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Forms of Endurance and Change Ffurfiau o Ddygnwch a Newid


Introduction

Cyflwyniad

Robert A. Newell

Robert A. Newell

Royal Cambrian Academician

Aelod o’r Academi Frenhinol Gymreig

I studied Fine Art at Wimbledon School of Art and Goldsmiths College, and was awarded a University of Wales doctorate in 2005.

Astudiais y Gelfyddyd Gain yn Ysgol Gelf Wimbledon a Choleg Goldsmiths, ac yn 2005 gwobrwywyd doethuriaeth i mi gan Brifysgol Cymru.

I have taught at Hounslow Borough College, North Devon College and, since 1993, have been a senior lecturer at what was Swansea Institute of Higher Education, now Swansea Metropolitan University. My work in painting and drawing has passed through certain distinct phases in relation to places, themes and formal concerns: the North Sea coast, destroyed urban environments, and now locations in Wales and Cumbria. It has been preoccupied with the rhythmic organisation of detail and mass produced in landscapes by the interplay of physical forces over time. In relation to varying conditions of light and

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Rwyf wedi dysgu yng Ngholeg Bwrdeistref Hounslow, Coleg Gogledd Dyfnaint ac, ers 1993, bûm yn uwch ddarlithydd yn Sefydliad Addysg Uwch Abertawe, sef Prifysgol Fetropolitan Abertawe bellach. Mae fy ngwaith paentio a darlunio wedi mynd trwy gyfnodau gwahanol mewn perthynas â lleoedd, themâu a phryderon ffurfiol: arfordir Môr y Gogledd, amgylcheddau trefol sydd wedi’u dinistrio, a bellach lleoliadau yng Nghymru a Cumbria. Mae fy ngwaith yn canolbwyntio’n bennaf ar drefn rhythmig manylion a chaiff hynny ei ddarlunio’n


Philosophically, I am exploring relationships between subjectivity and natural phenomena in ways that involve aesthetics, history of science, and metaphysics. My objective is to consolidate a constellation of ideas and sources into a viable critical doctrine underpinning landscape representation and aesthetics. Landscape painting constitutes a morphology that embodies the “ontological reciprocity ” (Crowther 2009:3) of Self and World in a material process. I propose the term ‘morphological sublime’ to characterise an

ehangach mewn tirluniau gan y cysylltiad rhwng grymoedd ffisegol dros amser. Mae’r mathau amrywiol o amodau golau ac awyrgylch yn creu elfennau gweledol sy’n cyfleu cymeriad arbennig sy’n cyfrannu at gyfanwaith pwer esthetig y tirlun. Mae paentio a darlunio yn hanfodol i broses gysyniadol estynedig sy’n meithrin y berthynas rhwng y pwnc a’r gwrthrych. v

atmosphere, these visual elements express a certain character contributing to the totality of the landscape’s aesthetic power. Painting and drawing are integral to an extended perceptual process that mediates the relationship between subject and object.

Yn ddamcaniaethol, rwy’n archwilio’r cysylltiadau rhwng gwrthrychedd a ffenomena naturiol mewn ffyrdd sy’n cynnwys estheteg, hanes gwyddoniaeth a metaffiseg. Fy amcan yw atgyfnerthu clwstwr o syniadau a ffynonellau yn athrawiaeth hyfyw feirniadol sy’n ategu cynrychiolaeth ac estheteg tirluniadol. Mae paentio tirluniau yn cynrychioli morffoleg sy’n ymgorffori’r “cydbwysedd ontolegol” (Crowther 2009:3) rhwng yr Hunan a’r Byd

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Introduction

Cyflwyniad

aesthetic of sustained observational painting and drawing of natural forms and processes taken through to thresholds of ultimate inscrutability. The proximal form is thus touched by the sublime, the resulting work aims to concentrate temporal and spatial extensiveness into an intensity, or to use Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s term, the urphanomen (primordial phenomenon). This intensity ultimately exceeds representation. Landscape, as conceived in this way, along with perspective, is compatible with a relational ontology. Painting and drawing provides an affective form of participatory perception; this can be understood as a methodology of perceptual encounter and innovation. The ultimate significance of landscape painting is that it constitutes a cultural form that expresses the situatedness of self in the world.

mewn proses ymarferol. Rwy’n cynnig y term ‘dyrchafedigaeth morffolegol’ i ddisgrifio estheteg o beintio arsylwadol parhaus a darlunio ffurfiau a phrosesau naturiol sy’n cael eu datblygu drwy drothwyon eithaf natur archwiliadwy. Felly, mae’r ffurf ddyrchafedig yn cyffwrdd â’r ffurf agosaf, ac mae’r gwaith dilynol sy’n cael ei greu yn ceisio crynhoi’r ehangder amserol a gofodol yn ddwyster, neu gan ddefnyddio term Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, urphanomen (rhyfeddod cychwynnol). Yn y pen draw, mae’r dwyster hwn yn rhagori ar y gynrychiolaeth. Mae tirlun, a ystyrir yn y ffordd hon, ynghyd â phersbectif, yn gydnaws ag ontoleg berthynol. Mae paentio a darlunio yn creu ffurf affeithiol o gysyniad cyfranogol; gellir ystyried hyn fel methodoleg o gyfarfyddiad ac arloesedd cysyniadol. Arwyddocâd paentiad o dirlun yn y pen draw yw ei fod yn cynrychioli ffurf ddiwylliannol sy’n mynegi lleoliad yr hunan yn y byd.

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Clogwyn Du’r Arddu - Oil on canvas 42 x 60 in. (1067 x 1525 mm.) Clogwyn Du’r Arddu - Olew ar gynfas 42 x 60 modfedd. (1067 x 1525 mm.)

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Selected Exhibitions

Arddangosiadau Dethol

1980

Royal Academy Yr Academi Frenhinol

Summer Exhibition Arddangosfa Haf

1983

Royal Academy Yr Academi Frenhinol

Summer Exhibition Arddangosfa Haf

Bankside Gallery Oriel Bankside

Royal Watercolour Society Y Gymdeithas Ddyfrlliw Frenhinol

1984

The Showroom Gallery Oriel The Showroom

100 Artists 100 Artists

1985

Royal Academy Yr Academi Frenhinol

Summer Exhibition Arddangosfa Haf

1986

Royal Academy Yr Academi Frenhinol

Summer Exhibition Arddangosfa Haf

1987

Camden Arts Centre Canolfan y Celfyddydau, Camden

Annual Exhibition Arddangosfa Flynyddol

1988

Paton Gallery Oriel Paton

‘Aspects of Landscape’ ‘Agweddau ar Dirluniau’

1989

Beletage Gallery: Dusseldorf Oriel Beletage: Dusseldorf

Mixed Exhibition Arddangosfa Gymysg

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1990

City of London Polytechnic Coleg Polytechnig Dinas, Llundain

‘Paintings and Works on Paper by R. Newell’ ‘Paintings and Works on Paper by R. Newell’

1991

Kilvert Gallery Oriel Kilvert

Mixed Exhibition Arddangosfa Gymysg

1992

Plymouth Arts Centre Canolfan y Celfyddydau, Plymouth

South West Open South West Opem

1995

The Cross Pontardawe The Cross Pontardawe

Pontardawe Art Awards Exhibition Arddangosfa Gwobrau Celf Pontardawe

1996

Glynn Vivian Art Gallery Oriel Gelf Glynn Vivian

‘A Land’ (One Person Exhibition) ‘A Land’ (Arddangosfa Un Person)

Llandeilo Llandeilo

The National Eisteddfod of Wales Eisteddfod Genedlaethol Cymru

Cheltenham and Gloucestershire College of H. E. Coleg AU Cheltenham a Swydd Gaerloyw

Cheltenham Drawing Open

Pontardawe Arts Centre Canolfan Gelfyddydau, Pontardawe

‘Aspects of Wales’ ‘Agweddau ar Gymru’

Cystadleuaeth Darlunio Agored Cheltenham

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Selected Exhibitions

Arddangosiadau Dethol

1997

Royal College of Art, Coleg Celf Brenhinol,

London; Hunterian Llundain; Hunterian

Museum, Glasgow Amgueddfa, Glasgow

Royal Academy Yr Academi Frenhinol

Pontardawe Arts Centre Canolfan Gelfyddydau, Pontardawe

‘Aspects of Wales’ ‘Agweddau ar Gymru’

Aberystwyth Arts Centre Canolfan Gelfyddydau, Aberystwyth

Wales Drawing Biennale 1997 Biennale Darlunio Cymru 1997

1998

Albany Gallery, Cardiff Oriel Albany, Caerdydd

‘New Art ‘98 at the Albany’ ‘New Art ‘98 at the Albany’

Royal Academy Yr Academi Frenhinol

Summer Exhibition Arddangosfa Haf

1999

Royal Academy Yr Academi Frenhinol

Summer Exhibition Arddangosfa Haf

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The Hunting Art Prizes Gwobrau Celf The Hunting

Summer Exhibition Arddangosfa Haf


Wrexham Arts Centre Canolfan y Celfyddydau, Wrecsam

Wales Drawing Biennale Biennale Darlunio Cymru

2000

Royal Academy Yr Academi Frenhinol

2001

Royal West of England Academy Academi Frenhinol Gorllewin Lloegr

Painting Open Cystadleuaeth Darlunio Agored

2002

Royal Cambrian Academy Yr Academi Frenhinol Gymreig

Summer Exhibition Arddangosfa Haf

Wrexham Arts Centre Canolfan y Celfyddydau, Wrecsam

Wales Drawing Biennale Biennale Darlunio Cymru

2003

Royal Cambrian Academy Yr Academi Frenhinol, Gymreig

Summer Exhibition Arddangosfa Haf

Summer Exhibition Arddangosfa Haf

Brecknock Museum and Art Gallery ‘Environment into Landscape: Paintings and Drawings by R. Newell’ Amgueddfa ac Oriel Gelf Brycheiniog ‘Environment into Landscape: Paintings and Drawings by R. Newell’ 2004

Royal Cambrian Academy Yr Academi Frenhinol Gymreig

Summer Exhibition Arddangosfa Haf

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Selected Exhibitions

Arddangosiadau Dethol

2005

Royal Cambrian Academy Yr Academi Frenhinol Gymreig

Summer Exhibition Arddangosfa Haf

Aberystwyth Arts Centre Canolfan y Celfyddydau, Aberystwyth

Wales Drawing Biennale Biennale Darlunio Cymru

2006

Royal Cambrian Academy Yr Academi Frenhinol Gymreig

Summer Exhibition Arddangosfa Haf

2007

Royal Cambrian Academy Yr Academi Frenhinol Gymreig

Summer Exhibition Arddangosfa Haf

2008

Oriel Davies

‘RE: drawing’

