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www.jacarandatribal.com dori@jacarandatribal.com T +1 646-251-8528 New York City, NY 10025

© 2021, Jacaranda LLC Published April, 2021 PRICES AVAILABLE ON REQUEST



Use of the word “Eskimo”

A note on dating

The word “Eskimo” is used in this catalog because it

Ascribing age to the various cultures that inhabited the

continues to be widely used in contemporary ethnological

Bering Sea over the past two millennia has shifted over

and linguistic literature focusing on Native Alaskan peoples

time and there is still not common consensus amongst

inhabiting the coast and adjacent interior. In Alaska, the

researchers. For the purposes of this catalog, we are using

term is not considered to be as strongly tabooed as among

the dating system used in The Menil Collection’s 2011 show

the Canadian Inuit. In fact, “Eskimo” is sometimes used by

and accompanying catalog, Upside Down: Arctic Realities,

certain Native Alaskans to describe themselves today. The

curated by Edmund Carpenter.

autonyms Yupiit (“real people”) and Inupiat (“real people”) replace “Eskimo” in many regions of Arctic Alaska today. We use the term Eskimo here as a matter of convenience to help group together various northern peoples who share similarities in environment, subsistence, culture and language.

Old Bering Sea I / Okvik style (c. 200 bc – ad 100) Old Bering Sea II (c. ad 100 – 300) Old Bering Sea III (c. ad 300 – 500) Punuk (c. ad 500 – 1200) Thule (c. ad 1000 – 1600)

A note on catalog images Objects may be smaller than they appear in the catalog image. Please refer to the object’s dimension (denoted in inches) for actual size.

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We are pleased to present a selection of 30 artworks from in and around the Bering Strait. Spanning more than two millennia, these objects have all been selected for their timeless beauty and perfect synthesis of form and function.

The objects in this exhibition catalog range from the utilitarian, such as hunting instruments, to items more spiritual in nature. Because the fight for daily survival was so acute in the harsh Arctic environment, hunting and hunting implements such as harpoon heads and socket pieces were a prominent focus of the material culture. Scarcity of raw material, particularly wood, resulted in the production of artifacts both compact and precise and having a purity of form. The abundance of walrus ivory in the Bering Strait gave carvers ample material from which to craft fine yet sturdy and durable objects. An unanticipated benefit of the use of walrus ivory was that it could survive, buried in the permafrost, for thousands of years. Lying in the permafrost for millennia, these pieces slowly took on the colors of the soil that they were buried in, becoming black, brown, or even caramel-colored as they froze and thawed over the ages. An obvious observation to any viewer is the exceptional fineness with which these objects have been carved and it is difficult to grasp how such precision

was achieved without using modern tools. For the older objects, the astute observer will be sure to notice the fine line decorations and polyiconic imagery where images such as human faces or animals morph into yet more images and the true intent of the artist is hard, if not impossible, to discern. While these works may be enjoyed purely on their aesthetic merits, it helps to gain a deeper understanding of the Paleo-Eskimo cosmology to more fully appreciate the fineness and care underlying their manufacture as well as the prevalence of anthropomorphic and zoomorphic imagery, and the Inuit concept of inua. In Inuit mythology, an inua is a spirit or soul that exists in all people, animals, lakes, mountains, and plants. The concept is similar to mana. Mana is the spiritual life force or healing power that permeates the universe, in the culture of the Melanesians and Polynesians. For Arctic people, human and animals are equal. All life has the same kind of soul or “life essence”. This creates a predicament that, in order to survive, people must kill other creatures that are like them. Recognition of this dilemma lies at the center of hunting practice, which is based upon respect and reciprocity. The hunter will only succeed if the animal chooses to give its life as a gift in

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return for moral and respectful behavior on the part of the whole community. For example, after a seal has been killed, fresh water is poured into its mouth so that its soul will not be thirsty, and it will tell the other seals of the respect shown to it. Thus, the objects in this catalog have been crafted to show the reverence and respect for the animals that will sustain the hunter and his family and continue the cycle of life and death. Of particular note in our catalog selection is a fine Okvik female head, with striking tattoo markings, classic and timeless as a Roman or Greek antiquity, with a monumentality that belies its scale. Another ancient Okvik object, a knife used for working animal hide, stuns the viewer with its striking line engravings and remarkable condition, seen for the first time after being in a private collection for over 40 years. We are also proud to offer one of only 50 extant examples of a wooden closed-crown hunting hat, worn solely by chiefs or exceptional hunters in and around the Kodiak Islands over 200 years ago. Another object from the historic period, a slate blade container with seal heads, is particularly rare and beautiful and captures the reverence that the hunters had for their prey. We also have selected a range of fine harpoon heads, striking in their dynamic form and lethal beauty. These affordable objects are a great entry point for a collector looking for museum-quality art from the Arctic. We hope you enjoy the collection as much as we have enjoyed curating the exhibition. Many of these objects are extremely tactile and are particularly enjoyable and truly appreciated when handled in person. The objects also benefit from close physical inspection and will reward viewers with new discoveries as they unravel and decipher the polyiconic imagery. Dori & Daniel Rootenberg new york city, april 2021

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HUMAN HEAD OLD BERING SEA I/OKVIK STYLE Okvik site, Punuk Islands, Alaska ca. 200 bc – ad 100 Walrus ivory Height: 2 ¼ in PROVENANCE

Dr John Frederick Schaeffer, USA

Human images in ivory left by the archaic Old Bering Sea and Okvik cultures of Alaska stand among the most

of the busts carved by the ancient peoples of the Bering region. The plane of the neck angles downward and shows a

powerful expressions in the art traditions of the Arctic.

rough edge — evidence of the well-documented practice of

Their striking formal essentialism, austerity and deep

purposefully severing heads from bodies of figures of this

sense of mystery have fascinated generations of collectors.

scale. The purpose for which the figures were created is not

The beautiful head presented here has all the desirable

well understood, but there are references in the literature

attributes of its type, with classic stylized form and cocoa

that they might have been portraits of living individuals,

brown patina; a broad facial plane divided by a narrow,

perhaps revered members of the tribe, and that, upon the

attenuated nose; a long, slightly arched horizontal browline

death of the subject, the head and body were ritually severed

casting sharp shadows over suggestions of eyes; and a thin,

and buried distant from one another. By severing the head

diminutive mouth above a tapered chin. Slight convexities

from the body, the spirit or inua left the doll and thus, by

below the eye sockets give an elegant impression of

burying the head far from the body, the spirit would never

cheekbones, from which two strong incisions angle inward

re-enter the doll. It has also been suggested they might have

to the base of the nose, indicative of facial tattoos. Native

been made as tokens for life events, such as a pregnancy

Arctic women tattooed one another for millennia before

charm or an amulet for an important hunt, which were

Western colonizers abolished the custom.

severed when the purpose was fulfilled.

