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Acep Irham Gufroni et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 6, Issue No. 1, 053 - 059

Information Systems Strategic Planning At the Siliwangi University Tasikmalaya Acep Irham Gufroni

Department of Informatics Engineering Siliwangi University, Tasikmalaya, Indonesia whizzd@yahoo.com

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The process of preparing the strategic planning of information systems is preceded by an analysis of both internal and external organizations environment. Organization's environmental analysis performed by using the tools Value Chain analysis, and SWOT analysis. Results from analysis of the organizational environment are used as inputs in the formulation of organization’s IS / IT strategies. From the analysis above can be known opportunities, threats and potential of organizations to achieve competitive advantage based on IT. Keywords: Information Systems, Strategic Planning, Value Chain Analysis, SWOT Analysis

INTRODUCTION

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The development of the education world that is rapidly pushing the education business struggling to maintain or even increase the competitive value. In this condition, the information system emerged as an important discipline to solve problems and to help make decisions in an educational organization. To anticipate the impact of technological developments both of the internal and external organizations, the Siliwangi University Tasikmalaya requires strategic planning steps in a information systems or information technology. The reason why the strategy needs to be made is that an organization's own resources are very limited, so it must be used optimally. Another reason is to ensure that information technology assets can be used directly or indirectly to enhance the organization's profitability, either by increasing revenue and reducing expenditure costs. The next reason is to avoid excess investment (over-investment) in the field of information technology. And the last reason is to ensure that planned and developed technologies that truly

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address the needs of business organizations for information (Indrajit, 2000). In line with changes in the policies at the Siliwangi University Tasikmalaya, which followed the change of roles and functions of information systems, the problems that arise is information for students in terms of academic and student affairs are often late, and less rapid information in the form of a daily work report, because it still uses conventional ways (per letter). This research is expected to describe conditions that exist at the Siliwangi University involved in the use of information systems and information technology. besides that, also, this study is expected to be a reference for the leadership of the Siliwangi University in formulating policies as well as the steps in the application of information systems and information technology in order to achieve its vision and mission of the organization.

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Abstract—The development of the education world that is rapidly pushing the education business people struggling to maintain or even increase the competitive value. In this condition, Siliwangi University requires strategic planning of information systems in line with the vision and mission of the organization that can be used as a reference implementation and use of IT. The purpose of this research is to produce information systems business strategy, strategic management, and IT strategy. The method of strategic planning of information systems in this study refers to the method of John Ward.

II. . BASIS THEORY

According to Alter (Kadir, 2002, p. 11) The information system is a combination of inter-working procedures, information, people, and information technology operated to achieve goals within an organization. According to Bodnar and Hopwood (Kadir, 2002, p. 11), information system is a collection of hardware and software designed to transform data into useful information form. According to Gelinas, Oram, and Wiggins (Kadir, 2002, p. 11), information systems is a man-made system which generally consists of a set of computer-based components and manuals are made to collect, store and manage data and provide output information to users. According to Hall (Kadir, 2002, p. 11), information system is a series of informal procedure where data is grouped, processed into information, and distributed to users. According to Turban, McLean, and Watherbe (Kadir, 2002, p. 11), an information system to collect, process, store, analyze, and disseminate information for specific purposes. According to Wilkinson (Kadir, 2002, p. 11), information system is a framework that coordinates the resources (human, computer) to change the input (inputs) into outputs (information), in order to achieve company goals.

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Acep Irham Gufroni et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 6, Issue No. 1, 053 - 059

According to Alter (Kadir, 2002, p. 11) there are four roles in the organization's information system, namely: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Participate in the implementation of tasks. Linking planning, execution, and control within a subsystem. Coordinate between subsystems. Integrating subsystems.

Strategic planning of information systems used to ensure the development of information systems and information technology organizations aligned with the objectives, policies and strategic planning organization's business. In general, models of strategic planning for information systems and information technology is divided into two (Ward and Peppard, 2002, p. 153), namely: Inputs (inputs). a. Internal environment of business Current business Strategy, goals, resources, processes, culture and values in business.

Figure 1. Model Of Strategic Planning Of Information Systems / Information Technology Internal business conditions can be identified by using the Value Chain analysis and SWOT analysis on the dimensions of SW (Strength - Opportunities). The results of this analysis will produce a map of an organization's internal processes and internal organization of business conditions, and then can be used as an ingredient to make improvements internally to achieve the organization's competitive advantage.

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1.

