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Vol. 21 No.1 (Juni 2013)

Majalah Ilmiah Persatuan Pelajar Indonesia Jepang

io.ppijepang.org

Kecerdasan Solusi hidup

MELIHAT

JEPANG dari Sisi Yang Berbeda

PPI JEPANG ISSN 2085-871X


Dewan Redaksi Pembina: Dr. M. Iqbal Djawad Atase Pendidikan Kedutaan Besar Republik Indonesia, Tokyo, Jepang

Penanggung Jawab : Rodyan Gibran S. Ketua Persatuan Pelajar Indonesia Jepang

Pemimpin Redaksi Fatwa Ramdani(Tohoku University)

Departemen/Staf Redaksi

Artikel Utama: Muhammad Ery Wijaya (Kyoto University), Artikel Riset: Nirmala Hailinawati (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Berita dan Opini: Pandji Prawisudha (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Kilas Riset: Cahyo Budiman (Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology/ Institut Pertanian Bogor) Living: Retno Ninggalih (Sendai, Tohoku), Resensi Buku dan Film: M. Ridlo E. Nasution (Tokyo Metropolitan University), Desain Grafis dan Foto: Banung Grahita (Tokyo Metropolitan University/Institut Teknologi Bandung), Wawancara: Gerald Ensang Timuda (Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia), Admin Situs: Bayu Indrawan (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Pandji Prawisudha (Tokyo Institute of Technology) Situs: io.ppijepang.org E-mail: editor.inovasi@yahoo.com

Contributors wanted! Majalah Inovasi bertransformasi menjadi majalah populer untuk mengakomodasi pembaca dan contributor yang lebih luas. Kami menunggu tulisan dan foto anda! 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

Foto esai di Jepang dan dunia (maksimum dua foto, dan esai sangat pendek 100 kata) Artikel populer (masuk ke dalam laporan utama; jumlah kata untuk artikel ini dibatasi 600 - 2000 kata; bahasa sederhana yang dapat dipahami siswa SMA; catatan kaki dan referensi maksimum 10 buah) Artikel riset yang bersifat semi popular (isinya serius, sekelas paper; catatan kaki dan referensi tidak lebih dari 20; jumlah kata untuk artikel ini dibatasi 2000-4000 kata) Berita tentang kerjasama Jepang-Indonesia; tentang kunjungan resmi kontingen Indonesia ke Jepang; berita tentang prestasi warga Indonesia di Jepang (200-300 kata, plus foto jika ada) Opini tentang isu-isu terhangat di Jepang dan Indonesia, tentang Indonesia, tentang Jepang, dan lain-lain (200300 kata, plus foto jika ada). Misal: opini tentang kebijakan karangan ilmiah yang dikeluarkan DIKTI. Kilas riset. Silakan mengirimkan abstrak dari artikel yang telah anda publikasikan di jurnal ilmiah atau proceeding. Sertakan satu gambar representatif. Resensi buku dan film. Setelah membaca buku baru atau menonton film, silakan berbagi di rubrik ini. Foto sampul buku dan ulasan pendek 100 – 300 kata. Wawancara. Anda dapat mengirimkan hasil wawancara informal anda dengan tokoh dari Indonesia tentang Jepang, sains, teknologi, seni dan lainnya. Living. Jika anda punya tips hidup hemat, belanja murah, tips sukses berkuliah dan bekerja di Jepang di sinilah tempatnya! Berbagilah dalam 300 kata.

