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GROWING SOYBEANS For Western Canadian Growers

Issue 19 / Fall 2018

Newest Varieties from NorthStar Genetics Canada Comprehensive Soybean Growing Calendar and Guide

A Soybean Success Story

Published by


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Publisher

Travis Williams NorthStar Genetics

Editor

Kayla Graham kayla@impactgr.com

Creative Director Kate Klassen kate@impactgr.com

Copy Editors

Celeste Aviles Kayla Graham Cheryl Manness Kim Perfumo Stacey Sitter

Contributors

Bruce Barker John Dietz Ron Friesen Geoff Geddes Kayla Graham Andrea Hilderman

Printed by

CBN Commercial Solutions

Distributed by Impact Group

For another copy of

Growing Soybeans call 204-262-2425 or e-mail cperfumo@northstargenetics.com For a digital copy visit northstargenetics.com

Issue 19 | 2018

Contents Letter From the Editor

5

Newest Soybean Varieties and Corn Hybrids from NorthStar Genetics Canada

6

Assessing Soybean Nodulation

8

Thinking of Growing Soybeans? Make a Multi-Year Commitment

10

Soybean Maturity and Low Temperatures

12

A Soybean Success Story

13

Soybean Marketing Tips

17

Soybean Growing Calendar Crop Scouting:

20

The Truth is Out There

23

Crop Pest Identification

26

Adding Corn to a Prairie Rotation

30

Rotations and Soil Nutrients, No Simple Solutions

33 3


#IGROW SOYBEANS What are growers saying about NorthStar Genetics soybeans? “The first thing that comes to mind when I think of NorthStar Genetics is early maturing soybeans. NorthStar has a commitment to putting products in our area that will work for us in terms of early maturity and adaptability for our area.”

“We look at other traits such as standability, pod height, and yield potential as well. We feel NorthStar has competitive varieties with respect to all those categories.” Dan Visser – Fort Saskatchewan, AB

At NorthStar Genetics, we know beans. www.northstargenetics.com

©NorthStar Genetics 2018 Monsanto Company is a member of Excellence Through Stewardship® (ETS). Monsanto products are commercialized in accordance with ETS Product Launch Stewardship Guidance, and in compliance with Monsanto’s Policy for Commercialization of Biotechnology-Derived Plant Products in Commodity Crops. These products have been approved for import into key export markets with functioning regulatory systems. Any crop or material produced from these products can only be exported to, or used, processed or sold in countries where all necessary regulatory approvals have been granted. It is a violation of national and international law to move material containing biotech traits across boundaries into nations where import is not permitted. Growers should talk to their grain handler or product purchaser to confirm their buying position for these products. Excellence Through Stewardship® is a registered trademark of Excellence Through Stewardship. ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW PESTICIDE LABEL DIRECTIONS. Roundup Ready® technology contains genes that confer tolerance to glyphosate, an active ingredient in Roundup® brand agricultural herbicides. Agricultural herbicides containing glyphosate will kill crops that are not tolerant to glyphosate. Acceleron®, Genuity and Design®, Genuity®, RIB Complete and Design®, RIB Complete®, Roundup Ready 2 Technology and Design®, Roundup Ready 2 Yield®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup®, SmartStax®, VT Double PRO® and VT Triple PRO® are registered trademarks of Monsanto Technology LLC, Monsanto Canada Inc. licensee. LibertyLink® and the Water Droplet Design are trademarks of Bayer. Used under license. Herculex® is a registered trademark of Dow AgroSciences LLC. Used under license. ©2017 Monsanto Canada Inc. *Please be sure to use the appropriate statement for your crop/treatment; Please visit www.monsantotraits.ca for statement details. ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW PESTICIDE LABEL DIRECTIONS. Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® soybeans contain genes that confer tolerance to glyphosate and dicamba. Agricultural herbicides containing glyphosate will kill crops that are not tolerant to glyphosate, and those containing dicamba will kill crops that are not tolerant to dicamba. Contact your Monsanto dealer or call the Monsanto technical support line at 1-800-667-4944 for recommended Roundup Ready® Xtend Crop System weed control programs. Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® and Roundup Ready® are registered trademarks of Monsanto Technology LLC, Monsanto Canada Inc. licensee. ©2017 Monsanto Canada Inc.


Letter From the Editor Predictions continue to increase regarding the rise of soybean acreage across Western Canada, and curiosity regarding growing soybeans continues to spread. With the continued efforts into the development of ultra-early soybeans, more and more farmers across the Prairie provinces are beginning to see soybeans as a viable addition to their rotations. Furthermore, with the increased research into corn hybrids, interest in inserting corn into Prairie rotations is also on the rise. In this issue of Growing Soybeans, we’ve asked the question: what tools do growers need to successfully grow soybeans and corn? As a result, we’ve altered the Growing Soybeans publication to be equal parts visual informative guide alongside the educational articles you’ve come to expect. Inside these pages, you will find easily digestible information on identifying crop pests, a calendar year in the life of a Prairie soybean grower, and a brand new visual guide to nodulation. Also in this issue, we’ve put the spotlight on all of NorthStar Genetics’ newest varieties and hybrids, so you can see which new seed will work in your fields. NorthStar Genetics continues to develop corn hybrids and soybean varieties for every growing condition, so we’ve gathered all of the information on NorthStar Genetics’ newest seed in this latest issue of Growing Soybeans. In the 19th issue, we take a journey through the eyes of soybean growers in the Prairies by asking them to share their success stories and insights. In another article, we ask NorthStar Genetics’ own Travis Williams to take us through the reasons a multi-year commitment to growing soybeans is the best choice. Crop scouting, marketing soybeans, and corn in the Prairies all have a place within these pages. We hope in turn that our comprehensive guide to soybeans has a place with all growers, whether a seasoned soybean veteran or a curious newcomer to soybeans and corn. Take some time to enjoy our 19th issue of Growing Soybeans. Thanks for reading,

Kayla L. Graham Editor



5


Newest Soybean Varieties and Corn Hybrids from NorthStar Genetics Canada |  John Dietz

NorthStar Genetics’ newest seed lines are the product of six years of research.

SOYBEANS NSC NEWTON RR2X

NSC SPERLING RR2Y

NSC MELFORT RR2X

NSC REDVERS RR2X

NSC WINKLER RR2X

CORN NS 79-521 VT2PRIB NS 72-521 VT2PRIB

6 Growing Soybeans


New soybean varieties for 2019 include NSC Sperling RR2Y and NSC Newton RR2X. NS 79-521 is the new corn hybrid. In summer plots, watch for three promising varieties for 2020, NSC Melfort RR2X, NSC Redvers RR2X and NSC Winkler RR2X. NorthStar Genetics Canada is releasing two new lines of Roundup Ready 2® soybeans for the 2019 growing season as well as a new corn hybrid. The new lines join several other NorthStar Genetics RR2 varieties of soybeans that are already popular in southern Manitoba, says Claude Durand, NorthStar Genetics Product Development Manager. The newest soybeans are the fruit of evaluating hundreds of soybean lines over the past six years.

NSC Newton RR2X With NSC Newton RR2X, NorthStar Genetics is looking at a replacement for NSC Tilston RR2Y. In trials across the Prairies, Newton has been considered an early- to mid-season variety. Newton has been rated with a relative maturity of 00.3 or 2375 crop heat units (CHU).