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STRATEGIC PLANNING INFORMATION SYSTEM

b. Business external environment Economic conditions, industry, politics and competition where the organization operates c. Internal environment / IT The condition of information systems and information technology today, maturity (maturity), contributions, scope of business, application portfolio and the portfolio plan applications

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d. External environment / IT Trends or trends and opportunities and usefulness of information systems and information technology to other parties, especially customers, competitors and suppliers.

2.

Output (output) a. Business Strategy / IT Discussing the use of information systems / information technology by each function or unit to achieve its business objectives. b. Management strategy / IT Ensure consistency of policies unutuk support information systems strategy / information technology. c. Information technology strategy Policies and strategies in the management of technology and resources.

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The condition of the external business environment can be identified by analyzing the organization's external environment using the SWOT analysis on the dimensions of OT (Opportunities - Threats) and Porter's Five Forces.

Internal environment of information systems and information technology can be identified by conducting the analysis and evaluation of the condition of organization’s information systems and technology today compared with the external environment information systems and information technology, and internal and external conditions of business organization. The results of this analysis produced a picture of information systems and information technology organizations in achieving competitive advantage based organization of information systems and information technology. External environment information systems and technology can be known by observation and observation trend or tendency of information systems development and information technology in the business world. The result of this observation to illustrate how far the development of information systems and information technology at the moment. The result of input from internal and external environmental analysis business, as well as internal and external analysis of information systems and information technology, to be material to the preparation of strategic information systems and information technology.

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Acep Irham Gufroni et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 6, Issue No. 1, 053 - 059

Value chain analysis is an analysis that was introduced by Michael Porter. Value chain model is used to analyze the specific activity in which an organization can create a value and competitive advantage. Value chain model contains a set of activities that contribute to produce the service product or service from an organization (Jogiyanto, 2005, p. 53). Value chain model highlights the main activities and support that adds value to a product or service of an organization. The main activity is the activity that is directly associated with the production and distribution of products and services produced by the organization. Support activities are activities that make the main event can run. Support activities consist of organizational infrastructure, human resource management, technological development and availability of goods. SWOT ANALYSIS

Research on strategic planning of information systems is to use strategic planning models of information systems and information technology proposed by Ward and Peppard in 2002. IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The history of the founding of the Siliwangi University begins on the date of 14 September 1977 where Kopertis (Indonesian Private University Union) Region III West Java issued Decree No. 50/1977 on Establishment of Education Administration and Supervision Expert in Tasikmalaya as a nature education diploma. Kopertis decree is then followed up by the Decree No. 06/1978 dated 24 January 1978 concerning the revocation of SK Kopertis Region III West Java No. 50/1977 and establish improved education status of the Academy of Experts Educational Administration and Supervision Siliwangi. Name SILIWANGI into use, and then became the embryo Siliwangi University was founded. Subsequently, on May 20, 1978 performed the groundbreaking of the construction of University by the Siliwangi 4th Military Commander,Major Generals Himawan Soetanto. Date, month and year is then defined as the anniversary of Siliwangi University.

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SWOT analysis is to systematically identify the various factors to formulate strategies that can maximize the strength (Sthrengths) and opportunities (Opportunities), and simultaneously to minimize your weaknesses (Weaknesses) and threats (Threats). Thus, the SWOT analysis to compare between the external factors with Opportunities and Threats Strengths and Weaknesses of internal factors (Rangkuti, 2005, p. 19). Environmental organizations can be divided into two kinds, namely an organization's internal environment and external environment of the organization. Organization's internal environment relates to everything within an organization such as employees and shareholders, while the external environment are elements outside the organization relevant to the activities of the organization (Jogiyanto, 2005, p. 37).

University Tasikmalaya about environmental conditions IS / IT, both internally and externally, and organizations policies in the field of IS / IT.

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VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS

III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Materials Research contains materials that are used to conduct research. The concrete materials research entity that became the object of which is processed and / or given specific treatments (MTI, 2008). Materials research conducted with data collection, among others, by making observations and data collection organizations to obtain information in the form of strategic documentation, objectives, organizational structure, business processes, policies, information systems and information technology, and other supporting data. By collecting data through books, journals, and articles relating to research, and observation and data collection organizations to obtain information in the form of strategic documentation, objectives, organizational structure, business processes, policies, information systems and information technology, and other supporting data. Conduct interviews with relevant parties, namely the Siliwangi

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INTERNAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

Analysis of internal business environment Siliwangi University can be made using Value Chain analysis, where this analysis covers the main activities and supporting activities that add value to a product, service or service of an organization. Siliwangi University has a main activity starts with the management of new admissions, new student admission management is then continued with the academic process, which is doing the teaching to students in accordance with a predefined curriculum.