Royal Cambrian Academy Yr Academi Frenhinol Gymreig

Summer Exhibition Arddangosfa Haf

2009

Royal Cambrian Academy Yr Academi Frenhinol Gymreig

Summer Exhibition Arddangosfa Haf

2010

Royal Cambrian Academy Yr Academi Frenhinol Gymreig

Summer Exhibition Arddangosfa Haf

Elysium Gallery, Swansea Oriel Elysium, Abertawe

‘After the End’ ‘After the End’

2011

Royal Cambrian Academy Yr Academi Frenhinol Gymreig

Summer Exhibition Arddangosfa Haf

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Texts

Testunau

2000: “Landscape - Painting and Drawing in Wales - A Personal Statement” - Landscape and Art (Spring / Gwanwyn, 2000) p / t.6

2005: ‘Challenging the Negative Critique of Landscape’ - Humphries, G. and Williams, M. (eds.), Presenting and Representing Environments, Dortrecht: Springer, pp / t. 137-151

2000: “Susan Milne. Marking Time” - Galleries October / Hydref 2000 p / t.21 2002: “Landscape: the Unpainted and the Painted” - Registering the Land: John Howes pp / t. 6-7 2003: Environment into Landscape: Paintings and Drawings by Robert A Newell (Exhibition Catalogue / Catalog Arddangosfa) 2004: ‘Andrew Lambirth, David Tress: Lluniadau Drawings…’ and / a ‘Clare Rendell, David Tress’ - The David Jones Journal, V 1&2 / Cyfrol 1a 2 p / t.158-61

2005: Landscape Painting: Redundant Genre or Viable Practice? (Unpublished PhD thesis / Traethawd Doethuriaeth heb ei gyhoeddi) 2007: ‘Olion’ - Olion: Gareth Hugh Davies, Carmarthen: Oriel Myrddin, 2007, pp / t. 10-17 2012 ‘Landscape; Drawing and the Morphological Sublime’ Journal of Visual Art Practice 11: 1, doi: 10.1386/vap.11.1.49

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Acknowledgments

Diolchiadau

I wish to thank the following: Oriel Ynys Mon and Oriel Ceri Richards Gallery, also Brecknock Museum and Art Gallery for the loan of two works, together with the Arts Council of Wales and Swansea Metropolitan University for their financial support. In particular I thank Arts Officer, Nicola Gibson; Gallery Manager, Mark Heycock; curator Nigel Blackamore; Rolande Thomas for all his advice; Professor Andrea Liggins and Professor Howard Riley. Also Ben and Anne West for the loan of a work, Manon Emyr Gerallt for translating the catalogue into Welsh, James Webb for designing the catalogue and website, Philip McAthey, Thomas Smith and Aled Hughes for Photography, David Woodford for agreeing to open the exhibition at Oriel Ynys Mon, also my wife, Eileen for all her understanding and support.

Hoffwn ddiolch i’r canlynol: Oriel Ynys Môn ac Oriel Ceri Richards Gallery, hefyd Amgueddfa ac Oriel Gelf Brycheiniog am fenthyg dau ddarn o waith, a Chyngor Celfyddydau Cymru a Phrifysgol Fetropolitan Abertawe am eu cymorth ariannol. Hoffwn ddiolch yn arbennig i’r Swyddog Celfyddydau, Nicola Gibson; Rheolwr yr Oriel, Mark Heycock; y curadur Nigel Blackamore; Rolande Thomas am ei holl gyngor; yr Athro Andrea Liggins a’r Athro Howard Riley. Hefyd i Ben ac Ann West am fenthyg gwaith, Manon Emyr Gerallt am gyfieithu’r catalog i’r iaith Gymraeg, James Webb am gynllunio’r catalog a’r wefan, Philip McAthey, Thomas Smith ac Aled Hughes am Ffotograffiaeth, David Woodford am gytuno i agor yr arddangosfa yn Oriel Ynys Môn a hefyd fy ngwraig, Eileen, am ei holl ddealltwriaeth a’i chefnogaeth.

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Limestone Cliffs: Caim - Oil on canvas 33 1/2 x 48 in. (850 x 1220 mm.) Clogwyni Calchfaen: Caim - Olew ar gynfas 33 1/2 x 48 modfedd. (850 x 1220 mm.)

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Water, Rocks and Clouds

Dwr, Creigiau a Chymylau

“To disappear into deep water or to disappear toward a far horizon, to become a part of depth or infinity, such is the destiny of man that finds its image in the density of water.” (Bachelard [1942] 1994: 12)

“Diflannu i’r dyfroedd dwfn neu ddiflannu tuag at y gorwel pell, dod yn rhan o ddyfnder neu anfeidredd, dyna yw tynged dyn sy’n canfod ei ddelwedd yn y dyfroedd dwys.” (Bachelard [1942] 1994: 12)

The poetic imagination for Gaston Bachelard manifests a fundamental identification of sensibility with elemental, all pervasive matter. Thales of Miletus (c. 585 BC), accounted the first philosopher in the Western tradition, proposed that there is one fundamental substance from which all others are formed, and this is water. He thus manifested the fundamental motivation to find unity in diversity that is so profoundly important for both physical science and aesthetics.

Mae dychymyg barddonol Gaston Bachelard yn creu cyswllt sylfaenol o ymwybyddiaeth gyda phob deunydd elfennol, hollbresennol. Roedd Thales of Miletus (tua 585 CC), sef y sawl a nodir yn athronydd cyntaf yn y traddodiad Gorllewinol, yn cynnig bod pob sylwedd wedi’u creu o un sylwedd sylfaenol, sef dwr. Felly, roedd yn amlygu’r cymhelliant sylfaenol i ganfod yr undod mewn amrywiaeth sydd mor hollbwysig i wyddoniaeth ac estheteg ffisegol.

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Fluidity represents a primordial condition of matter for Immanuel Kant:

Mae llyfnder yn cynrychioli cyflwr cychwynnol mater i Immanuel Kant:


Dark Sea - Oil on canvas 48 x 72 in. (1220 x 1829 mm.) Y M么r Tywyll - Olew ar gynfas 48 x 72 modfedd. (1220 x 1829 mm.)

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Water, Rocks and Clouds

Dwr, Creigiau a Chymylau

“The fluid is, to all appearances, older than the solid …” (Kant [1790/3] 2001: 223)

“Mae’r hylif, yn ôl pob golwg, yn hyn na’r soled…” (Kant [1790/3] 2001: 223)

Kant also identifies time and space with fluidity. For Kant, time and space are innate or a priori forms of intuition or perception that constitute a boundless, continuous matrix of extensive magnitudes structuring our empirical experience:

Mae Kant hefyd yn cysylltu amser a gofod gyda llyfnder. I Kant, mae amser a gofod yn fathau cynhenid neu priori o reddf neu ganfyddiad sy’n cynrychioli matrics diderfyn a pharhaus o feintiau eang sy’n strwythuro ein profiad empeiraidd:

“Space and time are … magnitudes [that] may also be called flowing, since the synthesis of productive imagination involved in their production is a progression in time, and the continuity of time is ordinarily designated by the term flowing or flowing away.” (Kant [1781/87] 1929/1933: 204)

“Mae gofod ac amser yn....feintiau y gellir dweud eu bod hefyd yn llifo, oherwydd mae’r broses o gyfosod dychymyg cynhyrchiol sy’n gysylltiedig â’u creu yn ddilyniant mewn amser, ac mae parhad amser fel arfer wedi’i ddynodi gan y term llifo neu lifo i ffwrdd.” (Kant [1781/87] 1929/1933: 204)

Rudolph Arnheim emphasizes the visually dynamic qualities of pictorial perspective in terms of flow that seems to echo Kant:

Mae Rudolph Arnheim yn pwysleisio rhinweddau gweledol deinamig safbwynt darluniadol yn nhermau llif, sy’n ymddangos eu bod yn adleisio barn Kant:

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“... central perspective locates infinity in a specific direction. This makes space appear as a pointed flow, entering the picture from the near sides and converging toward a mouth at the distance. The result is a transformation of the simultaneity of space into a happening in time - that is, an irreversible sequence of events. The traditional world of being is redefined as a process of happening. In this way central perspective foreshadows and initiates a fundamental development in the western conception of nature.” (Arnheim [1954] 1966a: 287-8) The painting Dark Sea was the last in a series that I made dealing with views straight out to sea. I had made numerous watercolour studies, in this instance from the crumbling cliffs at Dunwich in Suffolk, where the sea has claimed almost an entire medieval village. I was particularly impressed by the broad,

“... mae safbwynt canolog yn lleoli anfeidredd mewn cyfeiriad penodol. Mae hyn yn gwneud i ofod ymddangos fel llif pwrpasol, sy’n llifo i mewn i’r darlun o’r ochrau yn cydgyfarfod tuag at geg yn y pellter. Canlyniad hyn yw trawsnewid gofod i amser sy’n digwydd - hynny yw, patrwm di-droi’n-ôl o ddigwyddiadau. Mae’r byd traddodiadol o fodoli yn cael ei ailddiffinio fel proses o ddigwydd. Drwy hyn, mae’r safbwynt canolog yn rhagfynegi ac yn ysgogi datblygiad sylfaenol yn syniadaeth y Gorllewin o natur.” (Arnheim [1954] 1966a: 287-8) Y paentiad Y Môr Tywyll oedd y paentiad olaf mewn cyfres lle’r oeddwn yn trin golygfeydd yn syth allan i’r môr. Roeddwn wedi gwneud nifer o astudiaethau dyfrlliw, y tro hwn o glogwyni bregus Dunwich yn Suffolk, lle mae’r môr wedi goresgyn pentref canoloesol bron yn gyfan gwbl. Roedd undonedd eang Môr y Gogledd a’i orwel di-dor yn drawiadol iawn i mi.

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Water, Rocks and Clouds

Dwr, Creigiau a Chymylau

expansive monotony of the North Sea and its unbroken horizon. The aim with the painting was to achieve an elemental integration of matter, space and feeling.

Nod y paentiad oedd cyfuno mater, gofod ac ymdeimlad mewn ffordd elfennol.