“Due to its cold tolerance, Newton “Our new Roundup Ready® Corn 2 would be a good complement in shortTechnology System hybrid won’t be the season areas,” Durand says. “It appears tallest variety you’ll find, but it has a well adapted to soybean growing areas of solid, top-end yield and a very good test Alberta, where nights can be very cool.” weight,” Durand says. In side by side variety trials, he adds, Newton rated at nine out of ten points for adaptability, standability and emergence, plus eight points for seedling vigour, white mould and IDC.

NSC Sperling RR2Y NorthStar Genetics hopes to have, in Sperling, a long sought-after replacement for NSC Richer RR2Y.

Trials show Newton as a tall, mediumbush, Xtend variety that stands well, with a solid yield performance across a wide range of environments.

“Richer has been one of the most popular varieties since its release, due to its consistent high yield, and overall agronomic package,” Durand says. “However, it does tend to get white mould in wetter years due to its rank growth. With NSC Sperling RR2Y, most characteristics are similar to Richer but we have seen a slight improvement in yield and much better white mould tolerance. In trials, it matured about a day earlier than Richer.”

“Tilston was popular with many of our customers due to its tall stature, high pod height and cold tolerance,” says Durand. “We see these same attributes in Newton, but with the Xtend trait, better standability and white mould tolerance. In addition to being a day or two earlier, Newton is slightly higher yielding than Tilston.”

Sperling is rated with a relative maturity of 00.6 or 2450-CHU growing areas, mostly seen in southeastern Manitoba. It is broadly adapted across various soils, has fast emergence, good stress and drought tolerance and a very strong IDC rating. It is medium for plant type and height.

Durand says Newton should be a good fit in a mid- to shorter-season environment, so it should have adaptability across Western Canada. For most soybean varieties, cool summers will delay maturity. Newton is the exception.

Issue 19 | 2018

NS 79-521 VT2PRIB NorthStar Genetics is excited to be introducing a new 79-day maturity corn for seeding in 2019.

NS 79-521 is a medium-tall hybrid with excellent stalks and very good roots. It has very good early plant vigour, is early flowering, develops a girthy ear and has very good drydown performance. It is rated good for drought tolerance, stalk strength and northern leaf blight resistance. The VT2PRIB designation is important to understand, Durand adds. Hybrids with the VT Double PRO® trait have dual modes of action for above ground insects, such as corn earworm and European corn borer. A five percent nonBt refuge corn is blended into every bag, giving convenient refuge compliance.

Coming in 2020 While scouting for new lines at trials in July or August, Durand suggests, soybean growers may want to check out NSC Melfort RR2X (RM 000.7), NSC Redvers RR2X (RM 00.1), and NSC Winkler RR2X (RM 00.8). Our Xtend trait soybeans are currently in plot and field scale trials across Western Canada, in preparation for a full launch in fall of 2019. The three varieties will be key to expansion of NorthStar Genetics lines west and north across the Prairies. Limited amounts of seed will be available this fall.

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Assessing

Soybean Nodulation STEP 1

Select 5 to 10 random plants from different areas.

STEP 2

Gently dig out plants, being careful to not disturb nodules that may be present.

STEP 3

Soak the roots in water to remove soil and uncover the nodules.

STEP 4

Count number of nodules per plant, the amount of nodules should be similar in all plants.

STEP 5

Cut nodules open to reveal their colour, a nice red/pink tone means they’re healthy and functional! 8 Growing Soybeans


Preferred pH level for Rhizobia is between 6 and 8 to allow for healthy nodulation.

Optimum soil temperature for Nitrogen fixation is between 15ºC and 25ºC.

Before flowering, there should be 8 to 20 large and active nodules per plant.

NODULE STATE

NOW YOU KNOW Issue 19 | 2018

immature nodule white in colour

healthy nodule pink/red in colour

unhealthy nodule

green/brown in colour

9


Thinking of Growing Soybeans? Make a Multi-Year Commitment |  Kayla Graham

Interest and curiosity about soybeans is on a steady incline across the Prairies. Farmers are looking for options to diversify their rotations and risk portfolios, and more and more are considering soybeans as a good fit.

10 Growing Soybeans

NorthStar Genetics has a complete lineup of soybean varieties, including early maturing genetics for the shorter growing seasons of western Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. But there is more to be considered before trying and learning how to grow soybeans. According to NorthStar Genetics COO Travis Williams, making a multi-year commitment is the best thing you can do to evaluate how well soybeans fit on your farm.

should you give up on soybeans based on a dry year. It is a gamble to make your cropping decisions based on the prior year’s conditions. You tell me what the weather is going to be next summer, and I’ll tell you exactly what you need to grow,” jokes Williams. “The key is to make a three to four year commitment with soybeans in your rotation to eliminate the weather peaks and valleys and then assess the value that soybeans bring to your farm.”

“A number of reasons jump out as to why you need to make a multi-year commitment to grow soybeans,” says Williams. “Number one is weather. There can be huge variability in weather from year to year. You don’t want to over commit your rotation based on a really good soybean growing year – nor

Rotation is the second reason. Having soybeans in your rotation creates huge value ranging from disease management, herbicide rotation and higher yields on crops following soybeans. “We absolutely see there are higher yields on crops following soybeans,” Williams says. When asked for an example, he tells


a story of a farm customer in a wheatcanola-wheat-canola rotation. “The customer broke up his regular rotation by planting soybeans on 80 acres of his quarter section and the other half with canola. He went back to wheat the following year and then seeded the entire quarter section to canola. On the side the soybeans were grown (two years prior), he saw an eight bushel per acre higher yield on his canola.” In addition to agronomic benefits, having soybeans in your rotation also builds commodity price risk management. Williams’ final reason to make a multiyear commitment to growing soybeans is that with each year farmers improve their ability to grow soybeans. “The first year you grow soybeans, and I say this smiling, you may not be the best at growing soybeans,” says Williams. He explains that just like anything else, growing soybeans is a skill that gets better with experience, knowledge, trial and error. “You’re going to get better

Issue 19 | 2018

with each year you grow soybeans. All of the benefits will improve as you do. But you don’t have to learn alone; please ask for help. Our NorthStar Genetics team is very passionate and committed to helping farmers grow soybeans.” Farmers who are starting their soybean journey have many questions on varietal selection, agronomics, soil type, farm equipment and harvest management. “We are happy to help farmers with all of those factors. We get asked a lot about our early genetics. It’s very important to know what variety to grow on your farm. It’s equally important to know how to grow it,” advises Williams. “We have early maturing varieties that yield. We’d be happy to help you grow them.”

Just like anything else, growing soybeans is a skill that gets better with experience, knowledge, trial and error.

Making a multi-year commitment may seem like a cumbersome obligation, but Williams challenges farmers to see it in a different way. “My encouragement is to not make a forward-benefiting decision based on one try, give it at least three years.”

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Soybean Maturity and Low Temperatures Minimum temperatures for soybean seed ripening has been shown to be 8-9°C and optimum being 19-20°C1. Cool temperatures (<10°C) during seed fill can negatively affect soybean yield through reduced seed size although the most serious impact may be delayed maturity. As beans move from R-6 (full seed) to R-7 (early maturity), the risk of yield loss from frost declines. Soybeans are normally in the R-6 stage for 18 days but can be as long as 30 days.

nighttime low and how long that temperature is sustained. Other factors such as soil moisture (moisture in the soil will maintain heat), cloud cover (cloudy is better) and wind speed (windy is better) can also impact the degree of frost. Further, soybeans in narrow rows and thick canopies are able to maintain ground heat longer. A light frost (0 to –1°C) may kill top leaf growth but should not affect pods and seeds. Temperatures below –1°C for an extended time period will cause damage to green stems, pods and seeds, reducing yield and quality. Maximum yield loss would occur in soybeans at R-5 (early seed).

