PORTFOLIO OLIO M I C H A E L PA U L J A M E S UL MES AEL
I AM MICHAEL PAUL ALSO KNOWN AS JACK I am have completed three master’s degrees in architecture, real estate, and urban design; the 3 components of every successful development. One of my greatest strengths is time management and focus. My thesis on the mere exposure effect and architecture was one of two published and presented at the Design Modelling Symposium in Paris. In addition to admirable marks in school, I have worked part time, and manage to volunteer every week at my children’s school, the YMCA, and my church. I am looking to further cultivate my expertise in architecture because my ultimate aim is to create socially conscious developments that foster community engagement.
PERSONAL INFORMATION Name : Date of Birth : Nationality :
Michael-Paul “Jack Kelly” James September 9th 1977 American
LINKS email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org www.linkedin.com/in/jackelly3/ https://issuu.com/jackelly3/docs
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY •
Over 28 Years experience in entertainment technology design.
More than 20 projects featured in
EXPERIENCE 2002 - Present
AVL Designer EYE DIALOGUE
nationally distributed magazines. •
10 national, regional, local awards.
Expert in critical thinking, design solutions, project management, operations, event design and management, event planning, technical writing, public speaking.
NOTABLE AWARDS Design Modelling Symposium, Paris Hometown Hero, PLSN, SouthEast
RESPONSIBILITIES: Ambitious designer and GM with proven track record of negotiating with staff, clients, venders, and officials. Projects required the design, sale, & installation of audio, lighting, video, special effects, and décor for entertainment venues and events. 20+ published articles, and work featured in 40+ trade magazines. 21 national, regional, local awards and nominations.
EDUCATION 2014 - 2018
UNCC : Masters Architecture & Urban Design 2016 - 2018
UNCC : Masters Real Estate
ACHIEVEMENTS: 3.8+ GPA, SoA Student Scholarship in 2015-16, Member of Tau Sigma Delta National Architecture Honor Society, Paper accepted into the Design Modelling Symposium in Paris in 2017 ACHIEVEMENTS: 4.0 GPA, MSRE Student Scholarship in 2017-18, MSRE Student Scholarship 2018
Esprit Award, ILEA, USA Judge for InfoComm, International
1995 - 2000
GSU : Bachelor’s Music Composition
ACHIEVEMENTS: Magna Cum Laude, 3.87 GPA: President of Life Ministries 1998-2000, Founder of Swingcat Society 1998-2000, Received 11 academic scholarships and awards.
Revit / Dynamo
C O N T E N TESN T S
MERE EXPOSURE EFFECT IN ARCHITECTURE Academic Work 2017
MODULAR HOUSING STUDIO Early Academic Work 2015
CRACKERJACK DYNAMO SCRIPTS Academic Work 2017
THE CONFESSIONAL AN INTERVENTION Early Academic Work 2015
THE GROVE URBAN DESIGN Academic Work 2016
MILIEU TOWER COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN
AFFORDABLE HOUSING STUDIO
Academic Work 2016
Early Academic Work 2015
r ate W od Flo
Early Academic Work 2015
COLLAGE REPRESENTATION Early Academic Work 2015-2014
DIAGRAMS Academic Work 2017
MERE EXPOSURE EFFECT IN ARCHITECTURE THESIS Design has ignored the natural processes of social segregation, letting other factors dominate the occupational organization of the built environment, ultimately isolating communities and their members. By incorporating modern social behavioral analysis into a design logic, social spaces can facilitate more productive engagements between occupants through an informed understanding of how space and program influences behavior, in service of creating a more diverse and sustainable community. Thesis Published de Rycke, Klaas & Gengnagel, Christoph & Baverel, Olivier & Burry, Jane & Mueller, Caitlin & Man Nguyen, Minh & Rahm, Philippe & Thomsen, Mette. (2017). Humanizing Digital Reality. 10.1007/978-981-10-6611-5.
FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5
After the initial random distribution (Fig. 5), 20 iterations were applied to the mod-el. With only a 33% preference, the segregation of colors becomes apparent (Fig. 6). This model did not stabilize and contained spaces that continued to change indefinitely. This allegorical social model suggests that segregation will continue even with the removal of all prejudice and dislikes, at times creating locations of unrest. Segregation will occur motivated by preference alone without the aid of negative repulsors. Regardless of motivation, this subdividing of communities through segregation in-creases social tension, discourages communication, and isolates those who are different. The effects of isolation have been called an ‘epidemic of loneliness’, shortening lifespans and impacting the quality of life.
The mathematical model begins with a random grid of two types of objects that have a defining characteristic such as a color in conjunction with a set number of vacant spaces (Fig. 1). An overarching criterion is established to determine when an object is satisfied or dissatisfied. For instance, each color wants to be adjacent to at least 33% of like colors. If only one of the eight neighbors (12.5%) are of the same color, then the object is dissatisfied (Fig. 2). Each dissatisfied object moves to a vacant space (Fig. 3). Criteria are once again applied to the object to determine its state. If it meets the criteria, in this case 37.5% of the same color, it is satisfied and remains in place (Fig. 4).
Per Schelling’s model of Segregation, the population will innately segregate itself based on preferences, often leading to organization by race, religion, and class. As Schelling states, the process is not solely a result of prejudice but primarily of preference, making solutions to undesirable segregation elusive even when the population applauds diversity.
SCHELLING’S MODEL OF SEGREGATION
THE SOLUTION MERE EXPOSURE EFFECT In the 1960s, Robert Zajonc experimented with the role of preference for familiar stimuli over novel ones. By controlling how many times a subject was exposed to a particular stimulus, Zajonc concluded that preference increases with higher exposure frequencies to a certain point and then stagnates or at times declines . Specifically, Zajonc demonstrated that subjects rated an unknown symbol with more â€œgoodnessâ€? if viewed more often (Fig. 8). In 1989, Robert Borstein presented twenty years of research reporting essential conditions and factors when mere exposure effects are weaker or stronger. Those factors include the number of exposures, time between exposures, personality types, as well as differences between simple and complex stimuli. Extensive research and rigorous experimentation has been conducted to quantify the effects of exposure. This research is one of the driving principles used in marketing. Simply stated, the mere exposure effect is a phenomenon by which people develop a preference for things solely because they are familiar with them. Even with 50 years of mere exposure research, architectural design has yet to implement or even introduce techniques to utilize the mere exposure effect in minimizing the impact of negative social segregation. This is in part because of the complexity of the social condition, and in part because of the lack of funding for research on post occupancy. Innovations in GIS offer opportunities to aggregate relevant data to determine the exposure effects of various arrangements within the urban environment. However, understanding and organizing the complex matrix of city organizations is still driven primarily by anecdotal evidence. The multifamily model offers a unique microcosm with numerous iterations of organization paradigms and programs. However, the development community is reluctant to release information concerning their highly crafted building programs and forms duplicated throughout the world. Although hindered with a lack of
relevant data, the potential social returns of carefully considering the impact of design on social issues garner the need to create tools for modeling and testing social behavior in architectural design. Considering what can be supposed through existing research in mere exposure, examining the effects of interjecting strategic architectural interventions and programs offer great potential gains in community building. Through mere exposure designers can create new connections between members of society by rethinking circulation paths, carefully considering the geolocation of program, and creating more effective public space. Many undesirable segregations occur due to a designerâ€™s lack of awareness of how their design contributes to this phenomenon. Applying the theory of mere exposure to early schematic design could reveal the impacts of various designs on community and create novel solutions for public spaces. These solutions offer new possibilities to integrate community members at variable scales of the built environment, from urban design to multifamily housing. These core principles create the social platform for a tool which integrates the mere exposure effect to evaluate the organization of public spaces in multi-family housing.