In his The Decline of the West, Oswald Spengler vividly characterises the significance of perspectival space in Western culture: “With the rise of perspective, then, the deeper form and full metaphysical significance of the picture comes to be concentrated upon the horizon.” (Spengler [1921] 1961 I: 242) I made some studies and paintings at night. For Goethe, colour is produced by an active polarity of light and dark rather than simply by the decompostion of light, he writes of:

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Yn The Decline of the West, mae Oswald Spengler yn rhoi disgrifiad byw o arwyddocâd gofod persbectifaidd yn niwylliant y Gorllewin: “Gyda datblygiad persbectif, yna, mae ffurf ddyfnach ac arwyddocâd metaffisegol llawn y darlun yn canolbwyntio ar y gorwel.” (Spengler [1921] 1961 I: 242) Gwnes rai astudiaethau a phaentiadau gyda’r nos. I Goethe, mae lliwiau’n cael eu cynhyrchu gan bolaredd gweithredol goleuni a thywyllwch yn hytrach na thrwy ddadelfeniad syml golau. Ysgrifennodd:


Great Asby Scar II - Oil on canvas 42 x 60 in. (1067 x 1525 mm.) Great Asby Scar II - Olew ar gynfas 42 x 60 modfedd (1067 x 1525 mm.)

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Water, Rocks and Clouds

Dwr, Creigiau a Chymylau

“The dark nature of colour, its full rich quality, is what produces the grave, and at the same time fascinating impression we sometimes experience …” (Goethe [1810/1840] 1970: 275)

“Natur tywyll lliwiau, ei ansawdd cyfoethog cyflawn, yw’r hyn sy’n cynhyrchu’r bedd, ac ar yr un pryd yr argraff gyfareddol yr ydym weithiau’n ei phrofi…” (Goethe [1810/1840] 1970: 275)

“Stones are silent teachers, they make those who study them dumb, and the best to be learnt from them is incommunicable.” Goethe [1907] 1998: 97)

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The magnificent limestone pavement of Great Asby Scar in Cumbria was formed in shallow seas from the skeletal calcium of sea creatures. The dialogue of stone with water continues, producing clints, grikes and water runnels. At the location of Great Asby Scar II, the limestone forms petrified waves in a tide that appears to sweep across the land which it in fact constitutes in its depths.

Cafodd y palmant calchfaen gwych yn Great Asby Scar yn Cumbria ei ffurfio mewn basforoedd o galsiwm ysgerbydol creaduriaid y môr. Mae’r dialog rhwng y cerrig a’r dwr yn parhau, gan greu holltau, greiciau a nentydd. Yn lleoliad Great Asby Scar II, mae’r calchfaen yn creu tonau caregaidd mewn llanw sy’n ymddangos fel ei fod yn ysgubo ar draws y tir, a grëwyd mewn gwirionedd drwy ei ddyfnder. “Mae cerrig yn athrawon distaw, maent yn gwneud y rhai sy’n eu hastudio yn fud, ac nid yw’n bosibl cyfleu’r gorau y gellir ei ddysgu amdanynt.” Goethe [1907] 1998: 97)


Rocks are a source of fascination for their immediate aesthetic qualities and for symbolic and analogical associations, they are redolent of origins, foundations, skeletal structures; the inorganic prefiguring the organic; they are nonetheless an aspect of nature that can seem most alien to spirit or mind, seeming to arrest the apparent freedom and mobility of the latter. Georg Willhelm Friedrich Hegel refers to Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling’s negotiation of this polarity, remarking his reference to Nature as “… a petrified intelligence”. (Hegel [1847] 1970: 15) Hegel encapsulates the challenging otherness of nature: “Nature confronts us as a riddle and a problem, whose solution both attracts and repels us: attracts because Spirit is presaged in Nature; repels us, because Nature seems an

Mae cerrig yn ennyn diddordeb aruthrol oherwydd eu hansawdd esthetig uniongyrchol a’u cysylltiadau symbolaidd ac analogaidd, maent yn ein hatgoffa o’u tarddiad, eu seiliau, eu strwythurau ysgerbydol; yr anorganig yn rhagarddangos yr organig; er hynny, maent yn agwedd ar natur sy’n gallu ymddangos yn fwyaf estron i’r ysbryd neu’r meddwl, gan ymddangos fel eu bod yn atal rhyddid a symudedd ymddangosiadol yr olaf. Mae Georg Willhelm Friedrich Hegel yn cyfeirio at ddisgrifiad Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling o’r polaredd hwn gan ddisgrifio Natur fel “deallusrwydd delwaidd”. (Hegel [1847] 1970: 15) Mae Hegel yn llwyddo i grynhoi arwahanrwydd heriol natur: “Mae natur yn cyflwyno ei hun i ni fel pos a phroblem, ac mae’r ateb iddo yn ein denu ac yn ein ffieiddio: mae’n ein denu oherwydd mae’r

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alien existence, in which Spirit does not find itself.” (Hegel [1847] 1970: 3)

Enaid yn cael ei ragfynegi mewn Natur; mae’n gwneud i ni ffieiddio oherwydd bod Natur yn ymddangos fel bodolaeth estron, lle nad yw’r Enaid yn canfod ei hun.” (Hegel [1847] 1970: 3)

Rocks exhibit certain fundamental material conditions of our existence; the adventures of materials in formative and destructive processes; mutations of structure and pattern, tensions between order and chaos, all of this is invested with the mysteries of time on scales that challenge comprehension. Landscape thus exhibits endurance and change; process is fundamental; cycles of formation and destruction govern everything we see in the landscape. In Alfred North Whitehead’s philosophy, endurance involves change, while time and eternity interpenetrate within the generative process of actuality. His illustration of this with reference to mountains and colours seems particularly appropriate for an exhibition that includes both:

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Mae creigiau yn arddangos rhai o amodau hanfodol sylfaenol ein bodolaeth; anturiaethau deunyddiau mewn prosesau ffurfiannol a dinistriol; mwtadiadau strwythurau a phatrymau, tensiynau rhwng trefn ac anrhefn, ac mae hyn oll wedi’i gyfuno â dirgelion amser ar raddfa sy’n herio amgyffrediad. Felly mae tirluniau yn arddangos gwytnwch a newid; mae prosesau yn hanfodol; mae cylchoedd o greu a dinistrio yn rheoli popeth a welwn yn y tirlun. Yn athroniaeth Alfred North Whitehead, mae gwytnwch yn golygu newid, tra bod amser a thragwyddoldeb wedi’u cysylltu yn y broses gynhyrchiol o wirionedd. Mae ei ddarlun o hyn gyda’i gyfeiriad at fynyddoedd a lliwiau yn


“The mountain endures. But when after ages it has been worn away, it has gone. If a replica arises, it is yet a new mountain. A colour is eternal. It haunts time like a spirit. It comes and it goes. But when it comes, it is the same colour. It neither survives nor does it live. It appears when it is wanted. The mountain has to time and space a different relation from that which a colour has.” ([1926] 1932 107)

ymddangos yn briodol iawn i arddangosfa sy’n cynnwys y ddau: “Mae’r mynydd yn goroesi. Ond ar ôl iddo dreulio dros amser, mae wedi mynd. Os bydd atgynhyrchiad yn codi, mae’n fynydd newydd arall. Mae lliw yn dragwyddol. Mae’n aflonyddu amser fel ysbryd. Mae’n mynd ac yn dod. Ond pan ddaw, yr un lliw yw. Nid yw’n goroesi nac yn byw. Mae’n ymddangos pan fydd ei angen. Mae gan y mynydd berthynas wahanol o ran amser a gofod i’r berthynas sydd ganddo â lliw.” ([1926] 1932 107)

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Hamlet: Do you see yonder cloud that’s almost in shape of a camel? Polonius: By th’mass, and’tis like a camel indeed. Hamlet: Methinks it is like a weasel. Polonius: It is backed like a weasel. Hamlet: Or like a whale. Polonius: Very like a whale. (Shakespeare 2002: 310)

Clouds are the ultimate images of mutability, transformation, metamorphosis. Physical changefulness combines with perceptual ambiguities and the involuntary activity of fantasy in the experience of clouds to a greater extent than with other natural phenomena. William Shakespeare’s imagery in this witty but ominous encounter from Hamlet, Prince of Denmark conjures up a succession of animals that has the body as its fundamental centre. James Elkins considers that such ambiguties permeate our perceptions with a projected sense of corporeality:

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Cymylau yw’r delweddau eithaf o gyfnewidioldeb, trawsnewidiad, metamorffosis. Mae newidiadau ffisegol yn cyfuno ag amwyseddau canfyddiadol a gweithgarwch ffantasi anwirfoddol yn y profiad o gymylau i raddau mwy na chydag unrhyw ffenomena naturiol arall. Mae delweddaeth William Shakespeare yn y sgwrs ffraeth ond bygythiol o Hamlet, Prince of Denmark yn disgrifio cyfres o anifeiliaid sydd â’r corff fel eu craidd sylfaenol. Mae James Elkins yn ystyried bod amwyseddau o’r fath yn treiddio ein canfyddiadau gydag ymdeimlad o gorffoldeb:


Cumulus Congestus - Oil on canvas 44 x 48 in. (1118 x 1220 mm.) Cumulus Congestus - Olew ar gynfas 44 x 48 modfedd (1118 x 1220 mm.)

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v

Water, Rocks and Clouds

Dwr, Creigiau a Chymylau

“Every work of visual art is a representation of the body. To say this is to say that we see bodies, even where there are none, and that the creation of a form is to some degree the creation of a body.

“Mae pob darn o gelfyddyd weledol yn cynrychioli’r corff. Mae dweud hyn yn golygu ein bod yn gweld cyrff, hyd yn oed pan nad oes rhai yno, a bod creu ffurf i ryw raddau yn creu corff.

Every picture is a picture of a body. In the absence of bodies, I think we embark on a search for body metaphors - bodily lengths, weights, colours, textures, shapes, and movements...” (Elkins1999: 1,6)

Mae pob darlun yn ddarlun o gorff. Yn absenoldeb cyrff, rydym yn ceisio chwilio am drosiadau o’r corff – hyd, pwysau, lliw, gwead, siapiau a symudiadau’r corff...” (Elkins 1999: 1,6)

This fundamental speculative imaginative production of perceptual gestalts was taken by Maurice Merleau-Ponty to the threshold of a phenomenological metaphysics of embodied perception in which ‘flesh’ is a fundamental category:

Lluniwyd y broses sylfaenol hon o greu cyfanwaith canfyddiadol dychmygus a damcaniaethol gan Maruice Merleau-Ponty at drothwy metaffiseg ffenomenolegol canfyddiad wedi’i ymgorffori lle mae’r ‘cnawd’ yn gategori sylfaenol ohono.