Kirimkan tulisan atau foto ke email berikut: editor.inovasi@yahoo.com

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DAFTAR ISI

DEWAN REDAKSI

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DAFTAR ISI

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EDITORIAL

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TOPIK UTAMA Kejahatan Golongan Tua di Jepang, Memahami Sisi Gelap Jepang

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Ferry Fathurokhman

Kondisi Terkini Urbanisasi di Jepang: Studi Kasus Tokyo Metropolitan Area dan Kota Sendai Fatwa Ramdani, and Masateru Hino

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EKONOMI

Empirical Study on the Comparison of Performance Between Sharia and Conventional Banks in Indonesia

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Muhammad Rifqi OPINION

Agreement to Disagree, the Key of Managing the Excellent

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Putri Setiani TICA

Effects of Pack Aluminizing Temperatures α2-Ti3Al/γ-TiAl Intermetallics towards Hot Corrosion Behavior at 850°C Fadhli Muhammad, Eddy Agus Basuki

Sundanese Script Recognition Using Zoning Feature Extraction and Support Vector Machine Classification Mulia, I., and Mushthofa

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Industrial Mapping in Capital City District of Jakarta by using Analytic Hierarchy Process and Strategic Management Approach Anna Felicia Kusumaningtyas , Andri Wijaya , and Arian Dhini

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DAFTAR ISI

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Environmental Change Monitoring of A Large Seasonal-Tropical Lake with Low Accessibility in West Kalimantan, Indonesia Fatwa Ramdani

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Editori@l

Melihat Jepang dari sisi yang berbeda Fatwa Ramdani

Editor Utama INOVASI Online

INOVASI Online kali ini menyajikan topik utama 'Melihat Jepang dari sisi yang berbeda'. Jika kita mendengar kata 'Jepang' maka hal yang terbesit di pikiran kita adalah negara maju yang sering mengalami gempa dan tsunami, juga salah satu negara di Asia yang bersih dan disiplin dengan etos kerja yang tinggi. Jepang juga dikenal sebagai salah satu negara di dunia dengan produksi otomotif tertinggi di dunia dan penelitian-penelitian inovatif di bidang sains dan teknologi. Peraih Nobel tahun 2012 di bidang medis adalah peneliti asal Jepang, Prof. Yamanaka dari Kyoto University. Selain itu Jepang juga dikenal sebagai salah satu negara di dunia dengan infrastruktur yang canggih, budaya yang unik dan menarik bagi banyak wisatawan mancanegara. Sistem pendidikan di Jepang juga berbeda 100% dengan sistem pendidikan di tanah air, terutama di tingkat sekolah dasar. Sehingga mampu menghasilkan peserta didik yang ulet dan tangguh, namun tetap memahami nilai-nilai universal sebagaimana tertulis dalam kolom Opini di edisi INOVASI yang lalu (Vol. 20 No. 2, Februari 2013). Ekonomi Jepang juga relatif stabil selama beberapa dekade, namun di balik semua itu Jepang juga menyimpan sisi lain yang belum banyak diketahui oleh khalayak. Sebagai media diseminasi ilmu pengetahuan, INOVASI Online edisi kali ini menyajikan dua buah artikel utama yang menyoroti sisi lain Jepang. INOVASI memuat artikel berjudul ‘Kondisi Terkini Urbanisasi di Jepang: Studi Kasus Tokyo Metropolitan Area dan Kota Sendai’, yang memaparkan informasi terbaru fenomena urbanisasi di kota-kota Jepang.

