studies of human rights incorporate many integrated areas, all intended to help children see how society operates, and how to conserve, change or improve aspects of human existence. At a minimum, students should conceptually come to understand: • independent events form inter-related sets and sequences. • artifacts reflect characteristics of cultures. • natural and human features of places affect the ways people live. • groups within a community function differently yet are interconnected and interdependent. • membership of groups affects identities of individuals. • limited resources necessitate choice. • innovation and enterprise affect people and the environment. • members of a community have both rights and responsibilities. • some change is reversible and some is irreversible. • living things have relationships with their habitats. • rules affect behaviour.
• the way we describe people, places and things influences how people value and treat themselves and others. • a positive sense of self is needed in order to help others feel positive. • humans have rights regarding satisfying basic needs (i.e. food, shelter, clothing, health etc)
Section 2 STRUCTURE OF THE UNIT: THE STORY To use this unit it would be helpful to read the picture story book 'The House That Beebo Built', by Janine At and Alain Gree. However, since this is an old book possibly out of print, you can successfully complete the unit based on the simple summary provided below. Once, a bohemian Frenchman named Beebo and his little friend Mop inherited the ruins of a mansion. Together, they set about restoring the wreck, and turned it into the most amazing replication of their wildest dreams. They have towers and turrets and slides and stairways, a circular glass observatory and penthouse balconies. They had a monstrously magnificent musical machine, mechanised dolls, fireplaces and comfy chairs. Outside they had trees and gardens and bushland and forests and altogether it was a most marvellous mansion. And Beebo and Mop were utterly content there. Until, one day, unexpectedly, they had to leave.....
ADAPTING THE PRINCIPLE OF THE STORY TO YOUR OWN UNIT 1) Using the principles and the conceptual understandings underlying the story 'The House That Beebo Built', create your own story. The main principle deals with the human right for shelter and undemocratic and inhumane processes being used to bring about change within a community 2) Once you have decided on a story, introduce this to students in such a way that it will dramatically capture their interest. 3) The original story suggests many journeys. It is up to each individual teacher to decide the direction their story will take, and so decide which components to develop, and which to leave until the telling of a different story about housing. a) The right to shelter is a basic human right. By creating a dream house students are given the opportunity to let their imaginations run wild. This is time to dream. DREAM HOUSE MODEL MAKING • building for different purposes • mapping ARCHITECTURE • blueprints • scale/area/measurement • other..... BUILDING MATERIALS
b) By planning to set up their home, children are asked to face practical and moral issues about shelter, land care etc. SETTING UP
LOW ENERGY HOMES
ANIMAL ARCHITECTURE BUILDING INDUSTRY OTHER........ ANIMALS IN THE HOUSE • sugar ants • moths • mice • spiders • cockroaches • flies • other.....
c) Individual houses cluster together to make neighbourhoods and neighbourhoods make communities. Children are led to see the significance and construction of communities. SETTING UP SPECIFIC NEEDS THE VILLAGE
HOMES SERVICING • hospice/hostel • nursing homes • half-way house • rehabilitation • other PLAY HOUSES NATURE'S BOARDING
HOUSE • creatures of trees LOCAL GOVERNMENT OTHER.........
d) The way communities function is determined by the people within it, and they are shaped by the governments and economics they choose to live by. This is an important understanding for children coming to understand 'rights' and 'wants' and 'needs' and luxuries. VILLAGE LIFE RULES AND REGULATIONS
who has a say? POLITICS & ECONOMICS changes over time OTHER.................. e) Communities are complex webs of systems and each community is only as strong as its interactions and interconnections. The 'dreams' within the community will be lost if the systems are not in balance. This is when rights are most likely to be neglected and responsibilities ignored. LOSING THE DREAM
SYSTEMS • sewerage • water • electrical • other....... WEATHERING
f) Students can be extended by considering the stories houses around the world can tell. STORIES
HOMES AROUND THE
WORLD ISSUES SHARE CHANGED OVER TIME
HOW HOUSING HAS ORAL HISTORIES
KEY UNDERSTANDINGS, and QUESTIONS 1) How has housing affected an (Australian) community over different periods of time? 2) In what ways do natural and built features of an environment impact on people's lives? 3) A home can be described as a series of interdependent social and physical systems. Design a diagram to represent the interaction of all the elements in the total system. 4) In what ways is drama, used to portray social issues, highly successful in allowing students to synthesize knowledge, opinions, feelings etc? 5) How is it that some change is reversible and other change irreversible? 6) Energy is spoken of as an 'entity'. How is it that it comes in many forms? 7) If the sun and the earth were stationary, how would this impact on life on earth (pay particular attention to weather and the environment) 8) Given the variety of materials used in building and furnishing houses in Australia, what kind of impact does housing have on resource-use? 9) What control do we have over safe and unsafe situations within a house? 10) If shelter is considered a basic human right, whose responsibility is it to provide housing within communities? 11) In what ways does housing, when conceptualised as more than shelter, impact politically and economically on society?
12) In what ways does the concept of ownership shape our attitudes toward housing? 13) List any myths or misconceptions you believe exist about housing as an indicator of social status and well-being. 14) At school, what experiences could students have that would remove social barriers and discrimination based on class /wealth etc?
ESSENTIAL & OPTIONAL LEARNING: 1) The unit is designed as a framework. From this teachers can develop either simple, or complex integrated units. 2) This booklet outlines one possible unit as an example of how to integrate learning through a story. 3) Learning experiences essential to this story will be outlined and labelled ESSENTIAL LEARNING. 4) Learning experiences seen as optional to this story will be listed as OPTIONAL LEARNING. 5) Conceptual links will be included.
