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ENGLISH ACHIEVEMENT TEST TOPIC(s): HUMAN RIGHTS / APARTHEID / DISCRIMINATION / BIGOTRY

I Read the following text attentively. Nelson Mandela Nelson Mandela is one of the great moral and political leaders of our time: an international hero whose lifelong dedication to the fight against racial oppression in South Africa won him the Nobel Peace Prize and the presidency of his country. Since his triumphant release in 1990 from more than a quarter-century of imprisonment, Mandela has been at the centre of the most compelling and inspiring political drama in the world. As president of the African National Congress and head of South Africa's antiapartheid movement, he was instrumental in moving the nation toward multiracial government and majority rule. He is revered everywhere as a vital force in the fight for human rights and racial equality.

Long Walk to Freedom is his moving and exhilarating autobiography, a book destined to take its place among the finest memoirs of history's greatest figures. Here for the first time, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela tells the extraordinary story of his life – an epic of struggle, setback, renewed hope, and ultimate triumph, which has, until now, been virtually unknown to most of the world. The foster son of a Thembu chief, Mandela was raised in the traditional, tribal culture of his ancestors, but at an early age learned the modern, inescapable reality of what came to be called apartheid, one of the most powerful and effective systems of oppression ever conceived. In classically elegant and engrossing prose, he tells of his early years as an impoverished student and law clerk in Johannesburg, of his slow political awakening, and of his pivotal role in the rebirth of a stagnant ANC and the formation of its Youth League in the 1950s. He describes the struggle to reconcile his political activity with his devotion to his family, the anguished break up of his first marriage, and the painful separations from his children. He brings vividly to life the escalating political warfare in the fifties between the ANC and May 2014

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the government, culminating in his dramatic escapades as an underground leader and the notorious Rivona Trial of 1964, at which he was sentenced to life imprisonment. He recounts the surprisingly eventful twenty-seven years in prison and the complex, delicate negotiations that led both to his freedom and to the beginning of the end of apartheid. Finally he provides the ultimate inside account of the unforgettable events since his release that produced at last a free, multiracial democracy in South Africa. To millions of people around the world, Nelson Mandela stands, as no other living figure does, for the triumph of dignity and hope over despair and hatred, of self-discipline and love over persecution and evil. Long Walk to Freedom embodies that spirit in a book for all time. Source: http://archives.obs-us.com/obs/english/books/Mandela/Mandela.html

A. Find evidence in the text for the following statements.

1. Mandela's humble background has recently been brought to light through his book. 2. The circumstances that allowed his country to be liberated from racial oppression through political change have also been disclosed by Mandela. 3. Political recognition has ensued from Mandela's activism. 4. His written work also accounts for his political activism and dedication to his party leading him to face dangerous ordeals which were associated to his secret political activism. 5. Mandela has succeeded in achieving worldwide admiration for his crucial role in the struggle against racial prejudice.

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B. Answer the following questions. Use your own words as far as possible. 1. What did Nelson Mandela sacrifice to change the way people lived in South Africa? 2. Form the nouns below pick the one which best illustrates the concept apartheid accounting for your choice. Anti-semitism Fanaticism Segregation Chauvinism Harassment 3. Can you assume that the title of Mandela’s book Long Walk to Freedom actually embodies his life? Justify.

4. Which of the following proverbs would you apply to Mandela’s life? 

Still waters run deep;

 Don’t try to teach your grandmother how to suck eggs; 

Beauty is in the eye of the beholder; 

No gains without pains;

Explain the proverb justifying your choice and relating it to the context.