When nighttime temperatures dip below 5°C, there is a risk for low-lying areas to see a light frost. The impact of frost will depend on the

Stage

Description

Full seed to the top Plants still green, of the plant, starting seed fills pod on one to drop bottom of top four nodes. leaves. Pod colour green/yellow.

Days to Maturity2 % Yield Loss from Frost3

R-6.5 Halfway through seed fill

R-6 Full seed

Optimum 19-20°C Minimum 8-9°C Frost Danger 1-5°C Top Leaf Kill -1°C

R-7 Physiological maturity

R-8 Full maturity

At least one pod on main stem is yellow (the membrane around the seed will be completely absorbed).

95% of pods will be brown, seeds will rattle in pod and all leaves will be dropped.

0 25-30

10-15

Up to 50%

Up to 30%

Courtesy of Manitoba Pulse Growers Association

8-10

< 10%

0

Literature Cited: Holmberg S. A. 1973. Soybeans for cool season climates. Agric. Hort. Genet. 31:1-20. Fehr W. R. and C. E. Caviness. 1977. Stages of soybean development. Spec. Rep. 80 Iowa State Univ. Coop. Ext. Serv., Ames. Saliba M. R., L. E. Schrader, S. S. Hirano, and C. D. Upper. 1982, Effects of freezing field-grown soybean plants at various stages of podfill on yield and seed quality. Crop Sci. 22: 73-78.

1

2 3

12 Growing Soybeans

Soybean Seed Ripening Temperatures


A Soybean Success Story | 

Andrea Hilderman

There are very good reasons soybeans are gaining popularity with growers on the Prairies, finding a place further west every year. The meteoric rise in acres in Manitoba has been well documented over the last decade or more. As growers have gained experience, they have become more and more confident about soybean agronomy and their place in the rotation. Talking to growers and agronomists across the Prairies, there are some commonalities when it comes to being successful with soybeans. Angela Brackenreed might be better known as an agronomy expert with the Canola Council of Canada, but

The top six tips identified for success, for all areas:

ƒƒ Choosing a variety with a suitable maturity for your growing season ƒƒ Inoculating both the seed and in the furrow, especially if soybeans have never been seeded in the field before ƒƒ Seeding into a sufficiently warm seedbed ƒƒ Ensuring seed rates are high enough to produce 160-180,000 LIVE PLANTS per acre ƒƒ Rolling pre- or post-emergence ƒƒ Spray early to ensure a clean field at harvest Get all of these right, and any grower will be rewarded with a successful crop – barring anything that Mother Nature might have up her sleeve that can’t be avoided.

Issue 19 | 2018

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she is also a farmer, farming her land in partnership with her dad in Justice, Manitoba. “Soybeans are relatively new in this area,” she explains. “This will be my third crop and my dad’s sixth.” Key to successful adoption for her has been the close proximity of experienced growers further east in the province where it is a well-established crop, then tailoring those experiences to her own farm. “Growers in Manitoba also have really great resources available to them through organizations like Manitoba Agriculture, and the Manitoba Pulse & Soybean Growers Association,” says Brackenreed. “This has definitely made it easier than, say, a very niche crop that has little to no support. That has certainly contributed to the success growers are having with the crop.” Soybeans were an easy fit into the Brackenreed rotation, with the biggest concern being how they would work in a mostly zero-till/direct seed situation. “The research, and our first experiences, showed that we could seed soybeans into residue. If we’d had to consider additional tillage operations, it would have limited adoption in western Manitoba, I think. Also, being able to use our existing drill means we’ve not had to make any major changes to our practices or major investments.” Indeed, the biggest investment Brackenreed has made is buying her own roller which gives her the ability to roll her fields on her schedule, not the contractor’s. Some of the key learnings have been with soil temperature and seeding. “Soil temperature was worrying at first,” she explains. “Could we seed at night when it’s cooler, for example? But I’ve found soybeans to be more forgiving than

14 Growing Soybeans

Not only is the market attractively stable for growers, soybeans also keep a nodulating crop in the rotation which has positive nitrogen fixing and soil health benefits for the farm.

canola which can be very finicky in its early growth stages.” She has also found soybeans to have fewer insect and disease threats but expects that over time, that will change as soybeans become more common in her area. “Soybeans do not like saline conditions, and while we know we have some salinity issues in areas, soybeans will definitely show you where you didn’t know you had issues! Finding the right field can be a challenge.”

Brackenreed recalls her first harvest very well. “I was thinking to myself this is a dream. With the header in flex, it was contouring the ground and it seemed easy to set the combine for losses – much easier than a small seeded crop.” But as with many things in life, the dream didn’t last forever. Losses in 2017 were higher. “Last year, they were wrapping around the reel and we couldn’t get them to clear the knife – it was really tough, and the losses reflected that as well.” While the seed was mature, what Brackenreed found was the drydown was incomplete and the residue was viney and surprisingly tough to deal with, especially as it looks like there’s really not much there. Soybeans have moved west in Manitoba and are continuing apace into Saskatchewan. Glenda Clezy, an agronomist specialist with Saskatchewan Pulse Growers is seeing soybeans start to gain momentum. “Soybeans present an opportunity to access a global market and perhaps with less risk than pulses,” she remarks. “Saskatchewan is at the same stage Manitoba was about 10 years ago, looking at acres and yields, and we expect it to follow the same trend over the next decade.” Not only is the market attractively stable for growers, soybeans also keep a nodulating crop in the rotation which has positive nitrogen fixing and soil health benefits for the farm. Brad Eggum is an experienced soybean grower at Halbrite, in the southeast part of Saskatchewan. “We started growing soybeans in 2009, looking for the earliest maturing varieties available at the time that had good photosensitive qualities,” he says. “These would mature


the seedlings, so this is a critical time. Even a cold rain will be concerning.” Lingering impacts of this chilling injury can be nodes that are closer to the ground making for more difficult harvesting.

“Soybeans need a pile of actual nitrogen, and even for fields which have had soybeans seeded in the past, the seed should be inoculated twice.” – Brad Eggum

even when they didn’t get the right amount of heat.” Eggum has found that earlier varieties are now a focus of seed developers as they’ve seen the potential for the crop in the West and on the socalled fringes of the traditional soybean growing areas. “This is the new frontier for genetic companies and they are looking hard at what they have for early maturity because there is a burgeoning market hungry to try soybeans.” Eggum is highly focused on research and adopting the best agronomic practices, not only for his own farm success but for that of his customers, as he also owns a retail business. Agreeing with the key factors for success, Eggum is quick to emphasize the importance of the first 24 to 48 hours the seed is in the ground. “Soybean seed starts imbibing water very quickly once seeded, and are very susceptible to chilling injury at that time,” he explains. “If the seed imbibes water cooler than eight degrees, this will negatively impact