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Jepang kini memasuki era Post-growth Society, sehingga fenomena urbanisasi di Jepang menjadi salah satu perhatian utama bagi Pemerintah Jepang. Populasi yang terus menurun dan rendahnya prosentase pernikahan, telah menyebabkan populasi usia non-produktif meningkat, sementara tingkat kelahiran bayi sangat rendah, di lain sisi, globalisasi telah menarik investasi keluar dari dalam negeri Jepang. Meningkatnya populasi usia non-produktif ternyata juga meningkatkan angka kejadian kriminal yang dilakukan oleh kelompok usia lanjut. Hal ini menjadi sorotan pada artikel yang ditulis oleh Ferry Fathurrokhman dengan judul 'Memahami Sisi Gelap Jepang, Kejahatan Golongan Tua di Jepang'. Dua artikel utama ini diharapkan dapat memberikan pengetahuan yang berbeda akan Jepang bagi para pembaca setia INOVASI. Pada edisi kali ini INOVASI kembali memuat kolom Opini, kali ini artikel dari Putri Setiani dengan judul ‘Agreement to Disagree, the Key of Managing the Excellent’ memberikan pandangan baru bagaimana bekerja bersama orang-orang yang memiliki kecerdasan diatas rata-rata dan bagaimana mengelola sebuah pekerjaan dengan mereka. Artikel ini akan memberikan manfaat bagi para calon manager dan pengusaha yang akan berkecimpung dalam dunia industri kreatif berbasis INOVASI. Selain itu INOVASI juga tetap memuat artikel ilmiah dari para pelajar dan peneliti Indonesia di Jepang, tiga buah artikel TICA 2012, serta informasi perubahan lingkungan yang berbasis keruangan (spasial) di Ibukota Jakarta, lahan basah di Propinsi Riau, dan citra satelit 3 dimensi kaldera Gunung Tambora di Nusa Tenggara Barat. Tidak ada karya manusia yang sempurna, karena kesempurnaan hanyalah milik-Nya, Rabb semesta. Redaksi INOVASI tetap mengharapkan saran, ide, komentar, dan informasi dari pembaca sekalian. Silahkan kirimkan tulisan anda ke alamat surat elektronik kami: editor.inovasi@yahoo.com. Selamat membaca, Dan, salam INOVASI!

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TOPIK UTAMA

Kejahatan Golongan Tua di Jepang, Memahami Sisi Gelap Jepang Ferry Fathurokhman1,* Graduate School of Human and Socio-Environmental Studies, Kanazawa University. *Email: ferry1@stu.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

Abstrak

J

epang saat ini menghadapi permasalahan dalam hal populasi penduduk. Kecenderungan keengganan golongan muda untuk menikah dan memiliki anak bersinergi dengan tingginya angka harapan hidup di Jepang, menghasilkan populasi penduduk yang tidak seimbang antara

generasi muda dan generasi tua Jepang. Kondisi ini menimbulkan patologi sosial di kalangan usia lanjut. Kejahatan menjadi jalan umum yang diambil sebagian usia lanjut di Jepang untuk ‘mengusir kesepian’. Tulisan ini berusaha memaparkan jenis kejahatan yang dilakukan usia lanjut di Jepang dan solusi yang dilakukan untuk mengatasi persoalan ini. Kata Kunci: kejahatan, usia lanjut, Jepang.

Š2013.Persatuan Pelajar Indonesia Jepang. All rights reserved.

Jepang adalah negeri utopia. Kalimat itu ada dalam sebuah draft buku seorang kawan yang saat ini dalam proses penerbitan. Sebuah kumpulan tulisan hasil pengalamannya selama satu tahun di Jepang.Ia tidak sedang bicara kosong. Negeri ini negeri yang aman. Barang hilang bisa kembali, menghargai proses, sopan, ramah, maju, tertib, teratur, bersih dan segudang hal baik lainnya yang

membuat kita berdecak kagum. Tapi dari banyak hal terang di Jepang, tentulah ada sisi gelapnya. Tulisan ini hendak mengupas salah satu sisi gelap tersebut. Kecenderungan kejahatan yang dilakukan usia lanjut di Jepang. Saat berkesempatan ke Waseda University untuk menghadiri pertemuan rutin sebuah kelompok studi hukum, Yoko Hosoi,

guru besar Toyo University, menginformasikan bahwa beliau sedang meneliti tentang kecenderungan kejahatan yang dilakukan orang tua di Jepang. Salah satu masalah di Jepang adalah populasi usia lanjut yang lebih banyak dari usia muda. Masalah ini kemudian berdampak pada angka kejahatan di Jepang. Kejahatan terlihat lebih banyak dilakukan oleh golongan tua.

