Page 1

CSA’19 CSA’19

PRESENTATIONS

PARTNERS


J. Mellado-Carretero, M. Puxeu, L. RodrĂ­guez-Saona and S. de Lamo-Castellv


Background: Infrared Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is the science that studies the interaction of different types of radiation with matte

Spectroscopy

Electromagnetic radiation

Fotonic Spectroscopy

2


Infrared Spectroscopy Quantum theory: There will be absorption when the energy of the incident photon coincides with the energy difference between the ground state and one of the excited states of the absorbing species. The energy associated with the different states of a molecule consists of three components: No electronic transitions observed in the infrared region

E = Eelectronic + Evibrational + Erotational

Liquid and solid states make molecules imposible to rotate

How do molecules absorb? RESONANCE

3


Surface treatment of cork stoppers Cork stoppers are coated with lubricant films of silicone or paraffin to improve their sealing properties and reduce friction. This operation, operation also known as softening, has some benefits: ďƒź Facilitates their extraction and insertion ďƒź In wine preservation: off-odours (TCA) and oxidation However, the softening can affect the air permeability properties of cork stoppers, very important in the process of wine aging!! Several analysis methods have been proposed to control stopper surface treatments: Direct measurements: Grass chromatography-Mass chromatography spectrometry and extraction with solvents

Homogeneity?

Indirect measurements: force extraction to extract the stopper 4


Surface treatment of cork stoppers

Previous studies reported the use of Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Mid Infrared (ATR-FT-MIR) spectroscopy for detecting the presence and the type of treatment applied to cork stoppers.

There is the need to find a new approach to rapidly and non-destructively characterize the surface treatment applied to cork stoppers.

Near infrared spectroscopy has the potential to provide a new way to rapidly assure the homogeneity of surface treatments applied to cork stoppers with low running costs and no sample preparation. 5


Objective Determining the presence of surface treatments applied to cork stoppers in a non-destructive destructive way by using a handheld portable near-infrared infrared system combined with multivariate analysis

Developing a simple, non-destructive non and reproducible infrared spectroscopy method for quality assurance of cork stoppers will be a breakthrough for cork industry 6


Materials & Methods SAMPLING

MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS Pirouette software 4.0

Sample preparation not required!!

Spectra preprocessing (Mean centering and MSC) SIMCA analysis

Thermo Scientific™ microPHAZIR RX Analyzer microPHAZIR™ NIR region (1600 a 2400 nm) Data download via PC USB connection

SPECTRA ACQUISITION

7


Materials & Methods (II): SIMCA In Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy nalogy (SIMCA), each training set class is described by its own principal component (PC) model. When a prediction is done through SIMCA, samples that are not close enough to the PC class model are considered no-members of that one.

Class separation

SIMCA outputs

• Sample residuals • Interclass distances (ICD): classes with ICD > 3 are considered statistically different • Class projections: 95% confidence intervals

Which variables are responsible of discrimination?

• Discriminating Power

Outlier diagnostics

• Mahalanobis distances • Interclass residuals 8


9


Treated stoppers 0.004

PC3

PC1

Untreated stoppers

PC2

ICD: 4.0

0.003

0.002

0.001

0.001

Untreated stoppers

0.002

0.003

Treated stoppers

Treated Untreated Discriminating Power

1927

2130

150

100

2285

50

0 1759 1927 2090 2247 2396

Wavelenght (nm)

2285 nm: νas (CH3) + δas (CH3)


Untreated stoppers 0.005

PC1

PC3

Untreated stoppers

PC2

ICD: 3

0.004 0.003 0.002 0.001

0.0004

Treated stoppers

0.0012

0.0016

Treated stoppers

Treated Untreated

0.0008

Discriminating Power

2293

200

2367 100

2337

2293 nm: νas (CH3) + δas (CH3) 2367 nm: νas (CH3) + δs (CH3)

0 1759 1927 2090 2247 2396

Wavelenght (nm)

11


Untreated stoppers

PC2

PC3

PC1

Treated stoppers

0.002

0.001

0.001 0.002 Treated stoppers

Untreated 2293 200

Discriminating Power

Treated

Untreatted stoppers

ICD: 5.0

150

100

2367 2322 2254

2293 nm: νas (CH3) + δas (CH3) 2367 nm: νas (CH3) + δs (CH3)

50

0 1759 1927 2090 2247 2396

Wavelenght (nm)

12


0.004

PC2

PC1

Untreated stoppers

ICD: 3.1

PC3

0.003

0.002

0.001

0.001

Treated stoppers

0.002

0.003

Treated stoppers

2293 Discriminating Power

Agglomerated cork with discs – sparkling wine

Untreated stoppers

120

80

2367

2293 nm: νas (CH3) + δas (CH3) 2367 nm: νas (CH3) + δs (CH3)

2337 40

0 1759 1927 2090 2247 2396

Wavelength (nm)

13


PC2 PC3

PC1

Untreated stoppers

0.006

ICD: 3.1 0.004

0.002

0.000

Treated stoppers

0.0006

0.0010

0.0014

0.0018

0.0022

Treated stoppers

2293 Discriminating Power

Mixture agglomerated agglomerated/microagglomerated cork – sparkling wine

Untreated stoppers

2293 nm: νas (CH3) + δas (CH3) 2367 nm: νas (CH3) + δs (CH3)

300

200

2367 2337

100

0 1759 1927 2090 2247 2396

Wavelength (nm)

14


PC2

0.004

PC1

Untreated stoppers

PC3

ICD: 3.3

0.003

0.002

0.001

0.0004

Untreated stoppers

0.0006

0.0008

0.0010

0.0012

Treated stoppers

2293

Discriminating Power

Microagglomerated cork – sparkling wine

Treated stoppers

300

2293 nm: νas (CH3) + δas (CH3) 2367 nm: νas (CH3) + δs (CH3)

200

2367 2337

100

0 1759 1927 2090 2247 2396

Wavelength (nm)

15


Conclusions

• Different types of surface-treated treated and untreated cork stoppers we discriminated by using Near-Infrared Infrared Spectroscopy combined with SIMCA

• Regardles of the cork stopper type, type all the treatments were identified by th same NIR bands, related to silicone treatment applied

• This study shows the potential of using FT-NIR Spectroscopy combined wi multivariate analysis as a rapid and non-destructive method for quali assurance of surface-treated cork stoppers

16


CONTRIBUTION OF CORK STOPPER TO THE AROMA OF WINE. POSITIVE COMPOUNDS CORK IN SCIENCE 2019 | Grup OLLER 2019


INTRODUCTION Cork is used traditionally to produce cork stoppers thanks to its physical properties like compressibility, lightness, impermeability to liquids and gases… Cork is composed of suberin, lignin, polysaccahrides and extractives (polar and nonpolar).

PRODUCTION PROCESS The cork manufacturing process has included different treatments to improve the cork stoppers sensorial quality. These processes result in a clear reduction of off-flavour compounds but at the same time they affect other aromatic compounds present in cork

Grup OLLER | Sector Industrial El Trust Ctra. C-65 Km. 16,5 · Cassà de la Selva (Girona) | Tel. +34 972 46 03 50 | www.ollerfco.com |

OLLER_1892


INTRODUCTION – production process

Grup OLLER | Sector Industrial El Trust Ctra. C-65 Km. 16,5 · Cassà de la Selva (Girona) | Tel. +34 972 46 03 50 | www.ollerfco.com |

OLLER_1892


OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the treatments, implemented in the manufacturing process, in the positive aromatic compounds present in cork and their effect in wine.