The eyebrows are carefully worked with vertical notches,

Like many excavated ivories, this head suffered partial

a texture echoed by the subtle lines found spread across the

loss from lying in the permafrost for millennia, notably

cheeks, which evoke wrinkles in a face of great age. With an

a split to the left side of the face and damage to the nose.

expression of both serenity and gravity, this image radiates an

With the assistance of an expert restorer, the head has been

aura of enigmatic wisdom and timeless vigor shared by many

restored to its original condition.

human head



human head

human head



human head


Dr Schaeffer (1945–2020) was an orthopedic surgeon based in Sanford, Florida. He served on many international medical missions, including trips to Haiti and Russia. He was an avid collector and, for a number of years, had a second home in Santa Fe, NM where he was able to acquire many of his finest pieces.

Okvik head as excavated, pre-restoration.

human head



human head


MALE FIGURE THULE CULTURE Mainland, Western Alaska ca. ad 1000 – 1800 Walrus ivory Height: 4 ¼ in PROVENANCE

Philip M. Isaacson, Lewiston, Maine

Nature, time, and a sensitive artistic eye conspire to conjure

small figure, portraying a human image seemingly on the

a ghostly aspect in this beautiful, excavated male figure. All

verge of unknowable transformation.

the characteristics of this doll-like figure – the upturned face

Figures of this type are an ancient form with a lineage

with features worn to only small eye sockets; a faint mouth

stretching back before recorded history. According to

and a mere suggestion of a nose; semi-abstracted limbs with

Fitzhugh and Kaplan (Inua: Spirit World of the Bering Sea

arms fused to the torso; and the mottled surface of the ivory,

Eskimo, 1982 : 156), they were carved for several purposes: to

which lends an impression of fog or clouds – contribute to

stand in for people absent from the village during festivals,

its otherworldly aura. Curved incisions from the shoulders

to avert infertility, or else to focus the attention of animal

down to the center of the abdomen and sharp lines cut to

inua (spirits) during the Doll Festival, which was held

delineate a band at the waist may describe a parka or other

to bless hunting and fishing expeditions in the coming

garb. The hands clasped behind the back may represent an

year. Among the Yup’ik, shamans used dolls in adulthood

older man braced against the Arctic wind or even a dance

initiations and hung them in trees to foretell the location of

gesture. The enigmatic spirit of Arctic art is powerfully

game. Dolls were also carved by fathers and given to their

expressed in the depersonalized and stylized features of this

daughters as playthings.

male figure



male figure

Philip Isaacson, Lewiston, ME, c.2005


Isaacson (1924–2013) was a graduate of Harvard Law School, served as an officer in the U.S. Navy during World War II, and received honorary doctorates from Bates College and Bowdoin College. He practiced as an attorney for over sixty years and was also an art and architecture critic for the Maine Sunday Telegram. He was a prolific photographer, primarily of architecture, and wrote three well-regarded books on art and architecture, including The American Eagle.

male figure



male figure


DRAG HANDLE ESKIMO WESTERN ALASKA 19th century Walrus ivory, walrus hide Length: 2 ¾ in, 16 in loop PROVENANCE

Justin Cobb, Massachusetts

This well-preserved drag features a cleverly carved zoomorphic handle threaded with a loop of hide knotted in the center. The thumb-sized handle depicts a polar bear with legs carved in relief, tucked along its belly. Eyes, ears, nose and mouth are developed and picked out with blackened details, presenting a predatory aspect. Age and use have left darkened pits, scratches and a mottled patina on the white ivory, adding a pelt-like texture to the figure’s surface. Drags were tools used by hunters to pull walruses, sea lions and seals across the ice after a successful hunt. Serving as a magical aid for both protection and hunting success, these talismanic carvings assisted the hunter in his arduous task.

drag handle



drag handle

Justin Cobb, c. 2018


Justin Lyman Cobb, III (1927–2019) owned Captain’s Quarters Antiques, specializing in maritime art and folk art, a venture that combined his love of the sea with his fascination with history. A tireless traveler to antiques shows throughout New England, he was a familiar face at auction houses across the region where he acquired numerous Eskimo artifacts.

drag handle



drag handle


DRAG HANDLE ESKIMO WESTERN ALASKA Late 18th / early 19th century Walrus ivory, walrus hide thong Length: 2 ½ in, 9 ½ in loop PROVENANCE

Bill Henderson Collection, Tacoma, Washington Jeffrey Myers, New York

This exceptionally rare drag features an ivory toggle carved

is in the Phoebe Apperson Hearst Museum collection and

in the form of a seal, flippers cut in light relief and simple

is published in their Catalogue Raisonné of the Alaska

facial features indicated with small, blackened indentations.

Commercial Company Collection (see plate 220, accession

This charming figure was probably repurposed from a

number 2-4267).

harpoon blade container. Adorning the body of the seal are

Drags were tools used by Arctic hunters to pull walruses,

a number of engraved stylized images depicting polar bears,

sea lions and seals across the ice after a successful hunt.

human figures, whales, and other animals, which are cut

Serving as a magical aid for both protection and hunting

into the surface with dark hatch marks.

success, these talismanic carvings assisted the hunter in his

Another example of a toggle with incised line drawings

arduous task.

drag handle



drag handle

drag handle



drag handle

drag handle



drag handle



Rick Gallagher, New York City

Sinew spinners have been dated as far back as the Old Bering Sea I period and were initially thought to be part of a friction drill. In his seminal work The Eskimo about Bering Strait, anthropologist Edward William Nelson describes seeing a similar spinner on St. Lawrence Island, describing its use as follows: “The sinew to be spun is attached to the flattened rod at the shoulder, just below the hole, and by a rapid circular motion of the hand the flattened rod is caused to revolve rapidly, giving the desired twisting to the cord.” The example offered here presents a form quite reminiscent of a twentieth-century Modernist sculpture, consisting of three almost geometric forms interlocked in an asymmetrical arrangement. A deep patina and mottling of age texture its ivory surfaces, lending an organic touch to the abstract, utilitarian minimalism of the piece.

sinew spinner



sinew spinner




Walrus ivory Height: 5 ½ in PROVENANCE

Kenneth Pushkin, Santa Fe, collected on St. Lawrence Island in 1978 Faith-Dorian and Martin Wright Collection, New York

The harpoon has been essential to the lifeways of the

abut one another in an abstract press. Beguiling in visual

peoples living on either side of the Bering Sea for millennia.

intent, they evoke a mass of eyes, faces or animal forms that

It has undergone significant evolution in design during

separate, merge, and alter their relationships to one another

its long history, refined as both a tool and an object of

depending upon the shifting perspective of the viewer. Laid

artistic focus. The advent of the toggling harpoon in about

out two-dimensionally, the composition is revealed to be

1500 bc was particularly revolutionary in its development.

bilaterally symmetrical.