STRUCTURING THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT: 1) Since your unit is centered around the unfolding, or telling of a central story, you have a variety of options available in terms of structuring the learning environment. 2) Any story can be expanded or contracted, and so you have flexibility to change the structure of the learning environment as the story develops. 3) It is recommended you use a variety of approaches: a) for the learning environment this could include: • students working in the classroom • students working outside the classroom • field trips to gather expert information • work with mentors in the classroom • other........
b) for approaches to learning, this could include: • instruction by an expert to whole class • small group investigations • individual research projects • films, audio/visual materials • whole class brainstorming and discussion • computers • inquiry, explorations and investigations • other..............
4) Since the unit tells a story, you have the option of allowing the students to become characters within the story. This is not essential but it is a powerful way to engage students imaginatively. Students could be in role for varying lengths of time and for a variety of purposes. 5) Each stage to the story, developed into an activity or series of lessons, should present a learning experience that reflects the following characteristics (this technique will be demonstrated in some but not all activities in this unit): • ENGAGE students, capturing and sustaining their interest. • ENCODE the information in their memories by providing meaningful experiences set in appropriate contexts. • ENTHRALL and maintain student interest by immersing them in the learning journey • ENQUIRE by guiding students to achieve particular learning goals. • ENGINEER lifestyle changes based on the learning outcomes (action) • EVALUATE both the learning environment and the learning outcomes that lead to action.
We note that therecently developed E 5strategy of the Victorian Department of Education includes Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate
Section 3 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIT GETTING STARTED 1
Many learning experiences in the unit require students to work cooperatively in small groups.
Cooperative groups skills need to be taught and practiced. Essential skills upon which to focus include: a) active listening b) communicating c) seeing more than one perspective d) ability to synthesize a variety of information and ideas e) taking turns
Some essential steps will assist with preparing the classroom for this unit. a) tell the students what you. are doing with the small groups, and why. Students and teachers alike should understand the process. b) plan some short, meaningful work in pairs to practice the five essential group skills (appendix 3) c) introduce a range of group work, i.e. (appendix 2) • pair share • jig saw • round robin d) limit the size of the groups to no more than 6 with 4 as the optimum 25
e) initially, keep the tasks short. Length of activities will increase once positive group skills are regularly exhibited and self-monitored. f) have the group agree upon a minimum of necessary class rules to assist efficient classroom operation i.e. • a universal call to order • rule of rights and responsibilities g) arrange the physical classroom setting to allow space for • small group clusters • whole group work • individual work h) have students clear about expectations and about proposed ways of managing digressions and disruptions. Where possible, involve the class in the resolution process so that all students can feel ownership and belonging. (A class parliament or committee can help this process) i) allow adequate time for reporting back to the whole group, reflecting and self evaluation.
STEP 1 - CHOOSING YOUR STORY CONCEPTUAL • independent events form inter-related sets and LINKS: sequences. • artifacts reflect characteristics of cultures. • natural and human features of places affect • membership of groups affects identities of • limited resources necessitate choice. • innovation and enterprise affect people and the • members of a community have both rights and • some change is reversible and some is • living things have relationships with their • rules affect behaviour.
the ways people live. individuals.
environment. responsibilities. irreversible. habitats.
CURRICULUM English - 4.1, 4.5, 4.9, 4.2, 4.6, 4.10, 4.8b FOCUS: S.O.S.E. - 4.3, 4.6, 4.11, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18. Science - 4.7, 4.8.
Humans are an oral species and children inately respond to narrative. From the beginning of their lives, parents and 28
friends relate to children through story. It is not the content of the stories themselves that is critical to this process of making sense. Rather, it is the predictable shape of stories that all humans can relate to, permitting them to rationalise sense out of a myriad of information. • All stories have a beginning, a middle and an end. • All stories have a setting and characters • All details relevant to the meaning of the story will relate to the narrative. Bits of information that don't relate belong in some other story. The shape of the story is critical. • The beginning introduces the main characters, captures interest and sets the scene. • The middle poses some crisis or conflict or situation that needs attention. • The end provides a solution or resolution. By allowing students to become characters in the story we not only place them centrally in the story, we also engage them emotionally. It is hard not to feel something if you are the main character in the story.
A SAMPLE STORY - ESSENTIAL LEARNING Once a brand new village was developed on the extreme suburban perimeter of a large busy city. It was named Beeboville, for it was built on the land where the House of the Beebo family stood. Old Mr. Philippe Beebo still lived in the mansion in the N.W. forest on the estate. When Mr. Philippe got too old to care for the property, he decided to sell it to make a very special village for people who liked space and trees and nature and quiet. It was also a place where people could have just the kind of house they wanted, something very important to Mr Beebo, who had a very different home. In all the village there were only 20 houses and the village was set out in this way. Along the northwestern frontage of the mansion ran the small main road, to the north and north east was forest land for timber and to the south was one of three circular main roads servicing the village. West of the house was the access road from the village to the main road. The village sat to the south and south east of Beebo's mansion and was arranged around 3 oval-shaped roads. Within the central road was a pond and playground for picnics and children's play. Between Central Road and First Avenue sat 8 houses and between First and Second Avenues sat 12 houses. Straight, short roads interlinked the ovals at irregular intervals. Along the north eastern perimeter was thick forest which due east became conservation Bush Reserve. Situated in the south eastern corner of the reserve was a large wetland lake to attract wetland wildlife. Directly south of the village was a second access road to the main road, which also served as the border between the Bush Reserve and parklands. The entire south western and north western belt between Second Avenue and Main Road was parklands for picnics and recreation. All in all it was a bucolic place to live, and all who lived there seemed content.