THE MATH THE IMPACT OF CIRCULATION
Assuming that the ideal amounts of exposure will increase the preference for oneâ€™s neighbor, one first must determine how much time occupants would see each other. Modeling a simplistic statistical model for circulation in a rectangular multifamily apartment wrapping a parking deck (often referred to as a Texas doughnut reveals symbiotic relationship between occupants, public space, and circulation. The model assumed the apartment contained one gym utilized by guest for 30 minutes 4 times a week and one restaurant utilized by guest for 60 minutes 3 times a week. Each occupant would both drive to work and walk to a nearby destination once a day. The configuration contained a total number of 25 residential units (Fig. 9). Considering staggered start times and the typical times of occupation, the model reveals that walking to all destinations combined created a total amount of exposure of less than 10 minutes
between all residents per day. Participating for 30 minutes 4 times a week between the times of 4 and 7 pm will result in an average agglomeration of 980 total minutes of exposure time between residents. Participating for 60 minutes 3 times a week between the times of 5 and 9 pm will result in an average agglomeration of 1080 minutes of exposure time between residents. The staggering difference in exposure be-tween public participation and public circulation advocates a particular role of the architect in aiding social engagement. To understand the math behind the model, the individual exposure time to the public takes the average time per week a resident participates in a public activity such as walking to the car, eating at a restaurant, or working out in a gym. The average number of uses per week is then divided by 7 days. That number is multiplied by the average duration of the activity. For instance, if someone uses an amenity twice a week for 70 minutes then they would be in the amenity an average of (70*2/7=) 20 minutes a day.
To determine the total exposure time to other residents, the individual exposure time to the public is divided by the total exposure opportunity. For instance, if the restaurant serves dinner from 5:00 pm to 9:00 pm, that would be 4 hours of opportunity. This forms the exposure ratio (20 min/240 minutes=) of 0.0833. All the exposure times of other residents are added together then multiplied by the exposure ratio. If 25 residents lived in the apartment who used the amenity with the same assumptions that would total 24 other residents at 20 minutes each or 480 minutes of average time in the amenity each day. Finally, the exposure ratio (.0833) is multiplied by the aggregate exposure time by all others (480 minutes) to find how much time each resident could see other residents (40 minutes). Roughly interpreted this means that on average, the resident is in the room with two other people. The math is overly simplistic but provides a road map of how organizational strategies affect exposure times. The model offers three insights into the residential social dynamic. First, circulation has little impact on exposure to other residents.
Even creative endeavors cannot statically justify community building as a primary goal. Second, circulation does however impact the amount of exposure to activities. The residents will pass by public spaces multiple times a day, increasing exposure to public programmatic elements thus in-creasing preference for those elements. Finally, Community members accumulate significantly higher exposure times to each other when they occupy public space and participate in local activities. The participation in public space results in nearly 10,000% more exposure than public circulation. In conclusion, if architects can create circulation patterns that increase exposure to public space, or position public spaces at locations that maximize their exposure through circulation, preference for that space will encourage occupation. The occupation of public spaces increases exposure to other community members, increasing preference for those members. Thus, design vicariously can increase the residentsâ€™ exposure to each other by increasing their exposure to public space.
THE FOUNDATION OF THE DESIGN MODELING TOOL
Three assumptions based on the Schelling’s model of segregation, the mere exposure effect, and the multifamily housing exposure model form the foundation for the design modeling tool described here. First, one must accept that preferences influence how communities are formed. The uniformity of innocuous preferences creates a basis for collaboration and conflict resolution of larger issues. Second, one must realize that preferences are influenced by exposure and continually evolve, offering an opportunity to align local communities through common experiences. Finally, designers must create circulation patterns that encourage the observation and occupation of public space, knowing that the public participation provides the best opportunity for creating preference for other community members. To sum up, utilizing diverse types of public amenities while increasing exposure to them through circulation; design can increase preference for public spaces which increases exposure between community members, encouraging communication towards the creation of a better sense of community.
Utilizing diverse types of public amenities while increasing exposure to them through circulation;
can increase preference for public spaces which increases exposure between community members, encouraging communication towards a better sense of community.
• Accept that preferences influence how communities are formed • Realize that preferences are influenced by exposure and continually evolve. • Create circulation patterns that encourages the observation and occupation of public space.
DEVELOPMENT A MULTIFAMILY MODEL The multifamily model offers the most reasonable resource for analyzing the mere exposure effect in design due to its scale and diversity in program (Fig. 10). Because of the innate necessity of the automobile in southern culture, the â€˜Texas doughnutâ€™ has become one of the dominate multifamily types (Fig. 11) in the area. The use of the tool on the Texas doughnut aims to consider the impact on a range of socioeconomic groups. The computational tool, built in Autodesk Revit BIM modeler Dynamo, uses an existing Revit model. In the rooms category, a shared parameter called circulation is created to label public spaces and corridors. Another shared parameter in the category doors is created to create destinations. The inputs to the script are a Revit floor plan for a multifamily apartment; the rooms designated as Circulation; doors labeled with the appropriate tags; and the frequency of use for each type of path. The script outputs a heat map of high traffic and low traffic areas; and all circulation patterns from apartments to each specified destination.
The script converts all the rooms into a single surface and divides it into a grid for pathway analysis. Each labeled door is divided into types and organized to create destinations from the apartments to each destination such as an amenity, utility, main entrance, parking entrance, and pedestrian exits. The Lunchbox node Curves.ShortestWalk determines the shortest path from every door to every destination using the length of each grid line. For multiple pedestrian exits or multiple entrances to an amenity, the tool uses a minimum distance function to pick the most likely path. The tool draws each path in the Dynamo script visualizer and has an option to draw it directly on the Revit model. When considering how space is traversed in the multifamily model, some assumptions were made. On average, the typical resident would use the pedestrian exit twice a day in order to go on a walk, visit a local pub, or go to the store. The resident would take out the trash every other day, go to the gym every other day, and go to the main entrance every other day to receive guest or food delivery. Finally, the car would be used to go to and from work once a day and to run an errand every other day. These assumptions are based on conjecture and can be modified in the script via user con-trolled sliders. After determining all circulation possibilities, the tool assigns the user score for each path to calculate the approximate exposure time at each point in the circulation path. The weighted score of each point is graphically represented by a heat map. The heat map uses the colors red for low frequency, green for average frequency, and blue for high frequency.