Issue 19 | 2018

Prairie soils do not contain any native soil rhizobia for soybean, which is, of course, a nodulating crop. “Soybeans need a pile of actual nitrogen, and even for fields which have had soybeans seeded in the past, the seed should be inoculated twice. We don’t know how well the rhizobia survive, and in my experience, it’s an inexpensive insurance I wouldn’t do without.” Eggum’s final comments on soybeans are also a key reason soybeans are finding favour with Prairie growers. “Soybeans are not subject to downgrading at harvest, like wheat is,” he explains. “They are also shatter resistant, so they work very well in not demanding attention at harvest when other crops need to be combined. They can sit out until the end.” Looking even further west to Alberta, soybeans are just really starting to register. Patrick Fabian is a seed grower in Tilley, Alberta, just east of Brooks. “Somewhat surprisingly, I have 10 years experience with soybeans,” he explains. “I’ve always known they could have a place in the rotation as a nitrogen fixing crop, as well as being a good cash crop.” Not only that, Fabian sees soybeans offering an alternative to the ‘canola-snow-canola’ rotation that was unfortunately more common than anyone would like to admit. Clubroot is a symptom of the over-zealous inclusion of canola in rotations, another issue that is spreading from west to east across the Prairies. “Soybeans are a great option to peas as well,” explains Fabian. “Peas are susceptible to a number of diseases that are becoming problematical to manage, and soybeans offer a chance to break that cycle.” The key for soybeans in Alberta is maturity. “Up until 2017, varieties

were too late. But new ‘000’ beans have ushered in the possibility for growing beans here, and now we see trials all the way from Manning to Lethbridge. Last year, some of the best soybeans grown in the province were in Grande Prairie and Bruderheim. So the potential is definitely there.” Fabian was caught in the chicken-andegg scenario for a few years though – while growers wanted to grow soybeans, there were no places to sell them. “I started talking to various brokers to see if they could get something going but they needed some volume, maybe ten thousand acres.” Well, fast forward to today and there are a couple of soybean processing facilities, one at Granum and the other outside Camrose. “Additionally, there are some Hutterite colonies that have set up processing as an alternative to buying soybean meal for various dairy, chicken and hog enterprises they have.” With earlier and earlier soybeans in development, the biggest hurdle to more widespread adoption in Alberta is gradually fading. “Growers in Alberta are ready, willing and able to get into soybeans, especially when you consider they have already been growing peas and lentils,” he says. “Really, it’s like preaching to the converted who are anxious to get on board!” The growth of soybeans throughout the West is a testament to their fit in the farm rotation and their unique agronomic requirements which generally work to ease the workload at key times for growers. There is a large and dynamic global market, lowering the impact of any one importer on price and movement. Additionally, the resources available to ensure successful adoption are there, including the all-important peer-to-peer learning growers are providing each other. While soybean acres will certainly see some ups and downs, the angle of growth is sure to continue steadily upwards for many years yet.

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FIELD, MEET YIELD. WITH

NSC WATSON

Bigger pods and higher pod count equal bigger yields. When you choose NorthStar Genetics’ NSC Watson RR2Y, you’re choosing the best of both. Great across Western Canada, NSC Watson yields exceptionally for its maturity. Plain and simple, NSC Watson delivers big yields. To meet our whole lineup visit northstargenetics.com

WE KNOW BEANS ©2018 NorthStar Genetics Monsanto Company is a member of Excellence Through Stewardship® (ETS). Monsanto products are commercialized in accordance with ETS Product Launch Stewardship Guidance, and in compliance with Monsanto’s Policy for Commercialization of Biotechnology-Derived Plant Products in Commodity Crops. These products have been approved for import into key export markets with functioning regulatory systems. Any crop or material produced from these products can only be exported to, or used, processed or sold in countries where all necessary regulatory approvals have been granted. It is a violation of national and international law to move material containing biotech traits across boundaries into nations where import is not permitted. Growers should talk to their grain handler or product purchaser to confirm their buying position for these products. Excellence Through Stewardship® is a registered trademark of Excellence Through Stewardship. ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW PESTICIDE LABEL DIRECTIONS. Roundup Ready® technology contains genes that confer tolerance to glyphosate, an active ingredient in Roundup® brand agricultural herbicides. Agricultural herbicides containing glyphosate will kill crops that are not16 Growing tolerant to glyphosate. Acceleron®, Genuity and Design®, Genuity®, RIB Complete and Design®, RIB Complete®, Roundup Ready 2 Technology and Design®, Roundup Ready 2 Yield®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup®, SmartStax®, VT Double PRO® and Soybeans VT Triple PRO® are registered trademarks of Monsanto Technology LLC, Monsanto Canada Inc. licensee. LibertyLink® and the Water Droplet Design are trademarks of Bayer. Used under license. Herculex® is a registered trademark of Dow AgroSciences LLC. Used under license. ©2017 Monsanto Canada Inc. *Please be sure to use the appropriate statement for your crop/treatment; Please visit www.monsantotraits.ca for statement details.


Soybean Marketing Tips | 

Bruce Barker

Where do you spend your time – marketing or agronomy?

The June 2018 soybean market was a perfect example of how soybean growers can profit from timely pricing. Over a three-week period, soybean prices dropped almost two dollars per bushel. That’s roughly equivalent to losing five bushels per acre due to a production problem. “There are two parts to the gross return equation: price and yield. Growers spend a lot of time trying to grow more bushels but often don’t spend enough time on marketing the crop,” says Tyler Russell, Western Canadian Manager with NorthStar Genetics. “If you’re spending 90 per cent of your time on agronomy, you’re missing out on the other half of the net return.”

Know the market On the supply side, soybeans are being produced and traded globally 12 months of the year. The two big players are South America and the United States. The critical periods for production estimates are September through March in South America and May through October in the United States.

Issue 19 | 2018

global soybean imports, followed by the EU at 10 per cent. China has been known to buy the equivalent of the entire Canadian soybean exports in a two-week time frame.

Source: MarketSense

Weather, especially during planting and pod filling can play a critical role in how many soybeans are produced. So, it is not surprising that the market tends to rally during these critical periods. The difference of two to three bushels per acre across many millions of acres can have a large impact on the markets. On the demand side, China is responsible for almost two-thirds of

“There is a tremendous amount of room for growth in Canadian soybean production. We can increase acreage in Western Canada by a significant amount and still find markets for them,” says Russell. Western Canada has extremely limited domestic crush so the Chinese market is very important. Some beans are trucked to U.S. crushers in the Northern Plains but as Prairie production has increased, soybeans are more commonly moving by rail to export markets off the West Coast to Asia. Prairie soybeans are in direct competition with soybeans grown in the Dakotas and shipped through U.S. ports on the Pacific Northwest. Rail

17


shipments to these Canadian and U.S. Pacific ports are more expensive than barge freight down the Mississippi River to the U.S. Gulf. As a result, most U.S. soybeans are exported via the Gulf. However, immediately following the U.S. harvest, Gulf traffic can be congested. This is before the South American crop is available, so buyers will look to ports on the Pacific including Vancouver and Prince Rupert for their soybean supply. “Effectively, this means that some of the best opportunities for Prairie growers to move soybeans through the West Coast will be between the end of October and January. Once the South American harvest begins, buyers will turn back to that market,” says Russell. Investigate who is buying soybeans in your area. In Manitoba, most major grain companies are buying soybeans throughout the year. There are also smaller crushing plants and brokers who purchase soybeans direct from farmers.

Execute the plan In Saskatchewan, most of the major grain companies are buying soybeans, but Russell still encourages growers to do their homework and find out who is buying soybeans, when they are accepting delivery and shipping them, and what types of contracts they offer. This should help answer questions around soybean storage requirements or potential cash flow options. Having a plan is always better than guessing after the fact.