When the village was first created the 8 inner homes were the first erected. Mr Mulligan bought 2 blocks of land. On one he built a modest home and on the other he established a refuge for disabled native fauna. Mr & Mrs Spinner had a half-way house, Mr McCulloch, a retired lighthouse keeper, built a tower for a home, Mrs James built her house underground and the Delaneys built a sprawling solar home to house 2 large families and turned the remaining 2 blocks into a self-sustaining small farm. When the outer circle of land was available, the southern 6 blocks sold first. All of them went to a group who developed a complex for the aged providing hospice, nursing home, housing and recreational facilities. The last 6 blocks went to 6 eager families who had waited and hoped for a chance to live in Beeboville. I was one of those lucky 6 and I built my home and lived there for many happy years. Things happened in time to change the way our village looked. Because it was such a different place, we had many visitors, and with the visitors came the tourist industry. Shops selling souvenirs were erected in the parklands on the outskirts of the southern road. Tours began to run daily in the Bush Reserve and through the streets of the village, and paths and roadways were cut through the reserve. The city council of nearby Bankstown, who governed our small bucolic town, saw a need for better lighting (for night tours) and more road signs. Beeboville was a money-making venture for the shire. The council began to get pushy. Within a year legislation had passed regarding the following ordinances: • an order to convert to uniform garbage bins, with increased hard-waste removal and increased rates to cover the cost. • no fences could be erected along the front or back of houses and any that existed had to be removed • only wire fences, 1.2 meters high could exist between properties • no domestic pets and all farm animals must be contained • trees and shrubs obscuring the view of the houses from the roads (for tourism) could be removed by council workers.
Eventually, the Bankstown Council announced a plan to put in a larger freeway to divert through traffic and help handle the 31
increasing number of tourist cars. The existing road would become known as the ring road. The new freeway would run along the eastern perimeter of the village cutting through Bush Reserve and forest land, and be in full view of the 6 eastern houses and very near Beebo's Mansion. For many residents, this latest announcement was a final blow. What had once been a dream had become a nightmare.
STEP 2 - CAPTURING STUDENT INTEREST CONCEPTUAL • independent events form inter-related sets and sequences LINKS: • natural and human features of places affect the ways people live. • limited resources necessitate choice. • innovation and enterprise affect people and the environment. • some change is reversible and some is irreversible. • living things have relationships with their habitats. CURRICULUM FOCUS: 4.204.22.
Technology - 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.7, 4.9, 4.10. Mathematics - 4.7a, 4.7b, 4.8, 4.10, 4.18, 4.19, The Arts - Visual - 4.2, 4.3.
Start your unit with something BIG - something that will engage children imaginatively and affectively.
CLASS MURAL - Essential Learning 1) Create a mural to hang the entire length of the class depicting the village of Beeboville. • have students draw a template of the mural on paper 1/10 the mural size • using grids and grid coordinates have students learn about enlargement by transferring the grid to scale onto the mural • assign every student a certain number of grids to enlarge and paint onto the mural 2) Refer to appendix 2 for instructions.
OTHER WAYS TO CAPTURE INTEREST Optional 1) Turn the whole class into a replica of Beeboville • make scale maps of the classroom showing how it represents a village. Allow children to decorate the village. 2) Using Macintosh World Builder, IBM Q Tips etc., create a computer generated replica of the village 3) Using technic lego build the village of Beeboville. If possible, link lego to computers and program working parts (i.e. traffic lights) 4) Other……
STEP 3 - SETTING UP HOME CONCEPTUAL • independent events form inter-related sets and sequences LINKS: • natural and human features of places affect the ways people live. • limited resources necessitate choice. • some change is reversible and some is irreversible. • living things have relationships with their habitats. CURRICULUM FOCUS:
Technology - 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.7, 4.9, 4.10. Science - 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7. Mathematics - 4.7a, 4.7b, 4.8, 4.10, 4.18,
4.19, 4.20, 4.22 S.O.S.E. - 4.5, 4.6, 4.10, 4.11, 4.13, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18 English - 4.4, 4.8a, 4.8b, 4.12a.
SAMPLE CHALLENGE CREATE A DREAM HOUSE - Essential 1) Students design their own dream house. Outline the following steps. a) Dreaming - the house can be practical, whimsical, futuristic, real etc. Allow children time to dream BIG. This is the house in which THEY would like to live. b) Drawing - the design should result from many sketches and trials and errors. All trials should be kept to show the PROCESS of the dreaming. Sketch from all angles. Sketch isolated ideas. Sketch webs of what is to be included. c) Designing - the actual plans should include: • front, side and back views of the house • labels identifying all significant features • floor plans of all levels (bird's eye view)
3) As students design their houses introductory discussions regarding economics, suitability and environmental impact of building materials etc. can be discussed. 4) Invite an architect to talk to the class and display architectural models.
LOW ENERGY HOUSING 1) Topic includes how to make a house energy efficient and thus contribute to sustainable use of energy in the environment. 2) The topic could include such issues as: a) how energy is used and wasted b) cutting down pollution in power products c) problem of acid rain d) household actions for conserving energy e) making use of natural power f) energy planning for tomorrow's homes g) the energy chain: how energy is produced and used h) hidden costs to energy production i.e. environmental, wildlife and health hazards of producing nuclear, oilfired, coal-fired, gas-fires or hydroelectric power. i) solar heated houses j) other……
ANIMALS IN THE HOUSE -Essential 1) Homes quickly become co-habitats for a wide variety of uninvited creatures. 2) The persistent existence of critters in the house, is an excellent example for children that we are all part of an interconnected web of life, and that interdependence, co-habitation and balance are essential to the ecology of the planet: • Explore a vacant block of land to establish the variety of naturally occurring wildlife that might need to vacate their homes should a house be built • Sample the variety of 'wildlife' discovered living in the homes of the children in class. 36
• Explore in depth on of the regular wildlife visitors to suburban homes. a) mice b) rats d) ants e) flies g) millipedes h) centipedes
OPTIONAL LEARNING Hazard Free Housing 1) In small groups explore the topic including how to make a house • how to make a house free from hazards for the occupant • how to make the house hazard free to the environment. 2) Unseen hazards about the home: i.e. • producing cement from concrete blights land by choking it with dust • baking bricks can create poisonous fumes which contaminate vegetation and ultimately can contaminate cow's milk • insulation hazards, particularly the urea formaldehyde form • adhesives • paint solvents • fungicidal paint, if used in kitchens, can contaminate food • synthetic materials 3) Cleaning up the indoor air: • formaldehyde use • tobacco smoke • aerosols • solvents • insecticides • cadmium • open fires (carbon monoxide) • gas stoves (producing carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide) 37
c)spiders f) moths
(resin used for bonding releases formaldehyde gas) • wood preservers (containing fungicides and insecticides i.e.. pentachlorphenol and lindane) 4) Reducing paint pollution: • lead containing paints (although no longer produced are still found on old walls) • titanium dioxide (used as a pigment) 5) Plastic-free housing and natural versus synthetic building materials.