Grup OLLER | Sector Industrial El Trust Ctra. C-65 Km. 16,5 ¡ Cassà de la Selva (Girona) | Tel. +34 972 46 03 50 | www.ollerfco.com |

OLLER_1892


MATERIALS & METHODS MATERIAL Natural cork discs

• Without treatment

• Thermal treatment • Wash treatment

Grup OLLER | Sector Industrial El Trust Ctra. C-65 Km. 16,5 · Cassà de la Selva (Girona) | Tel. +34 972 46 03 50 | www.ollerfco.com |

OLLER_1892


MATERIALS & METHODS MATERIAL Natural cork discs • Without treatment

• Thermal treatment

• Washing process

Grup OLLER | Sector Industrial El Trust Ctra. C-65 Km. 16,5 · Cassà de la Selva (Girona) | Tel. +34 972 46 03 50 | www.ollerfco.com |

OLLER_1892


MATERIALS & METHODS THERMAL TREATMENT

Combinated cycles of temperature and moisture with airflow and extraction Enables the volatilization and elimination of haloanisoles

Grup OLLER | Sector Industrial El Trust Ctra. C-65 Km. 16,5 · Cassà de la Selva (Girona) | Tel. +34 972 46 03 50 | www.ollerfco.com |

OLLER_1892


MATERIALS & METHODS MATERIAL Natural cork discs • Without treatment • Heat treatment

• Wash treatment

Grup OLLER | Sector Industrial El Trust Ctra. C-65 Km. 16,5 · Cassà de la Selva (Girona) | Tel. +34 972 46 03 50 | www.ollerfco.com |

OLLER_1892


MATERIALS & METHODS WASHING PROCESS Washing process with ethanol-water in aqueous phase and vapour phase Reduces the amount of compounds that are soluble in water and ethanol

Grup OLLER | Sector Industrial El Trust Ctra. C-65 Km. 16,5 · Cassà de la Selva (Girona) | Tel. +34 972 46 03 50 | www.ollerfco.com |

OLLER_1892


MATERIALS & METHODS

CROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

cork granulate/EtOH 12% 48h maceration

SPE extraction

Grup OLLER | Sector Industrial El Trust Ctra. C-65 Km. 16,5 · Cassà de la Selva (Girona) | Tel. +34 972 46 03 50 | www.ollerfco.com |

GC-MS analysis

OLLER_1892


MATERIALS & METHODS

vanillin p-vinilguaicol

homovanilic acid

acetovanillone 4-hidroxy-3-methoxy phenylacetone

ANALYSED COMPOUNDS • Vanillin • p-vinylguaiacol • Acetovanillone • 4-hydroxi-3-methoxyphenylacetone • Homovanillic acid Grup OLLER | Sector Industrial El Trust Ctra. C-65 Km. 16,5 · Cassà de la Selva (Girona) | Tel. +34 972 46 03 50 | www.ollerfco.com |

OLLER_1892


MATERIALS & METHODS ANALYSED COMPOUNDS

Acetovanillone

Vanillin

Homovanillic acid

p-vinilguaiacol

4-hydroxi-3-methoxyphenylacetone

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OLLER_1892


MATERIALS & METHODS SENSORY ANALYSIS – IMPACT ON WINE

PROSECCO WINE: Light aromatic composition Main aromatic notes: fruity and floral Absence of notes from second fermentation: pastry, toasty, honey…

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OLLER_1892


MATERIALS & METHODS SENSORY ANALYSIS – IMPACT ON WINE

SENSORY PANEL: 5 trained judges Tasting sheet: vanilla, wood, smoke Olfactometric intensity 0-5

Smoky taste: Not found Due to fire branding

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RESULTS

µg/g

THERMAL TREATMENT 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

non-treated 1 treatment cycle

vanillin Olfactory threshold: 1-200 µg/L

Grup OLLER | Sector Industrial El Trust Ctra. C-65 Km. 16,5 · Cassà de la Selva (Girona) | Tel. +34 972 46 03 50 | www.ollerfco.com |

OLLER_1892


RESULTS

µg/g

THERMAL TREATMENT 5 4,5 4 3,5 3 2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 0

Grup OLLER | Sector Industrial El Trust Ctra. C-65 Km. 16,5 · Cassà de la Selva (Girona) | Tel. +34 972 46 03 50 | www.ollerfco.com |

non-treated 1 treatment cycle

OLLER_1892


RESULTS THERMAL TREATMENT

Produces lignin degradation Increases the concentration of compounds with vanilla, wood and spicy taste

Lignin polymer

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OLLER_1892


RESULTS

µg/g

WASHING TREATMENT 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

non-washed thermal treatment washed

vanillin

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OLLER_1892


RESULTS WASHING TREATMENT 5,0

µg/g

4,0 3,0 2,0 1,0

non-washed thermal treatment

0,0

washed

Grup OLLER | Sector Industrial El Trust Ctra. C-65 Km. 16,5 · Cassà de la Selva (Girona) | Tel. +34 972 46 03 50 | www.ollerfco.com |

OLLER_1892


RESULTS WASHING PROCESS

Water ethanol washing process Solubilisation of polar compounds Reduction of compounds with vanilla, wood and spicy taste

Grup OLLER | Sector Industrial El Trust Ctra. C-65 Km. 16,5 · Cassà de la Selva (Girona) | Tel. +34 972 46 03 50 | www.ollerfco.com |

OLLER_1892


RESULTS

Olfactory intensity

EFFECT ON WINE 5 4,5 4 3,5 3 2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 0

wood vanillin smoke

non treated

heat treatment

washed

Grup OLLER | Sector Industrial El Trust Ctra. C-65 Km. 16,5 · Cassà de la Selva (Girona) | Tel. +34 972 46 03 50 | www.ollerfco.com |

OLLER_1892


CONCLUSIONS 

The manufacturing process modulates the aromatic profile of cork and has an influence on the wine’s aromatic profile.

The thermal process produces an increase of vanillin notes as a result of the degradation of the lignin matrix of cork. These are the same aromatic notes that can be found in oak barrels for wine.

The washing process solubilizes the analysed compounds and reduce their concentration due to their polarity and solubility.

Grup OLLER | Sector Industrial El Trust Ctra. C-65 Km. 16,5 · Cassà de la Selva (Girona) | Tel. +34 972 46 03 50 | www.ollerfco.com |

OLLER_1892


CONTRIBUTION OF CORK STOPPER TO THE AROMA OF WINE. POSITIVE COMPOUNDS CORK IN SCIENCE 2019 | Grup OLLER 2019

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION


Ultrafast analytical method for TCA determination in cork stoppers Agilent technologies Solutions

José Juan Rivero Especialista de Producto AGILENT TECHNOLOGIES 901.11.68.90

Jose Juan Rivero Marabé GC & GCMS Product Specialist


Objectives

Reviewing the current situation

OIV-OENO 296/2009

• Methodology conditions • Maceration/SPME/GCMS or GCECD

OIV-OENO 623/2018

• MSMS tandem

• Shorten total analysis times as much as possible • Taking in advance the nowadays Technology • Reach LOQ levels of 0.5ppt


Current lab situation

30-45min

24hÂą2

15-30min

x10 7 2.6 2.4 2.2 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 7

8

LOQ: ~1ng/L

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17 18 19 Counts vs. Acquisition Time (min)

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29


How accelerate the analysis?

1. Sample preparation. 2. Chromatographic conditions.


Improvements in Sample preparation SPME ARROW Key benefits compared to classical SPME Fibers

Superior sensitivity • With up to 15 x more sorption phase volume the new PAL SPME Arrow achieves up 10 x better sensitivities compared to classic SPME Fibers

Higher throughput • With an up to 6 x bigger surface the new PAL SPME Arrow extracts the same amount of analyte typically 3 times faster compared to classic SPME Fibers

Improved robustness • The PAL SPME Arrow’s geometry and materials have been optimized. Therefore lifetime is typically 2-3 times longer than with the classic SPME Fibers


SPME Arrow & how improve the analysis

Extraction conditions: • SPME ARROW 100um PDMS • Extraction Temperature: 50ºC • Agitation speed: 750 rpm • Equilibrium time: 1 minute • Extraction Time: 2 minutes (120 s) • Desorption Time: 1 minute at 260ºC


How accelerate the analysis? Modular Intuvo flow chips

Disposable Guard chip

Ferrule-free click-and-run connections

No-trim column

Direct heating


Why Intuvo help to us?