Figure 2. Siliwangi University Value Chain

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Acep Irham Gufroni et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 6, Issue No. 1, 053 - 059

1. The development of information technology which so quickly resulted in the resources of both hardware and software will be quickly obsolete. 2. There have been many other educational institutions that had preceded and qualified in applying IT to support its operations. 3. Government policies are not optimal in supporting the development of information technology in education. 4. The unemployment rate increasing, so that makes people choose to continue their education at vocational education institutions.

1. Major Activities The main activity is the activity that is directly associated with the production and distribution of products and services produced by the organization. The principal activities of the Siliwangi University consist of: Management Admissions Process of Academic Activities Lecturer Quality Enhancement Cooperation with Other Parties Community Services

2. Supporting Activities Support activities are activities that make the main event can run. To ensure akfitas major at the Siliwangi University be able to effectively requires the following supporting activities:

a.

Strength (Strengths) 1. 2.

SWOT ANALYSIS

3.

Network on a small scale already available in the campus of the Siliwangi University.

4.

Already have and use Internet services on campus.

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External Factors

b.

2. 3. 4.

The only university in Tasikmalaya District, which is in the service of education for the citizens of Tasikmalaya and surrounding areas with the availability of courses that vary in accordance with the interests and actual conditions in Tasikmalaya. Increasing public awareness about education, marked by the increasing number of new students who register from every year to year. The development of the Internet that already reach all levels of society. The existence of opportunity to use IT to improve the performance of the Siliwangi Universityseen from the trend of increasingly affordable prices while increasing quality.

b. Threats (Threats)

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Support from the Government of Tasikmalaya in changing the status of University, become State Siliwangi University and be an asset to the area of Tasikmalaya.

Weakness (Weaknesses)

1. 2.

a. Opportunities (Opportunities) 1.

IT infrastructure both hardware and software have been available at the Siliwangi University.

Financial Management System Personnel Management Information Technology Procurement of Goods

The result analysis of current conditions both internal and external environment, are analyzed so that could indicate the position of the Siliwangi University seen from the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges. Based on these analysis results, external factors and internal Siliwangi owned by the University are as follows: 1.

Internal Factors

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a. b. c. d.

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a. b. c. d. e.

3. 4.

Limited funding budgeted for Information Technology at the Siliwangi University. Most of the existing human resources are not ready with the application of information technology at the Siliwangi University. The amount of data to be transformed quite large, thus requiring much time, effort, and cost. Still the lack of IT resources at the Siliwangi University with the scope of the campus is quite large. INFORMATION SYSTEM COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE ANALYSIS

Value Chain Based on the analysis described previously, obtained a group activity that should be improved performance to provide a competitive advantage for Siliwangi University. Group activities should be enhanced performance are: a. b. c. d.

Management Admissions Process of Academic Activities Quality Enhancement Teacher / Lecturer Cooperation with Other Parties

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Acep Irham Gufroni et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 6, Issue No. 1, 053 - 059

h.

Community Services Financial Management System Personnel Management Procurement of Goods

Based on the above activities, can be identified detailed activities associated with these activities. These are activities that affect the activity contained in the Siliwangi University:

b.

c.

Academic Activities process, this activity includes the following activities:  Master data management student  Academic data management  Charging KRS  Report students' academic  EPSBED periodic reports  Lending library

Quality Enhancement Teacher / Lecturer, these activities include the following activities:  Registration and training seminars  Research and scientific publications  Progress report of research conducted Cooperation with Other Party, this activity includes the following activities:  The approach to the business community in the local area  The approach to local government agencies in the region

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d.

Management Admissions, this activity includes the following activities:  Registration for new students  Payment of registration fee and an entrance examination  Printing a test card  Entrance examination for new students

e.

f.

g.

IS / IT STRATEGY MANAGEMENT Based on the analysis-analysis that has been done, management strategies can be arranged as follows: 1.

Coordination with Related Parties

In conducting its business activities, the Siliwangi University berhubungaan with various external parties involved. This allows for cooperation with these parties in the implementation of the IS / IT at the University of Siliwangi. With the coordination of formal and non-formal with the relevant parties will have an impact on the success of strategic planning of information systems at the Siliwangi University. 2.