II A. Rephrase the following statements so as they mean the same as the ones given below. 1. We need to be aware of our problems and have a clear strategy for solving them. Not only…

2. Nelson Mandela was in prison for more than 25 years but he didn’t lose his determination. Despite…

3. Since his triumphant release in 1990 from more than a quarter-century of imprisonment, Mandela has been at the centre of the most compelling and inspiring political drama in the May 2014

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world. Only after…

4. As president of the African National Congress and head of South Africa's antiapartheid movement, he was instrumental in moving the nation toward multiracial government and majority rule. If…

5. During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to the struggle of the African people. I have

fought against white domination and I have fought against black domination. In one of his speeches Mandela declared…

III Bearing in mind what you’ve read, analysed and discussed in classes follow the given directions to write a text on ONE of the following topics (in no less than 180 words and no more than 220 words). A. Explain and comment on the cartoon below establishing a connection with the sentence

Multiracial societies are the key to peace and success.

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B. Explain what the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is, the date it was created, the number of articles it has and the 4 most important rights (according to your viewpoint) that should be highlighted in today’s society. Also, elect a person who you think was / is very important in the defence of those rights, justifying your choice.

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Score

Group I A. Find evidence exercise:: 5 x 6p = 30p B. Interpretation questions: 1. 10p 2. 15p 3. 15p 4. 20p Total: 90p

Group II A. Rephrasing statements: 5 x 8p = 40p Total: 40p

Group III Written activity Total: 70p

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Suggestions for correction Group I A 1.. ... he tells of his early years as an impoverished student and law clerk in Johannesburg. 2. Finally he provides the ultimate inside account of the unforgettable events since his release that produced at last a free, multiracial democracy in South Africa. 3. ...an international hero whose lifelong dedication to the fight against racial oppression in South Africa won him the Nobel Peace Prize and the presidency of his country. 4. He brings vividly to life the escalating political warfare in the fifties between the ANC and the government, culminating in his dramatic escapades as an underground leader and the notorious Rivona Trial of 1964, at which he was sentenced to life imprisonment. 5. ...He is revered everywhere as a vital force in the fight for human rights and racial equality.

B 1. Nelson Mandela had to sacrifice his personal life, mostly his family and his freedom. His first marriage broke up due to his political activity and he had to endure being separated from his children while he was in prison.

2. Segregation is the noun that best depicts and illustrates the word apartheid as the concept was used to describe a powerful policy of racial separation, involving political, legal and economic discrimination practiced in South Africa. Only the white people had political rights and power.

3. Long Walk to Freedom completely embodies Mandela’s life, otherwise it wouldn’t be an autobiography. To achieve freedom he lost his own, he lost his family, he was sentenced to life imprisonment, he had to struggle against all types of discrimination. It cost him two marriages and kept him distant from a family life he might otherwise have cherished. Nelson Mandela vividly recreates in his book the drama of the experiences that helped shape his destiny: the years operating undercover, effectively classed as a 'terrorist' by the state; the surprisingly eventful quarter-century behind bars, when his dedication to the cause elevated him to a status of martyr, icon and inspiration; and the astonishing moves towards the ANC's near-landslide victory in the May 2014

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breakthrough multi-racial elections of April 1994. He had a long walk to do before reaching freedom. 4. The proverb which best illustrates Mandela’s life is the last one: No gains without pains. To attain his ultimate goal – set South-Africa free from apartheid – he had to overcome a series of obstacles such as the pain of losing his family and friends, or be regarded by society as a terrorist. Those feats of strength, courage and determination brought him what he most desired: the end of racial segregation. He emerged triumphantly as President of South-Africa, he is and will always be regarded as a hero, an icon who risked his whole life for a noble cause: a democratic and free society.

Group II 1. Not only do we need to be aware of our problems but also have a clear strategy for solving them. 2. Despite being in prison for more than 25 years, Nelson Mandela didn’t lose his determination. 3. Only after his triumphant release in 1990 from more than a quarter-century of imprisonment, has Mandela been at the centre of the most compelling and inspiring political drama in the world. 4. If Mandela hadn’t been president of the African National Congress and head of the South Africa’s antiapartheid movement, he wouldn’t have been instrumental in moving the nation toward multiracial government and majority rule. 5. In one of his speeches Nelson Mandela declared that during his lifetime he had dedicated himself to the struggle of the African people. He had fought against white domination and he had fought against black domination.

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