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Adalah Minoru Yokoyama, guru besar pada Kokugakuin University di Tokyo yang menjelaskan hal ini dengan gamblang di sebuah konferensi internasional di India yang diselenggarakan Asian Criminological Society medio April lalu. Tulisan ini sejatinya adalah hasil riset yang telah dilakukannya [1]. Menurutnya selama periode perang dunia kedua, Pemerintah Jepang mengampanyaken untuk memiliki anak sebanyak mungkin. Angka kelahiran bayi meningkat (baby boom) setelah perang dunia kedua. Peningkatan angka kelahiran bayi generasi kedua juga terjadi pada 1970-an. Seiring pertumbuhan ekonomi dan industrialisasi Jepang, usia harapan hidup di Jepang menjadi panjang. Situasi berubah, Jepang menjadi negara dengan angka kelahiran dan angka kematian yang rendah. Tidak banyak bayi yang lahir tapi tidak banyak juga orang tua yang mati. Ini menyebabkan populasi orang tua di Jepang semakin tinggi, diperparah dengan anak muda yang tak terlalu berhasrat untuk menikah, jikapun menikah, kebanyakan mereka hanya akan punya anak satu atau dua. Sekitar 1985, Pemerintah Jepang memprediksi angka usia lanjut akan meningkat menjadi 21,8% pada 2020. Prediksi ini ternyata meleset. Sensus pada Oktober 2010 membuktikan bahwa angka usia >65 tahun dalam total populasi 128.057.352 penduduk telah meningkat menjadi 23% [1]. Sekarang, kita lihat lebih dalam jenis-jenis kejahatan yang dilakukan usia lanjut di Jepang. Data yang dikeluarkan Kementerian Kehakiman (Ministry of Justice) Jepang pada 2011 mencatat sebanyak 305.951 orang melakukan

kejahatan non-lalulintas. Sebanyak 48.637 atau 15,9%nya merupakan orang dengan usia >65 tahun. Data ini meningkat dari data 1983 dimana jumlah tersangka usia lanjut >60 tahun saat itu berjumlah 15.880 [1]. Tentu data itu tidak apple to apple, mengingat pengategorian usia lanjut dinaikkan menjadi >65 tahun sejak 2008 seiring meningkatnya usia harapan hidup di Jepang [1]. 48.637 pelaku usia lanjut tersebut didominasi oleh laki-laki sebanyak 32.180 orang, sementara 16.457 lainnya adalah perempuan [1]. Dari 32.180 laki-laki usia lanjut tersebut, sebagian besarnya melakukan pengutilan (shoplifting) sebanyak 45,9%. Pencurian diluar pengutilan 17,2%, penggelapan (embezzlement) 16,7%, kejahatan kekerasan (violence) 7,5%, penipuan 2% dan lain-lain 10,7% [1]. Di tahun 1983, pengutilan pada usia >60 tahun berjumlah 23,6%, kejahatan kekerasan juga meningkat jika dibandingkan data tahun 2011 [1].

mereka. Kedua kemiskinan yang melanda karena krisis ekonomi sejak 1990. Dalam situasi demikian orang mudah melakukan kekerasan. Hal menarik terjadi pada kasus pengutilan (shoplifting). Ada dua hal penyebabnya: kebutuhan dan ekspresi kesepian. Sebagian besar mereka hanya mencuri seperlunya seperti roti, tempat kotak nasi. Ini bukan berarti mereka tak sanggup membelinya, tetapi lebih kepada menghemat uang mereka. Hal kedua yang menarik adalah sebagiannya melakukan karena keisengan sebagai akibat kesepian yang dialaminya. Anak-anak beranjak dewasa, interaksinya dengan sesama semakin berkurang, pengutilan menjadi eskpresi dari kesepiannya. Ada perasaan senang saat melakukannya, sebagiannya berkembang menjadi kleptomania. Kekhawatiran ketahuan dan keberhasilan mengambil barang menghadirkan tantangan tersendiri, memacu adrenalin, menjadikannya ‘hidup’ kembali.