Productivity improved over all GC platforms

Heating….

Max ramp temp 50ºC Max ramp temp 250ºC

Cooling…. 400>50 (4min)

400>50 (2min)


Advantage of INTUVO’s platform

Win time on Heating and Cooling

Off flavors mix. The peak at RT 0.664 is the extracted ion 217 of the IS TCAd5, while the peak at RT 0.793 is the extracted ion 212 to identify TCA. TCA concentration in the sample is 0.3 ppt


Why MSMS in tรกndem?


Why MSMS in tándem?

Highly selectivity

Highly Sensitivity

High Acquisition Speed

• Easiest Sample preparation

•Lowest LOQ

• Highly number of analytes

Mass Spectra stability

No Matrix interferences

•Avoid false positives and negatives

• Minimizing • Matrix effects

Advantage: 1. Increased analytical performance 2. Improvement detection limits. 3. Improves analytical confidence.


MRM Conditions for TCA Background study

195 -> 167 (10v)

210 -> 195 (10v)

167-> 83 (20v)

TCA

212 -> 197 (10v)

197 -> 169 (20V)

167 -> 107 (20v)

T C A TCA

MRM transitions: 212 >197; 210>195 e 197>169 Less noise and interferences = higher selectivity High selectivity => Higher sensitivity


LOQs reached!!!

TCA = 0.3 ppt GC/MS/MS Quantifier trans: 212 > 197 TCA: 0,3 ppt

LOQs target for TCA: 0.5ppt


Robotics double-head. Improving the dead time.

Maximum productivity and throughput: MPS Dual Head

Two towers operating simultaneously: Staggered/overlapping SPME cycles: SPME 1 / SPME 2 SPME cycle time ~2 min • Incubation 1 min; extraction 2.0 min; desorption 1.0 min • Two samples processed staggered in parallel. Cycle time: 2 min • 6 position agitator: Long incubation time and short cycle possible GC/MS cycle time 3.1 min • Run time 1.64 min; Cool down 1.46 min. Fiber conditioning station or GC inlet conditioning Operates for SPME and for SPME-Arrow


Parallel Prep with MPS robotic Dual Head Example: Dual SPME method for very high throughput


Parallel Prep with MPS robotic Dual Head Example: Dual SPME method for very high throughput

sequentially: 2 x 30 15 samples run prepared in parallel*: Total 2 h 30 min Total runrun timetime approx. 1h 20 min

*Method parameters must be feasibility tested before use


FINAL SUMMARY

Excellent sensitivity for TCA Higher selectivity Expandable to other Off-Flavours Increased productivity: Automatization

X10 24hÂą2

3 min

3 min


Big Thanks to…

Eduardo Mateus New University of Lisbon -FCT/DCEA Campus Caparica Portugal


Thank you for your attention

JosĂŠ Juan Rivero Product Specialist at Agilent Technologies jose.rivero@agilent.com


Oxygen transfer through cork stoppers Julie Chanut, AurĂŠlieLagorce, RĂŠgisGougeon, Jean-Pierre Bellat,

Thomas Karbowiak


INTRODUCTION


PAM Lab: Food & Wine Science

Food Packaging

Material Science

Wine Science 3


Premature oxidation of wine: Origin ? Viticultural practices? Climate?

Bottling process?

Oenological practices?

Storage?

[sulfites]

Role of the closure?

4


Wine oxidation and the role of Cork


Gas transfer through wine closures

17 different units

D calculated values

6

31 Publications GTR calculated values

25


PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENTS EFFECT OF COMPRESSION / ROLE OF THE INTERFACE


Permeability measurements

Manometric technique

1. 2. 3.

Outgassing Initial pressure of O2 in C1 p = f (t)


Samples preparation Compressed

Not compressed

(glued interface) 6 mm thick

3 mm thick

Compressed in the bottleneck (glass/cork interface) 49 mm length

Compression applied for still wine

24 mm

18.5 mm

18.5 mm Âą 0.5


Fromwafer to a wholecorkstopper stopper

48 mm extrapolated Distribution

3 mm experimental distribution

Samples with different thickness can be compared


Effect of Compression / Role of the interface O2 O2 O2

Experimental conditions: Low hydrated cork without any surface treatment


CONCLUSION


Conclusion Development of a method to compare samples with different thickness Compression applied for still wine  no effect on DO2 Glass bottleneck/cork  DO2 50 times higher  seems to play a key role Important to better understand  role of water on DO2  effect of surface treatment

O2

O2

O2


ISOPOW DIJON 24 - 28 AUGUST 2019

INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON THE PROPERTIES OF WATER


CORK IN SCIENCE 2019 MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF NATURAL CORK STOPPERS WHEN MODIFYING THE STANDARD CORKING PARAMETERS IN THREE PRACTICAL CASES

COMPORTAMIENTO DEL TAPÓN NATURAL AL MODIFICAR LOS PARÁMETROS ESTANDAR DEL ENCORCHADO EN TRES SUPUESTOS PRÁCTICOS

Cristina Prades1 and Mariola Sánchez-González2 1 Forest

2 Forest

Engineering Department– Universidad de Córdoba Research Centre - INIA


INTRODUCTION

• Wine sealing is an important part of the wine making process • To maintain the quality of the wine during bottling, storage and shipping


INTRODUCTION

• During the bottling operation, the stopper is inserted into the bottleneck by compressing it with a caliper • Close relationship among:  bottleneck diameter  stopper diameter  caliper closure diameter (compression rate)

• The stopper dimensions are established in accordance with the standardized inner dimensions of the bottleneck


INTRODUCTION

• European Standard EN 12726

• Caliper closure diameter: 16 mm (compression rate of 33%)


INTRODUCTION • Cork planks thickness greater than 27 mm, cork planks suitable ranges from 35% to 60% • Cork production is decreasing: lack of regeneration and ageing of cork oak forests Cork production (103 t)

160 140 120 100 80 60

40 20 0 1920

1940

1960

1980

2000

2020

Spanish cork production according to official statistics (MAPA, 1922-2015)


INTRODUCTION • This decrease has taken place gradually 87,735 • 1974-1983 t/year 80,881 • 1984-1993 t/year

Spanish mean cork production according to official statistics (MAPA, 1974-2015)

70,920 • 1994-2003 t/year 51,613 • 2005-2015 t/year

• This declining trend could stabilize or be reversed:  Cork plantations from CAP in the period 1993-2000  Intensive plantations with irrigations


INTRODUCTION • The demand for natural cork stoppers has increased Raw cork EXPORTS OF CORK IN VALUE (MILLION €)

120 100 80 60 40 20

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

0

Spanish cork exports according to official statistics (DATACOMEX, 2019)


INTRODUCTION

• Possibility of reducing stopper diameter, while maintaining or improving the requirements for appropriate sealing performance • The aim of this work is to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of stoppers during the corking process when reducing the stopper diameter • Previous step towards establishing the appropriate relationship between forces and diameters that contribute to a proper sealing


MATERIAL & METHODS • Three practical cases:

• Data set:

Botlleneck diameter

Stopper diameter

Caliper diameter

1

17

20.5

15.5

2

18

22.5

16.5

3

19

24

17.5

 3 batches of natural cork stoppers of aforementioned diameter values  A sample of 30 cork stoppers per size selected with the criteria of having similar values of density were used  Once acclimatized at 20°C and 65% of relative humidity, stoppers were weighed and measured