Elements of these harpoons—head, foreshaft, socket piece,

When used in the hunt, the hollow socket piece held

and counterweight—were made of walrus ivory and, over

the foreshaft of the harpoon head at one end and was

time, artists began to embellish them with delicately incised

placed over the main shaft of the harpoon like a sheath or

designs. Spirits that attracted game and that fortified the

cap, lashed securely with cord. The detachable blade was

harpoon itself were among the depictions in these drawings.

placed over the end of the foreshaft in like fashion and was

By the first half of the first millennium ad, the incised

attached to a long cord lead which was tied off elsewhere,

patterns had become both elegant and complex and often

ensuring the blade of the harpoon would not be lost when

included “hidden” or cryptic images.

separating from the foreshaft and allowing the hunter to

This finely worked socket piece offers a showcase of the

haul in his prey once the harpoon had struck the mark.

enigmatic curvilinear designs found on decorated toggling

Devoid of any accompanying harpoon elements, this

harpoons. The incisions wrap around the full surface of

beautifully made socket piece may have been repurposed

the cylinder, presenting a flowing host of bowed, cell-like

for another use.

motifs and sharply pointed elements that overlap and

harpoon socket piece fragment



harpoon socket piece fragment

Kenneth Pushkin, hunting with the St. Lawrence Islanders in Roger Silook’s umiak off the coast of Gambell, 1978. KENNETH PUSHKIN

Kenneth Pushkin was a pioneering dealer on St. Lawrence Island. Throughout the 1970s, Pushkin travelled to remote regions of northwest Alaska where he lived with the native Yup’ik. In addition to building collections for such institutions as the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the De Menil Foundation, he authored the text Seevookak, the Ancient Art of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.

harpoon socket piece fragment



harpoon socket piece fragment


MINIATURE HUMAN FIGURES from left to right

GREENLAND 19th century Ex UK private collection

THULE ST LAWRENCE ISLAND c. ad 1000–1600 Ex Faith-Dorian and Martin Wright Collection

THULE ALASKA c. ad 1000–1600 Ex Trifles Antiques, Maine

OLD BERING SEA I/OKVIK STYLE WESTERN ALASKA c. 200 bc– ad 100 Ex Faith-Dorian and Martin Wright Collection

This group of five figurines illustrates the broad stylistic spectrum of Arctic figural representation across the centuries, from extreme abstraction to relative naturalism. Diminutive in size but often monumental in bearing, these disparate forms are united by the enigmatic aura so characteristic to Arctic art. Dolls and figurines have been carved across the Arctic since prehistoric times. The full breadth of their meanings and uses is unknown, but scholars believe they acted

GREENLAND 19th century Ex Private UK collection

variously as effigies for living persons, fertility charms, channels for spiritual activity or simply children’s dolls for play and didactic purposes. Given the widespread use of animal charms among Arctic cultures, it is likely that human figurines also held similar magical symbolism and

Heights: 1 ¼ in to 1 ¾ in

were employed by shamans.

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KNIFE WITH FOX HEAD OLD BERING SEA I/OKVIK STYLE ST LAWRENCE ISLAND, ALASKA c. 200 bc – ad 100 Walrus ivory Height: 1 ½ in Length: 5 ¾ in PROVENANCE

Kenneth Pushkin, Albuquerque, NM collected in situ on St Lawrence Island in 1978 George Terasaki, New York Private Collection, New York

Composed with uncommon beauty, this ivory knife is

circumference, this knife would have been used to cut and

extremely rare and may be the only known example of

prepare raw materials such as hide. The user’s hand would

its kind. Both faces of its broad, planar form show classic

rest over the top edge of the blade, gripping the spine of

Okvik decoration with long, doubled, ray-like incisions

the knife with the forefinger placed on the back of the

fringed with spurs spreading down and away from the

animal head. The soft, rounded edges of the knife attest to

upper center of the piece, with light dashes interposed

a history of use, and a small loss has been sustained on the

between. A small animal head projects out from one upper

side opposite the animal head, possibly reflecting a second

corner, probably representing an Arctic fox or red fox. The

animal head, although this is conjecture.

ivory has been worked to a fine thinness and boasts a deeply

This piece has a rich provenance, having been obtained in

contrasting two-tone appearance conjuring an image of

situ on St. Lawrence Island in 1978 by Kenneth Pushkin, a

islands resting in a bay, over which the incised designs seem

vigorous collector and early dealer in Arctic art, from whom

to elegantly float.

it passed to legendary Native American art collector George

Ridged with undulating serrations around its full


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k n i f e w i t h f ox h e a d


George Terasaki (1931–2010) was synonymous with sculptures and objects of great power and pedigree. The passion of his life was the discovery and elevation of artistic masterpieces from the indigenous cultures of North America, and many artworks which passed through his hands are now in major institutions and distinguished private collections. As an artist himself, Terasaki had an exquisitely developed eye that guided his early instincts and helped shape his celebrated collection. While studying art at The Cooper Union in New York City in the 1950s, Terasaki met painter Merton D. Simpson, who would later go on to become one of the greatest promoters of classical African art as its foremost dealer in New York. Terasaki was inspired by this early exposure to tribal art and, beginning with small objects, he began to acquire early artworks from the overlooked cultures of North America. Relentlessly seeking new discoveries across the United States, his collection grew rapidly in size and stature, and through Simpson he sourced objects from Europe. By the 1970s he had begun to George Terasaki in his studio, circa 1950

build a reputation as a “Dealer in North American Indian Art,” as his advertisements billed. In time, Terasaki became the preeminent dealer in his field. Maintaining a personal collection of objects he particularly treasured, Terasaki lovingly photographed them himself, and in 2006 published an important book on his collection of Northwest Coast Art entitled Transfigurations: North Pacific Coast Art.