01COMPUTATIONAL TOOL HOW IT WORKS
In Fig. 12, layout 1 has a front-loaded condition. When the parking, utility, amenity, and front exit are close together, areas of isolation are prevalent throughout the corridors, denoted in red. This arrangement is effective when the residents do not avoid each other and use the facilities in the front. However, it would be relatively easy to avoid interaction by getting an apartment on the left corridor or right corridor. The right diagram of Fig. 12, shows that moving even one of the major destinations results in an immediate change in movement as well as a leveling out of corridor exposure creating more opportunity for the architecture to engage its users. Blue spaces now show up at four junctions, indicating high levels of exposure. Two of the hall-ways f increased level of circulation based exposure. However, the far-left corridor still has a low level of exposure.
In Fig. 13, moving the amenity to the exterior in layout 3 has little positive impact. The area of isolation moves to the center but suggests mild improvement over the left side of layout 2. The area around the amenity has a hint of red deteriorating the previous circulation through the center of layout 3. When considering amenities, this is by far the least effective arrangement evident by the most amount of red. In Fig. 14, layout 4 takes a more dramatic approach by moving utilities and amenities to the corners and separating the parking entrance from the main entrance. This arrangement has circulation throughout all hallways. It would be Low Use
difficult for a resident to avoid other residents in this configuration. The areas of isolation are minimal and high traffic areas (blue) creeps into every corner.
To assess the effectiveness of the tool, other design styles need to be tested. Creating unique shared parameters to define pathways and destinations allows the computational tool to be adapted to most modeling styles in Revit design. The model to the right designed by FMK Architects has four apartments across from the amenities and main office. Each floor has 8 apartments with an open-air corridor. The script fails because it relies on exit doors as destinations and did not consider open air configurations. Doors and walls were inserted into the model for this analysis. In service of a more effective tool, a door family that consists of a two-dimensional rectangle placed at exterior transitions allows for reasonable modifications that do not interfere with the built-in Revit visualization, making the script more adaptable.
In Fig. 16, layout 5 tests more significant changes to investigate alternative opportunities. The heavy red area on the left corridor returns to the heat map, signaling the left corridor has little to no exposure. Moving the parking to one side isnâ€™t a reasonable option because it will force residents of the right corridor to have unnecessarily long walks to their cars. The increased exposure is falsely inflated which doesnâ€™t create a realistic solution.
MODELS FROM OTHER ARCHITECTS
INFORMING SOCIAL ANALYSIS The tool described in this paper aims to foster the beginning of a critical dialogue about social connections and community building. The tool offers a form of analysis to begin gathering data to compare hypothetical results with the actual results in post occupancy analysis. The multifamily model warrants the same consideration in the architectural dialogue as museums, parks, and universities which are so eloquently discussed and carefully considered in projects such as Daniel Libeskind’s Jüdisches Museum Berlin, Bernard Tschumi’s Parc de la Villette, and Rem Koolhaus’ McCormick Tribune Campus Center. The potential returns on effective amenity placement and circulation patterns within the multifamily residential design field could expand the influence of architecture to impact the usability and comfort of the typically overlooked components of these types of projects. As designers expand their craft beyond materials utilizing social behavioral analytics, the scalability of the model would naturally expand into urban design through an informed understanding of how architecture affects the social character of its occupants. Considering both the effect of unit location on circulation and noting the most effective locations for public goods; designers, developers, and city planners will in-crease the overall communication between community members. Increasing expo-sure and therefore the likelihood of direct communication as a primary goal of design will aid the development of stronger social communities. Although the tool specifically targets residential complexes, the concept explained here is scalable. Further development through experimentation and data collection of the mere exposure effect in urban design and architecture could aid the informed design of public space and pathways.
COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS PUBLIC SCRIPTS
In service of my thesis project, 6 scripts were contributed to the Dynamo family with functions that did not previously exist. They have been packaged under the name CrackerJack.
Custom Nodes NurbsCurve.ByControlPoints.AnyDegree
Before 1180 Lines
After 897 Lines
1. Receives a surface and creates perimeter Lines.
2. Offsets perimeter Lines in both directions of Plane.
3. Selects intersecting perimeter Lines.
4. Removes surface outside of the cut line.
THE GROVE URBAN DESIGN THESIS The project consisted of 316 acres in the Southend neighborhood, located in Charlotte, North Carolina. The collaborative effort of 13 students required a coordinated effort for all individual work combined into a single sight plan. I led the group collaboration setting naming standards in Autocad with layer descriptions for quickly coloring and printing for interim reviews. Only a partial representation of the work, my section was deemed â€œThe Groveâ€? due to its residential character, tree lined boulevards, and community parks.
MILIEU TOWER EMIZOHR COLLECTIVE THESIS
T H E PRECEDENTS WERE USED AS LAUNCHING P L AT F O R M S FOR MASSING
Formally the manifestation of the collision and combination of the existing forces of the site organize themselves in geometric and programmatic tension. Towers that symbolize the old strata are distorted, contorted and augmented by the challenges to their ideals. The challenges create questions that provoke new ideas of becoming. We are not to set out and identify a being, but engender a space that allows for:
EXPLORATION. DIFFERENT M AT E R I A L S A N D TECHNIQUES W E R E
becoming space becoming place becoming office becoming tower becoming sustainable becoming contextualThe Milieu Tower is not a totality of space in which occupants come to inhabit, but a space that only finds totality in its occupation. The infinite number of rhizomatic connections possible in inhabitation become the spaces that become its occupants. The traces of these new trajectories remain constituting spaces that becomes its place, that becomes its inhabitants and becomes a generationâ€™s legacy.
EMPLOYED TO DEVELOP THE FORM AND VISUALIZE N E W POSSIBILITIES.
Hotel and Housing
Food and Entertainment The site is at the edge of the high density city. The southeast is still in development but developing rapidly.
Future Housing: Epicentre Condos & 1 Brevard
Public Transportation The site is between the bus terminal and the 3rd street stop on the lightrail. The light rail stop will be near the future center of the light rail track upon the completion to university city.
Center `City Arena
Lightrail Bus Terminal
Embassy Suites Under Construction NASCAR & Convention Center
Office The corporate housing to the south has little dining and offers potential clientele to the sites retail and dining. One Wells Fargo Center to the west contains two floors of dining a retail. Juxtaposed to corporate provides opportunity for artistic sponsorship and potential benefactors. Visual presence of art is essential.