“When we speak of the flesh of the visible … we mean that carnal being, as a being of depths, … a being in latency, and a presentation

“Wrth drafod y cnawd gweladwy...rydym yn golygu y bod cnawdol, fel bod o ddyfnder..... bod cuddiedig, ac mae cyflwyniad o absenoldeb

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of a certain absence, is a prototype of Being, of which our body, the sensible sentient, is a very remarkable variant, but whose constituive paradox already lies in every visible.” (Merleau-Ponty [1964] 1968: 136)

penodol, yn brototeip o Fod, ac mae ein corff ni, yr ymdeimlad synhwyrol, yn amrywiad rhyfeddol iawn ohono, ond y mae ei wrthfynegiad cyfansoddiadol eisoes yn bodoli ym mhob peth gweladwy.” (Merleau-Ponty [1964] 1968: 136)

Bachelard uses clouds to emphasise the freedom of the material imagination in play with one of its most rarified of material objects:

Mae Bachelard yn defnyddio cymylau i bwysleisio rhyddid y dychymyg materol sy’n cysylltu ag un o’i wrthrychau materol mwyaf prin:

“Clouds are numbered among the most oneiric of “poetic things.” … the reverie of clouds has a peculiar psychological charactristic: it is a reverie without responsibility.” (Bachelard [1943] 1988: 185) Hardness and softness, fleetingness and duration, heaven and earth can be mobilised in a dance of fantastical inversions:

“Mae cymylau’n cael eu hystyried ymhlith rhai o’r “pethau barddonol” mwyaf breuddwydiol... mae gan natur freuddwydiol cymylau nodwedd seicolegol benodol: mae’n natur freuddwydiol heb gyfrifoldeb.” (Bachelard [1943] 1988: 185) Gellir cynnull caledwch a meddalwch, byrhoedledd a pharhad, nefoedd a daear mewn dawns o wrthdroadau anhygoel:

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v

Water, Rocks and Clouds

Dwr, Creigiau a Chymylau

“Quite often dreamers of clouds see heaps of rocks in cloud-filled skies. The reverse holds true as well. The life of the imagination is one of exchange. ... Here we find ourselves at the centre of the imaginary exchange between clouds and rocks, able at will to make reality imaginary and imagination real. Where metaphors are reversible, the imagination exists in a certain state of grace. ...And thus it seems that, through a sort of dialogue between the rocks and clouds, the heavens come to imitate the earth.” (Bachelard [1943] 2002: 142-3)

“Yn eithaf aml, mae’r rheiny sy’n breuddwydio am gymylau yn gweld pentyrrau o greigiau yn yr awyr cymylog. Mae’r gwrthwyneb yn wir hefyd. Mae byd y dychymyg yn fyd o gyfnewid... Yma rydym yn canfod ein hunain yng nghanol y cyswllt dychmygol rhwng cymylau a chreigiau, yn gallu troi realiti yn ddychmygol a’r dychmygol yn real. Pan fydd yn bosibl gwrthdroi trosiadau, mae’r dychymyg yn bodoli mewn rhyw fath o gyflwr o ras. ...Ac felly mae’n ymddangos bod yr awyr, drwy ryw fath o ddialog rhwng y creigiau a’r cymylau, yn efelychu’r ddaear.” (Bachelard [1943] 2002: 142-3)

For Percy Bysshe Shelley, clouds are again a primordial manifestation of mutability. Like Goethe, Shelley found the developing science of meteorology a major source of poetic inspiration. In the final verse of his poem The Cloud of 1820, Shelley gives vivid expression to the adventures of mutability in the hydrologic cycle:

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I Percy Bysshe Shelley, mae’r cymylau unwaith eto yn ymddangosiad cychwynnol o gyfnewidioldeb. Fel Goethe, roedd yr wyddor feteoroleg a oedd yn datblygu yn ffynhonnell bwysig o ysbrydoliaeth farddonol i Shelley. Ym mhennill olaf ei gerdd The Cloud a ysgrifennodd ym 1820, ceir disgrifiad byw gan Shelley o anturiaethau cyfnewidioldeb yn y cylch hydrolegol:


I am the daughter of Earth and Water,

And the nursling of the Sky;

I pass through the pores of the ocean and shores;

I change, but I cannot die.

For after the rain when with never a stain

The pavilion of Heaven is bare,

And the winds and sunbeams with their convex gleams

Build up the blue dome of air,

I silently laugh at my own cenotaph,

And out of the caverns of rain,

Like a child from the womb, like a ghost from the tomb,

I arise and unbuild it again.

(Shelley 1968: 557-8)

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Great Asby Scar II - Pencil and watercolour on paper 19 x 27 in. (482 x 686 mm.) Great Asby Scar II - Pensel a dyfrlliw du ar bapur 19 x 27 modfedd (482 x 686 mm.)

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Cumulus Tower Oil on canvas 48 x 34 in. (1220 x 890 mm.) Twr Cwmwlws Olew ar gynfas 48 x 34 modfedd (1220 x 890 mm.) v

31


Extensiveness/ Space

Ehangder/ Gofod

My practice of painting and drawing landscape has its origins in early childhood scrawling on any surface that would take a mark. I would draw railway tracks receding to infinity, roads rising over hills, descending out of sight into dips, re-appearing in the distance, etc.; I would draw objects like ships and aeroplanes, turning them around in space and situating myself in or among them. Out of this and other forms of play emerged a fascination with the appearance of objects in space and perspective that was like a drug – I have been addicted ever since! All this involved the pleasures of immediate perception, of the imaginary transformations of flatness into space and vice versa, of imagining the small to be large. This fascination is spontaneous, even though it became increasingly culturally informed or orientated. It is, and was from the beginning: aesthetic, pleasurable, disinterested, engaged, contemplative, active.

Dechreuais baentio a darlunio tirluniau yn ystod fy mhlentyndod cynnar pan fyddwn yn sgriblo ar unrhyw arwyneb y gellid ei farcio. Byddwn yn tynnu llun cledrau rheilffordd yn diflannu i’r pellter, ffyrdd yn codi dros fryniau, yn disgyn o’r golwg i lawr i bantiau ac yn ailymddangos unwaith eto yn y pellter, ac yn y blaen; byddwn yn tynnu llun gwrthrychau megis llongau ac awyrennau, a’u troi mewn gofod a gosod fy hun ynddynt neu yn eu plith. O ganlyniad i hyn a mathau eraill o chwarae, datblygodd diddordeb mawr gennyf yn ymddangosiad gwrthrychau mewn gofod a phersbectif a oedd bron fel cyffur - bûm yn gaeth byth ers hynny! Roedd hyn yn ymwneud â phleserau canfyddiad uniongyrchol, o drawsffurfiadau dychmygol gwastadrwydd yn ofod ac i’r gwrthwyneb, dychmygu’r bach yn fawr. Mae’r diddordeb hwn yn ddigymell, er iddo ddatblygu’n gynyddol o ganlyniad i ddylanwad diwylliannol. Ers y cychwyn cyntaf,

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Great Asby Scar I - Oil on canvas 40 x 60 in. (1016 x 1530 mm.) Great Asby Scar I - Olew ar gynfas 40 x 60 modfedd. (1016 x 1530 mm.)

33


Extensiveness/ Space

Ehangder/ Gofod

It is a mistake to dislocate appearance from reality, appearance can be understood as a component in the experiential fabric of reality, to deny this is to rob aesthetic experience of its depth and to deny the fundametal ontological reciprocity of self and world.

bu’n esthetig, yn bleserus, yn ddiduedd, yn gysylltiedig, yn fyfyrgar ac yn weithredol. Mae’n gamgymeriad datgysylltu ymddangosiad oddi wrth realaeth, gellir ystyried ymddangosiad fel elfen o ffabrig arbrofol realaeth, a byddai gwadu hyn yn ysbeilio profiad o’i ddyfnder ac yn gwadu cytbwysedd ontolegol sylfaenol yr hunan a’r byd.

The fascination with space caused landscape to emerge as a predominant medium for its expression. In my early drawings it had emerged as an imaginary field for potential activity, for journeys, as virtuality, as freedom. So what is the status of space? Is it physical? Is it mental? Is it spiritual? As a drawing or painting proceeds, space is made apparent; its scale, depth and character emerge in often surprising ways, drawing makes space visible within a complexity of relations and potentialities that often cannot at first all be seen or comprehended, a landscape painting or drawing forms over

34

Roedd y diddordeb mawr mewn gofod yn achosi i dirluniau ddatblygu fel y prif gyfrwng ar gyfer ei fynegi. Yn fy lluniadau cynnar, datblygodd fel maes dychmygol ar gyfer gweithgarwch posibl, ar gyfer teithiau, fel posibiliadau, fel rhyddid. Felly beth yw statws gofod? A yw’n ffisegol? A yw’n feddyliol? A yw’n ysbrydol? Wrth i luniad neu baentiad ddatblygu, daw gofod i’r amlwg; mae ei faint, ei ddyfnder a’i gymeriad yn datblygu mewn ffyrdd sy’n aml yn annisgwyl, mae darlunio yn gwneud gofod yn


time, a synthesis of perceptual events, it is a process of constructive revelation. Every touch detail and relation is a materialized thought. We can consider space as absolute, ontological, geometrical, phenomenological, and significantly following Gilles Deleuze, intensive as well as extensive. In Whitehead’s cosmology, space is not prior to the atomic events constitutive of actuality, space is generated and annihilated within the event structure itself. I consider that beyond the physical features of landscape, one of my fundamental concerns and motivations is with revealing, creating and manipulating space; its unity, character and perspectival integration being bound up with my situated experience. The limestone pavements of Great Asby Scar I and Great Asby Scar II are perspective

weladwy o fewn natur gymhleth cysylltiadau a phosibiliadau na ellir eu gweld na’u dirnad ar yr olwg gyntaf, mae tirlun sy’n cael ei baentio neu ei ddarlunio yn datblygu, dros amser, cyfuniad o ddigwyddiadau cysyniadol, mae’n broses o ddatgeliad adeiladol. Mae pob cyffyrddiad, manylyn a chyswllt yn ystyriaeth a wireddwyd. Gallwn ystyried gofod fel absoliwt, rhywbeth ontolegol, geometrig, ffenomenolegol, ac yn arwyddocaol, ar ôl Gilles Deleuze, yn ddwys yn ogystal ag yn eang. Yng nghosmoleg Whitehead, nid yw gofod yn digwydd cyn y digwyddiadau atomig sy’n cynrychioli gwirionedd, mae gofod yn cael ei greu a’i ddinistrio yn strwythur y digwyddiad ei hun. Rwyf yn ystyried mai un o’r prif bryderon a chymhellion sylfaenol sy’n berthnasol i mi, y tu hwnt i nodweddion ffisegol tirlun, yw datgelu, creu a thrin gofod; a bod ei undod, ei gymeriad

35


Extensiveness/ Space

Ehangder/ Gofod

recessions in which the elusive perceiving subject itself is somehow intimately spatial and thus situated, a reflexive presence coincident with the landscape. In the words of Bachelard:

a’i integreiddiad persbectifaidd yn cael eu cysylltu â lleoliadau fy mhrofiad i.