k n i f e w i t h f ox h e a d



k n i f e w i t h f ox h e a d


SNOW KNIFE, PANA ESKIMO ALASKA 19th century Walrus ivory, fiber Length: 21 ¼ in PROVENANCE

Mathias Komor, New York Faith-Dorian and Martin Wright Collection, New York acquired from the above on October 1, 1968

A snow knife, known as a pana in Iniktitut, is used in

journeys. When Europeans first began to arrive in Alaska,

building igloos or creating a blind when hunting caribou.

they collected many snow knives as the Arctic peoples

The knife is used to trim snow into blocks so that they

enthusiastically traded them for more efficient metal saws

can be stacked together on top of one another, forming a

and knives, which they still use today. This exceptionally

temporary shelter to protect those inside from the effects of

elegant example features seven finely engraved caribou, with

the weather. When the ice is sufficiently built up, it insulates

a zigzag cord for grip.

those inside and creates a warm environment. Pana are relatively simple to make and replace but are

Faith-Dorian and Martin Wright acquired this snow knife from Mathias Komor, a New York City art dealer, who

a crucial tool for nomadic family groups moving between

started dealing in the 1930s and was one of the pioneering

permanent settlements or for hunters on extended

American dealers in ancient and tribal art.

s n o w k n i f e , pa n a



s n o w k n i f e , pa n a

s n o w k n i f e , pa n a



s n o w k n i f e , pa n a


HARPOON BLADE CONTAINER ESKIMO WESTERN ALASKA Late 18th / early 19th century Walrus ivory, wood, cord Height: 5 in Width: 2 in PROVENANCE

Edmund Carpenter Jeffrey Myers, New York

Carved ivory boxes of this type date back at least to the Old

may symbolize the immutable relationship between hunter

Bering Sea culture on St Lawrence Island. Often referred

and prey and provide magical support in binding the

to as “point holders,” they were used to store ground slate

spirit of the animal to its fate, ensuring a successful hunt.

points that were inserted into ivory harpoon heads. While

Embodying the beliefs of those who used it, this work is

similar pieces carved from wood have been identified

both a tangible manifestation of the idea of the hunt and a

as “fungus ash boxes,” associated with chewing tobacco,

practical tool to be employed therein.

or “trinket boxes,” used to hold sundry small items, the

Known in simpler form since prehistoric times, carved

sea mammal imagery and the use of ivory suggests this

ivory chain link compositions grew more complex over the

container held harpoon blades.

centuries and became some of the finest achievements of

The artist’s skill in crafting this elaborate box, cut from

Arctic art during the nineteenth century. An old repair on

a single piece of ivory, is evident in the openwork carving

the side of this box attests to the importance and value its

of the chain links connecting the body of the container to

owner placed upon it.

the pair of seal head pendants. This linked composition

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Born in Rochester, New York, Edmund “Ted” Snow Carpenter (1922–2011) was a renowned visual anthropologist known for his work with indigenous peoples of the Canadian Arctic and Papua New Guinea, and as a pioneer in the development of media theory. He was also a filmmaker and collector of Paleo-Eskimo art and conducted archaeological research in Siberia. Carpenter began his fieldwork with the Avilik (Nunavut Inuit) during the great winter famine of 1951–52. When public television began broadcasting in Canada in 1950, Carpenter produced a series of programs. His comings and goings between the Toronto recording studios and the Arctic camps sparked his interest in the ideas then being developed by Harold Innis and Marshall McLuhan in communication theory, and he joined forces with McLuhan to develop theories on the role of modern media in the process of cultural change. In 1953 they received a grant from the Ford Foundation for an interdisciplinary media research project, which provided funding for their Seminar on Culture and Communication (1953–59) and the publication of the seminal Explorations Edmund “Ted” Snow Carpenter, c. 1970s

journals. Carpenter later did similar work in Papua New Guinea at the invitation of the Australian government, studying the effects of modern media on traditional peoples. In addition to his extensive research, writing and teaching on the subject of anthropology, Carpenter and his wife, Adelaide de Menil, assembled a world-class art collection, with a strong focus on the ancient walrus ivory carvings from the Old Bering Sea cultures. His keen visual sensibilities and sensitivity to the art made by non-Western cultures fostered a unique study collection, eventually establishing the largest private collection of Paleo-Eskimo art in the United States, now housed at the Menil Collection, Houston. Carpenter was also responsible for the landmark survey of ancient Arctic art, Upside Down, installed at the Musée du Quai Branly in 2008 and reconstructed at the Menil Collection in 2011.

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HUNTING AMULETS ALEUT ALEUTIAN ISLANDS, ALASKA Late 19th century Walrus ivory Length: 1 ¾ in smallest to 2 ¾ in largest Exhibition history: Once Something Has Lived It Can Never Really Die, American Museum of Folk Art, 2016 PROVENANCE

Jeffrey Myers, New York City

While their exact use is unknown, these seven whale figures

could be strengthened, or desirable attributes could be

were probably used as protective amulets for a hunter,

manifested upon an unborn child.

possibly worn as a group around the neck. The presence of

Most Inuit owned more than one amulet, sewing them

dorsal fins makes it likely that six of these figures represent

into clothing or wearing them on a belt so the wearer

Orcinus orca, a toothed whale belonging to the oceanic

could remain under their influence and protection at all

dolphin family. The seventh figure, with ridged back and

times. With the introduction of Christianity, the practice

lacking a dorsal fin, may depict a species of baleen whale.

of using amulets began to disappear. Amulets became

The power of amulets is usually derived from the

symbols of Inuit interaction with non-Christian spirits and

spirits associated with the materials from which they are

were layered with social stigma. While detailed knowledge

constructed. A bond is created between an amulet’s resident

regarding traditions of amulet use has been lost, the practice

spirits and its wearer, channeling certain characteristics and

continues on a smaller scale in certain regions of the Arctic,

abilities between them. For example, a hunter’s prowess

sheltered from public knowledge.