• Mechanical tests: simulate the corking process and determine the following parameters:    

Maximum compression force Maximum relaxation force Relaxation ratio Recovered diameter after compression


MATERIAL & METHODS Compression test: • Semiautomatic corking machine equipped with a load cell • Select and fix the caliper closure diameter and measure the force of compression of the stopper into the bottleneck tube • Tubes that simulate bottlenecks


MATERIAL & METHODS

Relaxation test: • Device developed at INIA Cork Laboratory (González-Hernández et al. 2012) • The relaxation force is registered and transmitted via a spindle to a load cell which transforms it into an electrical signal which, in turn, is presented as a value on a screen


METHODOLOGY Relaxation ratio: • The viscoelastic behavior of the fitted stopper is measured by the relaxation ratio (Gonzalez-Hernåndez et al., 2014):

đ?‘…đ?‘… (%)=100 RF/CF where CF is the maximum compression force and RF is the maximum relaxation force Diameter recovery:

• Mitutoyo ID-F150 digital vernier callipers • 24h after compression


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION COMPRESSION FORCE (daN)

20.5x44 mm Mean

Range

172.37 (25.03)

124.2-211

22.5x44 mm Mean

Range

24x44 mm Mean

Range

188.59 196.34 145.6-232.2 (20.85) (26.3)

116.6246.0

RELAXATION FORCE (daN) 20.5x44 mm

22.5x44 mm

24x44 mm

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

18.98 (2.21)

14.16-24.60

22.35 (2.5)

14.75-26.36

25.72 (3.28)

17.93-32.68

โ€ข Lower values than those obtained for standard sealing conditions (Gonzรกlez-Hernรกndez et al. 2014)


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION RELAXATION RATIO

20.5x44 mm

22.5x44 mm

24x44 mm

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

0.13 (0.01)

0.10-0.15

0.12 (0.01)

0.09-0.14

0.11 (0.01)

0.09-0.13

โ€ข The relaxation ratio took values close to 0.11, which is the value that takes for standard sealing conditions (Gonzรกlez-Hernรกndez et al., 2014) DIAMETER RECOVERY (%)

20.5x44 mm

22.5x44 mm

24x44 mm

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

0.97 (0.01)

0.96-0.98

0.97 (0.01)

0.96-0.99

0.97 (0.01)

0.96-0.99


FINAL REMARKS

• The values obtained for the compression force and relaxation force are lower than those obtained for standard sealing conditions • A similar relaxation ratio ranging from 0.13 to 0.11 was obtained in all three cases • According to the values of diameter recovery obtained, sealing performance is good, at least the first 24 hours • It is not possible to conclude whether the relationship among the tested diameters are optimal


FURTHER RESEARCH

• To establish the appropriate relationship between forces and diameters that contribute to sealing in order to ensure adequate closure during storage time • To validate the theoretical model by experimental work • To study the influence of cork quality and density • To assess the impact of the reduction of stopper diameter in debarking parameters:  Debarking height  Rotation length


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

• This study has been carried out within the framework of the collaboration agreement between INIA and the University of Cordoba • Thanks to the INIA Cork Laboratory staff their contribution to this work and the good job they always do


THANK YOU

Mariola Sรกnchez Gonzรกlez e-mail: msanchez@inia.es


STEM DIAMETER AND HEIGHT AS TRAITS LINKED TO CORK QUALITY: THICKNESS AND POROSITY Augusta Costa | Palafrugell, 22nd May 2019


AGENDA

Cork Quality

Study and Goals

Materials and methods

Results and Conclusions


AGENDA

Cork Quality

Study and Goals

Materials and methods

Results and Conclusions


CORK QUALITY THICKNESS

POROSITY

Decisive for the industrial processing (commercial classes) and the use of cork as a sealant (e.g., in natural cork stoppers or discs)

Decisive for the visual inspection and behaviour as a sealant (quality classes) (e.g., in natural cork stoppers or discs)


WHAT VALUE? THICKNESS

POROSITY

Thickness (mm)

Grading

Products

9 - 22 22-27 27 - 32 32 - 40 40 - 54 >54

Extra thin Thin Half standard Standard Large Extra large

Discs Discs Stoppers Stoppers Stoppers Granulates

Porosity Coefficient (%)1 <6 6 - 10 > 10

Grading 1st - 3rd (Good) 4th - 5th (Medium) 6th (Poor)

1 By

Products Stoppers Stoppers Granulate

definition, Porosity coefficient is the percentage of pore area in relation to total area of cork mass

The quality of the raw cork planks determine the industrial processing and; the type of product


WHAT VALUE? QUALITY (INDEX PRICES) Thickness (mm) < 22 22-27 27 - 32 32 - 40 > 40

Quality classes st

rd

1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 3 (Good) < 30 50 100 100 70

4th- 5th (Medium) 10 30 60 60 30

6th (Poor) < 10 < 15 25 25 < 15


WHAT COST? CORK HARVESTING (INDEX COSTS) Age Shape Stem height Crown canopy (leaf area) Harvesting height Harvesting intensity/frequency Pest/Diseases resistance Cork Growth

Density Structure Basal area Canopy cover Persistence Habitat quality Forest management Pest/Diseases resistance Cork Yield

Habitat diversity Forest understory management Pest/Diseases outbreaks Land tenure Patchiness/Connectivity Cork Supply

Water availability Carbon storage Soil conservation Pest/Diseases outbreaks Habitat suitability Nutrient cycle Climate change effects Biophysical conditions Cork Region


WHAT COST? CORK HARVESTING (INDEX COSTS) Harvesting Height

Workers yield (kg of cork per, working day)

In stem

Higher or in Branches

Pliocenic sedimentary formations

100

65

Carbonic schists formations

75

50

Harvesting height

"Pair of workers"

One worker

Stem harvesting "PĂŠs"

900 -1050

375 - 450

Branches harvesting "Ares"

600 - 750

250 - 360

References: Costa (1991) Metodologias para o ordenamento do montado de sobro. Graduate thesis. University of Lisbon.


AGENDA

Cork Quality

Study and Goals

Materials and methods

Results and Conclusions


VARIABILITY: THICKNESS Decreasing trend of cork thickness with the stem height

Cork in the branches is thinner than below, in the stem.


VARIABILITY: POROSITY Decreasing trend of cork porosity with the stem height. Cork in higher stem heights have pores with smaller area.


Goal To address the within-tree variability of cork quality and, specifically, to assess the stem height-cork thickness and the stem height-cork porosity relationships. Curve for the cork thickness

THICKNESS

Curve for the cork porosity

POROSITY

Optimizing the cork harvesting operation


AGENDA

Cork Quality

Study and Goals

Materials and methods

Results and Conclusions


MATERIALS AND METHODS COLLECTION OF CORK SAMPLES

DATA TREATMENT

DATA ANALYSIS


MATERIALS AND METHODS COLLECTION OF CORK SAMPLES

DATA TREATMENT

DATA ANALYSIS

Selection of more than 60 trees and; The collection of more than 450 cork samples:

3.30 m

At different heights in the tree stem;

2.30 m

At opposite aspect in the tree stem (North and South)

1.30 m

0.30 m


MATERIALS AND METHODS COLLECTION OF CORK SAMPLES

DATA TREATMENT

Cork samples were boiled, cut and sanded for image analysis. In each cork sample, the transversal sections were used for cork-ring width measurements.

DATA ANALYSIS


MATERIALS AND METHODS COLLECTION OF CORK SAMPLES

DATA TREATMENT

Cork samples were boiled, cut and sanded for image analysis. In each cork sample, the tangential section was used for cork porosity measurements.