Locking in future prices based on when buyers are shipping soybeans isn’t necessarily the best option. Past history has shown that U.S. futures tend to follow fairly strong, long-term seasonal pricing patterns. Prices typically rally from February through early summer and then decline once the U.S. crop hits the market. Source: MarketSense ©2017 Moore Research Center Inc. 800-927-7259

Russell says the biggest risk factor in marketing soybeans is not spending enough time planning and executing. There are over 10 different grain contracts that a farmer can use to maximize his net price. Here are a few different contracts to consider: 1. Flat Price / Deferred Delivery – Consider forward pricing soybeans in April/May to take advantage of seasonally high futures prices for October/November delivery or forward contracting into the future to take advantage of carry in the market. 2. Fixed Basis – If the CBOT futures are trending upward, consider locking in delivery space with a basis contract and pricing the futures at a later date. 3. Minimum Pricing - Locks in a floor price when you deliver soybeans, but offers upside potential if the futures continue to trend upwards. 4. Averaging contracts – Averages the futures over a defined period of time.

These are opportunities to use contracts to decouple price and delivery. Lock in delivery when grain companies are moving soybeans to the West Coast and lock in prices during market rallies,” says Russell.

18 Growing Soybeans

“It is good to have some bullets to market throughout the year. A production issue or surplus in the U.S. or Brazil can really move the markets,” says Russell. “Everyone is happy to grow another five bushels per acre, but executing a marketing plan to take advantage of seasonal rallies should be just as satisfying.”


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Issue 19 | 2018

DuPont™ Lumisena™ and DuPont™ Lumiderm® are Lumigen™ seed sense products. Unless indicated, trademarks with ®, ™ or sm are trademarks of DuPont or affiliates. © 2018 DuPont.

Lumiderm® + Lumisena™ + FST

19


SOYBEAN GROWING APRIL

MAY

Seeding Plan

JUNE

JULY

AUGUST

Seeding & Rolling Potential 1st Fungicide Application

Field Prep/Fertilizer Application (P&K) Pre-seed Burn Off

Potential 2nd Fungicide Application

In-Crop Weed Spraying

Scouting Create Seeding Plan

Plant Stand Assessment

Flowering R1/R2

Emergence Vegetative

Pod Fill/Seed Development Pod Development R3/R4

Soybean Aphids & Twospotted Spidermites

Seed Corn Maggot Cutworms & Wireworms

Green Cloverworm Grasshoppers

Seedling Diseases Phytophthora Root Rot Rhizoctonia Root Rot Fusarium Wilt Frogeye Leaf Spot & Septoria Brown Spot Bacterial Blight Downy Mildew Soybean Cyst Nematodes White Mould & Stem Canker

20â&#x20AC;&#x192;Growing Soybeans


CALENDAR

SEPTEMBER

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

DECEMBER

JANUARY - MARCH

Field Prep/Fertilizer Application (P&K) Field Selection & Soil Test Soybean Harvest Variety Selection

R5/R6

LEGEND

Maturity R7/R8

/Pod and Stem Blight

Issue 19 | 2018

Soybean Activities Growth Stages Insects Diseases See page 26 for more information on crop insects and diseases!

21


Start your season right. Start with EverGol Energy. EverGol® Energy seed treatment fungicide provides soybeans with protection against the most important seed and soil-borne diseases caused by rhizoctonia, fusarium, pythium, botrytis and phomopsis. It provides quicker emergence, healthier plants and higher yields for your soybeans. Create the complete package of protection by combining the power of EverGol Energy with Allegiance® seed treatment fungicide for early season phytophthora, and Stress Shield® seed treatment insecticide for superior insect protection to help your soybeans thrive during critical early development stages. Learn more at cropscience.bayer.ca/EverGolEnergy

cropscience.bayer.ca or 1 888-283-6847 or contact your Bayer representative.

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Always read and follow label directions. Allegiance®, EverGol®, SeedGrowthTM and Stress Shield® are trademarks of the Bayer Group. Bayer CropScience Inc. is a member of CropLife Canada.


Growing soybeans is much like raising toddlers: You wish you could let them out of your sight for a while, but you know better. While soybeans are less demanding, regular crop scouting can often help you spot trouble and take action before it’s too late.

Crop Scouting: The Truth is Out There | 

Geoff Geddes

“With disease in particular, it’s important to walk your fields early in the season and scout for seedling disease, which can be easy to miss if you’re not looking at the right time,” said Holly Derksen, field crop pathologist at Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives. “Seedlings may die off at an early stage and wash away, and if you don’t see them die, you can wind up with stand loss and have no idea where it came from.” While scouting early is vital, the value of scouting often can’t be overstated. T:11”

B:11.25”

Name that disease

“A lot of foliar diseases in soybeans can show up as early as mid-June, so it’s crucial to be out looking for them by late June,” said Derksen. “These diseases don’t generally require a fungicide application, but if you are considering one it is important to remember that some bacterial diseases affect soybeans as well. You must be sure that what you are seeing is actually a fungal pathogen and not a bacterial one; for example, bacterial blight and septoria brown spot – a fungal pathogen – are often mistaken for one another.” Derksen also advises scouting again in mid-to-late August for problems like stem disease. Though at this point it’s too late to address issues for the current growing season, farmers can often identify fields that have more or different infection activity than others, and use this information in planning for next year.

Issue 19 | 2018

Regular crop scouting can often help you spot trouble and take action before it’s too late.

23


“One of the most significant disease threats for soybeans is Phytophthora root rot. Scouting for that condition won’t help you this season, but you need to properly identify it so you can avoid it in the future and make your crop management decisions accordingly.” Whatever you’re scouting for, doing it frequently is important to ensure you’re not missing something. Conditions can change quickly, so you could have a dry season and then encounter a rainfall event or high humidity that makes crops more susceptible to disease. Even within the same farm, fields can be miles apart. If there are spotty thunderstorms like Manitoba has experienced lately, some fields may stay dry all summer while others get periodic rain. Through regular scouting, growers can ensure they catch everything on every field.

Identification please As important as it is to know when to look, it’s equally important to know what to look for. Identification is essential to proper scouting, especially in soybeans as it’s a newer crop for many people. As a result, experts advise sending a sample to a provincial diagnostic lab if you’re unsure of what you’re seeing. “Soybeans can be tricky. Last year they were stressed and looked bad, but sometimes growers must accept that there’s no easy answer for that. In those instances, I recommend keeping good records and trying to narrow down the cause of symptoms by process of elimination.” Looking out for pests is another component of crop scouting. “In the context of soybeans, we want to stay ahead of the game with incoming, inevitable pests like soybean cyst nematode (SCN),” said Laryssa Stevenson, production specialist-west

24 Growing Soybeans

Nothing will ever replace boots on the ground, but drones have a role to play… -Dr. Steve Shirtliffe

for Manitoba Pulse & Soybean Growers. “Early detection and proper management - including crop rotation, resistant gene selection and equipment sanitation - can prevent the spread and severity of SCN.”

Scouting prospects looking up Given the challenges of crop scouting, some farmers are turning to drones to gain the upper hand. “Nothing will ever replace boots on the ground, but drones have a role to play,” said Dr. Steve Shirtliffe, a professor in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of Saskatchewan. In a recent Twitter poll, Dr. Shirtliffe found the most common application for drones or UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) was showing farmers where to direct their resources for ground scouting. This is especially helpful for crops like canola with a full canopy, where walking through them is almost impossible, but drones can also save valuable time for soybean farmers. “The way technology is advancing, you can now get high-end consumer drones with HD quality or better,” said Shirtliffe. “One online video was

from a drone going down into a wheat canopy, and you can actually see some lesions on the leaves. I think the niche for UAVs with crop scouting will be where you identify an area with less vegetation through satellite imagery. You can then fly the drone there to get a better look at exactly what’s happening, and, if need be, visit the spot with a quad.” Although the licensing process to operate a drone is onerous, the cost is well within reach. Some models of the popular DJI Phantom are available for around $1,000, while higher end, custom built equipment can be far more expensive. Appropriately for this technology, the sky is the limit. Whether you go hi-tech, low-tech or somewhere in between, the hours you spend standing in your field should have you sitting pretty come harvest time.