ANIMAL ARCHITECTURE 1) Fascinating mathematical lessons regarding pattern, design etc. can be learnt from nature. 2) By looking at the homes animals make - animal architecture - children can be helped to see the importance of appropriate design, construction methods, building materials, building processes, maintenance etc. Some possibilities to explore include: • the North American beaver - dam builders • the Weaver bird • the Bower bird • Bees - hives • Ants - tunnels • Prairie dogs - tunnels • Caddis Flies - underwater homes • Termites - earthen towers • Labyrinth fish - bubblenests • Sticklebacks - nests • European harvest mouse - nest in tall grass • Chimpanzees - tree sleeping houses.
HOUSE APPLIANCES 1) When housing first evolved, it served to protect inhabitants against the elements and predators. 2) Cavemen and early shelter dwellers had few possessions, so that when necessary, they easily moved on. 3) Nowadays, we not only try to own our homes, we also clutter them with so many possessions and gadgets it would be hard to move on anywhere quickly. 4) Many of the things we own have nothing to do with shelter or protection or servicing basic needs. When exploring a topic on housing appliances, look at the following areas: • the range of appliances available • energy efficiency • need versus luxury • economics 5) Choose one of the more familiar appliances and explore it as a product of technology - how suitable are the materials, how well designed, how could it improve, how does it perform a) washing machine/drier b) fridge/freezer c) radio/TV d) iron e) oven/microwave f) telephone/fax/computer g) vacuum cleaners h) dish washer i) other……
BUILDING INDUSTRY 1) Explore all the related branches to this industry, the cost financially and environmentally to society, the effect it has on structuring our communities and society etc.
STEP 4 - SETTING UP THE VILLAGE CONCEPTUAL LINKS:
• independent events form inter-related sets and sequences • natural and human features of places affect the ways people live. • groups within a community function differently yet are inter-connected and • membership of groups affects identities of individuals. • limited resources necessitate choice. • innovation and enterprise affect people and the environment. • members of a community have both rights and responsibilities. • some change is reversible and some is irreversible. • living things have relationships with their habitats. • rules affect behaviour. • the way we describe people, places and things influences how people value and • a positive sense of self is needed in order to help others feel positive. • humans have rights regarding satisfying basic needs (i.e. food, shelter, clothes, health) Technology - 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.7, 4.9, 4.10 S.O.S.E. - 4.6, 4.10, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15 English - 4.2, 4.6, 4.10 The Arts - Visual - 4.2, 4.3 Science - 4.7, 4.8, 4.10 Mathematics - 4.7a, 4.7b, 4.8, 4.10, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.22
treat themselves and
DESIGNING A VILLAGE - Essential 1) In small groups, design a house for the village of Beeboville. This is NOT a dream house, but rather a functional authentic house. a) discuss features of the house b) draw templates c) list and describe features 2) Have students draw on what they have learnt so far in essential and optional extension activities. 3) Set aside a space in the classroom where the village can be built a) using directions from the story, draw plans of the village b) discuss interpretations with whole class and agree upon a set plan. Draw this on the blackboard and on a master plan sheet to be displayed in class c) Divide the village into 6 areas and have each group responsible for making one area for the class model village (each group will build one house) d) once model is completed, matchbox cars, figures etc. can be added. It is relevant that the students be allowed to play with their village and truly own it. 4) This whole section is immersion in maths and teachers must gauge when to instruct the skills essential to the planning and building, and when to use teachable moments)
COMMUNITY SERVICES - Essential 1) Have children brainstorm the kinds of services they think are essential to the operation of any community. 2) Canvas their own neighbourhoods and communities to see what services exist. Ask relevant questions as the investigation evolves i.e. a) Whose responsibility is it to provide the service? b) Where does the money come from? c) Is the service essential or a luxury (how is this determined)? d) Are there alternative ways these services could be provided? e) What impact does the provision of the service have on the environment, the community, the economy, society etc.? f) Otherâ€Śâ€Ś
OPTIONAL LEARNING Nature's Boarding House 1) Focus on the shelter (housing) the trees in their yards and community provide for other creatures 2) Choose a specific species of tree and research changes it goes through over the seasonal cycles 3) Explore the insects, birds, mammals, spiders, lichens, parasites etc. that routinely gain shelter from the tree.
Play Houses 1) Design playhouses for the children of Beeboville. A variety of styles, building materials and venues can be explored.