Pedestrian Axis The main pedestrian paths connect big corporate and transportation, Lightrail and Bus Terminal, Residence and Entertainment. These pedestrian pathways are the primary focus on accessible fronts. A secondary axis will be added upon the completion of Embassy Suites. Uncertain if 3rd or Martin Luther will be preferred location for pedestrians Entertainment Bus Corporate, Dining, Lightrail Hotel & Housing
Green Space The site is touching more green space than any adjacent structures with a park to the northwest and south east. Lines of trees and strips of grass attempt to bring nature into the city. The building provides the most direct views of the parks.
Audibility 1: Epicenter increases from low noise to high from 10pm to 2am 2: Bus Terminal has constant noise, contributing to a steady decibel of 63 db 3: Lightrail is barely audible. 4: 3rd & 4th Street spikes during rush hour from 7:30 to 9:00 am at 93 db.
Automotive The multilevel parking to the north and west signify a trend in density. The ground level parking to the east and south is likely to be removed in a few years. Traffic views near site are not essential to the site as most drivers will drive to their destination due to the readily availability of parking.
Sky Views The site is surrounded to the north and west by close proximity highrises, details should be considered. To the south and south east, hotels are located further away approximately a block. A highrise will be visible to Interstate 277, several blocks away
1 2 3 4 4
Site Topography The site has a steep slope that cuts the long side in half. The site also slightly slopes to the southeast. The lightrail to the northeast rises above the landscape with a large berm. The negotiation between the berm and the building must be carefully considered to avoid an unintentional trough.
Ground Level Parking
Site Access The site is in prime location with hotels on all sides, the light rail station to the west, the bus terminal to the east, and readily available parking. All four corners could be considered as fronts from the ground level.
The building faces the bus terminal on 4th Street as a direct extension of the pedestrian path. The 3rd Street entrance sets into the landscape greeting the new development to the south as well as offering a visible entrance to the patrons of the park
Main Entrance 4th Street
Lightrail Entrance on 2nd Level
Typical Floor Plan
Offices Community Space
Offices Community Space
Offices Theatre Lightrail Main Lobby & Maker Space Loading Dock
Offices Community Space
Offices Community Space
Vent & Duct Locations
HVAC Mechanical Path
Atrium Facing the South
Train Level Entrance and Atrium
Train Level Platform and Entry
Exterior from South
View from Hyatt
Dual Atrium on 9th Floor
PROJECT STATEMENT Occupying a place of prominence between 3rd and 4th Streets, the Milieu Tower’s slender profile redefines the local skyline. The Center utilizes folded angles to elegantly merge public components in the podium with private commercial space in the tower – a departure from conventional towers, where differing program is often relegated to separate and disjointed volumes. Surrounding the tower’s podium, a grand plaza and dimensional hardscape create a new neighborhood landmark and enhance public activity at the street level. The form of the tower is primarily defined by its pioneering steel structural system, which offsets the
primary movement and service cores to the exterior of the floorplate. Shifting the cores open the main body of the tower, significantly minimizing the building’s structural footprint while maximizing open space. Shadowing the offset circulation core, two secondary cores in the body provide structural reinforcement and house private elevators for VIP users, as well as freight elevators and mechanical services. A series of sky bridges and diagonal mega-braces rigidly link the offset core to the main tower. Glazed lobbies and sky-gardens every five floors create a communal hub for use by all tenants. As the new icon for the high-tech industrial sector, the Milieu Tower is designed as an incubator for emerging technologies, providing for growing firms with evolving space requirements. The open floor plate, made possible
by the towerâ€™s offset core, dramatically increases space-planning flexibility and offers healthier work environments with enhanced natural light and airflow. Offsetting the core also allows for a public to private gradient of activity on each floorplate, as tenants move from circulation and social spaces around the core to quieter perimeter offices with panoramic views. Freed from the interior of the building, circulation and amenity areas gain natural light and exterior views over the city to transform from conventional to vibrant public space. In the greatest of instances, we aim to locate a line of flight beyond the perceived dogmas of space, enabling a blowing apart of strata, the severing of roots, and the forging new connections. Thusly the desire to sustain the durations of place and function the towers forcefully
question the being of tower. Fixedness once associated with longevity found continuance until evaluation led to reevaluation, and the repetition of petrification continued until its toxicity became unpalatable. That outmoded signification however illuminated that true sustainability lay within a structures ability to become, to expose the need of a new occupantâ€™s desire to identify with a place. Accordingly, the Milieu Tower seeks to become the desired place of identification and association not limited to a fixed particular but the becomingâ€™s of a culture and place; not existing as a single entity but an amalgamation of individuals, engendering mutually beneficial relationships within its community becoming an integral part of its place, its time, and its future.
DESIGNING WITH TRUCK PACKS
Storrs parodies the basilica. The nave gestured in its hall. The priestly class guides the humbled. The confessional saves us all. The detailed analysis and assessment of one’s work rivals the defensive position taken when a parent receives criticism of their child. Taking things personally is the norm, eventually overcome through the devastation of one’s ego. The path through denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance is begrudgingly traveled through each critique. The circumnavigation through the 5 stages of grief is eventually avoided through the detachment of one’s work. Students can put their clothes back on, while their work is de-robed and rerobed, reduced to its core, questioned, provoked, and at times praised. Submission to the authority of the critique is at first terrifying as one’s skin is slowly pulled from our reason to examine its bloody and feeble interior. The defensive position lashes out at the critic’s personal life, grasping for unrelated truths unwittingly furthering their humiliation. Professionals have often longed for the critique post hoc; longing for the interrogation, reexamination, and reconstruction of every node and line. The success of this experience has been
paralleled with the process of confession. Forced confessions are ugly, messy, and excruciating for all parties. Heightened emotions are shared, as educators and critics attempt to proceed down the path to enlightenment often with the reviewed unwillingly in tow. The fallibility of the referees plagues reason and pollutes the perception of the new perspective ripened for immediate consumption. The pleasures of exploration are blocked from view as the criticized erects an impenetrable prison unable to be breached. Shattered and infuriated, the session expires. The critiqued is broken. The studio professor picks up the pieces and
reconfigures their essence to return to their proprietor. The priestly gift pervades the lost, longing for what isnâ€™t there. The confessions of shameful behavior or continued defense are met with patience or austerity as the critiqued is realigned to begin their journey once again. Incubation leads to illumination followed by verification. The affirmation of the retool softens the critique of its extension. With each expansion, the continued growth lessons the pain. The criticisms solely challenge. They no longer deride. The assessments strengthen. They no longer undermine. The ambition of success longs for the exuberance of the critique. The acceleration of process lures the addicted. The studio no longer pleads but organizes access. The fear of failure is replaced by the longing of success. Each one longs to confess, offering their actions to those who can wield a formidable sword. Eager for guidance, the weight of success aligns each one as they wait for their turn to confess. The confessional booth welcomes effort but egos are left on the rack.