hunting amulets



hunting amulets


THE FAITH-DORIAN AND MARTIN WRIGHT CLOSED-CROWN HUNTING HAT ALEUT ALEUTIAN ISLANDS, ALASKA Late 18th or early 19th century Wood, walrus ivory, glass trade beads, vegetal fiber, sea lion whiskers, fiber, paint Length: 15 ¾ in Height: 8 in PROVENANCE

French collection, based on late 18th or early 19th century label John J. Klejman, New York Faith-Dorian and Martin Wright Collection, New York, acquired from the above on March 12, 1969

Rare and majestic, bentwood closed-crown hunting hats

and skilled whalers commanded significant social prestige as

embody a remarkable convergence of Eskimo art traditions.

well as a marked degree of ritualistic awe. The magical power

Combining the techniques of woodworking, painting, ivory

with which they were associated was profound. Scholar Lydia

carving, gear-craft, and magical symbolism, these works

Black has argued the closed-crown hat in fact represents a

represent a special synthesis that has few parallels in the

unique form of mask that transformed the hunter and

Arctic world. Hats of such projecting length were rare among

endowed him with supernatural ability to seek out and claim

the Aleut who created them, and though the complete

his prey. Eye motifs and ranks of curved bands are invariably

range of contexts in which they were used is unknown, it is

found painted on these hats, designs which Black identifies as

understood they were a type of whaler’s hat worn exclusively

stemming from archaic Old Bering Sea and Okvik traditions

by chiefs and exceptional hunters. Closed-crown hunting

and which symbolize all-seeing universal vision and cyclical,

helmets as a general type in Alaska date to prehistoric times,

cosmic regeneration. In addition, animal figurines carved of

and the peaked form seen here originated in the headgear of

ivory were often attached to these hats. Charms such as these

Kodiak Island, with influences from the woven hats produced

were a widespread hallmark of Arctic cultures and helped

by Tlingit tribes of the Pacific Northwest.

to metaphysically align their bearer with the spirits of their

Whaling was a highly spiritual and ritualized practice,

quarry, ensuring a successful hunt.

t h e fa i t h - d o r i a n a n d m a r t i n w r i g h t c lo s e d - c r o w n h u n t i n g h at



t h e fa i t h - d o r i a n a n d m a r t i n w r i g h t c lo s e d - c r o w n h u n t i n g h at

t h e fa i t h - d o r i a n a n d m a r t i n w r i g h t c lo s e d - c r o w n h u n t i n g h at



t h e fa i t h - d o r i a n a n d m a r t i n w r i g h t c lo s e d - c r o w n h u n t i n g h at

Young or inexperienced hunters wore a common, shortbilled visor made of wood, baleen, or sea mammal skin, and as he advanced in age and skill he would graduate to a long-billed visor. With sufficient success and honor, he could eventually attain the closed-crown hat of the expert whaler, the peaked form of which differentiated its wearer from the rest of the community. Closed-crown hats were constructed through a laborious process that began with the rare discovery of large pieces of driftwood, usually spruce, cedar or birch. The makers carefully cut and scraped out the found wood into a thin plank flexible enough to bend into shape, then steamed and softened it by using hot stones and pouring water over the wood. They then bent the wood into the desired shape and fastened the ends together at the back of the hat using sinew or baleen threads. Once complete, the craftsmen decorated the headgear with painted designs, as well as bone plates (volutes), ivory or bone figurines, and sea lion whiskers, depending on the level of elaboration. The paints used were mostly made with mineral pigments and were mixed with bodily fluids such as blood plasma or mucus as a binding agent. One of the earliest records of a closed-crown hat was noted by Carl Heinrich Merck in 1778, when an Unangan

Man and woman dressed in ceremonial attire. Aleutian Islands,

group was seen capturing a whale at Unalaska Island.

c1862 Karl F. Gun

Merck had also begun to record the details of these hats by at least 1790, stating specifically that the motif of the eye

a pointed wooden hat with an umbrella-like projection over

was associated with them in every case. By the nineteenth

the eyes and is rounded cap-like in the back.”

century, further recordings of the headgear were noted

The example presented here shows both the fine

by other explorers. During his voyage to Unalaska Island

craftsmanship and extensive decoration that characterize

in 1805, German naturalist, explorer, and diplomat Georg

these magnificent hats. Faded polychrome stripes and eye

Heinrich von Langsdorff described a closed-crown hat,

motifs, once vivid with red, black and blue-green pigments,

observing that “the most elegant and expensive headdress is

adorn the surface. Two trios of beads stand up from the top

t h e fa i t h - d o r i a n a n d m a r t i n w r i g h t c lo s e d - c r o w n h u n t i n g h at



t h e fa i t h - d o r i a n a n d m a r t i n w r i g h t c lo s e d - c r o w n h u n t i n g h at

t h e fa i t h - d o r i a n a n d m a r t i n w r i g h t c lo s e d - c r o w n h u n t i n g h at



t h e fa i t h - d o r i a n a n d m a r t i n w r i g h t c lo s e d - c r o w n h u n t i n g h at

of the hat, tied with fiber through the surface of the wood.

is found on the top surface of the visor, reading “Chapeau

A large, vertical volute is found at the rear of the hat, its

d’un naturel – Detroit de Behring.”

edges worked with semi-circular cutouts to form a pattern

Closed-crown hats were already uncommon in the eras

resembling peaked ocean waves. Holes bored into the volute

in which they were created and are of extreme rarity today.

hold a group of sea lion whiskers that project far out from

In her book Glory Remembered: Wooden Headgear of Alaska

the back of the hat, remnants of a hunter’s prestige crest that

Sea Hunters, scholar Lydia Black identified just fifty-one

would have bobbed and waved in the breeze. There is an old

known examples of this type around the world, held almost

indigenous repair along the right front side of the hat, attesting

exclusively by institutions in Russia, Europe and the United

to the value, efficacy and importance of this hat to its owners.

States. Black refers to a single known example at the time of

By the end of the eighteenth century, at least two hundred

writing in private hands, which may be the hat offered here.

European scientific and commercial voyages had been made

The detailed workmanship, exceptional condition and deep,

up the northwest coast of North America. Navigators from

rich patina of this hat place it among the best examples known.