2) Children should draw plans, suggest appropriate building materials and project costs. 3) Some suggested styles and approaches include: a) castles b) tree houses c) hessian huts d) trash and treasure treats e) papier mache f) mud brick g) wattle and daub h) Dome (sweet dome) i) bark huts j) stick k) thatching l) dolls houses m) cubbies (for the indoor type) n) othersâ€Śâ€Ś o) miniatures
Housing Serving Special Needs 1) In every community or neighbourhood you will find some housing that provides for the specific needs of small groups of individuals. 2) In Beeboville the retirement village is this kind of specialised housing. 3) Have each group choose one example of specialised housing and investigate in depth (report the findings to the whole class) a) hospice b) youth hostel c) homes for men/women d) nursing homes e) half-way houses f) rehabilitation houses
STEP 5 - VILLAGE LIFE CONCEPTUAL LINKS:
• independent events form inter-related sets and sequences • natural and human features of places affect the ways people live. • limited resources necessitate choice. • innovation and enterprise affect people and the environment. • some change is reversible and some is irreversible. • living things have relationships with their
habitats. • rules affect behaviour. • humans have rights regarding satisfying basic needs (i.e. food, shelter, clothes, etc) CURRICULUM FOCUS:
Technology - 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.7, 4.9, 4.10 S.O.S.E. - 4.6, 4.10, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15 English - 4.1, 4.5, 4.9, 4.2, 4.6, 4.10 The Arts - Visual - 4.2, 4.3: Drama - 4.6, 4.7, 4.8. Science - 4.7, 4.8, 4.10 Mathematics - 4.7a, 4.7b, 4.8, 4.10, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.22
VILLAGE LIFE ACTIVITY - Essential Learning 1) Students can name themselves and take on the character of a resident of Beeboville. 2) Write autobiographical profiles about their lives. • who are their relatives? • how old are they? • where do they live? • what is their occupation? • what are their hobbies? 3) Draw a family tree showing their relationships to other members in their house and perhaps other residents of Beeboville. 44
4) Describe a day in their lives in Beeboville. 5) Suggest one simulation that the village can react to, i.e. a community street party or a working bee at the nursing home etc. Act this out. 6) Refer to appendix 4 for character development outline.
OPTIONAL LEARNING 1) Village life can be explored from a variety of angles to include: • politics • economics • recreation • environmental • social • historical 2) Since the purpose of our story is to encourage human rights issues relating to shelter, it is suggested teachers incorporate this focus in any extension investigations in this section. Possible additional challenges include: • Have students project 10 years into the future. What will village life be like? What influences shaped this evolution? • Have students go back 10 years in time. What could have been done differently a decade ago and how would that have altered the shape of present-day Beeboville? 3) Teachers will need to guide many 'conversations' with the students brainstorming, reflecting, discussing, predicting, projecting, synthesizing etc. Possible ways to assemble the ideas include: • short plays • TV/radio interviews • story writing/reader's theatre • murals/ friezes • other………
STEP 6 - LOSING THE DREAM CONCEPTUAL LINKS:
• independent events form inter-related sets and sequences • artifacts reflect characteristics of cultures. • natural and human features of places affect the ways people live. • groups within a community function differently yet are inter-connected and • membership of groups affects identities of individuals. • limited resources necessitate choice. • innovation and enterprise affect people and the environment. • members of a community have both rights and responsibilities. • some change is reversible and some is irreversible. • living things have relationships with their habitats. • rules affect behaviour. • the way we describe people, places and things influences how people value and • a positive sense of self is needed in order to help others feel positive. • humans have rights regarding satisfying basic needs (i.e. food, shelter, clothing, etc) Technology - 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.7, 4.9, 4.10 S.O.S.E. - 4.3, 4.5, 4.6, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18. English - 4.1, 4.5, 4.9, 4.2, 4.6, 4.10, 4.3, 4.4, 4.8a, 4.8b, 4.12a The Arts - Visual - 4.2, 4.3: Drama -4.6, 4.7, 4.8: Media - 4.11, 4.12, 4.13 Science - 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.10 Mathematics - 4.7a, 4.7b, 4.8, 4.10, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.22
treat themselves and
Sometimes dreams are lost because they are unrealistic in the first place. But dreams can also be lost because things happen, societally, naturally, economically, personally etc to bring about change.
SAMPLE SIMULATION OF LOSING THE DREAM - Essential 1) Using the sample story, assign every member of class a character and role. This may be the same character they have been in other activities, although some students will have to assume new roles. 2) Act out all the events that led to the altered lifestyles in Beeboville. Staying in role, students represent the feelings and opinions of the residents they represent. This could include: • Conduct a town meeting to discuss the effects increased tourism is having on Beeboville lifestyle. Members of the Beeboville council, town residents, Bankstown council and the tourist industry should be present. A government official, representatives of the Conservation department and private financiers may also be present. • Conduct a TV interview/debate regarding changes in garbage disposal, fencing and pet laws. • Simulate a protest rally at the work site of construction of a new roadway. People present could include council officials, construction workers, protesters, TV crew, police etc.
SYSTEMS - Essential Learning 1) Shelter can be threatened if humans feel they work outside the systems integral to the provision of shelter. 2) Understanding the interconnections is vital and could cover the following explorations: a) Sustainable use of building materials (reducing environmental impact) b) Systems of government that provide economic backing for housing and policies that regulate the housing industry and home ownership c) Sewerage systems d) Energy systems e) Water systems f) Interpersonal systems g) Other…… 3) Teachers are encouraged to explore these mini topics by: • providing background information • posing a series of questions to stimulate discussion i.e. a) What range of effects would occur if the government shut off all access to water in homes? b) How would the provision of housing change if wood was restricted to 2% of the total building material in any house? c) Other…… 4) Systemic thinking requires seeing connections. Pose questions that lead students to recognise the 'domino effect' and the 'big picture'
OPTIONAL LEARNING Weathering 1) Much of the human need for shelter came as a result of the need for protection against the elements. 2) Nowadays, with housing so much more substantial, weathering affects structurally rather than people, and for many people structural degradation due to the elements is the loss of a dream. 3) In this activity students could explore the following areas: a) suitability of building materials and durability against weathering b) cloud types c) natural elements i.e. rain, wind, hail, snow, thunder, lightning, humidity etc. d) extreme elements i.e. flood, drought, cyclone, tornado, acid rain, greenhouse effect etc. e) reporting weather (meteorology) i.e. atmospheric pressure, isobars, isotherms, fronts etc. f) chemical composition of air i.e. nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, neon, helium, krypton, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide g) Beaufort scale - sailing and the seas h) science of rainbows - light, refraction, reflection, prisms etc. i) photosynthesis - solar influence j) bushfires - fire in the natural environment, combustion and heat transfer, fuel, weather condition, fire behaviour, fire effects, fire breaks and protection, fire prevention, fighting fires, safety and survival, fire control and planning.