Bike-Privileged In the office, in the lobby, in the street; where can bike enthusiasts store? Up. Simultaneously filling the air with the wonder of color and the joy of mechanical invention, the collage captures the imagination as each bike is sent into the sky to be retrieved at a different time. Both allegorical of the necessity for storage and the beauty the bicycle brings to the doldrums of the urban fabric. The bicycle is not shameful but should be celebrated for both the advantage of personal exercise and the lack of environmental impact.
THEATRE PRIVILEGED Theatre culture is a retro culture. Perpetually reminiscing of the procedures of the past, the air is filled with discussions of 35 mm film, film reels, drawing, the handwritten word, and historical preservation. The collage captures the fashion and architecture of the past for the arts district. However, places the context of the district in the future with video projected windows, a futuristic city in the background, and a modern electric car. Tim Berners-Lee walks towards the vantage point with a paper suspended without hands in an awkwardly placed hat. The newspaper insert from the Charlotte Observer from 1927 is plastered on the wall with an additional copy held by a man smoking a cigar.
SITE PRIVILEGED The site is currently a garden. The perspective collage places the current garden plan on the ground against the silhouette of the existing profile. Embedded in the profile is the images of the memory of what was. The watercolor version of the plants and people seem to come out of the ground combining a 3 dimensional understanding on a 2 dimensional landscape. Hanging on the left side of the page, an image of the sight is marked revealing the context of the city.
A study of the plan for Central Los Angeles Area High School #9 by Coop Himmelb(l)au
MODEL + PHOTO + COLLAGE
Use is innate. It happens effortlessly. Regardless of typology mankind engages playfully with form but the need to eat,
sleep, gather, and play drives interaction. The spaces vary but the encounter remains the same. Trying on architectural
forms much like costumes for Halloween, the dress does not change the use.
Exclusivity drives high architecture. The celebration of novel forms expressed in monumental structures defines
our cities. The achievements of the past judgingly look at innovative forms as structures try on neoteric facades.
Although the inner workings remain the same the artistic expression of the vision of modern man is captured in the skin.
THE POWER OF A NAME
A thing cannot be discussed until it is named. The naming of a thing brings it into existence. Without the discourse,
a thing remains indefinite. Therefore architecture cannot exist outside of program, for program is the name.
Although the name may change, a name must exist or it ceases to be. The name contains endless power allowing the ability to develop what isnâ€™t until it becomes what is.
FIRST AMENDMENT AREAS
IN ORDER CONTROL DAMAGE TO THE FLOW OF BUSINESS, PUBLIC AGENCIES HAVE DESIGNATED FIRST AMENDMENT AREAS FOR SELF EXPRESSION. THESE AREAS OFTEN ISOLATE A PARTICULAR MOVEMENT ELIMINATING CONTACT WITH INVOLUNTARY PARTICIPANTS. AUDIENCE: •
MEMBERS OF PARTICIPANTS.
DESIGNATED FREE SPEECH ZONES ON CAMPUSES
PRESENTERS ARE EASY TO IGNORE WITHOUT THE ABILITY TO STOP THE MOVEMENT OF INVOLUNTARY PARTICIPANTS.
DESIGNATED FREE SPEECH ZONES ON CAMPUSES ARE SMALL DESIGNATED AREAS TO ALLOW FOR EXPRESSION FROM THE STUDENT BODY WITHOUT DISRUPTING THE FLOW OF THE CAMPUS AUDIENCE: •
CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAMING Nothing is more important than diagramming. The following diagrams were used to illustrate living preferences, social issues and organizational concepts to reveal patterns and a greater understanding of movement in space.
STUDENTS AND FACULTY: AN ATTEMPT TO GATHER SUPPORT FOR GLOBAL CAUSES, JOINING ORGANIZATIONS, AND AT TIMES AGAINST A LOCAL CAMPUS POLICY
EFFECT: • • •
RED CARPET ENTRANCES
GREATLY HINDERS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CAMPUS PRESENTATIONS. INVOLUNTARY PARTICIPANTS WILL OFTEN AVOID PATHS LEADING NEAR THE DESIGNATED AREA. PRESENTERS ARE EASY TO IGNORE WITHOUT THE ABILITY TO STOP THE MOVEMENT OF INVOLUNTARY PARTICIPANTS.
THE PLETHORA OF TYPES OF MEDIA PRESENT AT RED CARPET AFFAIRS PROVIDE GLOBAL PRESENCE, AN AUDIENCE OF BENEFACTORS, AND VOYEURS. AUDIENCE: •
CELEBRITIES, MEDIA, & BENEFACTORS: POTENTIAL TO HAVE A GLOBAL AUDIENCE
EFFECT: • •
HIGHLY EFFECTIVE DUE TO MEDIA PRESENCE. DUE TO FREQUENCY OF USE, RED CARPET PROTEST SELDOM SURPRISE THE AUDIENCE. IF SECURITY WANTS TO STOP A PARTICULAR PROTEST THEY ARE OFTEN ABLE TO DO IT. THE SECURITY CAN ONLY IMPLEMENT AN APPROVED AMOUNT OF FORCE DO TO THE CAMERAS.
DEFACEMENT CAN BE AN EFFECTIVE WAY OF DIRECTLY REBELLING AGAINST A GIVEN POLICY, RULE, OR ICONIC REPRESENTATION. AUDIENCE: •
ALL PERSONS EFFECTED BY A POSTED POLICY, AN ESTABLISHED RULE, OR ADMIRERS OF ARTS AND ARCHITECTURE.
A CLEAR MESSAGE IS BOTH SYMBOLICALLY REPRESENTED BY DEFACEMENT AS WELL AS LITERALLY INTERPRETED THROUGH SYMBOLS OR WORDS ADDED TO OBJECT. THE IMPERSONAL NATURE BEGS THE CREDIBILITY OF A PARTICULAR MOVEMENT WHEN THE ACT COULD REPRESENT THE VOICE OF THOUSANDS OR A SINGLE INDIVIDUAL WITH NO REAL AGENDA.
BUS STATIONS OFFER A REVOLVING DIVERSE GROUP OF INVOLUNTARY PARTICIPANTS OVER THROUGHOUT THE DAY ALLOWING PRESENTERS TO HAVE SHORT ENGAGEMENTS WITH SMALL GROUPS THROUGHOUT THE DAY.
ARBITRARY PERSONS WHO USE THE MASS TRANSIT SYSTEM IN A GIVEN AREA. GREAT FOR ISSUES THAT CONCERN EVERYONE IN A GIVEN AREA.