Tulisan ini tidak akan membahas lebih detail angka-angka kejahatan yang dilakukan kalangan perempuan usia lanjut dan sebagainya, ini bukan tesis, mematematika-kan manusia terkadang terkesan tak begitu humanis, meski tentu saja sangat berguna untuk melihat kecenderungan, memahami pola dan menganalisa lebih jauh untuk mencari solusi, merumuskan kebijakan untuk menanggulanginya. Pertanyaan kenapa bisa demikian nampaknya akan lebih menarik untuk dibahas.

Residivisme

Yokoyama setidaknya memprediksi dua hal kemungkinannya. Pertama stres karena kesepian ditinggal anak-anaknya ke perkotaan seiring beranjak dewasanya anak-anak

Masalah residivisme di kalangan usia lanjut di Jepang menjadi semakin serius manakala ditemukan fakta banyaknya kesengajaan yang dilakukan mantan narapidana hanya untuk dapat kembali ke

Data 2011 juga menunjukkan narapidana di seluruh penjara di Jepang berjumlah 25.499 terpidana, 2.028 atau 8 %nya adalah narapidana usia lanjut, tahun 1983 jumlah narapidana usia lanjut hanya 1,9% [1]. Dari 2.028 terpidana usia lanjut tersebut diantaranya adalah residivis, orang yang mengulangi tindak pidana, ada yang enam kali telah dipenjara, dua kali dan lima kali sebanyak 38,8%, 31%, dan 30,2% secara berurutan [1].

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TOPIK UTAMA

penjara. Dalam sistem penjara di Jepang, narapidana bisa bekerja di dalam, penghasilannya selama di dalam penjara akan diberikan menjelang hari kebebasannya, meski demikian jumlahnya tidak dapat mengalahkan tingginya biaya hidup di Jepang, belum lagi jika yang bersangkutan memiliki gaya hidup mewah. Ini menjadi lingkaran setan di Jepang. Masalah tak berkesudahan. Ambil contoh Sato Hag, perempuan berusia 79 tahun. Juli 2011 ia baru saja keluar dari penjara, tetapi polisi menguntitnya dan harus kembali menjadikannya tersangka saat 6 November 2011, ia merogoh tas seorang tua 62 tahun yang akan membeli makanan, polisi segera meringkusnya. Ini adalah penangkapan yang ke 23 kali! Hag adalah sebutan yang disematkan polisi padanya yang berarti perempuan tua jelek [1]. Berbagai kebijakan dilakukan untuk menanggulangi masalah ini. Salah satunya didirikannya lembaga yang fokus menangani orang tua pasca penghukuman.

Lembaga ini didirikan tahun 2009 dan disebar di seluruh Jepang. Celakanya terkadang tak semua elemen pemerintah sejalan, Taro Aso misalnya, Menteri Keuangan Jepang yang pernah ‘menyakiti’ hati para lanjut usia dengan mengatakan agar warga lanjut usia di Jepang disarankan untuk cepat mati karena alat medis yang menyokong hidupnya menjadi beban keuangan negara [2]. Pernyataan ini semakin memperburuk para lanjut usia di Jepang.

Indonesia, kita banyak dilelahkan dengan kabar yang tak berkualitas di negeri kita, tapi selalu ada sisi terang, diantaranya penghormatan terhadap orang tua. Budaya dan agama memegang peranan penting dalam memuliakan orang tua. Bahkan dalam sebuah agama, seorang anak dijanjikan surga jika ia menemukan kedua orangtuanya lemah dan berakhir dalam pemeliharaan dan kasih sayangnya.

Di Jepang orang dididik untuk mandiri. Ada anggapan bahwa jika kita memanjakan orang tua di Jepang itu sama artinya kita tak sayang dan menyuruh mereka cepat mati. Itu sebabnya kita akan sering melihat orang lanjut usia di Jepang berjalan, naik bis sendirian dan sebagainya, sebab dengan banyak berjalan kesehatannya akan terjaga. Tapi orang tua tetaplah manusia, sama di mana saja. Ia juga butuh kasih sayang.