Russia, Britain, Spain, France, and the United States set

Objects of this rarity, age, and quality seldom, if ever, come

out to claim what they could for their nations in the New

to the market and we are honored to present this stunning

World, and this hat was probably collected by a French

example, held in a private collection since 1969 and offered

expedition at that time. An old, handwritten collection label

for the first time in over fifty years.

t h e fa i t h - d o r i a n a n d m a r t i n w r i g h t c lo s e d - c r o w n h u n t i n g h at



t h e fa i t h - d o r i a n a n d m a r t i n w r i g h t c lo s e d - c r o w n h u n t i n g h at



Jeffrey Myers, New York Faith-Dorian and Martin Wright Collection, New York

This highly expressive Inupiat portrait mask, carved in

relatively small size may be a result of more limited supplies

plain wood, shows crescent moon eyes, a triangular nose,

of wood, given that Inupiat villages are found mostly north

and a broadly curved smile in a gently convex face. Two

of the Arctic Circle, well above the tree line. Inupiat masks

large labrets attached near each corner of the bottom

bear similarities in form to more ancient Old Bering Sea

lip, one domed and the other rectangular, are the mask’s

sculptural traditions – not surprisingly, as the Inupiat share

only additional details. The visible wood grain plays a

both the same land and, probably, an intact lineage from

subtly decorative role, rippling beautifully across the brow

their ancestral forebears.

and chin. Designed with a prominent crescent theme

In Inuit culture, masks were used by a shaman (angakok),

throughout the face, this mask may carry associations

the only member of the community with sufficient power

with the moon. Masks similar to this example have been

to control the spirits of nature. Masks enabled them to

collected at Point Hope, an Inupiat community on the

communicate with the spirits and understand their needs,

northwest coast of Alaska.

and to give recommendations on how to appease them.

Inupiat masks are typically less elaborate than those

Guidance from the angakok often emphasized a carefully

made by their culturally and ethnically related Yup’ik

observed code of behavior that would preserve a positive

neighbors to the southeast, crafted in the plain style seen

relationship with the spirits, upon whose goodwill the life of

here and usually large enough to cover the face alone. Their

the community depended.

portrait mask



portrait mask


SCRAPER OR HAND PICK GREENLAND 19th century Walrus ivory Height: 8 ½ in Width: 2 ½ in PROVENANCE

Rick Gallagher, New York City

Ergonomic grooves and indentations sculpt the body of this nineteenth-century hide scraper. Arctic and Paleo-Eskimo peoples employed an array of handcrafted scrapers for the preparation of skins, carving, and other varied uses. While many scraper designs comprise a wooden haft bound to a chipped stone blade, this example has been carved entirely of a single piece of ivory. The British Museum holds a similar object, described as an Eskimo-Aleut pick blade. With its worn, aged surface and abstract sculptural quality, this scraper carries the ineffable sense of hard-fought, eternal continuance so palpable in Arctic art traditions.

scraper or hand pick



scraper or hand pick



Harry Geoffrey and Irene Beasley, Cranmore Place, Chislehurst, England (cat. no. 27.7.24) Faith-Dorian & Martin Wright Collection, New York

Arctic artists carved a vast array of objects in ivory, from magical charms and solemn figures to everyday, utilitarian implements. Animal images, especially those of marine mammals, were some of their favored subjects, and any object, no matter how small or prosaic, presented an opportunity for creativity. The box handle presented here has been reimagined by its carver as a polar bear. Despite its small size, the artist was able to invest its simple features with a remarkable degree of expressiveness and sensitivity. With ears tucked back and inquisitive eyes gazing out beneath a gentle brow ridge, the bear seems almost aware. Nostrils are flared and the bear shows its teeth, which have been carefully picked out between the slightly open jaws. A handwritten Beasley Collection label is found on the underside of the piece, which reads “Esquimaux. Behring Straits. Womens Box Handle. 27.7.24.”

b ox h a n d l e w i t h p o l a r b e a r h e a d



b ox h a n d l e w i t h p o l a r b e a r h e a d


Harry Beasley (1881–1939) was born in East Plumstead in Kent, England and developed an interest in ethnography at a young age. Privately wealthy after inheriting the North Kent Brewery, he became a Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Institute in 1914 and was an active member until 1937, serving as vice-president between 1932 and 1937. With his wife, Irene, Beasley settled in Cranmore House in Chislehurst and there set up the Cranmore Ethnographical Museum, which eventually held more than 6,000 objects of ethnographical interest. The Beasleys collected objects across Europe, buying from auction houses and local museums to expand the collection, which contained material from the Pacific, Asia, Africa, and the American Northwest. Beasley wrote numerous articles for anthropological journals and was considered an expert in his field. He died in 1939 and his collection was stored with the British Museum collections during World War II, which was fortunate as the Cranmore Museum was destroyed by bombing. After the war, substantial portions of the collection were passed to the British Museum, the Royal Museum in Edinburgh, the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge, the Pitt Rivers Museum and the Merseyside County Museum. Other pieces were sold by his widow and, Harry Beasley

after her death in 1974, by their daughters.

b ox h a n d l e w i t h p o l a r b e a r h e a d



b ox h a n d l e w i t h p o l a r b e a r h e a d


BAG HANDLE PUNUK ST LAWRENCE ISLAND, ALASKA ca. ad 500 – 1200 Walrus ivory


Length: 4 ½ in

Seward Kennedy (1925–2015) graduated from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and New York University Law


School and began his professional career as a lawyer for

Seward Kennedy, London and New York City

Mobil Corporation, a position which required extensive travel in the late 1950s to Cairo, Athens, Istanbul and

The keen imagination of Arctic carvers often transformed prosaic implements into surprising and clever works of art. Tracing the elongated, gently flowing outline of this simple shape is a pleasure for the eyes, one further enriched by the carefully executed incised linework. Centuries of age and exposure have darkened the surface of the ivory to a warm, mottled brown. The exact use of this object is unknown but given its size and design it was likely used as a bag handle or end piece of a needle case.