EFFECTUAL IN PROTESTING NEIGHBORHOOD CONDITIONS, OFTEN COMPRISING OF A COMBINATION OF LOCAL RESIDENTS AND EMPLOYEES OF THE SURROUNDING AREA. CAN RALLY SUPPORTERS OF THOSE EFFECTED BY A PARTICULAR LOCAL CONDITION TO APPROACH THE GREATER COMMUNITY
THE ACT OF PROTEST CAN BE ENACTED BY CHALLENGING SOCIAL POLICIES AND NORMS. THE CAPTURED AUDIENCE WITHIN THE MASS TRANSIT SYSTEM FORCES REFLECTION OF A GIVEN ACT
OCCUPYING THE STREET REQUIRES A LARGE NUMBER OF PRESENTERS AND IS VERY EFFECTIVE BE STOPPING THE MOVEMENT OF SEVERAL MODES OF TRANSPORTATION IN AN AREA. •
DIVERSE GROUP OF THOSE WHO USE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
PARKS WITH STAGES ARE PREDISPOSED TO PUBLIC EVENTS AND PROTEST WHICH PRIMARILY INCLUDE VOLUNTARY PARTICIPANTS. VOCAL AMPLIFICATION AND VISIBILITY IS MUCH MORE CONDUCIVE TO EFFECTIVELY ENGAGING A CROWD •
DUE TO THE LIMITED NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS AND TIGHT QUARTERS. PROTEST ON BUSES IS LESS IMPACTFUL THAN PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS WITH MORE SPACE, BETTER AUDIBILITY, AND LESS EXTERNAL DISTRACTION.
VOLUNTARY PARTICIPANTS WHO WANT DEMONSTRATE SUPPORT FOR A GIVEN CAUSE.
THE FRONT YARD
THE OCCUPANTS OF A PARTICULAR BUILDING OFTEN WITH A DEMAND TO A CHANGE IN PRACTICE.
EFFECT: • •
THE CLARITY OF PROTEST MAKES THE PROCESS OF GATHERING NUMBERS MORE TRANSPARENT AND CAN QUICKLY AMASS LOCAL SUPPORT. THE ACT OF HINDERING THE FLOW TO AND FROM A PARTICULAR SPACE BRINGS ADDITIONAL ATTENTION TO THE USE OF THE SPACE FURTHER ACCENTUATING THE MESSAGE OF THE PRESENTERS.
THEATRE LOBBIES OFTEN HAVE DRAMATIC CIRCULATION PATTERNS AND GRAND STAIRCASES MADE TO SEE AND BE SEEN. THE NATURAL ORDER OF THE TYPOLOGY OFFERS PRESENTERS UNIQUE OPPORTUNITIES TO ENGAGE PATRONS WITH LITTLE ROOM FOR ESCAPE. •
PATRONS OF THE THEATRE ARE STOPPED AND WILL OFTEN BE WAITING TO EXIT OR RE-ENTER.
THE LACK OF INVOLUNTARY PARTICIPANTS MINIMIZE THE IMPACT ON THE IMMEDIATE AREA HOWEVER THE COMBINATION OF PUBLICITY AND NEWS SURROUND LARGE EVENTS OFTEN HAVE LONG LASTING EFFECTS.
A CLEAR PURPOSE OF PROTEST CAN BE PRESENTED WHEN OCCUPYING AND ORIENTING TOWARDS A PARTICULAR BUILDING. WHEN THE BUILDING HOUSES A SINGLE ENTITY, THE MESSAGE IS CLEAR NOT ONLY TO PRESENTERS BUT EVEN INVOLUNTARY PARTICIPANTS
UNLESS AN INVOLUNTARY PARTICIPATOR IS AWARE OF A PROTEST THAT HAS OCCUPIED THE STREET. THEY WILL BE FORCED TO OBSERVE AND WILL UNLIKELY HAVE AN EASY WAY AROUND TO ONE’S DESTINATION. STREET OCCUPATION IS VERY IMPACTFUL AS IT GETS THE BROADEST RANGE OF TYPES OF PEOPLE AS WELL AS STOPS THE MOVEMENT OF A CITY.
ALL SOCIAL CLASSES AND ETHNIC GROUPS USE STREETS AND SIDEWALKS.
THE DENSITY OF THE CITY OFFERS OPPORTUNITY TO REACH LARGER NUMBERS HOWEVER THE RESTRICTION OF MOVEMENT MINIMIZES ENGAGING INVOLUNTARY PARTICIPANTS.
PARKS WITH STAGES
TO EFFECT AUTOMOBILES WITHOUT TRAFFIC SIGNS WORDS MUST BE FEW AND AUDIBILITY MUST BE VERY LOUD. SLOW MOVING PEDESTRIANS AND MASS TRANSIT CLIENTELE USE THE SIDEWALKS OFTEN WAITING AT INTERSECTIONS AND LOOKING FOR DISTRACTIONS
STREET CORNERS ARE A CONVENIENT PLACE FOR ENGAGEMENT. PEDESTRIANS ARE FORCED TO STOP AS TRAFFIC PASSES AND CARS ARE FORCED TO STOP DUE TO TRAFFIC SIGNS AND SIGNALS. ALLOWING AN OPPORTUNITY FOR INVOLUNTARY PARTICIPATION.
WELL EXECUTED PRESENTATIONS MAY BE WELL RECEIVED AND EFFECTIVE IN GAINING SUPPORT FROM BENEFACTORS. THE NATURE OF THE THEATRE CAN MAKE MEANINGFUL MESSAGES SEEM TRITE AND IS LIKELY TO BE RECEIVED AS JUST ANOTHER DRAMATIC PRESENTATION.
THE RAISED CONDITION OF THE PORCH FORMS A NATURAL STAGE CONDUCIVE TO PRESENTATION. THE PERSONAL NATURE OF THE EXTERIOR OF A RESIDENCE CREATES AN INTIMACY WITH THE AUDIENCE. AUDIENCE: •
FRIENDS AND NEIGHBORS OF THE PRESENTER
EFFECT: • •
THE INGENUOUS LOCATION CREATES A SENSE OF VULNERABILITY WITHIN THE PARTICIPANT. CAN ONLY IMPACT THOSE PASSING BY OR VOLUNTARY PARTICIPANTS WHO HAVE BEEN INVITED.
FREE SPEECH ZONES
IN ORDER TO SATISFY THE FIRST AMENDMENT CITIES HAVE DESIGNATED FREE SPEECH AREAS TO PREVENT DISRUPTION OF THE FLOW OF THE CITY. THE ACT OF RESTRICTING MOVEMENT AND DESIGNATING FIRST AMENDMENT AREAS GREAT HINDERS THE IMPACT OF A MOVEMENT
AUDIENCE: • •
TO EFFECT AUTOMOBILES WITHOUT TRAFFIC SIGNS WORDS MUST BE FEW AND AUDIBILITY MUST BE VERY LOUD. SLOW MOVING PEDESTRIANS AND MASS TRANSIT CLIENTELE USE THE SIDEWALKS OFTEN WAITING AT
TO EFFECT AUTOMOBILES WITHOUT TRAFFIC SIGNS WORDS MUST BE FEW AND AUDIBILITY MUST BE VERY LOUD. FEW PEDESTRIANS USE THE SIDEWALKS WHERE THIS STYLE OF CHURCH IS CONSTRUCTED.