[1] Yokoyama, M. 2013. Increase in Crimes by Old People in Japan How are They Treated. Makalah padaAnnual Meeting of Asian Criminological Society, 14-16 April 2013. Mumbai India.

Sebagus-bagusnya Jepang sisi gelap masihlah ada. Demikian dengan

Referensi

[2] Japan Daily Press, 22 Januari 2013. URL: http:// japandailypress.com/financeminister-taro-aso-makescontroversial-statement-aboutelderly-and-dying-2221917 diakses tanggal 13 Mei 2013

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Kondisi Terkini Urbanisasi di Jepang: Studi Kasus Tokyo Metropolitan Area dan Kota Sendai

Fatwa Ramdani1,*and Masateru Hino1 Institute of Geography, Geo-environment, Graduate School Science, Tohoku University, Japan *E-mail: fatwa@s.tohoku.ac.jp

1

Abstrak

P

opulasi yang terus menurun menyebabkan Jepang mengalami permasalahan serius dalam perkembangan kota-kotanya. Jumlah penduduk usia lanjut terus meningkat, sementara jumlah penduduk usia produktif terus menurun. Globalisasi juga memberikan dampak

negatif dengan menurunnya tingkat investasi di dalam Jepang, yang menyebabkan menyusutnya aglomerasi kantor-kantor cabang di kota-kota utama Jepang. Akibatnya kota berhenti tumbuh dan berkembang, juga tidak ada pertumbuhan fisik yang berarti di suburban area, sebaliknya pemukiman di suburban area ditinggalkan atau berganti kepemilikan. Compact City dan networking menjadi salah satu upaya pemerintah kota dalam mempertahankan pertumbuhan dan perkembangan kota. Kata kunci: urbanisasi, populasi, globalisasi, aglomerasi, Jepang

Š2013. Persatuan Pelajar Indonesia Jepang. All rights reserved.

1. Pendahuluan Populasi Jepang pada tahun 2010 adalah 128,057,352 [1] dengan luas area 378,000 km2 [2]. Sebagian besar penduduk Jepang terkonsentrasi di perkotaan, dengan tingkat kepadatan mencapai 91% pada tahun 2010 [1]. Namun, tingkat pertumbuhan pendudukan

nasional sejak tahun 2000 hingga tahun 2010 hanya berada di tingkat 0.9%, dengan tingkat pertumbuhan penduduk di perkotaan sebesar 4% [1]. Dalam studi Urban Geography kota-kota di Jepang dapat dibagi dalam empat kelas utama ; kota utama, kota tua-besar, kota pusat region, dan ibukota provinsi

(Gambar 1). Terdapat tiga kota utama di Jepang, yaitu Tokyo, Nagoya, dan Osaka, sementara itu yang termasuk kedalam enam kota-tua besar adalah Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto, Nagoya, Hiroshima, dan Fukuoka. Kota pusat region dari utara ke selatan adalah Sapporo, Sendai, Hiroshima, dan Fukuoka, sementara ibukota provinsi adalah

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TOPIK UTAMA

Gambar 1. Klasifikasi Kota di Jepang

seluruh kota yang menjadi ibukota dari 47 provinsi yang ada di Jepang. Kota-kota ini dibagi berdasarkan fungsi, sejarah, dan populasinya. Sebagian besar populasi penduduk terkonsentrasi di daerah perkotaan, dimana populasi terbesar adalah Tokyo, diikuti oleh Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, dan Sapporo [1] (Gambar 2) Urbanisasi adalah proses ‘’peng-kotaan’’, ditandai dengan pertumbuhan fisik dan

pertambahan populasi yang ter-konsentrasi di dalam kota. Urbanisasi terkait erat dengan modernisasi, industrialisasi, dan proses perubahan sosiologi masyarakat. Sejak 1950an, urbanisasi terjadi di LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries) yaitu, Amerika Selatan, Africa, dan Asia.