Impact of Housing on Society 1) Housing is not just an isolated place for living. A large societal web is associated with shelter and this web impacts on environments and communities 2) Possible areas to explore to see this include: a) nomads and settlers b) urban and rural housing complexes (estates) c) environmental impact of housing d) cluster housing and community building
PERFORMANCE OF MOST WORTH CONCEPTUAL LINKS:
• independent events form inter-related sets and sequences • artifacts reflect characteristics of cultures. • natural and human features of places affect the ways people live. • groups within a community function differently yet are inter-connected and interdependent. • membership of groups affects identities individuals. • limited resources necessitate choice. • innovation and enterprise affect people and the environment. • members of a community have both rights and responsibilities. • some change is reversible and some is irreversible. • living things have relationships with their habitats. • rules affect behaviour. • the way we describe people, places and things influences how people value and treat themselves and others. • a positive sense of self is needed in order to help others feel positive. • humans have rights regarding satisfying basic needs (i.e. food, shelter, clothing, health etc)
Technology - 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.7, 4.9, 4.10 S.O.S.E. - 4.3, 4.5, 4.6, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.13, 4.14, 4.154.16, 4.17, 4.18. English - 4.1, 4.5, 4.9, 4.2, 4.6, 4.10, 4.3, 4.4, 4.8a, 4.8b, 4.12a The Arts - Visual - 4.2, 4.3: Drama -4.6, 4.7, 4.8: Media - 4.11, 4.12, 4.13 Science - 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.10 Mathematics - 4.7a, 4.7b, 4.8, 4.10, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.22
Although children will be able to affectively relate to issues and concerns regarding housing and shelter through their own personal experience of living in a home, they are not in control of this situation. To enable children to fully experience the process of 'running a home' and providing for a community, we must substitute something for the home. What better thing than their home away from home, their classroom. By allowing the children to take ownership of their classroom, set class rules, govern class use, behaviour, discipline, disputes, concerns, pastoral needs etc, students learn the process of making and implementing rules, regulations, social action projects, justice etc. To effectively establish and implement a class committee/class parliament system, a teacher should allow one term for brainstorming, trial, error, nurture, practice, meetings etc before students can run the room with minimal assistance. 51
Teachers should always remain facilitators and mentors. Teachers must expect mistake and disasters and see them as positive learning survey rather than indicators of failure.
REFERENCES Altheim, J. & Gamberg, R., 'From Stones to Bricks: A Study of Housing with Young Children', Dalhousie University Elementary School, Department of Education, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada, 1986. Anderson, D. & McQuillen, B., 'Mud, Daisies and Sparrows Exploring Outdoor Environments', Primary Education Pty Ltd, 1978. Archer, J., 'Building for Kids and Adventurous Adults', Oxford Uni Press, 1981. Baker, Janet, 'Take Shelter - Housing in Australia', CIS Publishers, 1993. Buchanan, Heather, 'George and Matilda Mouse and the Doll's House', Edwards, Gail, 'Building Learning: Learning from Building', Dalhousie University Elementary School, Department of Education, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada, 1986. Fix Phillipe, 'The House that Beebo Built', Jonathan Cape Ltd, 1975. Harvey, Roland, 'Guide to Weather', Roland Harvey Studio, Fitzroy, 1988. Haycock, Kate, 'Human Rights: Shelter', Wayland, 1993. Holt, Robyn, 'Make a Cubby', Ellsyd Press, 1988. Human Rights Commission Education Series 2, 'Teaching for Human Rights: Pre-school and Grades 1-4', Australian Government Publishing Service, 1986. Kwak, W., 'History of Building - a Theme Study with 7-10 year olds', Dalhousie University Elementary School, Department of Education, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada, 1986. Lines, Cliff, 'Exploring Houses and Homes', Wayland, 1989. Luke, R. & McArthur, A., 'Bushfires in Australia', Australian Government Publishing Service, 1978. Marshall, Penny, 'Housing and Homes - A History in Photographs, 1850's to present day'. Macdonald Press, 1985. Methuen Children's Books, National Geographic Action Book, 'Animal Homes', 1989. 53
Pringle, L., 'Cockroaches: Here, There, and Everywhere', Thomas Y. Crowell Company, NY, 1971. Rich, R. & Smith, K., 'Earth Garden Building Book - Design and Build your own House', Viking O'Neil, 1987. Seymour, J., 'Blueprint for a Green Planet', Dorling Kindersley London, 1987. Sproule, A., 'Homes Around the World', Macdonald Educational, 1987. von Frisch, Karl, 'Animal Architecture', Hutchinson of London, 1975.
APPENDIX 2 - EXTENSION EXPLORATION THE STORIES HOUSES SHARE Every house tells a story and every cluster of houses paints a communal picture. Students can look at the personal, social, political, economic stories housing shares.
HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES CONCEPTUAL LINKS:
• groups within a community function differently yet are inter-connected and interdependent. • membership of groups affects identities of individuals. • limited resources necessitate choice. • members of a community have both rights and responsibilities. • rules affect behaviour. • the way we describe people, places and things influences how people value and treat themselves and others. • a positive sense of self is needed in order to help others feel positive. • humans have rights regarding satisfying basic needs (i.e. food, shelter, clothing, health etc) Technology - 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.7, 4.9, 4.10 S.O.S.E. - 4.3, 4.5, 4.6, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18. English - 4.1, 4.5, 4.9, 4.2, 4.6, 4.10, 4.3, 4.4, 4.8a, 4.8b, 4.12a The Arts - Visual - 4.2, 4.3: Drama -4.6, 4.7, 4.8: Media -4.11, 4.12, 4.13 Science - 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.10
Mathematics - 4.7a, 4.7b, 4.8, 4.10, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.22
Many Australians consider their homes to be 'their own little kingdom', and the right to own that kingdom is characteristically Australian. To an Australian, owning a house is primarily a matter of independence rather than an issue of shelter. Discuss in class what the children expect from housing. Discussion might include: • sense of independence • belonging to a community • roof over one's head • prestige • security/equity • privacy • other.... Over 70% of Australians live in houses they either own or are purchasing. Most buyers have bank loans. This is a far higher proportion of home owners than anywhere else in the world. Brainstorm issues and factors that might affect: • housing in any country • rural/urban housing • koori housing • women and housing • the disabled and housing • other Brainstorm ways in which the Federal Government influences the development and nature of Australian housing. Points might include: • flow of money to housing loans • level of interest rates • policies regarding home ownership • grants to states for public housing schemes • rent assistance schemes • other...
Brainstorm the role of the State Government in housing. Issues could include: • public housing (who is responsible?) • rent rebate • legislature on real estate agents • sale and control of crown land • minimum planning and building standards • roads, water, sewerage, drainage etc • other.... Brainstorm future issues for Australian housing in the 21st century. Issues could include: • solar and alternative energy housing • high density living • urban development focus • community issues • other.....
HOMES AROUND THE WORLD CONCEPTUAL LINKS:
• artifacts reflect characteristics of cultures. • natural and human features of places affect the ways people live. • groups within a community function differently yet are inter-connected and interdependent. • membership of groups affects identities of individuals. • limited resources necessitate choice. • innovation and enterprise affect people and the environment. • members of a community have both rights and responsibilities. • living things have relationships with their habitats.
Technology - 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.7, 4.9, 4.10 S.O.S.E. - 4.3, 4.5, 4.6, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18. English - 4.1, 4.5, 4.9, 4.2, 4.6, 4.10, 4.3, 4.4, 4.8a, 4.8b, 4.12a The Arts - Visual - 4.2, 4.3: Drama -4.6, 4.7, 4.8: Media -4.11, 4.12, 4.13 Science - 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.10
Shelters differ due to climate, geography, societal values, religion, economics etc. Explore a variety of housing existing worldwide today. 1) Divide the class into small groups to each explore housing in different regions 2) Make models of the houses 3) Create a classroom 'global village' using the models 4) Talk about the different customs, traditions, lifestyles etc.
HOW HOUSING HAS CHANGED OVER TIME CONCEPTUAL LINKS:
• artifacts reflect characteristics of cultures. • natural and human features of places affect the ways people live. • groups within a community function differently yet are inter-connected and interdependent. • membership of groups affects identities of individuals. • limited resources necessitate choice. • innovation and enterprise affect people and the environment. • members of a community have both rights and responsibilities. • living things have relationships with their habitats.
Technology - 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.7, 4.9, 4.10 S.O.S.E. - 4.3, 4.5, 4.6, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18. English - 4.1, 4.5, 4.9, 4.2, 4.6, 4.10, 4.3, 4.4, 4.8a, 4.8b, 4.12a Science - 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.10
1) This subtopic could become an extensive investigation if the teacher has adequate interest and resources. 2) Using photographic records, compare architecture, building materials, clothing, appliances, furnishings, family size etc in one area over time. 3) If possible, explore an area known to the class. Invite grandparents and elders of the community to share memories, memorabilia, photographs and oral histories. 4) In class, reconstruct this transition pictorially on a large timeline mural - following the style of Nadia Wheatley's picture book 'My Place'. 5) Replicate the transition by building the village in class. • cluster desks to represent 3 or 4 main times in the development of the place. 59
• divide students into groups and assign them one area • draw pictures representing the housing and community in each time frame. Discuss these with whole class to attain continuity of style and design • construct facades to buildings on the outside of the desks in keeping with the template drawings. • each student writes stories as though they were characters living in the community at that time. • Conduct tours of the 'community' sharing stories and history that explains the evolution of this place over time.
HISTORY OF HOUSING CONCEPTUAL LINKS:
• independent events form inter-related sets and sequences • artifacts reflect characteristics of cultures. • natural and human features of places affect the ways people live. • groups within a community function differently yet are inter-connected and interdependent. • membership of groups affects identities of individuals. • limited resources necessitate choice. • innovation and enterprise affect people and the environment. • some change is reversible and some is irreversible. Technology - 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.7, 4.9, 4.10 S.O.S.E. - 4.3, 4.5, 4.6, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18. English - 4.1, 4.5, 4.9, 4.2, 4.6, 4.10, 4.3, 4.4, 4.8a, 4.8b, 4.12a The Arts - Visual - 4.2, 4.3: Drama -4.6, 4.7, 4.8: Media -4.11, 4.12, 4.13
Students interested in technology and design could focus further on specialised details i.e.: a) tools used in building - past & present b) architecture - hand and computer generated graphics c) history of technology and construction HOUSE APPLIANCES • washing machine/dryer • radio/TV • oven/microwave • fridge/freezer • iron • telephone/fax/computer • vacuum • dishwasher • other........
IMPACT OF HOUSING ON SOCIETY • nomad to settler • environmental impact • cluster housing • other..... POLITICS & ECONOMICS OF HOUSING • private V public • other....