FIELD, MEET YIELD. WITH

NSC NEWTON

We know you need your seed to work as hard as you do. When you choose NorthStar Genetics’ NSC Newton RR2X you get a strong plant with impressive stature that performs in a wide range of environments – and that means a better yield for you. Let NorthStar Genetics go to work on your farm. To meet our whole lineup visit northstargenetics.com

WE KNOW BEANS

©2018 NorthStar Genetics Monsanto Company is a member of Excellence Through Stewardship® (ETS). Monsanto products are commercialized in accordance with ETS Product Launch Stewardship Guidance, and in compliance with Monsanto’s Policy for Commercialization of Biotechnology-Derived Plant Products in Commodity Crops. These products have been approved for import into key export markets with functioning regulatory systems. Any crop or material produced from these products can only be exported to, or used, processed or sold in countries where all necessary regulatory approvals have been granted. It is a violation of national and international law to move material containing biotech traits across boundaries into nations where import is not permitted. Growers should talk to their grain handler or product purchaser to confirm their buying position for these products. Excellence Through Stewardship® is a registered trademark of Excellence Through Stewardship. *Please be sure to use the appropriate statement for your crop/treatment; Please visit www.monsantotraits.ca for statement details. ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW PESTICIDE LABEL DIRECTIONS. Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® soybeans contain genes that confer tolerance to glyphosate and dicamba. Agricultural herbicides containing glyphosate will kill crops that are not tolerant to glyphosate, 25 Roundup and thoseIssue containing19 | 2018 dicamba will kill crops that are not tolerant to dicamba. Contact your Monsanto dealer or call the Monsanto technical support line at 1-800-667-4944 for recommended Roundup Ready® Xtend Crop System weed control programs. Ready 2 Xtend® and Roundup Ready® are registered trademarks of Monsanto Technology LLC, Monsanto Canada Inc. licensee. ©2017 Monsanto Canada Inc.


Crop Pest Identification

Here’s what to look out for when you’re out scouting for pests.

CUTWORMS Conditions

ƒƒ Late planting or replanting ƒƒ Weedy growth ƒƒ Dry weather, crusted soil

WIREWORM Conditions

ƒƒ Planted early in cold conditions ƒƒ Fields with grassytype plants ƒƒ In wet areas of a field

Look For

ƒƒ Leaves with chewed holes in them ƒƒ Ragged leaf margins

Look For

ƒƒ Hard-bodied ƒƒ Shiny yellow to brown ƒƒ Young plants appear wilted

Prevention

ƒƒ Early diagnosis is key to minimizing cutworms and damage to crops ƒƒ Inspect seedlings for bare areas, holes in foliage, and wilting leaves

Prevention

ƒƒ Bait stations set up 2-3 weeks prior to planting

SEED CORN MAGGOT Conditions

ƒƒ Soil with decaying organic matter ƒƒ Past infestations ƒƒ Cool conditions that delay emergence

Look For

ƒƒ Fly has a greyish-brown body. Can be mistaken as a common housefly.

TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE Conditions

ƒƒ Hot dry conditions

26 Growing Soybeans

Look For

ƒƒ Greenish yellow to orange to brown ƒƒ Pierced leaves

Prevention

ƒƒ Plant during warm soil temperatures for quick seed germination ƒƒ If putting organic matter on soil, wait a min. of 2 weeks before planting

Prevention

ƒƒ Natural predators, such as fungi and thrips ƒƒ Spray treatments


Application (P&K)

Potential 1st Fungicide Application

Field Prep/Fertilizer Application (P&K)

Potential 2nd Fungicide Application

In-Crop Weed Spraying

SOYBEAN GROWING

Variety Selection

Create Seeding Plan

Plant Stand Assessment

Flowering R1/R2

Emergence

APRIL

MAY

Vegetative

Seed Corn Maggot Seeding & Rolling Cutworms & Wireworms Field Prep/Fertilizer Application (P&K)

Seeding Plan

Pre-seed Burn Off

CALENDA

Soybean Harvest

Scouting

JUNE

JULY

Pod Fill/Seed Development Pod Development R3/R4

AUGUST

R5/R6

Maturity R7/R8

SEPTEMBER

Soybean Aphids & Twospotted Spidermites Green Cloverworm Potential 1st Fungicide Application Grasshoppers Potential 2nd In-Crop Weed Spraying Fungicide Application

NOVEMBER

Field Selection & Soil Test

Pest Scouting Calendar

Soybean Harvest

Variety Selection Create Seeding Plan

Plant Stand Assessment Phytophthora Root Rot Rhizoctonia Root Rot

Pod Fill/Seed Development Pod Development Vegetative Frogeye Leaf Spot & Septoria Brown Spot R3/R4 Fusarium Wilt

Flowering R1/R2

Bacterial Blight Soybean Aphids & Twospotted Spidermites Downy Mildew Cutworms & Wireworms Green Cloverworm Soybean Cyst Nematodes Grasshoppers White Mould & Stem Canker

R5/R6 Maturity R7/R8

Rhizoctonia Root Rot Fusarium Wilt Frogeye Leaf Spot & Septoria Brown Spot

Conditions Downy Mildew

with high population ƒƒ Drought conditions

Conditions

Look For

Look For

ƒƒ Yellow-bodied with black eyes ƒƒ Can have wings ƒƒ Causes shorter plant height ƒƒ More honeydew on leaves

GREEN CLOVER WORM Conditions

ƒƒ Thrive in leaf litter and crop debris

Issue 19 | 2018

Diseases

See page 26 information o insects and d

Soybean Ac

Growth Stag Insects Diseases

Prevention

See page 26 information o insects and d

ƒƒ Round or ragged ƒƒ There are a number of holes in leaves natural controls that White Mould & Stem Canker /Pod and Stem Blight kill grasshoppers ƒƒ Damage to ƒƒ Synthetic insecticides soybean pods are recommended

SOYBEAN APHID ƒƒ Temperatures in the low to mid 20s

Insects

LEGEND

Phytophthora Root Rot

ƒƒCyst DryNematodes weather Soybean

Growth Stag

/Pod and Stem Blight

Seedling Diseases

Bacterial Blight

Soybean Act

See page 20 for complete calendar

Seed Corn Maggot

GRASSHOPPER

DECEMBER

Field Prep/Fertilizer Application (P&K)

SeedlingScouting Diseases

Emergence

OCTOBER

LEGEND

Pre-seed Burn Off

Field Selection & Soil Test

Look For

ƒƒ Young larvae feed on the entire plant ƒƒ Feed on the middle of the leaves ƒƒ Older larvae feed on the upper canopy

Prevention

ƒƒ Spray insecticide before aphids reach 1,000 per plant ƒƒ Scout fields in July for aphids

Prevention

ƒƒ Fungal disease which favours warm temperatures with high humidity

27


Crop Pest Identification (cont.)