DATA ANALYSIS


AGENDA

Cork Quality

Study and Goals

Materials and methods

Results and Conclusions


RESULTS: TREE CHARACTERIZATION

83%

80%

Cork-ring width (mm)

48%

5 4 3 2 1 0 2000

2002

2004

2006 Year

2008

2010


RESULTS: CORK THICKNESS Thickness/Thickness at1.30 m

1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

Stem harvesting height (m)

In average, at 4 m height in the stem, the cork thickness may be only 80% of the cork thickness found at 1.30m height

In average, above the stem height of 2 m, the cork planks have a cork thickness inferior to 27 mm (not stoppable)

The cork thickness decreased along the stem upwards. This pattern was consistent with the one reported on previous studies. In our study we found on average a (linear) decreasing rate of 2.5 mm.m-1 of stem height. This pattern was noticed in all trees despite their cork thickness, at 1.30 m.


RESULTS: CORK THICKNESS Stem Profile The cork thickness was not equal, radially around the stem, which was consistent with the other tree species. In our study we found that in the shady side of the stem the cork thickness ranged between 95% and 100% of the cork thickness of the sunny side. The annual growth rate of cork was a decisive variable for stem profile modelling. These results showed that tree growth patterns are associated with the phellogenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s intrinsic characteristics, namely the number of cork cells produced radially by the phellogen, in each cork ring


RESULTS: POROSITY

The number, area and shape of pores in the tangential section were decisive variables, in comparison with the transversal section.

In average, above the stem height of 3 m, the cork planks have a porosity coefficient below 10% (medium to high quality)

The cork porosity coefficient decreased along the stem upwards. This pattern was consistent with the one reported on previous studies. In our study we found on average a (linear) decreasing rate of 0.35 %.m-1 of stem height.


RESULTS: POROSITY Stem Profile The cork porosity decreased along the stem upwards. This pattern was consistent with the one reported on previous studies. In our study we found out that maximum pore area (linear) decrease was on average 15 mm2.m-1 of stem height. The maximum pore area (in tangential section) was a decisive variable for stem profile modelling. These results showed that tree growth patterns are associated with the lenticular phellogenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s intrinsic characteristics, namely the size of lenticular cells produced radially, in each cork ring. The cork porosity decreased along the stem upwards. This pattern was related with the decrease of the (maximum) pore area rather than with the decrease of the number of pores or of the porosity coefficient.


Stem profile

10% Extra thin - Medium - High

4m

30% Thin â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Medium - High

3m

<15% Thin â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Medium

2m

25% Half-Standard /Standard - Medium


THANKS

Project PTDC/BIA-FBT/29704/2017 SuberInStress - Cork formation and suberin deposition: the role of water and heat stress Funded by FCT/MCTES and co-financed by FEDER in the scope of POR Lisboa 2020. Augusta Costa work was funded by FCT/MCTES Post doctoral Grant (SFRH/BPD/97166/2013). Augusta Costa Margarida Oliveira Inês Barbosa José Graça

Augusta Costa | Palafrugell, 22nd May, 2019


CORK GROWTH UNDER DROUGHT CONDITIONS C Leite, V Oliveira, A Lauw and H Pereira


ntroduction The Mediterranean basin is considered a â&#x20AC;&#x153;hot spotâ&#x20AC;? of climate change with tendency towards drier conditions and increasing drought frequency and severity

Source: NOA2010


The occurrence of abnormal drought events is a major concern, namely regarding the possible impacts on the cork quality as an industrial raw-material raw

9 years production cycle Accumulated growth (mm)

60

Target 3.25 mm/year

55 50 45 40 35 30

26 mm

25 20 15 10 5 0 0

1

2

3

4

5

Year

6

7

8

9

10


Study the cork growth under drought conditions and the influence of phellogen age on the ecological performance of the trees


Materials & Methods

12 sites in Coruche (1403 cork samples)

• 30 30-year chronology (1986-2015) • SPEI index (Vicente-Serrano et al.,2010) • Pointer year analysis – 55% of trees with at least 30% increase/decrease in cork growth compared with the preceding 2 years • Resilience components (Lloret et al., 2011) • Mixed model (Pinheiro and Bates, 2000)


Annual precipitation (mm) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

605 734 730 692 701 408 351 762 415 649 775 1192 667

2004 2005 2006

Annual precipitation - from 600mm to 800 mm 500 mm minimum for a balanced tree development

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Cork growth decreases with drought conditions


Dendrocronology applied to cork growth Cork ring (mm) Standardisation Cork index


Wet 0.3

1,80

0.2

1,60

0.2

1,40

0.1

1,20

0.1

1,00

0.0

0,80

-0.1

0,60

-0.1

0,40

-0.2

0,20

-0.2

0,00

dry -0.3 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

2,00

SPEI Oct-Apr

SPEI Apr-Aug

SPEIYear

RWI

SPEI

Correlation with SPEI

• drought reduces cork growth • more severe drought conditions correspond to a greater decrease in growth • other factors affecting cork growth rather than climate conditions


ointer years Year

Number of trees in the series

Proportion of trees with growth 30% under the mean growth of the 2 previous years (%)

Mean growth deviation from the mean growth of the previous year (%)

1995

440

55

-

1999

405

66

-

2005

409

82

-

2012

91

60

-


esilience components

e with low drought crease (high resistance) hieving post-drought wth like pre-drought wth (high resilience)

Tree suffering strong impact but with a fast post-drought growth (high recovery) resulting in high relative resilience Lloret et al., 2011


esilience components

Cork growth suffer strong impact (low resistance) Post-drought growth like pre-drought growth (high resilience) Fast post-drought growth (high recovery) resulting in high relative resilience


Resilience components

Year

995

999

005

012

Drought conditions SPEI07Apr SPEI05Aug SPEIYear severe no drought moderate -1.30 -0.21 -1.22 extreme no drought severe -1.81 -0.64 -1.54 extreme extreme extreme -1.94 -1.71 -2.22 moderate no drought no drought -0.94 0.40 -0.66

Mean recovery

Mean resistance

Mean resilience

Mean relative resilience

1.48 ± 0.70

0.70 ± 0.22

1.01 ± 0.28

0.31 ± 0.

1.16 ± 0.42

0.65 ± 0.28

0.79 ± 0.28

0.06 ± 0.

1.62 ± 0.61

0.54 ± 0.20

0.82 ± 0.23

0.27 ± 0.

1.32 ± 0.40

0.67 ± 0.23

0.82 ± 0.24

0.16 ± 0.

2005 • lowest mean resistance (0.54) - the major cork growth loss due to drought • greatest mean recovery (1.62) - the highest recovering capacity


Mixed model to evaluate the effect of phellogen age The best linear mixed model for recovery and resilience was the full model fixed effects â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SPEI Apr-Aug, SPEI Oct-Apr, SPEIYear and phellogen age random effects - site and tree, nested on site phellogen age - significant in the recovery (p-value value = 0.002) and in the resilience (p-value = 0.004).

For resistance,, the best model did not include the SPEI Apr-Aug Apr but included all the random effects. The effect of the phellogen age was significant (p-value ( = 4.929x10-14).

Relative resilience best model did not include the age of the phellogen but included al the SPEIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and all the random effects (site and tree, nested on site).


Conclusions • the age of the phellogen is a relevant factor on the recovery and on the resilience of cork oak regarding cork growth • the younger the phellogen (up to 2 years) the greater the effect of the drought on growth. • more severe droughts correspond to lower resistance values, which means, greater the effects of the drought on the growth of the drought year. • cork oak is very tolerant and resilient to extreme droughts


Conclusions â&#x20AC;˘ the occurrence of wet conditions in winter, spring and the whole year are determinant to cork growth, during and after drought, but there are other factors involved - site, the tree and the age of the phellogen.