Original NATIONAL CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK LINKS: The National Curriculum statements organised in 8 areas of learning, provide a framework for curriculum development for school. Each of the key learning areas is divided into strands which reflect the major elements of learning for that area. Strands are a way of reflecting understandings of a learning area's content, processes and concepts. Within each strand 8 achievement levels have been developed. The levels are clustered into 4 bands to correspond to the stages of schooling: - lower primary, upper primary, junior secondary, and post compulsory. Bands are the broad stages in a sequence for developing knowledge, understandings and skills in a learning area. Since the levels, strands and bands allow teachers to plan a layered scope and sequence of learning experiences catering for mixed ability classes, several levels and strands will appear in any one unit written to represent a particular band. The chart included in this unit will itemize the strands and levels covered as well as the numbers of strands still to be covered to satisfy all the learning outcomes for any given key learning area in a band. In this way teachers can monitor their own planning and assessment of both individual children and their own programs. (appendix 1). During the Upper Primary School Years, students deepen their understanding of their place on earth, the structures and principles that ensure balance and sustainable existence, and their roles and responsibilities in maintaining the balance. They begin to understand in some depth the layers within society and the environment.
APPENDIX 1: NATIONAL CURRICULUM LINKS ENGLISH TEXTS 4.1 - Interacts confidently with others in a variety of situations to develop & present familiar ideas, events and information 4.5 - Justifies own interpretation of ideas, information & events in texts containing some unfamiliar concepts & topics & which introduce relatively complex linguistic structures and features. 4.9 - Uses writing to develop familiar ideas, events & information CONTEXTUAL UNDERSTANDING 4.2 - Considers aspects of context, purpose & audience when speaking and listening in familiar situations 4.6 - Explains possible reasons for people's varying interpretations of a text 4.10 - Adjusts writing to take account of aspects of context, purpose & audience LINGUISTIC STRUCTURES & FEATURES 4.3 - Controls most linguistic structures & features of spoken language for interpreting ideas & information in familiar situations STRATEGIES 4.4 - Assists & monitors the communication patterns of self and others 4.8a - Selects, uses & reflects on strategies for reading & viewing different texts 4.8b - With peers identifies information needs & locates resources 4.12a - When prompted, uses a range of strategies for planning, reviewing & proofreading own writing
TECHNOLOGY DESIGN/MAKE 4.2 - Design proposals to include â€˘ reasons for choice â€˘ images used to visualise how designs can be realised 4.3 - Implement production process appropriately. 4.4 - Effectiveness of design assessed MATERIALS 4.7 - Characteristics of materials related to functional & aesthetic requirements of design
SYSTEMS 4.9 - Relationships between elements in systems 4.10 - Techniques to organise, assemble & disassemble systems
SCIENCE ENERGY & CHANGE 4.4 - Energy options for particular purposes in the community 4.5 - Process of energy transfer and conditions affecting them. 4.6 - Forms and transformations of energy in sequences of interactions LIFE & LIVING 4.7 - Identifies events that affect balance in ecosystems 4.8 - Explains the functioning of systems within living systems NATURAL & PROCESSED MATERIALS 4.10 - Identifies factors that determine the choice of materials for particular purposes
S.O.S.E. TIME/CONTINUITY/CHANGE 4.3 - Portrays events from particular perspectives PLACE & SPACE 4.5 - Describe how people's beliefs & practices influence the way they interact with places 4.6 - Describe different views of individuals & groups about issues relating to care of places CULTURE 4.9 - Describe roles, rights, responsibilities of members of cultural groups RESOURCES 4.10 - Describe factors affecting resource use & development 4.11 - Conditions making work effective at home, school, community NATURAL & SOCIAL SYSTEMS 4.13 - Describes responses of different elements to changes in natural systems 4.14 - How rules & laws are made 4.15 - Identifies decision that have to be made by groups & individuals about production and consumption INVESTIGATION/COMMUNICATION/PARTICIPATION
4.16 - Data required & how to get it 4.17 - Translates information into many forms 4.18 - Strategies to assist decision making
THE ARTS DRAMA 4.6 - Experiments with ideas and explores feelings to find solutions to tasks 4.7 - Selects, combines and manipulates drama elements using a range of skills, techniques & processes. 4.8 - Draws upon a range of skills to present drama for a variety of audiences and purposes VISUAL ARTS 4.2 - Selects, combines & manipulates visual arts elements 4.3 - Range of skills to present visual arts works MEDIA 4.11 - Makes media productions that experiments with ideas, and explores feelings to find satisfactory solutions to tasks 4.12 - Selects, combines and manipulates media elements using a range of skills, techniques and processes 4.13 - Draws upon a range of skills to present media productions for a variety of audiences and purposes
MATHEMATICS SPACE 4.7a - Care in shape, size placement of parts when they match; copies things & makes nets of 3-D things 4.7b - Interprets & makes drawing of 3-D shapes using basic conventions for representing 3-D in 2-D space 4.8 - Visualises, follows describes locations & paths; reads & makes maps & plans using distance, direction, coordinates & scale 4.10 - Uses rotations, reflections, translations to relate features of arrangements & pattern MEASUREMENT 4.18 - Selects appropriate attributes & units for descriptions & comparisons 4.19 - Measures & makes things using units of mass, length, capacity angle & reading scales 4.20 - Uses known size of familiar things to help estimate 4.22 - Relationships involving perimeters of polygons & areas of regions based on squares
We note that this series of curriculum units was first prepared in 1999 in accordance with both the original National Curriculum Framework and a search of curriculum frameworks in more than 20 countries. The units have been revised and updated in the light of educational and human development research . While we do acknowledge the developments in technology which have occurred in the past decade, and will continue to do so into the future, we do harbour concerns that an over-dependence on computer based technology is developing in our society with an accompanying increase in anti-social behaviour and lack of care for other people and the environment. As such these units are primarily designed to engage students interactively. At Julie Boyd and Associates we hold a strong commitment to the 7th Generation principle ie that all decisions need to be made with 7 generations hence in mind, rather than simple immediacy. As such we note that all our our work emanates from a very broad range of research bases and is designed specifically to assist students and teachers to retain a focus on the development of face to face communication and relationships, and their role in making positive, informed and discerning contributions to the world in which they live and which they will leave to their greatgrandchildren. 68
Further resources and information can be found at
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