WHITE MOULD Conditions

ƒƒ Moist conditions ƒƒ Low temperatures (20ºC-26ºC) ƒƒ High yield potential soybean crop with dense canopy

Look For

ƒƒ White, fluffy, cottony mycelial growth ƒƒ Wilted leaves ƒƒ Bleached and shredded looking stems ƒƒ Sclerotia (resembles mouse droppings)

BACTERIAL BLIGHT Conditions

Look For

ƒƒ Common on ƒƒ Starts as small brown young leaves spots that spread to the full leaf ƒƒ Cool, wet weather, and heavy rain ƒƒ Disease dissipates in hot dry weather ƒƒ Spreads by wind and rain

SEPTORIA BROWN SPOT Conditions

ƒƒ Symptoms develop at 15-29ºC ƒƒ Warm, wet conditions

Look For

ƒƒ Infects lower canopy leaves. In a warm rainy season it infects the top. ƒƒ Rusty-brown or yellow leaves fall in the early season

PHYTOPHTHORA ROOT ROT

Prevention

ƒƒ Diverse crop rotations ƒƒ Plant resistant varieties

Prevention

ƒƒ Crop rotation of more than just soybeans

Conditions

Look For

Prevention

ƒƒ Wet and warm soil conditions ƒƒ Clay and compacted soils ƒƒ Saturated soil early in the season

ƒƒ Early Season: Stems appear bruised and are soft. Secondary roots rotted. ƒƒ Mid-Late Season: Brown lesions appear on the roots. Plants may die.

ƒƒ Select soybeans with major gene resistance (Rps) ƒƒ Increase drainage in your field where possible

FROGEYE LEAF SPOT

28 Growing Soybeans

Prevention

ƒƒ Longer crop rotation

Conditions

Look For

Prevention

ƒƒ Frequent rain following onset can lead to an outbreak ƒƒ Warm and humid conditions

ƒƒ Spots on upper surface of the leaf ƒƒ Lesions appear ƒƒ Infects leaf, stem, and pod centres on water-soaked spots

ƒƒ Plant resistant soybean varieties


DOWNY MILDEW Conditions

ƒƒ Hot, dry conditions

Look For

Prevention

ƒƒ Greenish yellow to ƒƒ Natural predators, such orange to brown patches as fungi and thrips ƒƒ Pierce leaves and ƒƒ Spray treatments feed on plant juices

RHIZOCTONIA ROOT ROT Conditions

ƒƒ Warm soil temperatures ƒƒ Delayed emergence ƒƒ Soil types with high amounts of organic matter

FUSARIUM WILT Conditions

ƒƒ Cool temperatures ƒƒ Wet soil ƒƒ Early in the growing season ƒƒ Flooding

Look For

Prevention

ƒƒ Rusty-brown, dry sunken lesions on stems and roots near the soil line ƒƒ Decay of lateral roots may occur ƒƒ Affects seedlings and older plants

ƒƒ High quality seed ƒƒ Good agronomic practices ƒƒ Avoid/reduce plant stress from herbicide injury

Look For

Prevention

ƒƒ Showing cortical decay or ƒƒ Ensure soil is well drained vascular discolouration ƒƒ Minimizing soil ƒƒ Roots may appear compaction brown to black ƒƒ Fungicidal seed ƒƒ Lateral roots may die treatments are and decompose recommended

STEM CANKER/POD AND STEM BLIGHT Conditions

Look For

Prevention

ƒƒ Dry weather with high population ƒƒ Drought conditions

ƒƒ Round or ragged holes in leaves ƒƒ Damage to soybean pods

ƒƒ Spray insecticide before aphids reach 1,000 per plant ƒƒ Scout fields in July for aphids

SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODES Conditions

Look For

Prevention

ƒƒ Wind, water, animals, and farm machinery can spread the disease

ƒƒ Lemon shaped cysts ƒƒ Stunted, yellow looking plants with root damage ƒƒ Symptoms are identified most accurately by below-ground analysis

ƒƒ Plant resistant varieties ƒƒ Rotate crop with non-host plant ƒƒ Reduce other pests such as weeds, insects, and diseases

Illustrations ©2018 NorthStar Genetics

Issue 19 | 2018

29


Adding Corn to a Prairie Rotation | 

Ron Friesen

The best crop rotation is a diverse crop rotation…

30 Growing Soybeans


Adding corn to a Prairie crop rotation can produce positive economic benefits. There are certain factors that growers need to carefully consider before doing so, industry officials say. “The total net profit can be quite favourable with corn,” says Anne Kirk, a feed grains specialist with Manitoba Agriculture. The interest in adding corn to Prairie rotations has certainly been on the rise, and deservingly so, but there are important things to factor in when deciding how best to grow corn. Effective use of a crop rotation can have a significant influence on crop yields. Typically, corn grown after canola and soybeans in Manitoba shows positive yield responses, says Kirk. She encourages growers to include a range of crops in their rotations and not to make them too narrow. “The best crop rotation is a diverse crop rotation, including a variety of crops such as broadleaf crops and grasses, as well as nitrogen-fixing crops such as soybeans,” Kirk says. Corn is an established crop in the Red River Valley, where Manitoba producers are growing corn and soybeans in rotation quite successfully. Farmers are seeing the benefit of corn on their fields, including breaking up the cycle of

root rot pathogens such as pythium and rhizoctonia.

planter is practically essential because air seeders cannot provide a consistent planting depth and seed count. She advises growers to have access to a corn planter, either owned or rented, before deciding on corn. Having corn custom planted is a common practice for growers who wish to grow corn, but who are not yet ready to invest in their own planter.

Morgan Cott, a field agronomist with the Manitoba Corn Growers Association agrees corn and soybeans are a convenient rotation, but warns against a continuous rotation of corn and soybeans for too long of a duration. Growing cereals and canola along with corn and soybeans will help farmers capture sustainable rotational benefits such as disease and herbicide management.

A dryer is necessary to lower grain moisture content, since corn coming off the field contains around 25 per cent moisture and needs to be dried down to 15-16 per cent for storage. Fortunately, many grain growers already have drying equipment to assist in drying down other tough grain on their farms.

Something else to regard before incorporating corn into the rotation is whether it is suitable for your growing region, says Kirk. There have been recent advances in developing earlymaturing hybrids, but corn is still a relatively late season crop and may not be suited to regions with a cooler, drier climate and a shorter growing season. When selecting a corn hybrid, be sure to understand its relative maturity and its suitability for your region. “The number of growing degree days or corn heat units in a region really dictate which hybrids you are able to incorporate into a rotation,” says Kirk.

Adding corn to your rotation will require learning specifics about hybrid performance, planting, weed control, harvest, drying and storage. It will require investment of your time and money. After you factor in the return per acre and rotational benefits, is corn a good option for growers to explore? Industry experts agree: yes, absolutely.

Another consideration is having access to the proper equipment. Cott says a corn

The more crops you can incorporate into your rotation, the more sustainable it is as far as not having issues with weed resistance or diseases. Issue 19 | 2018

31


Rotations and soil nutrients, no simple solutions | 

John Dietz

Forget simple solutions, dig for good advice on questions about your pulse crop, rotations and nutrients. Soybeans have exploded into a major Manitoba crop in the past five to ten years, from a handful of growers in the core of the Red River Valley to thousands of growers located virtually everywhere that field crops are seeded in Manitoba. Currently, the association has 11 project titles under the soybean rotation search. The earliest listed began in 2012. The most recent began in 2017 and will take a few years.

A handful of growers and researchers in Manitoba have deep experience with soybeans. For most, it still is a new crop, says Cassandra Tkachuk, Manitoba Pulse Soybean Growers association production specialist for soybeans.

soybeans for many years in Manitoba. That information is collected, online and available to answer most production questions right now, at www.manitobapulse.ca under the Research Reports tab.

Tkachuk has considerable experience. She began working in soybean agronomy in 2011, and became the provincial production specialist in 2017.