â&#x20AC;˘ the ability to recover (expressed by the relative resilience) does not seem to be affected by the age of the phellogen.


Conclusions â&#x20AC;˘ cork growth cycles should be enlarged in case of occurrence of drought, drought namely if the reduction on growth may lead to obtain cork planks under 26 mm, and particularly if the drought occurs in the first two years of the production cycle.

â&#x20AC;˘ new cork oak plantations should be shifted into more humid areas (higher latitudes).


Acknowledgements • Centro de Estudos Florestais - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) (UID/AGR/00239/2013). • C. Leite acknowledges Ph.D grant by FCT under the SUSFOR doctoral program (PD/BD/113937/2015) and V. Oliveira acknowledges financial support from SFRH/BPD/118037/2016. • Associação dos Produtores Florestais do Concelho de Coruche e Limítrofes (APFC) - material supply.


Thank you!

Vanda Oliveira vandaoliveira@isa.ulisboa.pt

Leite, C., Oliveira, V., Lauw, A., & Pereira, H. (2019). Cork rings suggest ho to manage Quercus suber to mitigate the effects of climate changes. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Meteorology 266, 12-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.11.032.


Gestión integral de los alcornocales para la adaptación al cambio climático Josep M. Tusell

Mario Beltrán, Míriam Piqué, Roser Mundet, Teresa Baiges

Palafrugell, 22 de mayo de 2019


Los alcornocales en Catalunya •

Alcornocal en Catalunya: 5% de la superfície forestal total

Superfície forestal de alcornocal: 124.132 ha (Fuente: IFN4)

Superfície en la que el Q. suber se presenta como especie principal: 69.912 ha (Fuente: IFN4)

En producción: <50% de la superfície de alcornocal

Superfície de alcornocal planificada (2017): 34.063 ha / 50% de la superfície de alcornocal (sp principal)

PEFC: superfície forestal: 17 % superfície alcornocal: 29%


 Los bosques de Catalunya producen un 2% del corcho mundial  El corcho catalán se produce en bosques con más pendiente, con mayor densidad de arbolado y en un clima más extremo  corcho de mayor densidad (por su crecimiento más lento).

2% 4%

3%

5%

Portugal

6%

Cataluña Resto España Argelia 54%

24%

Italia Marruecos Túnez Francia

2%

 Se trata de un corcho menos homogéneo que el de otras regiones, con un porcentaje mayor de merma (provocado sobre todo por la culebrilla), pero las panas que son realmente buenas producen unos tapones de una calidad superior, que son muy apreciados para tapar los grandes vinos de reserva.


Saca muy por debajo de su potencial • Elevados costes de explotación  Saca entre los 12 y 16 años (normalmente 14)  Alta densidad de pies  Menores diámetros  Menor altura de saca  Dificultad de mecanizar la movilización del corcho  Pendientes importantes  Necesidad de tratamiento fitosanitario para prevenir D.corticola • Porcentaje muy alto de merma provocado principalmente por la culebrilla


Principales afectaciones a la calidad del corcho


La culebrilla (Coraebus undatus) •

Coleóptero que afecta al corcho produciendo daños (galerías) muy importantes a la capa generatriz y la pana de corcho.

Pérdida de la calidad  El corcho muy afectado no es apto para hacer tapones naturales. Única salida: refugo (aglomerado)

Aumento de la plaga en los últimos años.

Pérdida de rentabilidad de la gestión del alcornocal  abandono de los alcornocales


RETOS de la gestión en el alcornocal catalán Abandono de la gestión forestal sostenible Cambio climático. Principales impactos: Baja disponibilidad hídrica  reducción del crecimiento y la producción de corcho  debilitamiento de las masas Aumento de plagas y enfermedades Culebrilla del corcho (Coraebus undatus) Aumento de frecuencia e intensidad de incendios (GIF)

Hace falta incorporar en la gestión nuevas técnicas y métodos para, desde un enfoque integral, mejorar las capacidades de adaptación al cambio climático de este tipo de bosques.


Life+ SUBER Objetivo principal: contribuir a la adaptaciรณn y a una mayor resiliencia de los bosques de Quercus suber europeos ante el cambio climรกtico, favoreciendo su conservaciรณn y el mantenimiento de la cadena de valor asociada. Socios:

Contribuciรณn financiera:

Co-financiadores:

Periodo: 01-07-2014 / 30-06-2018

www.lifesuber.eu


Zonas de actuaciรณn


Gestión propuesta I. MEJORA DE LA VITALIDAD Y PRODUCCIÓN DE CORCHO Cortas de mejora (entresaca) hasta ajustar el AB a:  20 m2/ha en parcelas de alta calidad  15 -17 m2/ha en parcelas de baja calidad  Selección de árboles a cortar según potencial de corcho 2 tratamientos de sotobosque (desbroces):  Eliminación total del estrato arbustivo  Eliminación parcial del estrato arbustivo

Marcaje individual

16 rodales (8 de 3 ha en Q alta y 8 de 5 ha en Q baja)


Desbroce total: Eliminaciรณn del 90-100% de la cubierta arbustiva inicial. Solo se han dejado algunos pies de Arbutus, Viburnum o encina (mรกximo 10%). Se han respetado los rebrotes jรณvenes de alcornoque


Desbroce parcial: Eliminaciรณn selectiva dejando coberturas del estrato arbustivo de entre el 30 y 40%. El matorral que se respeta favorece la presencia de fauna para el control de plagas y la captaciรณn de precipitaciรณn horizontal.


Gestión propuesta II. Zonas PEG: MEJORA DE LA RESISTENCIA A GRAN INCENDIO FORESTAL Adehesamiento Cortas de mejora hasta rebajar el AB a los 8 – 10 m2/ha Eliminación parcial y selectiva del estrato arbustivo Del 40 al 100%, según estructura del rodal Tratamiento de los restos de las cortas Troceados in situ

Estrato aéreo 8 rodales (4 de 3 ha en Q

Estrato de escala

alta y 4 de 5 ha en Q baja)

Estrato de superficie


Gestiรณn propuesta III. Alcornocal degradado: RESTAURACIร“N DE ALCORNOCALES DEGRADADOS

Siembra de densificaciรณn con dos tipos de protectores anti-predaciรณn.


Acciones de seguimiento

Seguimiento técnico: Parcelas permanentes zonas tratamiento y parcelas control. Monitoreo de los efectos de los tratamientos sobre: - Arbolado (vitalidad, crecimiento, uso agua, calibre corcho, regeneración…) - Sotobosque (especies, evolución) - Capturas Coraebus (abundancia)  Primera toma de datos antes de los tratamientos  Toma de datos de forma periòdica y procesado de datos hasta el final del proyecto


Contenido: •

Introducción

Gestión del alcornocal para su adaptación al cambio climático

Gestión para la reducción del riesgo de grandes incendios forestales

Prácticas de restauración de los alcornocales degradados

Gestión para el control integral de plagas - Principales patologías de los alcornocales - Enfermedades - Plagas - El caso del Coraebus undatus

Casos prácticos

http://lifesuber.eu/es/productos-dedifusion-y-divulgacion-del-proyecto/


EL MATORRAL NOS FAVORECE 1. Impacto positivo e inmediato de la gestión en la vitalidad de la masa y, en particular, el papel crucial del matorral. A los dos años después de haber realizado las actuaciones se observan algunas diferencias en la respuesta de la vitalidad de los árboles, que permiten extraer las primeras conclusiones preliminares: Crecimiento en diámetro: Zonas con actuaciones de corta y desbroce > zonas control Zonas con desbroce parcial > desbroce total. Se puede atribuir a una menor pérdida de agua por insolación directa.