“Immensity is within ourselves. It is attached to a sort of expansion of being that life curbs and caution arrests, but which starts again when we are alone. … Indeed, immensity is the movement of motionless man.” (Bachelard [1958] 1964: 184) As remarked above, Kant understood space and time to be pure forms of intuition, as such, fundamental preconditions rather than deliverances of perception. Sensory space was for Kant manifested for us by the “moving forces of matter” (Kant [1936-8] 1995:69), a dynamic conception highly suggestive of Joseph Mallord

36

Mae’r palmentydd calchfaen yn Great Asby Scar I a Great Asby Scar II yn enciliadau persbectifaidd lle mae’r pwnc sy’n ymddangos yn anniffiniadwy ei hun rhywsut yn ymddangos yn ofodol yn y pen draw, ac felly wedi’i leoli, presenoldeb adlewyrchol sy’n cyfateb i’r tirlun. Yng ngeiriau Gaston Bachelard: Mae mawredd yn bodoli ynom ni ein hunain. Mae wedi’i gysylltu â rhyw fath o ehangder o fodolaeth sy’n cael ei ffrwyno gan fywyd a’i atal gan bwyll, ond sy’n dechrau eto pan fyddwn ar ein pen ein hunain....Yn wir, mawredd yw symudiad dyn llonydd. (Bachelard [1958] 1964: 184)


William Turner’s painting of dynamic fields of light and matter. More recent conceptions of space such as that discussed by Manuel Delanda describe the generation of metric space from a primordial topological dimensionless space: “The picture of a relatively undifferentiated and continuous topolgical space undergoing discontinuous transitions and progressively acquiring detail until it condenses into the meaurable and divisible metric space which we inhabit, is a powerful metaphor for the cosmic genesis of spatial structure.” (Delanda [2002] 2005: 56) Schelling placed a great emphasis on the importance of space for painting. In The Philosophy of Art he emphasizes the significance of space and light in his concepts of painting:

Fel y nodwyd uchod, roedd Kant yn ystyried amser a gofod yn ffurfiau pur o reddf, ac felly yn rhag-amodau sylfaenol yn hytrach na gwaredigaeth o ganfyddiad. I Kant, roedd gofod synhwyraidd yn cael ei greu ar ein cyfer gan “rymoedd symudol mater” (Kant [1936-8] 1995: 69), cysyniad deinamig sy’n awgrymog iawn ym mhaentiad Joseph Mallord William Turner o feysydd deinamig golau a mater. Mae cysyniadau mwy diweddar o ofod megis y rhai a drafodwyd gan Manuel Delanda yn disgrifio creu gofod metrig o ofod diddimensiwn topolegol cychwynnol: Mae’r darlun o ofod topolegol parhaus a chymharol ddiwahaniaeth sy’n profi trawsnewidiadau ysbeidiol ac sy’n gofyn am fwy o fanylion nes y bydd yn cywasgu i fod yn ofod metrig mesuradwy a rhanadwy yr ydym yn byw

37


Extensiveness/ Space

Ehangder/ Gofod

“...painting approaches the highest art form by treating space as a necessary element and by portraying it, as it were, fused with the objects of its portrayal. In the perfect or complete painting, space in and for itself must possess meaning and significance, quite independent of the inner or qualitative circumstances obtaining in the painting.” (Schelling [1859] 1989:127)

ynddo, yn drosiad pwerus o darddiad cosmig strwythur gofodol. (Delanda [2002] 2005: 56)

Schelling theorised the integration of space and time as forms of human awareness and activity. This is expounded in Schelling’s Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature: “Space is nothing else but the undetermined sphere of my mental activity, and time gives it limits. Time, on the other hand, is that which is in itself merely limits, and only acquires extension through my activity.” (Schelling [1803] 1988: 184)

38

Roedd Schelling yn rhoi pwyslais mawr ar bwysigrwydd gofod wrth baentio. Yn The Philosophy of Art, roedd yn pwysleisio arwyddocâd gofod a golau yn ei gysyniadau paentio: ... mae paentio yn nesáu at y ffurf uchaf o gelfyddyd, drwy drin gofod fel elfen angenrheidiol a’i bortreadu, fel petai, wedi’i gyfuno â’r amcanion y mae’n eu portreadu. Yn y paentiad perffaith neu gyflawn, mae’n rhaid i ofod feddu ar ystyr ac arwyddocâd, a hynny’n annibynnol oddi wrth yr amgylchiadau mewnol neu ansoddol sy’n cael eu portreadu yn y paentiad. (Schelling [1859] 1989:127) Roedd Schelling yn damcaniaethu integreiddiad gofod ac amser fel ffurfiau o ymwybyddiaeth


This interpenetration of space and time as fields of perceptual experience or intelligence on the one hand, and as components of a primordial physical field on the other suggests a mystic union. It remains an open question whether painting as such, landscape painting in particular, can continue to embody or express such fundamental conceptions.

a gweithgaredd dynol. Mae hyn yn cael ei esbonio yn Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature Schelling: Nid yw gofod yn ddim mwy na maes amhendant fy ngweithgarwch meddyliol i, ac mae amser yn rhoi terfyn iddo. Mae amser, ar y llaw arall, yn derfyn ynddo’i hun, a dim ond drwy fy ngweithgarwch y bydd angen ei ehangu. (Schelling [1803] 1988: 184) Mae’r dehongliad hwn o ofod ac amser fel meysydd o brofiad neu ddeallusrwydd cysyniadol ar yr un llaw, ac fel elfennau o faes ffisegol cychwynnol ar y llaw arall yn awgrymu uniad cyfriniol. Mae ansicrwydd yn parhau ynghylch a yw paentio, a phaentio tirlun yn benodol, yn gallu parhau i ymgorffori neu fynegi cysyniadau mor sylfaenol â’r rhain.

39


Extensiveness/ Space

Ehangder/ Gofod

Perspective is not necessarily the rigid schema that its detractors maintain. My own drawings often involve wide visual fields and shifting angles of view that result in a kind of topological stretching of normal perspective. This is particularly evident in my drawing of cliffs at Rhossili. This involved an abrupt wide angled double recession down both sides of the bluff in the foreground. Having commenced the drawing on a single rectangular sheet, I soon discovered that this was completely inadequate for dealing with this spatial challenge in a way that contributed to the sense of a dynamic plunge downwards.

Nid yw persbectif o reidrwydd yn sgema anhyblyg fel y myn ei fychanwyr. Mae fy lluniadau yn aml yn cynnwys meysydd gweledol eang ac onglau drychiad sy’n symud, sy’n creu darlun lle mae’r persbectif arferol yn cael ei ymestyn yn dopolegol. Mae hyn yn arbennig o wir yn fy lluniad o’r clogwyni yn Rhossili. Roedd hyn yn cynnwys enciliad ongl ddwbl eang a serth i lawr dwy ochr y clogwyn yn y blaendir. Ar ôl dechrau’r lluniad ar un ddalen betryal, canfyddais yn fuan nad oedd hyn yn ddigonol o gwbl ar gyfer delio a’r her ofodol hon mewn ffordd a fyddai’n cyfrannu at yr ymdeimlad o gwymp deinamig ar i lawr. v

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Rhossili - Pencil and black watercolour on paper 20 x 41 in. (508 x1041 mm.) Rhossili - Pensel a dyfrlliw du ar bapur 20 x 41 modfedd (508 x 1041 mm.)

41


The Morphological Sublime

Y Dyrchafedig Morffolegol

My recent work has engaged with a series of morphological themes of infinite complexity, structuring space in ways that challenge perception. Complexity is particularly intriguing when it sustains the tension between order and chaos, structure and texture These themes include: scree slopes and boulder fields that exhibit the meeting of chaotic randomness with the interrupted rhythms and order of gravitational flows punctuated by fallen rocks, and those distributed by vanished glaciers; the breaking down of sedimentary cliff structures; perspectival arrays of limestone pavements involving the repeated forms of clints, grikes and water eroded runnels; cloud formations exhibiting complex evolutions of volumetric structures. This level of complexity has led me to propose an aesthetic category: the ‘morphological sublime’, referred to in the Introduction above.

Mae fy ngwaith diweddar wedi cynnwys cyfres o themâu morffolegol cymhleth diderfyn, sy’n strwythuro gofod mewn ffyrdd sy’n herio’r amgyffrediad. Mae cymhlethdod yn arbennig o ddiddorol pan fydd yn cynnal y tyndra rhwng trefn ac anhrefn, strwythur a gwead. Mae’r themâu hyn yn cynnwys: llethrau sgri a chlogfeini sy’n arddangos cyfarfyddiad rhwng y damweiniol anhrefnus a rhythmau annisgwyl a threfn llifoedd disgyrchol sydd wedi’u hatalnodi gan gerrig sydd wedi disgyn, a’r rhai a ddosbarthwyd gan rewlifoedd diflanedig y gorffennol; strwythurau clogwyni gwaddod yn chwalu; casgliadau persbectifaidd o balmentydd calchfaen sy’n cynnwys ffurfiau ailadroddus o holltau, greiciau a nentydd sydd wedi erydu’r calchfaen; ffurfiannau o gymylau sy’n arddangos patrymau cymhleth o strwythurau cyfeintiol. Mae’r lefel hon o gymhlethdod wedi fy nghyfeirio at gynnig categori esthetig:

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Clogwyn Du’r Arddu - Pencil and watercolour on paper 22 x 32 in. (559 x 814 mm.) Clogwyn Du’r Arddu - Pensel a dyfrlliw du ar bapur 22 x 32 modfedd (559 x 814 mm.)

43


The Morphological Sublime

Y Dyrchafedig Morffolegol

Carreg Du’r Arddu is a volcanic formation created over some 4 to 5 hundred million years ago. Its successive beds rise above screes and boulders that exhibit the meeting of chaotic randomness with the interrupted rhythms and order of gravitational flows punctuated by erratics distributed by a glacier that vanished some 10,000 years ago.

y ‘dyrchafedig morffolegol’, y cyfeirir ato yn y Cyflwyniad uchod.