Nicosia, cities that were a seedbed for his natural curiosity. Fascinated by myriad cultures, he sought tangible representations that he could afford, devoting free time to a perusal of other worlds. During his formative years as an itinerant lawyer, Seward quietly nurtured a parallel and never-ending quest for disappearing cultures. By the early 1960s, he maintained residences in London and Paris, adding New York City to his roster in 1971. Seward collected Classical, Chinese, Indian, European, African, and Oceanic art. Thousands of idiosyncratic objects lay perennially layered on tabletops, shelves and in tumbled piles throughout his residences on Park Avenue in New York City and Norland Square in London’s Notting Hill. His fascination knew no bounds. Outside Seward’s offices on Berkeley Square, during lunch hour, a constant string of dealers circulated by to sell him something exquisite. Although profoundly acquisitive, Seward chose judiciously too. At eighty-nine years of age, infirm but undeterred, he bought several pieces a mere two weeks before he died. A custodian, he guarded objects for their inherent beauty, invention and purpose; equally, he dreaded their lack of appreciation and disappearance. Angus Wilkie, 2016

Seward Kennedy bag handle



bag handle


TRACE GUIDE PUNUK ST LAWRENCE ISLAND, ALASKA c. ad 500 – 1200 Walrus ivory Length: 8 in PROVENANCE

John J. Klejman, New York Faith-Dorian and Martin Wright Collection, New York, acquired from the above on December 20, 1971

Rounded on both ends and drilled with three large holes through both of its indented sides, this gently curved trace guide was used to organize and separate the rawhide traces of a dog sled. The slightly convex top surface is decorated with a beautiful geometric composition showing looping and crossing bands framing rows of triangular motifs that point symmetrically outward from the center line. A lovely blend of mottled golds and browns clouds the surface of the aged ivory, which is smoothed to a gloss. Walrus ivory was a precious resource for the peoples of the Arctic and was used in the crafting of objects concerning all aspects of life, from the recreational to the ceremonial. Decoration of ivory pieces could be very minimal, but some showcase the skill of Arctic carvers in sharp, linear incised designs. The geometric engraving seen here is strong and boldly executed in contrast to the rather delicate designs found on some other Arctic objects, making it a striking example of its kind.

trace guide


Walrus harpoon collected from Barrow, Alaska. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 5: Arctic, 1984. Illustration by Robert F. Spencer


trace guide


The toggling harpoon is an ancient weapon and tool used

the Red Paint culture of New England and Atlantic Canada

to pierce and anchor into an animal when thrown. Unlike

(c. 5,500 – c. 4,000 bc). The earliest known toggling harpoon

earlier harpoons that had only a single, fixed point, a

head was found at a 7,000-year-old Red Paint burial site of a

toggling harpoon has a detachable two-part point. One

young child in Labrador, Canada, known as L’Anse Amour.

half of the thrusting end is secured to the shaft, while the

They were probably used to hunt swordfish and seals, the

other half of the point, which holds the blade, is fitted into

bones of which have been found at Red Paint sites.

the first half, with a long cord of sinew or another string-

Toggling harpoon technology was later used by the Thule

like material trailing from the point. When the harpoon is

culture (c. 700 bc–present) of the Western Arctic, in the

thrust into an animal, the blade point element detaches and

Bering Strait area and further south along the coasts of

twists horizontally into the animal beneath its thick skin,

Asia and Alaska. The toggling harpoon was part of a rich

affixing itself in the muscle and allowing hunters to haul the

complex of hunting technology that focused intensely on

animal to ship or shore.

the sea, and its emergence greatly benefited the peoples of

Toggling harpoons have their earliest association with

the Arctic in their perennial pursuit of game.

a s e l e c t i o n o f f i n e to g g l i n g h a r p o o n h e a d s



a s e l e c t i o n o f f i n e to g g l i n g h a r p o o n h e a d s

a s e l e c t i o n o f f i n e to g g l i n g h a r p o o n h e a d s



a s e l e c t i o n o f f i n e to g g l i n g h a r p o o n h e a d s



Jeffrey Myers, New York City

Zoomorphic imagery is prevalent in this beautiful harpoon

Arutiunov notes that “the harpoon head can be regarded

head, the primary form of which resembles the head of a

as an idealized predator or the materialization of a bite; its

bird. Incised with exquisite, sensitive geometric linework

round ornamental details can often be interpreted as an

of a range of weights and depths, the surface is divided into

animal’s eyes, and the shape and ornamentation of its basal

myriad overlapping elements that produce a variety of eyes

spur as hind legs or flippers.” Arutiunov adds that some

and abstracted animal forms, including that of a seal. Heavy

designs may have had totemic significance and may have

mottling to the ivory is present, testifying to the great age of

identified personal or clan ownership. Their appearance on

this work.

harpoon heads “often identified the person who struck –

The representation of animals in harpoon heads had

and therefore owned – the animal.”

a significance both metaphorical and magical. Sergei

harpoon head


Jeffery Myers, traveling from the village of Savoonga, St. Lawrence Island to the digging site at Gambel where Henry Bascom Collins had first excavated. JEFREY MYERS

Jeffrey Myers is considered one of the foremost experts in Eskimo Art, having been a dealer for over 35 years, 28 years of which he field-collected among the Bering Sea natives, living part of each summer in Savoonga, St Lawrence Island.


harpoon head

harpoon head



harpoon head



Jeffrey Myers, New York City

Sweeping, graceful linework elaborates the surface of

nearly black with age, visually melds the greater form with

this magnificently composed harpoon head, along with

the fine details, subduing them in a way that draws the gaze

a number of circle motifs. The circles rest over subtle

closer, inviting investigation.

protrusions in the body of the form, lending an organic

The carving style presented here is masterfully controlled

impression to the eye-like design. A sense of continuous

but executed with a freedom which differentiates Old

rhythm and unfolding imagery is expressed in the dialogue

Bering Sea II or III harpoon heads from the strict, angular

of details, and new interpretations and relationships

formulations more common to Okvik or Old Bering Sea I

between them are produced as the viewer shifts their


perspective and focus. The dark appearance of the ivory,

harpoon head



harpoon head

harpoon head



harpoon head



Martin Doustar, Brussels

This fine harpoon head shows a streamlined, aerodynamic

to an individual hunter, or a creature known to be a swift

silhouette and an overall form reminiscent of the head

and cunning predator. All of these have spiritual and

of a bird or whale. It is decorated with a relatively spare

metaphysical significance, invoking spirit-helpers who

composition of lightly incised linework and circle-and-dot

support and empower the hunt. Though deeply associated

motifs which, conspiring with the planes and outlines of the

with harpoons, these designs are found carved on a wide

surface, suggest a variety of bird-like faces.

variety of hunting gear, including float-boards, boat hooks,

Animals portrayed in harpoon heads may depict the

and weapon storage boxes.