2. La propuesta de desbroce parcial demostrada en el proyecto supone una rebaja de 330 €/ha respecto la gestión habitual del alcornocal. 3. Importante mantener una cantidad de otras especies de arbolado, y en relación al matorral, la recomendación es que cuanto más diverso mejor. 4. La gestión se ha de centrar en buscar la regeneración y promover la presencia de diferentes clases de edad.


AMORTIZACIÓN DE LA INVERSIÓN 5. Las actuaciones generan estructuras menos vulnerables a los incendios. Esta mejora se mantiene en términos generales durante los dos años siguientes

Vulnerabilidad de la estructura: A: alta

B: mediana

C: baja


Control biorracional de poblaciones de C. undatus

3 campaĂąas seguidas: Veranos 2015, 2016 y 2017


ALGUNA COSA VAMOS APRENDIENDO....

• • •

Los machos emergen antes que las hembras. Las hembras tardan unos 20 días en madurar sexualmente  hace falta mantenir individuos vivos en laboratorio. Es indispensable continuar amb la investigación para llegar a una feromona de la que se pueda comprovar su eficiencia.


Muchas gracias!

lifesuber.eu El proyecto LIFE+SUBER (LIFE13ENV/ES/000255) ha sido financiado por el programa LIFE de la Unión Europea y cofinanciado por Amorim Florestal Mediterraneo, SL, el Institut Català del Suro y la Diputación de Barcelona.


Marketing del vino: Packaging, ecologĂ­a y marcas Juan Park, Mayo 2019


Wine Intelligence 2002

UK office

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

USA S. Africa office office

2008

2009

Australia office

2010

2011

2012

2013

FranceGermany Italy office office office

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Brazil and Spain offices


Cuando no hay marcas


# 1: Importancia de las marcas


Diseño cada vez más importante

“Atractivo del diseño” es importante para mí a la hora de elegir vino 2009

2018

33% +12puntos 45% 21% +8puntos 29%

Source: Wine Intelligence Vinitrac® US, 2009-2018 (n>2,000) & UK, 2009-2018 (n>1,000) regular wine drinkers


Las marcas son más importantes Factores de decisión a la hora de comprar vino en EEUU % who indicated the following are important when buying wine Base = All US regular wine drinkers (n=2,629)

gdhgdfgh

10

Grape variety (e.g. Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, etc.)

77%

A brand I am aware of

73%

Recommendation by friend or family

72%

Wine that matches or compliments food

70%

Taste or wine style descriptions displayed on the shelves or on wine labels

68%

Recommendations from shop staff or shop leaflets

59%

The country of origin (e.g. France, Australia, Spain, Chile, USA, etc.)

58%

Promotional offer (e.g. price discount or 3 for the price of 2)

56%

The region of origin

55%

Alcohol content

48%

Recommendation by wine critic or writer

47%

The year the wine was produced

47%

Appeal of the bottle and/or label design

45%

Recommendation by wine guide books

41%

Whether or not the wine has won a medal or award Wine bought via Internet Source: Wine Intelligence Vinitrac® US, March 2018 n=2,629 regular wine drinkers

37% 25%


EstĂŠtica no es branding


A

B


Mundo real


# 1: Importancia de las marcas # 2: ÂżCĂłmo crecen las marcas?


Estructura del mercado S1 S2 S3 S4


Segmentos

Size

Frequency (past Size3 months)

Frequency Share of (past value 3 months)

Share of value

25%S1

S1

125%

10%1

10%

25%S2

S2

225%

20%2

20%

X4 25%S3

S3

325%

30%3

30%

25%S4

S4

425%

40%4

40%


Marcas

Penetration Penetration

LoyaltyLoyalty (SCR) (SCR) Other Other brandsbrands boughtbought

PorchePorche

100% 100%

52% 52%

1.5

1.5

FerrariFerrari

75% 75%

36% 36%

2.0

2.0

X4

X2

Lamborghini Lamborghini

50% 50%

29% 29%

2.5

2.5

Maserati Maserati

25% 25%

25% 25%

3.0

3.0


Marcas S1 S2 S3 S4


Crecimient o y lealtad

Segmentos Size

Frequency (past 3 months)

Share of value

Penetration

Loyalty (SCR)

Other brands bought

25%

S1

1

10% Porche

100%

52%

1.5

25%

S2

2

20% Ferrari

75%

36%

2.0

25%

S3

3

30% Lamborghini

50%

29%

2.5

25%

S4

4

40% Maserati

25%

25%

3.0


# 1: Importancia de las marcas # 2: ¿Cómo crecen las marcas? # 3: Comunicación


Reacciรณn


Reacción Niños Personas Adultos Ciudades Cosas Vinos


Reacciรณn

Cosas Cosas + Personas


Calidad percibida Calidad percibida de términos de vino
 % who think these terms represent high quality of the wine Base=All US premium wine drinkers (n=902)

Limited edition

48%

Exclusive collection

46%

Special selection

40%

Gran Reserva

39%

Winemaker’s choice

38%

Reserva

35%

Single vineyard

27%

Clásico

19%

Natural

18%

Organic

18%

Blend

13%

Único

10%

Fair trade

10%

Alpha

8%

Joven

7%

Crianza

7%

None of these

5%

Source: Wine Intelligence Vinitrac USA Apr. '15, n=902 US premium wine drinkers


# 1: Importancia de las marcas # 2: ¿Cómo crecen las marcas? # 3: Comunicación # 4: La motivación es clave


Motivaciones Quieroâ&#x20AC;Ś Quitarme la sed Despertarme por la maĂąana Bebida refrescante + relajante Bebida refrescante + excitante Bebida refrescante + adrenalina


Motivaciones Quiero… Celebrar éxitos

Motivación: Importancia Producto: Asociación

Una vino tinto de prestigio Vino blanco refrescante Región internacional de prestigio Vino ecológico, para ligar, para regalar, tengo que conducir…


Motivaciones Motivación para consumir vino

% que selecciona la siguientes razones como su motivación para consumir vino Base = Todos los consumidores mensuales de vino en España (n=1,000)

Para disfrutar con una comida

72%

Para celebrar algo

56%

Para compartir con amigos

54%

Para una fiesta

38%

Porque es bueno para la salud

32%

Para relajarme

30%

Para darme un premio

27%

Para desconectar

19%

Para probar algo único

12%

Para aprender sobre nuevas variedades de uva

12%

Para educarme sobre vino

9%

Para aprender sobre diferentes regiones

9%

Para emborracharme

4%

Para presumir

3%

Para ayudarme a dormir

2%

Ninguna de estas

2%

Source: Wine Intelligence Vinitrac® Spain, July 2017, n=1,000 regular wine drinkers per market


USA: Intención de compra vs vino “control” % who would be Likely or very likely to buy each wine minus those Likely or very likely to buy the Control wine Base = All regular wine drinkers in US (n=2,000)

10%

5%

-4%

Award-Winning Winery

Established 1870

Sustainbly-Produced Wine

Source: Wine Intelligence, Vinitrac® US, July 2018 (n=2,000), UU regular wine drinkers

-5% Fairtrade Wine

-6% Organic Wine


UK: Intención de compra vs vino “control” % who would be Likely or very likely to buy each wine minus those Likely or very likely to buy the Control wine Base = All regular wine drinkers in UK (n=1,000)

Source: Wine Intelligence, Vinitrac® UK, July 2018 (n=1,000), UK regular wine drinkers


Multi-mercado: Intención de compra orgánico vs vino “control” % who would be Likely or very likely to buy each wine minus those Likely or very likely to buy the Control wine Base = All regular wine drinkers in UK (n=1,000)

12%

12%

0% 0%

-2%

-2%

-4%

-4%

-6% -11%

Source: Wine Intelligence, Vinitrac® UK, July 2018 (n=1,000), UK regular wine drinkers