INTERSECTIONS AND LOOKING FOR DISTRACTIONS
THE PRIME LOCATIONS AND POLITICAL INFLUENCE OF CHURCHES PROMOTE PROTEST ON THEIR GRAND ENTRANCES. THE LARGE STRUCTURE BEHIND THE PRESENTERS DEMONSTRATE THAT THEIR NUMBERS ALTHOUGH SMALL ARE SUPPORTED BY THE CHURCH AS A WHOLE.
THE DENSITY OF THE CITY OFFERS OPPORTUNITY TO REACH LARGER NUMBERS HOWEVER THE RESTRIC-
NOMINAL, EASY TO IGNORE EXCEPT BY EXISTING CHURCH MEMBERS AND IMMEDIATE NEIGHBORS EVENT HAS MINIMAL IMPACT ON INVOLUNTARY PARTICIPANTS
TION OF MOVEMENT MINIMIZES ENGAGING INVOLUNTARY PARTICIPANTS
MASS TRANSIT OFFERS OPPORTUNITY TO ENGAGE A CAPTURED PUBLIC WHO MUST SIT AND WAIT FOR A GIVEN PERIOD OF TIME ALLOWING LONGER MESSAGES TO BE DELIVERED IN ORDER TO PROVOKE CHANGE
CONFESSION IS AN ACT OF CONFLICT WHEN ONE PARTY VOLUNTARILY SUBMITS TO ANOTHER’S CRITICISM FOR A GIVEN AMOUNT OF TIME. THE ACT OF CONFESSION CAN ALTER FUTURE ACTS BUT REQUIRES THE VOLUNTARY ADMISSION OF GUILT AND SELF REGULATION AUDIENCE:
MASS TRANSIT USERS IN MAJOR CITIES COMPROMISING OF NEARLY ALL RACES AND CLASSES BUT IN SMALLER METROPOLITAN AREAS MAY ONLY COM-
PRISE OF MIDDLE AND LOWER CLASSES.
HUMILIATION OR PUNISHMENT
ALLOWS OPPORTUNITY TO REASON WITH POTENTIAL CONVERTS. THE BUSY NATURE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION REQUIRES A HIGHER LEVEL OF DRAMA TO CAPTURE ATTENTION EVENT IMPACTS ON INVOLUNTARY PARTICIPANTS WHO ARE MOMENTARY CONFINED
LOBBIES TO BUILDINGS OFFER OPEN SPACES AND CLEAR VISIBILITY FOR PROTEST ACTIVITIES. THE DISORIENTATION OF INVOLUNTARY PARTICIPANTS AS THEY ATTEMPT TO CIRCUMVENT THE EVENT ALLOW THE PRESENTERS A MOMENT TO PROMOTE THEIR MESSAGE
FANS OF A PARTICULAR IDEA AND CURIOUS PERSONS IN SEARCH OF ENTERTAINMENT OR A GROUP DYNAMIC
THE FORMALIZED NATURE OF THE EVENT PRODUCES FEW CONVERTS, MOST VOLUNTARY PARTICIPATES WILL DETERMINE THEIR OPINION BEFORE ARRIVING, PICKING A PARTICULAR DOGMA UNWILLING TO CONCEDE. VISITORS CAN EASY BE TAKEN IN THE RAPTURE OF AN EVENT SUCCUMBING TO THE EXCITEMENT AND COMMUNITY.
POLITICIANS WHO HAVE AGREED TO WORK WITHIN A GIVEN FRAMEWORK.
HIGHLY EFFECTIVE DUE TO THE IMMEDIATE IMPACT UPON ENTERING A BUILDING. DIFFICULT TO EXECUTE BECAUSE THE TYPICAL MESSAGE OF THE PROTEST WILL OFTEN INVOLVE THOSE THAT HAVE A DEGREE OF CONTROL OF THE BUILDING WHO WILL HAVE THE PRESENTERS REMOVED.
STADIUMS ARE FORMALIZED AREAS OF CONFLICT WHERE TWO OPPOSING PARTIES AGREE TO A GIVEN SET OF RULES. PROPONENTS OF A PARTICULAR PARTY GATHER TO PROMOTE THEIR AGENDA •
CONGRESS USES AN ARENA STYLE ARCHITECTURE TO ALLOW OPPONENTS TO FACE EACH OTHER. A SPEAKER ACTS AS THE MEDIATOR AND ALL MEMBERS SUBMIT TO A GIVEN SET OF RULES TO DETERMINE OUTCOMES.
USERS OF A PARTICULAR BUILDING
NOMINAL, EASY TO IGNORE WITHOUT FAITH AND A HEALTHY SENSE OF JUSTICE. EVENT HAS NO IMPACT ON INVOLUNTARY PARTICIPANTS
RELIGIOUS PERSONS WILLING TO ADMIT FAULT AND ATTEMPT TO CHANGE WITHOUT THE AID OF PUBLIC
ARGUMENTATION AND REASON ARE UTILIZED TO PROMOTE A GIVEN AGENDA. VOTING DETERMINES THE OUTCOME WHERE THE MAJORITY OPINION TAKES HOLD. VERY EFFECTIVE FORM OF CONFLICT BUT REQUIRES PREDETERMINED COMPROMISES BEFORE THE PROCESS CAN BEGIN. EVENT HAS NO IMPACT ON INVOLUNTARY PARTICIPANTS
A SINGLE ELEVATOR LOBBY OFTEN SERVES AS THE PRIMARY CIRCULATION ACCESS FOR THE ENTIRE BUILDING. OFTEN PROTECTED BY SECURITY TO PREVENT PROTEST, THE INABILITY TO CIRCUMVENT THE LOBBY OFFERS STRATEGIC ADVANTAGES TO IMPACT THE OCCUPANTS OF A BUILDING. AUDIENCE: •
OCCUPANTS AND CLIENTS OF A PARTICULAR STRUCTURE
EFFECT: • •
WAITING ON THE ELEVATOR PREVENTS INVOLUNTARY PARTICIPANTS FROM BY PASSING THE PROTEST MESSAGE THE ANNOYANCE AND HIGH VISIBILITY MAKES CONFLICTS INVOLVING PARTICULAR BUILDING OCCUPANTS HIGHLY EFFECTIVE.
PARK(ING) DAY PARK-MAKING POP-UP TOWN HALL MICRO-MIXING SITE PRE-VITALIZATION POP-UP RETAIL FOOD CARTS/TRUCKS MOBILE VENDORS DEPAVE CAMPS
TURN A STREET INTO A PLAZA, ERECTING BARRIERS TO FAVOR PEDESTRIAN
STOP THE FLOW OF TRAFFIC ON STREET TO USE FOR PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE USE
POP UP PATIOS
PAVEMENT TO PLAZA
PAVEMENT TO PLAZAS PAVEMENT TO PARKS OPEN STREETS PLAY STREETS POP-UP CAFES PARKMOBILE
TEMPORARY FOOD SERVICES TO ATTRACT PEOPLE TO OCCUPY A PARTICULAR AREA
AUGMENTING THE EXISTING DESIGN WITH TEMPORARY DECORATIONS
SEATING AREAS FOR FOOD TRUCKS TO PROMOTE LONGER OCCUPANCY.