hunter’s intended quarry, an animal with specific meaning

harpoon head



harpoon head

harpoon head



harpoon head



Kenneth Pushkin, Santa Fe

A classic Old Bering Sea toggle harpoon head. Though two thousand years old, the sleek, aerodynamic shape brings to mind a twentieth-century fighter jet. The body is gracefully sculpted with panels and pointed projections that resemble interleaved feathers or wings, all decorated with carefully incised lines and dashes that elaborate the surface beautifully. All the features of this harpoon head conjure impressions of flight and speed, attributes which would have advantaged the hunter. Great age and a degree of erosion have left the ivory with a rich brown hue and wood-like texture.

harpoon head



harpoon head



Jeffrey Myers, New York Noble Endicott, New York City

This exceptional whaling harpoon head shows a refined elegance in its long, sweeping form. Eschewing the dense surface detailing of many toggling harpoon heads, the creator of this beautiful example opted for a striking essentialism, focusing entirely on the grace of the silhouette and a highly restrained modeling of form. Despite this simplicity of design, the skill of the artist in executing this harpoon head should not be underestimated. Great patience, accuracy and aesthetic subtlety are evident in the fine lines carved in relief down the length of the head, suggesting this minimalist work was conceived by a highly experienced carver.

harpoon head



harpoon head

harpoon head



harpoon head



Kenneth Pushkin, Santa Fe

This toggling harpoon head tapers quickly from its broad base to a sharply pointed, knife-like tip. As in nearly all such harpoon heads, abstract and undefined animal imagery can be read in its details and general structure, open to the interpretation of the viewer. The raised back edge is elaborated here with multiple points and is etched with the fine, spurred lines that are a trademark of classic Okvik design.

harpoon head



harpoon head



Seward Kennedy, London and New York City

The outline of this ivory toggling harpoon head is punctuated in several places by raised points, enhancing its beauty as well as its aura of barbed lethality. A skillfully etched design of spurred lines and small circle-anddot motifs decorates the ivory surface, surrounding the triangular line hole and spearing toward the harpoon’s tip. The placement of a trio of ring motifs in the forward portion of the head invokes the image of a human face, infusing the greater whole with a subtle sense of anthropomorphism.

harpoon head



harpoon head


HARPOON HEAD THULE ST LAWRENCE ISLAND, ALASKA 1600–1800 ad Animal bone, obsidian, baleen fiber Length: 9 ½ in PROVENANCE

Jeffrey Myers, New York

In contrast to the finely detailed designs of some toggling harpoon heads, this example shows a streamlined geometric form with largely smooth surfaces. A single pair of incised lines, decorated with a few prominent spurs, runs down the center of the head, passing the central line hole and reaching to the back end of the toggle point, which terminates in a clean, acute angle. Notably, this harpoon head retains its blade, made of black chipped obsidian and fastened in its slot with a length of baleen fiber.

harpoon head



harpoon head

harpoon head



harpoon head


BIRD DART HEAD IPIUTAK NORTHWEST ALASKA 200 bc–ad 800 Walrus ivory Length: 5 ½ in PROVENANCE

Seward Kennedy, London and New York City

Harpoons were not the only hunting gear to which Arctic artists turned their talents. This ivory bird dart head was crafted with remarkable sensitivity in its tapering, fivebarbed form, especially in the small details near the base, which were executed with extreme care and accuracy. A pair of incised lines runs the length of the dart, angling and converging at the center of the point. Similar dart heads were used for spearing fish. The ivory has mottled with age and shows a warm, cloudy coloration.

bird dart head



bird dart head


Ancient Eskimo Ivories of the Bering Strait  Wardwell, Allen Archaeological Excavations at Kululik, St. Lawrence Island, Alaska  Geist, Otto William and Froelich G. Rainey Arctic Ivory: Two Thousand Years of Alaskan Eskimo Art and Artifacts  Hurst, Norman Arktische Waljäger vor 3000 Jahren – Unbekannte sibirische Kunst  Leskov, A.M. und Müller-Beck, H. Crossroads of Continents, Cultures of Siberia and Alaska  Fitzhugh, William W. and Aron Crowell Eskimo Realities  Carpenter, Edmund Glory Remembered Wooden Headgear of Alaska Sea Hunters  Lydia T. Black; S. V. Ivanov Image Making in Arctic Art, from “Sign, Image, Symbol,” ed. by Gyorgy Kedes  Carpenter, Edmund Inua, Spirit World of the Bering Sea Eskimo Fitzhugh, William W. and Susan A. Kaplan La Rime et la Raison  Landais, Hubert, et al. Raven’s Journey, The World of Alaska’s Native People Kaplan, Susan A. and Kristin J. Barsness The Far North, 2000 Years of American Eskimo and Indian Art  Collins, H. B., F. de Laguna, E. Carpenter, and P. Stone Upside Down: Arctic Realities  Carpenter, Edmund






All objects listed in this catalog and the materials

By making an offer to purchase any object contained in this

incorporated in these objects are described to the best

catalog, you represent that you will comply with all laws

of Jacaranda’s knowledge. You should note that certain

(including both the laws of states within the U.S. and foreign

materials, including, for example, walrus ivory and sea lion

laws) applicable to your purchase. Local laws may prohibit

whiskers, come from species that are legally protected.

the possession, transport, import, export, purchase, sale, etc. of objects incorporating protected species materials

Jacaranda operates in compliance with the Endangered

outright or may require a license or permit. You should

Species Act of 1973 (ESA), the Marine Mammal Protection

ensure that you are familiar with the relevant laws and

Act (MMPA), the Convention on the International Trade

regulations prior to purchasing any item incorporating

of Endangered Species (CITES) and all other applicable

material from a protected species, and you should consider

laws. Buyers wishing to export a purchase outside of the

seeking legal advice and/or consulting with the appropriate

U.S. should be aware that the ESA, the MMPA, CITES,

regulatory authorities in the applicable jurisdiction to

U.S. customs laws, as well as the laws of other countries,

ensure compliance. Jacaranda will not be liable for any loss

may further regulate or even prohibit the import/export of

to a buyer due to the seizure, confiscation, or destruction of

objects that incorporate protected species materials. Buyers

an object pursuant to customs regulations or order of any

are responsible for identifying and obtaining any import/

government or public authority.

export permits, licenses, and/or certificates that may be necessary (as well as documentation that may be legally required in the appropriate locality upon import). To the extent that any scientific confirmation of species or age of an object may be required, the buyer will be responsible for obtaining such tests at the buyer’s expense.

co m p l i a n c e w i t h l aw s a n d r e g u l at i o n s



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