Landscape thus affords forms of development, disintegration, suspension, contraction, expansion, flow, fracture, etc. Polarities of forms and forces manifest in their interplay over time. Recognition and appreciation of this process integrates matter of fact knowledge with aesthetic value. D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson’s On Growth and Form exemplifies the integration of scientific and aesthetic awareness: “The form … of any portion of matter, whether it be living or dead, and the changes of from

44

Mae Carreg Du’r Arddu yn ffurfiad folcanaidd a grëwyd tua 4 neu 5 can miliwn o flynyddoedd yn ôl. Mae ei welyau olynol yn codi uwchlaw’r sgrïau a’r clogfeini sy’n arddangos cyfarfyddiad rhwng y damweiniol anhrefnus a rhythmau annisgwyl a threfn y llifoedd disgyrchol sydd wedi’u hatalnodi gan y cerrig a ddosbarthwyd yn ddi-drefn gan rewlif a ddiflannodd tua 10,000 o flynyddoedd yn ôl. Felly, mae tirlun yn galluogi datblygiad, dadfeiliad, crogiant, ehangiad, llif, holltau ac yn y blaen. Mae pegynau’r ffurfiau a’r grymoedd yn datblygu yn eu cydadwaith â’i gilydd dros amser. Mae cydnabyddiaeth a gwerthfawrogiad o’r broses hon yn cyfuno gwybodaeth mater o ffaith gyda gwerth esthetig. Mae On Growth and Form D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson yn


Earlier again, John Ruskin understood morphology in just this way, and in drawing advocated giving the strongest attention to the linear distribution of forces. This integrated a deep understanding of dynamic processes in nature with aesthetic value: “The close approximationn of part of any curve to a straight line, gives to such a curve all its spring, power and nobleness. … [The production of such curves in nature] may generally be resolved into the gradual increase or diminution of a given force.” (Ruskin [18431860] 1904 IV: 278)

dangos yr integreiddiad rhwng ymwybyddiaeth wyddonol ac esthetig: “Gall ffurf… unrhyw ran o fater, p’un a yw’n fyw neu’n farw, a’r newidiadau i ffurf sy’n amlwg yn ei symudiadau a’i dwf, fod fel ei gilydd ym mhob achos, o ganlyniad i weithred o rym. Yn gryno, mae ffurf gwrthrych yn ‘ddiagram o rymoedd’, …” (Thompson [1917/1942] 1961: 11) Yn gynharach na hyn, roedd John Ruskin yn deall morffoleg yn y ffordd hon, ac wrth greu lluniadau roedd o blaid rhoi’r sylw mwyaf i ddosbarthiad llinellol grymoedd. Roedd hyn yn ymgorffori dealltwriaeth ddofn o brosesau deinamig natur gyda gwerth esthetig: “Mae lleoliad agos rhan o unrhyw gromlin at linell syth yn rhoi ei holl sioncrwydd, pwer ac) v

which are apparent in its movements and in its growth, may in all cases alike be described as due to the action of force. In short, the form of an object is a ‘diagram of forces’, …” (Thompson [1917/1942] 1961: 11)

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The Morphological Sublime

Y Dyrchafedig Morffolegol

Schelling argued that the ‘products’ of nature are dynamically sustained by the play of forces in such a way that whatever appears to be permanent is not fundamentally static but in continuous states of reproduction:

urddas iddi. Gellir dadansoddi [cynhyrchiad cromliniau o’r fath mewn natur] fel cynnydd neu leihad graddol grym penodol. ...” (Ruskin [1843-1860] 1904 IV: 278

“Every original product of Nature is such a whirlpool … The whirlpool is not something immobilized, it is rather something constantly transforming-but reproduced anew at each moment. Thus no product in Nature is fixed, but it is reproduced at each instant through the force of Nature entire.” (Schelling [1799] 2004: 18) “Goethe described his methodogical stages of morphological/empirical observation as a progression from commonplace phenomena to the urphanomen (primordial phenomenon). While Goethe advocated morphology as a science, this methodological approach to the urphanomen perfectly captures the processes

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Dadleua Schelling bod ‘cynnyrch’ natur yn cael ei gynnal yn ddeinamig gan berthynas grymoedd mewn ffordd sy’n golygu nad yw beth bynnag sy’n ymddangos yn barhaol yn llonydd mewn gwirionedd, ond ei fod mewn cyflwr parhaus o atgynhyrchiad: “Mae holl gynnyrch gwreiddiol Natur yn drobwll o’r fath.....Nid yw’r trobwll yn rhywbeth sydd wedi’i lonyddu, yn hytrach mae’n rhywbeth sy’n trawsnewid yn barhaol ac sy’n cael ei atgynhyrchu o’r newydd pob eiliad. Felly, nid yw unrhyw gynnyrch Natur yn sefydlog, yn hytrach mae’n cael ei atgynhyrchu drwy’r amser drwy rym endid Natur.” (Schelling [1799] 2004: 18)


and purposes of certain strands of art. Morphology bears an important relationship to phenomenology. The geographer, Carl Ortwin Sauer, makes this clear by stating his view that “All science may be regarded as phenomenology, the term science being used in the sense of organized process of acquiring knowledge rather than in the common restricted meaning of a unified body of physical law.” (Sauer 1963: 315-6) “Morphology and phenomenology are fundamentally descriptive rather than explanatory by analysis; their unit concepts are organic or quasi-organic wholes, notably forms. (Sauer 1963: 326) “[Morphology’s] intention is to portray rather than explain ...” (Goethe 1995: 57). Morphology typically uses organic analogy to characterise structural relationships

Mae Goethe yn disgrifio camau methodogaidd ei arsylwadau morffolegol/empeiraidd fel cynnydd o ffenomena cyffredin i’r urphanomen (rhyfeddod cychwynnol). Er bod Goethe o blaid morffoleg fel gwyddoniaeth, mae’r ymagwedd fethodolegol hon tuag at yr urphanomen yn ddisgrifiad perffaith o brosesau a dibenion elfennau penodol o gelfyddyd. Mae gan forffoleg gysylltiad pwysig â ffenomenoleg. Mae’r daearyddwr, Carl Ortwin Sauer, yn datgan hyn yn glir drwy ddweud “Gellir ystyried pob gwyddor fel ffenomenoleg, a defnyddir y term gwyddor i ddisgrifio proses drefnus o gaffael gwybodaeth yn hytrach na’r ystyr cyfyngedig cyffredin o gorff unedig o gyfraith ffisegol.” (Sauer 1963: 315-6). “Mae morffoleg a ffenomenoleg yn ffurfiau disgrifiadol yn y bôn yn hytrach nac yn ffurfiau

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The Morphological Sublime

Y Dyrchafedig Morffolegol

within its fields of enquiry, thus Goethe used physiognomy in the same sense later used by Spengler (1926: I, 100) to indicate its generic concerns: “The study of physiognomy required attention to both definition and mutability of form; ...” (Goethe 1988: 68).

esboniadol drwy ddadansoddiad; mae eu cysyniadau uned yn gyfanwaith organig neu led-organig, ffurfiau yn bennaf. (Sauer 1963: 326) “Bwriad [morffoleg] yw portreadu yn hytrach nac esbonio...” (Goethe 1995: 57). Mae morffoleg fel arfer yn defnyddio cyfatebiaeth organig i ddisgrifio perthnasau strwythurol o fewn ei faes ymholi, felly defnyddiodd Goethe ffisiognomi yn yr un ffordd â’r hyn a ddefnyddiwyd yn ddiweddarach gan Spengler (1926: I, 100) i fynegi ei bryderon cyffredinol: “Roedd angen rhoi sylw i ddiffiniad a chyfnewidioldeb ffurf yn yr astudiaeth o ffisiognomi; ...” (Goethe 1988: 68).

One winter I came across an outcrop of rounded glaciated rocks above Nant Ffrancon on Pen y Benglog (Summit of the Skull) that I recognised as those drawn by John Piper in c. 1946-8: Glaciated Rocks, Nant Ffrancon. Eventually, with a bit of searching, I found the very same viewpoint. The geological term for rocks of this type: roches moutonnees, reflects the similarity of these rounded forms to recumbent sheep. Piper’s drawings, prints and paintings of Snowdonia constitute one of his most intensive themes.

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Un gaeaf canfyddais frigiad o greigiau rhewlifol crynion uwchben Nant Ffrancon ar Ben y Benglog a adnabyddais fel y rhai a ddarluniwyd gan John Piper tua 1946-8: Glaciated Rocks, Nant Ffrancon. Ar ôl gwneud rhywfaint o waith ymchwil, canfyddais yr union olygfan.


Glaciated Rocks: Pen y Benglog: II - Pencil and watercolour on paper 20 x 28 in. (508 x 711 mm.) Creigiau Rhewlifol: Pen y Benglog: II - Pensel a dyfrlliw du ar bapur 20 x 28 modfedd (508 x 711 mm.)

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The Morphological Sublime

Y Dyrchafedig Morffolegol

Twyn Du is a summit of limestone outcrops. The clints are particularly fine and intricate in form, creating ridges, spurs and points with edges that subtly modulate, often becoming razor sharp. In places, sequences of clints produce vertebra like configurations suggestive of half buried skeletal remains of fantastic extinct animals; jaws gape from the ground, claws clutch at the air. There is a continual interplay between order and chaos as patterns of clints and grikes are lost in profusions of scattered and heaped fragments, shattered by frost and the ravages of time. The expanse of weathered limestone produces intricate sequential patterns and groupings of stones along their characteristic jointing; these are separated visually by areas of grass and peat. In addition there are confused profusions of scattered and heaped fragments of stones that have long ago broken down from their original

Mae’r term daearegol am greigiau o’r math hwn, roches moutonnees, yn adlewyrchu’r tebygolrwydd rhwng y ffurfiau crynion hyn â defaid yn gorwedd. Mae lluniadau, printiau a phaentiadau Piper o Eryri yn cynrychioli un o’i themâu dwysaf.