Standard Operation Procedure (SOP)

To realize the structure and working procedures that support the implementation of the IS / IT, then it can be achieved by making the standard operasiona procedure (SOP). SOP addition is done because there are changes in some business processes at the Siliwangi University, which has been the inclusion of elements of SI and IT utilization in every activity in Siliwangi University business activities.

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a.

Procurement of goods, this activity includes the following activities:  Inventory of infrastructure and existing resources  Recording of inventory report

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e. f. g. h.

Community Service, this activity includes the following activities:  Internships  Training and counseling to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) Financial Management System, this activity includes the following activities:  Management of payment transactions  Monitoring payments  Periodic financial reports  The financial statements of daily transactional Personnel Management, activities included the following activities:  Master data management personnel  Employment report printing  Presence employees

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3.

Rules To Ensure Integration

Development of information systems at the Siliwangi University done in stages in accordance with the scale of priorities, as well as fixed priority of sustainable development so as to avoid good diversity of types of databases or programming language. The basic policies that will be used as a reference the most basic of the development of IS at the Siliwangi University are as follows: a. Operating Systems The basic consideration is the choice of operating systems in terms of ease of use, the survey found that the Windows operating system is the easiest operating systems operated by most employees, the management decided to use the Windows operating system as standard operating system for applications that will built. b. Database Selection of a database that will be the source of the data from all activity Siliwangi University is using Oracle. Options use Oracle as the DBMS platform will provide many benefits management database with a large amount of data resulting from the integrated development of IS at Siliwangi University.

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Acep Irham Gufroni et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 6, Issue No. 1, 053 - 059

1.

Revitalization Puskom by replacement and recruitment of new staff with the competencies to be improved.

2.

Improving the quality and competence of the Puskom employees by performing routine, workshops, training and study visits to other University that has been oprimized in the use of IT. Using the services of third parties in compliance with the IS to be built, this is done with consideration of the limited human resources in IT, so that required competent third party to build the required IS, with notes gradually in the end the operation and implementation of the IS was submitted to Puskom. a.

LAN

To support the passage of all information systems in the internal environment Siliwangi University, it takes a local network that connects all sections / units within the Local Area Network (LAN). Currently the existing networks do not connect all the units, thus improving LAN coverage that has been available to do to connect all units within the Siliwangi University. Internet

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b.

Business strategy have been prepared on the IS needs that result from the process of Value Chain analysis. The system most of the information needed to improve service performance of each activity in the activities conducted at the Siliwangi University.

2.

The management strategy is coordinating with relevant parties, the establishment of standards operasioanl procedure (SOP), and the rules of integration in terms of the operating system used is Windows operating system with the database used is Oracle.

3.

Preparation of IT governance and human resources at the Siliwangi University is to revitalize Puskom function.

4.

Improving the quality and competence of the employees Puskom by performing routine, workshops, training, and study visits to the University that has been optimized in the use of IT.

5.

Using the services of third parties in compliance with the IS to be built, this is done with consideration of the limited human resources in IT, requiring third parties who are competent to build the required SI, with notes gradually in the end the operation and implementation of the SI was submitted to Puskom.

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3.

1.

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In the preparation of IT Governance at the Siliwangi University must be adapted to current conditions. The bureau that responsible in the field of IT at the Siliwangi University is PUSKOM (Pusat Komputer, the Indonesian language for Computer Center). Puskom is responsible directly to the Vice Rector I, which authorized the determination of policy at the Siliwangi University, but in reality Puskom still very minimal role in the implementation of IT at the Siliwangi University, so the focus of IT governance and human resources at the Siliwangi University are:

Increased Internet bandwidth is the main thing to do in support of business strategy, because Internet service is currently still very limited, with improvements and additions to the speed internet access, internet usage is expected to further contribute to the improvement of human resources and efficiency of existing activities at the Siliwangi University.

The necessary hardware requirements tailored to the information system will be built, either direct hardware support information systems on it, or hardware to a network that supports the information system running.

ADVICE

The author hopes that the strategic planning of information systems proposed can be used and implemented by the Siliwangi University Tasikmalaya, but still consider the following points. 1.

It takes a strong commitment from the Siliwangi University Tasikmalaya, either management or the foundation to understanding the Siliwangi University so that IT investment is an investment to achieve excellence in the future.

2.

Need for financing development planning and implementation of IS / IT at the Siliwangi University

3.

Recommendations for the next research in order to use and add analysis tool that is used so that the results obtained better and more accurate.

V. CONCLUSION Based on the analysis that has been done, there are several conclusions that can be taken in the strategic planning of information systems at the Siliwangi University Tasikmalaya, namely:

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