España: Conocimiento (consumidores regulares de vino) % that are aware of the following wines Base = All regular wine drinkers in the Spain (n=1,000) Vino ecológico

58%

Vino natural

41%

Vino de baja graduación alcohólica

34%

Vino sin alcohol

33%

Vino sin sulfitos

33%

Vino producido de manera sostenible

31%

Vino de comercio justo

28%

Vino orgánico

27%

Vino libre de conservantes

19%

Vino vegano

9%

Orange wine

7%

Vino biodinámico

7%

Vino de una bodega "Carbon-neutral"

7%

Pet Nat (Petillant Naturel)

4%

Source: Wine Intelligence, Vinitrac® Spain, July’17 (n=1,000), Spanish regular wine drinkers


España: Afinidad (entre conocedores) % that think the following terms are for people like them Base = Awares of each term

Vino ecológico

10% 54%

Vino natural Vino de baja graduación alcohólica Vino sin alcohol -28%

25% 69%

32%

-12%

16%

Vino sin sulfitos

3% 47%

Vino producido de manera sostenible

17% 61%

Vino de comercio justo

-1%

Vino orgánico

43% 2% 46%

Vino libre de conservantes Vino vegano

9% 53%

30%

-14%

Orange wine

-1%

43%

Vino biodinámico

-6%

38%

Vino de una bodega "Carbon-neutral"

-6%

38%

Pet Nat (Petillant Naturel)

0% 44%

= Pequeña muestra (n<50) Source: Wine Intelligence, Vinitrac® Spain, July’17 (n=1,000), Spanish regular wine drinkers


¿Está reduciendo activamente el alcohol que consume?

¿Deja de beber para ciertas ocasiones o busca menor graduacion?

Source: Wine Intelligence, Vinitrac® July 2018 (n=12,000), regular wine drinkers


Salud y bienestar No moderando = menor graduación

Moderando = menor graduación

¿?

No moderando = menos ocasiones

Source: Wine Intelligence, Vinitrac® July 2018 (n=12,000), regular wine drinkers

Moderando = menos ocasiones


Rosado

Rosé wine consumption

% who have drunk rosé wine in the past 12 months

Rosé wine consumption: US Gender split

% of all US regular wine drinkers who drink rosé wine at least once a week

2007

2017

Germany: 25% UK: 30% US: 24%

46%! 48%! 32%!

56%

44%

Source: Wine Intelligence, Vinitrac® Germany, 2007-2017, (n>1,000), UK 2007-2017 (n>992) and US 2007-2017, (n>2,002) regular wine drinkers


GĂŠnero

Share of volume of wine consumed by men and women Base: n=2,000 regular wine drinkers in USA; n=1,000 regular wine drinkers in Australia, Canada, UK, Japan; n=1,000 urban upper-middle class imported wine drinkers in China

56%

54%

54%

52%

52%

51%

(53%)

(50%)

(50%)

(50%)

(48%)

(47%)

44%

46%

46%

48%

48%

49%

(47%)

(50%)

(50%)

(50%)

(52%)

(53%)

China

USA

Australia

Canada

UK

Japan

Male

Female

(%) = share of wine drinking population

Source: Wine Intelligence, VinitracÂŽ Global, July 2018, n=2,000 regular wine drinkers in USA; n=1,000 regular wine drinkers in Australia, Canada, UK, Japan; n=1,000 urban upper-middle class imported wine drinkers in China


Wine Intelligence global wine knowledge index, 2018

32

32

Wine Intelligence global wine confidence index, 2018

53*

49

* Statistically significantly higher than female at a 95% confidence level Global index is calculated based on the 12 key markets for wine, taking into account the wine drinking population size of each market as weighting factor Source: Wine Intelligence, VinitracÂŽ Global, July 2018, n=2,000 regular wine drinkers in USA; n=1,000 regular wine drinkers in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, Ireland, UK, Japan; n=1,000 urban upper-middle class imported wine drinkers in China


Indirect

Direct

“Wine made by a male winemaker”

Source: Wine Intelligence, Vinitrac® Global, July 2018

“Wine made by a female winemaker”


Gender equality experiment Mary

John

Germany UK

Ireland

USA Australia Sweden

Netherlands

Canada -6.0%

No difference

Australia UK Canada

Netherlands USA Ireland

Germany

-6.0%

Favour of male winemaker

Source: Wine Intelligence, VinitracÂŽ Global, July 2018

Favour of female winemaker

Sweden


# 1: Importancia de las marcas # 2: ¿Cómo crecen las marcas? # 3: Comunicación # 4: La motivación es clave # 5: Packaging


(2006)

5 Corks will come outâ&#x20AC;¨ I believe wines bottled with corks will be in the minority by 2015.Â


Atractivo de tapones

% que considera los siguientes tapones atractivos 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

Corks will be in the minority by 2015?

0% 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

70% 60% 50% Natural cork

40%

Screw-cap

30%

Synthetic cork

20% 10% 0% 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018


ReciĂŠn nacidos en Catalunya llamados Leo 500

454

450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50

11 0 2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015


Extrapolando la tendencia…

2081 es el año en el que todos los recién nacidos en Catalunya se llamarán Leo


Packaging Packaging formats consideration by age

% who would consider buying wine in the following packaging formats Base = Those who are aware of the following types of packaging for wine

Red/Blue: statistically significantly higher/lower than all US regular wine drinkers at a 95% confidence level Source: Wine Intelligence, VinitracÂŽ US, Octâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;17, n=2,003 US regular wine drinkers and Wine Intelligence trade interviews November 2017


# 1: Importancia de las marcas # 2: ¿Cómo crecen las marcas? # 3: Comunicación # 4: La motivación es clave # 5: Packaging # 6: Crear marca es rentable


€17,00

€17,00

€17,00

€17,00


€17,00

€17,00

€17,00 €15,00

€17,00


Marca lĂ­der

44%

42%

41%

54% 66%

Ribera 2 20%

Ribera 3

21%

21% 40%

10% 16%

28% 13% 27%

Ribera 4

11%

Control

Descuento

11%

11%

8%

8%

6%

Descuento

Descuento

Descuento

Source: Wine Intelligence VinitracÂŽ March Spain, n=1,000 regular wine drinkers per wave


100% leal

Compra incluso con subida de precio

Market share en el test

Ventas atribuibles al descuento

Marca líder

54%

28%

19%

59%

Ribera 2

21%

34%

6%

50%

Ribera 3

13%

38%

3%

50%

Ribera 4

11%

45%

2%

31%

(Independientemente del precio)

Source: Wine Intelligence Vinitrac® March Spain, n=1,000 regular wine drinkers per wave

(Consumidores que tambien comprarían a €19)


Marketing

=

Ciencia

+

Creatividad

Facilitar decisiones

Emociรณn

Crear conceptos

Motivaciones

Largo plazo

Atenciรณn

Rentabilidad

Crear marca


For more information about Wine Intelligence please contact us: Wine Intelligence 109 Maltings Place 169 Tower Bridge Road London SE1 3LJ

Muchas gracias Juan Park     juan@wineintelligence.com Telephone: +44 (0)20 7378 1277 Email:  Web:    Twitter: 

info@wineintelligence.com www.wineintelligence.com www.twitter.com/wineintell

Profile for INSTITUT CATALÀ DEL SURO

CSA - PRESENTATIONS OF THE SPEAKERS - DAY 1  

CORK IN SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS CONGRESS - From the Wine Industry to the New Applications Learn about the last innovations and researches...

CSA - PRESENTATIONS OF THE SPEAKERS - DAY 1  

CORK IN SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS CONGRESS - From the Wine Industry to the New Applications Learn about the last innovations and researches...

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