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Mae Twyn Du yn gopa o frigiadau calchfaen. Mae ffurfiau’r holltau yn arbennig o goeth a manwl, gan greu esgeiriau, crimogau a phwyntiau ag ymylon sy’n goslefu’n gynnil, gan droi’n finiog iawn yn aml. Mewn lleoedd, mae patrymau o holltau yn creu cyfluniadau sy’n ymdebygu i fertebra sy’n awgrymu olion ysgerbydol wedi hanner eu claddu o anifeiliaid gwych diflanedig; mae genau’n ymagor o’r ddaear, mae crafangau’n bachu’r aer. Ceir rhyngweithio parhaus rhwng trefn ac anrhefn wrth i batrymau o holltau a greiciau gael eu colli yn helaethrwydd tameidiau pentyrog


Limestone Anatomy: Twyn Du - Watercolour and gouache on paper 29 1/2 x 44 in. (749 x 1118 mm.) (Brecknock Museum and Art Gallery) Anatomi Calchfaen: Twyn Du - Dyfrlliw a gouache ar bapur 29 1/2 x 44 modfedd (749 x 1118 mm.) (Amgueddfa ac Oriel Gelf Brycheiniog) 51


The Morphological Sublime

Y Dyrchafedig Morffolegol

formations. Seen from certain positions and in certain lights, entirely spontaneously, gestalts or figures may be apparent in which ordered shapes and patterns emerge from areas of the chaotic ground of broken stones. Moreover these ordered shapes are rendered all the more noticeable and memorable by their resemblance to skeletal structures. The visual experience of the stones combined with the idea of vertebrate anatomy, so that I experienced the dawning of a skeletal aspect whose appropriateness to the configuration of stones was such that the visual perception was transformed by the anatomical conception. In a way that relates to the ubiquity of the body in art remarked by Elkins above, Graham Sutherland made paintings and drawings of trees and fallen branches in ways that created an animated, anthropomorphic expressiveness:

a gwasgaredig, wedi’u dryllio gan rew a difrod amser. Mae’r ehangder o galchfaen hindreuliedig yn creu patrymau manwl dilyniannol a grwpiau o gerrig ar hyd eu huniadau nodweddiadol; mae’r rhain yn cael eu gwahanu’n weledol gan ardaloedd o laswellt a mawn. Yn ogystal, ceir tameidiau pentyrog a gwasgaredig helaeth o gerrig y mae eu ffurfiau gwreiddiol wedi’u malurio ers amser maith. O rai onglau ac mewn golau penodol, yn gwbl ddigymell, gall cyfanweithiau neu ffigurau ddod i’r amlwg a bydd siapiau a phatrymau trefnus yn deillio o ardaloedd o’r tir anhrefnus o greigiau toredig. Yn ogystal, mae’r siapiau trefnus hyn yn fwy trawiadol a chofiadwy am eu bod yn ymdebygu i strwythurau ysgerbydol. Mae profiad gweledol y cerrig wedi’i gyfuno â’r syniad o anatomi fertebraidd, i’r graddau fy mod yn profi dyfodiad agwedd ysgerbydol yr oedd ei phriodoldeb i gyfluniad y cerrig yn

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“It is not a question so much of a ‘tree like a figure’ or a root like a figure - it is a question of bringing out the anonymous personality of these things; at the same time they must bear the mould of their ancestry. There is a duality: they can be themselves and something else at the same time. They are formal metaphors.” (Yorke 1988: 119)

golygu bod y canfyddiad gweledol yn cael ei drawsffurfio gan y cysyniad anatomaidd. Mewn ffordd sy’n cysylltu â hollbresenoldeb y corff mewn celf , a ddisgrifir gan Elkins uchod, mae Graham Sutherland wedi gwneud paentiadau a lluniadau o goed a changhennau wedi disgyn mewn ffyrdd a oedd yn creu mynegiant anthropomorffaidd bywiog: “Nid yw’n gymaint yn fater o ‘ffigur fel coeden’ neu wreiddyn fel ffigur – mae’n fater o gyfleu personoliaeth anhysbys y pethau hyn; ar yr un pryd rhaid iddynt ystyried patrwm eu tras. Ceir deuoliaeth: gallant fod yn hwy eu hunain ac yn rhywbeth arall yr un pryd. Maent yn drosiannau ffurfiol.” (Yorke 1988: 119)

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The Morphological Sublime

Y Dyrchafedig Morffolegol

This can be related to Arnheim’s discussions of “nonhuman expression” (Arnheim 1966b: 64). Arnheim argues that such expression is a fundamental component in perception rather than simply being anthropocentric pathetic fallacy. Seen in this way, “Expression, then, would be defined as the psychological counterpart of the dynamic processes that result in the organization of perceptual stimuli.” (Arnheim 1966b: 62)

Gellir cysylltu hyn â thrafodaethau Arnheim o “fynegiant nad yw’n ddynol.” (Anheim 1966b: 64). Mae Arnheim yn dadlau bod mynegiant o’r fath yn elfen sylfaenol o ganfyddiad yn hytrach na bod yn ddim mwy na chamsyniad truenus anthroposentrig. O’i ystyried yn y ffordd hon, “Byddai mynegiant, felly, yn cael ei ddiffinio fel cymar seicolegol y prosesau deinamig sy’n arwain at drefniadaeth ysgogiadau canfyddiadol” (Arnheim 1966b: 62)

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Great Asby Scar I - Pencil and watercolour on paper 19 1/4 x 31 in. (489 x 788 mm.) Great Asby Scar I - Pensel a dyfrlliw ar bapur 19 1/4 x 31 modfedd (489 x 788 mm.)

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Harlech Grits: towards Moel Ysgyfarnogod - Pencil and watercolour on paper 23 x 36 in. (585 x 915 mm.) Graeanfaen Harlech: tuag at Foel Ysgyfarnogod - Pensel a dyfrlliw ar bapur 23 x 36 modfedd (585 x 915 mm.)

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Harlech Grits: towards Moel Ysgyfarnogod - Oil on canvas 37 x 60 in. (940 x 1525 mm.) Graeanfaen Harlech: tuag at Foel Ysgyfarnogod - Olew ar gynfas 37 x 60 modfedd (940 x 1525 mm.)

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The Post-Human Landscape

Y Tirlun Ôl-ddynol

The Price of Gold resulted from visiting a purchaser for one of my paintings in the summer of 1986. He was a fund manager at the World Trade Centre in London, I met him on a floor of computers. My patron invested heavily in gold, he was anticipating an eventual destabilisation in global money markets with a consequent rise in gold prices, all of this to be accompanied by devastating social and political turmoil. When I visited however the gold price was plummeting, catastrophe seemed to be in the air. Clocks showing the time in stock exchanges around the world were set in a line along one wall, I included them in my painting without hands.

Datblygodd Pris Aur yn dilyn ymweliad â phrynwr un o’m paentiadau yn ystod haf 1986. Roedd yn rheolwr cronfa yng Nghanolfan Fasnach y Byd yn Llundain, a gwnes ei gyfarfod mewn ystafell yn llawn cyfrifiaduron. Roedd fy noddwr yn buddsoddi’n helaeth mewn aur, ac roedd yn rhagweld y byddai marchnadoedd arian y byd yn dadsefydlogi yn y pen draw, a fyddai’n arwain at gynnydd ym mhris aur, ac y byddai hyn yn arwain at gynnwrf cymdeithasol a gwleidyddol dinistriol. Fodd bynnag, pan oeddwn yn ymweld ag ef, roedd pris aur yn plymio, ac roedd awyrgylch o drychineb. Roedd clociau a oedd yn dangos yr amser mewn cyfnewidfeydd stoc ar draws y byd wedi’u gosod mewn llinell syth ar hyd un wal, a gwnes eu cynnwys yn fy narlun - heb fysedd.

The post-human landscape theme mainly consists of a series of paintings based on destroyed urban environments, the terminal phase of late civilisation. They were an

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Mae’r thema tirlun ôl-ddynol yn cynnwys cyfres o baentiadau yn seiliedig ar amgylcheddau


The Price of Gold - Oil on canvas 84 x 66 in. (2134 x 1680 mm.) Pris Aur - Olew ar gynfas 84 x 66 modfedd (2134 x 1680 mm.)

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The Post-Human Landscape

Y Tirlun Ôl-ddynol

immediate response to the economic turmoil and destructive political climate of the time, following the first decade of the second millenium, they seem strangely relevant again. I had the ultimate aim of trying to evoke a post-human world into which the shadows and echoes of human destructiveness were cast. The Lamp of Power shows the rectilinear order of built forms being displaced by the fractal geometry of their decay. The third ‘lamp’ of John Ruskin’s The Seven Lamps of Architecture, in which he discusses architectural sublimity, seemed appropriate to the monumental nature of the form. The School of Athens (after Raphael) was partly and ironically suggested by the sight of people living under the railway arches between Waterloo Station and Waterloo Bridge during the economic recession of the1980s, humanist culture subverted by its opposite.

trefol sydd wedi’u dinistrio, cam terfynol gwareiddiad diweddar. Roeddent yn ymateb uniongyrchol i gythrwfl economaidd a hinsawdd wleidyddol ddinistriol y cyfnod, yn dilyn degawd cyntaf yr ail fileniwm, ac maent yn ymddangos yn rhyfeddol o berthnasol unwaith eto. Fy nod yn y pen draw oedd ceisio creu byd ôl-ddynol lle’r oedd cysgodion ac adleisiau distrywgarwch dyn wedi’u bwrw. Mae The Lamp of Power yn dangos trefn unionlin ffurfiau adeiledig yn cael eu disodli gan geometreg dameidiog eu dirywiad. Roedd y drydedd ‘lamp’ yn The Seven Lamps of Architecture gan John Ruskin, lle’r oedd yn trafod arucheledd pensaernïol, yn ymddangos yn briodol i natur aruthrol y ffurf. Awgrymwyd The School of Athens (after Raphael) yn rhannol ac yn eironig oherwydd yr olygfa o bobl yn byw o dan y bwâu rheilffordd rhwng Gorsaf Waterloo a Phont Waterloo yn ystod dirwasgiad economaidd y 1980au, diwylliant dynol wedi’i danseilio gan yr hyn sy’n wrthwyneb iddo.

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The School of Athens (after Raphael) - Oil on canvas 84 x 84 in. (2134 x 2134 mm.) The School of Athens (after Raphael) - Olew ar gynfas 84 x 84 modfedd (2134 x 2134 mm.)

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Conclusion

Casgliad

The foregoing highly condensed text has introduced some of the themes and thinkers, constitutive for me, of the creative and cultural context of landscape painting. Some of this has already been recently published in a more expanded form in the Journal of Visual Art Practice: ‘Landscape; Drawing and the Morphological Sublime’ (see References). I engage with the practice of landscape painting, not simply as a discreet activity, but more as a life-world, a lebenswelt. Cumulative experience has generated certain philosophical dispositions that I have only ever very partially realized or articulated. While as a painter, I am not an academic philosopher; I nonetheless feel that philosophy runs with the grain of life generally. Art practice is theory laden; this has been the case historically and continues to be so. It is commonplace however that particular arttheoretical positions often become institutionally

Mae’r testun cryno uchod wedi cyflwyno rhai o’r themâu a’r meddylwyr, sy’n cynrychioli cyddestun creadigol a diwylliannol paentio tirluniau i mi. Mae llawer o hyn eisoes wedi’i gyhoeddi’n ddiweddar ar ffurf estynedig yn Journal of Visual Art Practice: ‘Landscape; Drawing and the Morphological Sublime’ (gweler y Cyfeiriadau). Rwy’n ymgysylltu â’r arfer o baentio tirluniau, nid yn unig fel gweithgarwch cynnil, ond hefyd fel ffurf o fywyd, lebenswelt. Mae profiadau cronnol wedi creu rhai tueddiadau athronyddol yr wyf ond wedi llwyddo i’w gwireddu neu eu cyfleu’n rhannol iawn. Er fy mod yn beintiwr, nid wyf yn athronydd academaidd; fodd bynnag, rwy’n credu bod athronyddiaeth yn elfen sylfaenol o fywyd yn gyffredinol. Mae celf yn llawn damcaniaethau; mae hyn wedi bod yn wir yn hanesyddol ac mae’n parhau i fod yn wir heddiw. Fodd bynnag, mae’n gyffredin i safbwyntiau celf a damcaniaethol penodol

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entrenched in prescriptive forms that inhibit creative practice and thinking. Philosophy shares with art a more fundamental role in opening up creative and speculative options rather than closing them down. The quotations throughout this catalogue are something of an inspirational anthology that hopefully resonates with the paintings and drawings. In order to pursue these thoughts further, I will give a gallery talk, Philosophical Reflections on Landscape, on a date to be announced.

gael eu gwreiddio’n sefydliadol mewn ffurfiau cyfarwyddol sy’n llesteirio arfer a syniadau creadigol. Mae athroniaeth yn rhannu gyda chelf rôl sy’n fwy sylfaenol o ran cyflwyno opsiynau creadigol a damcaniaethol yn hytrach na’u llesteirio. Mae’r dyfyniadau yn y catalog hwn yn ddetholiad ysbrydoledig sydd, gobeithio, yn cyd-fynd â’r paentiadau a’r lluniadau. Er mwyn trafod y syniadau hyn ymhellach, byddaf yn rhoi sgwrs, Adlewyrchiadau Athronyddol ar Dirluniau, ar ddyddiad i’w gyhoeddi.