BUILD A BETTER BLOCK INFORMAL BIKE PARKING INTERSECTION REPAIR GUERRILLA GARDENING RECLAIMED SETBACKS WEED BOMBING CHAIR BOMBING AD-BUSTING
TYPES OF INTERVENTIONS
• INTENTIONAL SERIES OF INTERVENTIONS THAT ATTEMPT TO INVOKE A CHANGE IN THE CURRENT CONDITION. • EXECUTE PROPOSED SOLUTIONS TEMPORARILY TO GATHER INFORMATION TO SUPPORT PERMANENT CHANGE. • LOW RISK EXPERIMENTATION ALLOWS FOR MINIMAL IMPACT ON A CULTURE TO EVALUATE IDEAS. • ENGAGES COMMUNITY, CREATING CONVERSATIONS BETWEEN ESTRANGED CITIZENS, PROMOTING COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT AND AWARENESS.
REMOVING UNNECESSARY PUBLIC PRIVATE BARRIERS TO EXPAND PUBLIC ACCESSIBILITY
LANDSCAPING AND GARDENING ANOTHER’S PROPERTY WITHOUT PERMISSION
CREATE A RAISED AREA TO INCREASE THE VISIBILITY OF A SPEAKER OR GROUP.
POP UP STAGING
PLACING ADDITION SEATING TO ENCOURAGE PEOPLE TO LINGER
ADDING PROGRAMMED ACTIVITIES TO UNPROGRAMMED AREA.
September 20 2pm 3pm 4pm 5pm 6pm 7pm 8pm 9pm 10pm 11pm Midnight 1am 2am 3am 4am
•Mayor Holds Conference
•Civil Rights Group Calls Boycott •UNCC releases statement
•Keith Lamont Scott Shot
•Social Media Attracts Protesters
Location of Keith Scott’s Death
I-85 Partly Blocked by Protesters Walmart Damaged by Protesters
•Crowd at Old Concord Road •Protest Turns Violent •Police Vehicles Damaged •Mayor Begins Investigation
•CMPD identify victim & suspect
Initial Protest Location
Events on Tuesday
Events Move Downtown
•Protesters throw rocks on I-85 •W.T. Harris Blvd Shut Down
•Tear gas disperses crowd at I-85 •Walmart nearby looted
•Governor Issues Statement
•ACLU Calls for CMPD Videos •Attorney General Calls for Peace
•City Officials Opens Feedback
•Tear gas used to disperse crowd
September 21 10am 11am Noon 1pm 2om 3pm 4pm 5pm 6pm 7pm 8pm 9pm 10pm 11pm Midnight
The events following the shooting of Keith L Scott warranted national coverage. The escalating events revolving around police shootings have become a critical issue in public debates. After the shooting, the public began to gather near ground zero. As the movement built, the demonstrators demanded more attention and migrated towards higher profile areas. The police attempted to contain the crowd who moved to block i-85 then to damage the Walmart near by. Wednesday The event continued to escalate moving downtown with more formal protest involving community leaders and facilitating larger numbers
•Mrs Scott Asks to Stop Violence •Gathering at Marshall Park •Victims Gun Identified in Photo •Protesters move to Epicenter •Candle Vigil at Ground Zero •Justin Carr Shot near Ritz •Police Use Tear Gas •Ritz Locks Doors •7 Officers Taken to Hospital •Mayor Request CMPD Video •Governor Sends State Hwy Patrol •State of Emergency Declared
•CATS suspends service •Protest Continues till 3am
September 22 10am 11am Noon 1pm 2om 3pm 4pm 5pm 6pm 7pm 8pm 9pm 10pm 11pm Midnight
•Family to see CMPD video
Protester Shot Ritz-Carlton
Time Warner Hyatt House Police Headquarters
Marshall Park Protest Rally
•National Guard Arrives •Large March at Trade/Tryon •Protesters approach I-77 •Multiple Protest Groups Join •Protesters Demand Video at CMPD •Protest in Romare Bearden
Police Headquarters Nascar Hall of Fame
16 South Blocked
•Protesters Remain More Peaceful
Wednesday night protesters moved from Ground Zero to uptown. Peaceful rallies began in Marshall Park. As the evening progressed other protest groups marched in front of the CMPD headquarters, ultimately occupying College and Trade focusing on the Ritz, Omni, and Epicentre. Violence broke out resulting in one death and numerous injuries. A clear line of movement can be seen as more organized protests moved towards high tension areas as organizers lost control of the crowd. Kandy Bar in Epicentre has been under attack via social media as a video went viral the week before showing the owner turning away black patrons while letting others in. Ritz Carlton has been criticized for charging a “Black Tax” during CIAA.
•Protesters block 16 South
•Protest Continues till 2am
Thursday night primary protester organizers moved to Romare Bearden Park. Numerous protest groups merged in different locations as the Protest radius increased. The number of protesters were larger than the previous night but with less violent outburst possibly due to the presence of the National Guard and police reinforcements. The protesters occupied I-277/ Hwy16 at around 10:45. Previously a small group attempted to occupy I-77 but failed. The protest continued around the police headquarters. Epicentre closed down for the night discouraging protesters from occupying its corridors.
Junior olympiC pool
1225 south ChurCh
Charlotte apartments 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.
1100 south alpha mill apartments Camden Cotton mills Catalyst Berkshire dilworth distriCt Flats element uptown Fountains south end loFt one35 merCury noda mosaiC south end park and kingston post south end presley uptown silos south end skyhouse the mint the Village at Commonwealth the Vue yards at noda Crest gateway 1225 south ChurCh ten 05 w trade
ten 05 w trade
1225 south ChurCh
loCal Business disCount
mosaiC south end
1225 south ChurCh
2-story Fitness Center
7 distriCt Flats
ping-pong distriCt Flats
spin Class distriCt Flats
silos south end
Fountains south end
silos south end
Fountains south end
Fountains south end
silos south end
Fountains south end
15 Fountains south end
Fountains south end
rooFtop aCtiVity Field
Camden Cotton mills
Color Changing pool
loCal art gallery
men & womenâ€™s spa
the yards at noda
ConFerenCe rooms merCury noda
Fitness on demand presley uptown
the Village at Commonwealth
the Village at Commonwealth
post south end
post south end
the Village at Commonwealth
mosaiC south end
the Village at Commonwealth
guest suites post south end
greenway aCCess Berkshire dilworth
/A R C H I T E C T U R E P O R T F O L I O J A C K E L LY 3 @ H O T M A I L . C O M 704.965.0886
Architecture Portfolio of Michael-Paul "Jack Kelly" James