“This is the place to go if you want to know what we know right now. It’s particularly strong on soybeans. If you select the crop type (soybeans) and search for the single word, “rotation”, you can see the names of many projects and researchers,” she says.

Even if a project isn’t completed, the preliminary results may be available. For instance, AAFC scientist Ramona Mohr began a five-year study in 2017 on sustainable soybean cropping systems in western Manitoba. Her 2017 results are posted on the manitobapulse.ca website now.

After selecting the crop, select the priority area. Agronomy is the priority area for rotations. Other priority areas are nutrition and end-use, pathology and variety development.

A two-year study began in 2017 on the relationship between soybean frequency in a rotation and the persistence of rhizobia in Manitoba soils. It is being led by University of Manitoba scientist

Staffing, and research, for the grower association has been ramping up quickly. Early this year, the group hired a second production specialist for western Manitoba, Laryssa Stevenson, at a new office in Brandon. The MPSG and plant scientists have been doing careful research on

Issue 19 | 2018

33


Ivan Oresnik. In this case, no results are posted yet.

Rotation planning is not for the busy seasons or machinery cabs.

Generally, crop rotation studies point to a four-year rotation as best.

Online studies, grower publications and winter meetings are all good places to gather advice that will help a grower sort through the rotation and nutrient issues, she suggests.

Tkachuk views rotations with pulse crops as “a very complicated topic” that really needs good research data specific to the topic and the region or perhaps soil type.

For example, Manitoba manager of crop industry development, Anastasia Kubinec, gave a series of talks last winter, including at NorthStar Genetics meetings.

“I think most soybean growers probably are into a three-year rotation but you want to aim for a four-year rotation, based on much of the crop rotation literature,” she says. “There has been extensive research on rotations, but crops vary a lot across regions, and you can only look at so many factors in a study to make meaningful conclusions.”

One of her really good slides captures the yield response of various crops following a range of crops. It shows the impact that good crop rotation has on yield, and how some crops, such as soybeans, contribute more than others. Searching for management answers on the grower website won’t answer all the questions. Some aren’t ready to be answered by anyone, she admits, but the research probably is underway.

Rotation planning is not for the busy seasons or machinery cabs. Things to evaluate, she suggests, include moisture and nutrient availability, weed management, herbicide carryover, disease pressure, rhizobium population, pest buildup and pest pressure.

“If you’re looking for something specific, scan through those reports when you’ve got time,” Tkachuk suggests.

Chart 1: Assumptions – Crop Sequence Yields Previous Crop

Spring Wheat

Oat

Barley

Canola

Flax

Field Pea

Soybean

Sunflower

Spring Wheat

85

94

95

102

104

Oat

91

79

78

95

92

Barley

88

90

82

100

Canola

100

101

103

Flax

96

90

107

Field Pea

102

110

106

Grain Corn

103

102

103

96

93

100

102

99

102

91

100

96

92

87

86

98

100

92

99

103

83

91

98

88

85

104

148

95

98

Soybean

107

108

107

103

107

90

93

103

103

Sunflower

102

102

106

90

99

85

93

82

97

Grain Corn

98

110

94

110

90

101

115

88

Yield/ac

50 bu

101 bu

65 bu

36 bu

21 bu

38 bu

35 bu

1607 lb

121 bu

Source: Yield response of Manitoba crops sown on large (>120 acre) fields of various previous crop (stubble) in rotation 2010-2016 (MASC)

34 Growing Soybeans


Out here, great yield starts with great weed control. That’s why I PUT THE SYSTEM TO WORK on my acres.

THIS IS MY FIELD.

IT’S THE SYSTEM THAT MAKES THE DIFFERENCE. XTEND YOUR WEED CONTROL + XTEND YOUR YIELD Get the system with proven yield performance built on Roundup Ready 2 Yield® technology and the only soybean trait that provides tolerance to dicamba and glyphosate. See your retailer or visit genuitytraits.ca

Monsanto Company is a member of Excellence Through Stewardship® (ETS). Monsanto products are commercialized in accordance with ETS Product Launch Stewardship Guidance, and in compliance with Monsanto’s Policy for Commercialization of Biotechnology-Derived Plant Products in Commodity Crops. These products have been approved for import into key export markets with functioning regulatory systems. Any crop or material produced from these products can only be exported to, or used, processed or sold in countries where all necessary regulatory approvals have been granted. It is a violation of national and international law to move material containing biotech traits across boundaries into nations where import is not permitted. Growers should talk to their grain handler or product purchaser to confirm their buying position for these products. Excellence Through Stewardship® is a registered trademark of Excellence Through Stewardship. ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW PESTICIDE LABEL DIRECTIONS. Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® soybeans contain genes that confer tolerance to glyphosate and dicamba. Agricultural herbicides containing glyphosate will kill crops that are not tolerant to glyphosate, and those containing dicamba will kill crops that are not tolerant to dicamba. Contact your Monsanto dealer or call the Monsanto technical support line at 1-800-667-4944 for recommended Roundup Ready® Xtend Crop System weed control programs. Roundup Ready 2 Xtend®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Xtend® and VaporGrip® are registered trademarks of Monsanto Technology LLC, Monsanto Canada Inc. licensee. ©2018 Monsanto Canada Inc.

Issue 19 | 2018

Dicamba and Glyphosate Pre-mix 35


FIELD, MEET YIELD. WITH

NSC JORDAN

We know you need the highest yielding soybeans. Look no further than NorthStar Genetics’ NSC Jordan RR2Y. With exceptional high yield potential and an excellent disease resistant package, watch for NSC Jordan to be the top yielding variety in Western Canada. To meet our whole lineup visit northstargenetics.com

WE KNOW BEANS ©2018 NorthStar Genetics Monsanto Company is a member of Excellence Through Stewardship® (ETS). Monsanto products are commercialized in accordance with ETS Product Launch Stewardship Guidance, and in compliance with Monsanto’s Policy for Commercialization of Biotechnology-Derived Plant Products in Commodity Crops. These products have been approved for import into key export markets with functioning regulatory systems. Any crop or material produced from these products can only be exported to, or used, processed or sold in countries where all necessary regulatory approvals have been granted. It is a violation of national and international law to move material containing biotech traits across boundaries into nations where import is not permitted. Growers should talk to their grain handler or product purchaser to confirm their buying position for these products. Excellence Through Stewardship® is a registered trademark of Excellence Through Stewardship. ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW PESTICIDE LABEL DIRECTIONS. Roundup Ready® technology contains genes that confer tolerance to glyphosate, an active ingredient in Roundup® brand agricultural herbicides. Agricultural herbicides containing glyphosate will kill crops that are not tolerant to glyphosate. Acceleron®, Genuity and Design®, Genuity®, RIB Complete and Design®, RIB Complete®, Roundup Ready 2 Technology and Design®, Roundup Ready 2 Yield®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup®, SmartStax®, VT Double PRO® and VT Triple PRO® are registered trademarks of Monsanto Technology LLC, Monsanto Canada Inc. licensee. LibertyLink® and the Water Droplet Design are trademarks of Bayer. Used under license. Herculex® is a registered trademark of Dow AgroSciences LLC. 36 Growing Used under license. ©2017 Monsanto CanadaSoybeans Inc. Issue 19 | 2018 36 *Please be sure to use the appropriate statement for your crop/treatment; Please visit www.monsantotraits.ca for statement details.

Growing Soybeans Issue 19 / Fall 2018  
Growing Soybeans Issue 19 / Fall 2018