You may also like to visit my website:

Efallai yr hoffech hefyd fynd i fy ngwefan yn:

www.robert-newell.co.uk

www.robert-newell.co.uk

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References

Cyfeiriadau

Arnheim, R. [1954] 1966a Art and Visual Perception: A Psychology of the Creative Eye, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Arnheim, R. [1954] 1966a Art and Visual Perception: A Psychology of the Creative Eye, Berkeley a Los Angeles: Gwasg Prifysgol California.

___ 1966b Toward a Psychology of Art, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

___ 1966b Toward a Psychology of Art, Berkeley a Los Angeles: Gwasg Prifysgol California.

Bachelard, G. [1942] 1994 Water and Dreams: An Essay on the Imagination of Matter, (Farrell, E. R. translator) Dallas: The Pegasus Foundation.

Bachelard, G. [1942] 1994 Water and Dreams: An Essay on the Imagination of Matter, (Farrell, E. R. cyfieithydd) Dallas: The Pegasus Foundation.

___ [1943] 2002 Earth and Reveries of Will: An Essay on the Imagination of Matter, (Haltman, K. translator) Dallas: The Dallas Institute Publications.

___ [1943] 2002 Earth and Reveries of Will: An Essay on the Imagination of Matter, (Haltman, K. cyfieithydd) Dallas: The Dallas Institute Publications.

___ [1943] 1988 Air and Dreams: An Essay on the Imagination of Movement, (Farrell, E. R. and Farrell, C. F. translators) Dallas: The Dallas Institute Publications.

___ [1943] 1988 Air and Dreams: An Essay on the Imagination of Movement, (Farrell, E. R. a Farrell, C. F. cyfieithwyr) Dallas: The Dallas Institute Publications.

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___ [1958] 1964 The Poetics of Space, (Jolas, M. translator) Boston: Beacon Press.

___ [1958] 1964 The Poetics of Space, (Jolas, M. cyfieithydd) Boston: Beacon Press.

Crowther, P. 2009 Phenomenology of the visual Arts (even the frame) Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Crowther, P. 2009 Phenomenology of the visual Arts (even the frame) Stanford: Gwasg Prifysgol Stanford.

DeLanda, M. [2002] 2005 Intensive Science and Virtual Philosophy, London and New York: Continuum.

DeLanda, M. [2002] 2005 Intensive Science and Virtual Philosophy, Llundain ac Efrog Newydd: Continuum.

Elkins, J. 1999 Pictures of the Body: Pain and Metamorphosis, California: Stanford University Press.

Elkins, J. 1999 Pictures of the Body: Pain and Metamorphosis, California: Gwasg Prifysgol Stanford.

Goethe, J. W. [1810/1840] 1970 Theory of Colours, (Eastlake, C. L. translator) Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

Goethe, J. W. [1810/1840] 1970 Theory of Colours, (Eastlake, C. L. cyfieithydd) Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

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References

Cyfeiriadau

___ 1988 The Collected Works: Scientific Studies, (Miller, D. translator) Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

___ 1988 The Collected Works: Scientific Studies, (Miller, D. cyfieithydd) Princeton, New Jersey: Gwasg Prifysgol Princeton.

___, [1907] 1998 Maxims and Reflections, (Stopp, E. translator) London: Penguin Books.

___, [1907] 1998 Maxims and Reflections, (Stopp, E. cyfieithydd) Llundain: Penguin Books.

Hegel, G. W. F. [1847] 1970 Hegel’s Philosophy of Nature, trans. (Miller, A. V. trans.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Hegel, G. W. F. [1847] 1970 Hegel’s Philosophy of Nature, cyfieithiad (Miller, A. V. cyfieithydd) Caergrawnt: Gwasg Prifysgol Caergrawnt.

Kant, I. [1781/87] 1929/1933 Immanuel Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason, (Smith, N. K. (trans.) London: Macmillan Press.

Kant, I. [1781/87] 1929/1933 Immanuel Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason, (Smith, N. K. cyfieithydd) Llundain: Gwasg Macmillan.

___ [1790] 2001 Critique of the Power of Judgement, (Guyer, P. and Matthews, E. translators) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

___ [1790] 2001 Critique of the Power of Judgement, (Guyer, P. a Matthews, E. cyfieithwyr) Caergrawnt: Gwasg Prifysgol Caergrawnt.

___ [1936-8/1993] 1995 Opus Postumum, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

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___ [1936-8/1993] 1995 Opus Postumum, Caergrawnt: Gwasg Prifysgol Caergrawnt.


Merleau-Ponty, M. [1964] 1968 The Visible and the Invisible: Followed by Working Notes, (Lingis, A. translator) Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University.

Merleau-Ponty, M. [1964] 1968 The Visible and the Invisible: Followed by Working Notes, (Lingis, A. cyfieithydd) Evanston, Illinois: Prifysgol Northwestern.

Newell, R. A. 2012 ‘Landscape; Drawing and the Morphological Sublime’ Journal of Visual Art Practice 11: 1, pp. 49-61, doi: 10.1386/vap.11.1.49-1

Newell, R. A. 2012 ‘Landscape; Drawing and the Morphological Sublime’ Journal of Visual Art Practice 11: 1, t. 49-61, doi: 10.1386/vap.11.1.49-1

Ruskin, J. [1843-1860] 1904 Modern Painters (5 vols. ) London: George Allen.

Ruskin, J. [1843-1860] 1904 Modern Painters (5 cyfrol. ) Llundain: George Allen.

___ [1849] 1897 The Seven Lamps of Architecture, London: George Allen. Sauer, C. A. 1925 ‘The Morphology of Landscape’, (Leighly, J. editor)1963 Land and Life: Selections from the writings of Carl Ortwin Sauer, Berkely and Los Angeles: University of California Press, (315-350).

___ [1849] 1897 The Seven Lamps of Architecture, Llundain: George Allen. Sauer, C. A. 1925 ‘The Morphology of Landscape’, (Leighly, J. golygydd)1963 Land and Life: Selections from the writings of Carl Ortwin Sauer, Berkely a Los Angeles: Gwasg Prifysgol California, (315-350).

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References

Cyfeiriadau

Shakespeare, W. [1603] 2002 The Works of William Shakespeare, London: Thompson.

Shakespeare, W. [1603] 2002 The Works of William Shakespeare, Llundain: Thompson.

Schelling, F. W. J. [1797/1803] Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature, (Harris, E. E. and Heath, P. translators) Cambridge: Cambridge University.

Schelling, F. W. J. [1797/1803] Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature, (Harris, E. E. a Heath, P. cyfieithwyr) Caergrawnt: Gwasg Prifysgol Caergrawnt.

___ (1799] 2004 First Outline of a System of the Philosophy of Nature, (Peterson, K. R. translator) New York: State University of New York Press.

___ (1799] 2004 First Outline of a System of the Philosophy of Nature, (Peterson, K. R. cyfieithydd) Efrog Newydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Talaith Efrog Newydd.

___ [1859] 1989 The Philosophy of Art, (Stott, D. W. ed.&trans.) Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Shelley, P. B. 1968 Selected Poems, London and Glasgow: Collins

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___ [1859] 1989 The Philosophy of Art, (Stott, D. W. golygydd a chyfieithydd) Minneapolis: Gwasg Prifysgol Minnesota. Shelley, P. B. 1968 Selected Poems, Llundain a Glasgow: Collins


Spengler, O. [1922] 1961 The Decline of the West, (2 vols.) (Atkinson, C. F. translator) New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Spengler, O. [1922] 1961 The Decline of the West, (2 gyfrol.) (Atkinson, C. F. cyfieithydd) Efrog Newydd: Alfred A. Knopf.

Thompson, D. W. 1917 On Growth and Form, 1961 edition (abridged), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Thompson, D. W. 1917 On Growth and Form, rhifyn 1961 (cryno), Caergrawnt: Gwasg Prifysgol Caergrawnt.

Whitehead, A. N. [1926] 1932 Science and the Modern World, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Whitehead, A. N. [1926] 1932 Science and the Modern World, Caergrawnt: Gwasg Prifysgol Caergrawnt.

___ [1929] 1978 Process and Reality, New York: The Free Press. Yorke, M. 1988 The Spirit of Place: Nine NeoRomantic Artists and their Times, London: Constable.

___ [1929] 1978 Process and Reality, Efrog Newydd: The Free Press. Yorke, M. 1988 The Spirit of Place: Nine NeoRomantic Artists and their Times, Llundain: Constable.

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The work in this catalogue may not be reproduced in whole or part, without the expressed written permission of the artist involved.

Ni ddylid copïo’r gwaith yn y catalog hwn yn ei gyfanwaith neu yn rhannol heb ganiatâd datganedig ysgrifenedig yr artist cysylltiedig.

© 2012 Robert A. Newell

H 2012 Robert A. Newell ©

Photography:

Ffotograffiaeth:

Philip McAthey, Thomas Smith, Aled Hughes

Philip McAthey, Thomas Smith, Aled Hughes

James Steven Francis Webb

James Steven Francis Webb

Catalogue & Web Design / Layout info@jsfdesign.co.uk www.jsfdesign.co.uk

Dyluniad / Cynllun y Catalog a’r Wefan info@jsfdesign.co.uk www.jsfdesign.co.uk

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Limestone Cliffs: Caim - Pencil and watercolour on paper 21 x 29 in. (533 x 736 mm.) Clogwyni Calchfaen: Caim - Pensel a dyfrlliw ar bapur 21 x 29 modfedd (533 x 736 mm.)

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Robert Newell - Forms of Endurance.