2.Perubahan Demografi Jepang Populasi penduduk Jepang pada

Gambar 2. Populasi penduduk Jepang di kota-kota utama. Sumber : Japanese Population Census of 2010

tahun 1950 adalah kurang dari 100 juta jiwa dan pada periode 1960 sampai dengan 2000 populasi penduduk di dominasi oleh penduduk usia 20 – 64 tahun [3]. Tetapi, sejak tahun 2010 tren populasi penduduk usia muda terus menurun, sementara populasi penduduk usia tua (>65 tahun) terus meningkat (Gambar 3). Dari tahun 1950 hingga 2010, dalam kurun waktu 60 tahun, pertumbuhan penduduk Jepang hanya sekitar 28 juta jiwa.

Gambar 3. Perubahan populasi penduduk dan komposisi penduduk Jepang. Sumber: Office for policies on cohesive society, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan

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Rasio populasi penduduk usia >65 tahun terus meningkat dari tahun ke tahun, dan diprediksi bahwa pada tahun 2060, rasio populasi penduduk usia >65 tahun akan mencapai 40% dari seluruh total populasi penduduk Jepang (Gambar 3). Tingkat kelahiran penduduk Jepang juga menunjukkan tren yang terus menurun sejak tahun 1970 (Gambar 4). Saat ini, tingkat kelahiran penduduk di Jepang berada dibawah 1.5 [4], yang menunjukkan bahwa Jepang sedang mengalami permasalahan serius terkait pertumbuhan penduduk. Karena untuk mempertahankan keberlangsungan suatu budaya, ekonomi, bahkan suatu negara, paling tidak dibutuhkan tingkat kelahiran diatas 2.1 Jepang mengalami dua kali ledakan kelahiran bayi, yaitu periode 19471949 dan periode 1971-1974. Pada tahun 1966, dikenal dengan periode Hinoeuma, yaitu sebuah periode dimana tingkat kelahiran bayi di

Jepang sangat rendah dibandingkan dengan tahun-tahun sebelumnya. Hinoeuma atau dikenal juga dengan tahun Fire Horse, dipercaya oleh masyarakat Jepang sebagai tahun yang buruk, mereka percaya bahwa bayi-bayi perempuan yang dilahirkan di tahun itu ditakdirkan akan membunuh suami-suami mereka di masa depan [5]. Sehingga sebagian besar pasangan yang menikah pada tahun ini menunda kehamilan dengan menggunakan metode kontrasepsi, dalam periode 2 hingga 6 tahun sejak pernikahan [6] Menurut Sensus Nasional 2005 yang dilakukan oleh Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, tingkat populasi usia 25-39 yang tidak menikah terus meningkat. Pria usia 25-29 meningkat menjadi 71.4%, usia 3034 menjadi 47.1%, dan usia 35-39 menjadi 30%. Sementara wanita usia 25-29 meningkat menjadi 59%, usia 30-34 menjadi 32%, dan usia 35-39 menjadi 18.4%. Lebih lanjut,

Gambar 4. Perubahan tingkat kelahiran di Jepang dalam kurun waktu 1950 – 2010. Sumber: “Vital Statistics� Statistics and Information Department, Minister’s Secretariat, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Japan.

pada tahun 1975 populasi pria yang tidak menikah seumur hidupnya hanya 2.12%, dan pada tahun 2005 meningkat menjadi 15.96%, sedangkan wanita dari 4,32% pada tahun 1975 meningkat menjadi 7.25% pada tahun 2005 [7].

3. Multinationalisasi Perusahaan Jepang dan Menyusutnya Aglomerasi Kantor-kantor Cabang di KotaKota Pusat Region Multinasionalisasi perusahaanperusahaan Jepang terus menunjukkan tren yang meningkat sejak tahun 2001 hingga 2010 [8] (Gambar 5). Hal ini dapat menunjukkan dua hal; sulitnya mencari tenaga kerja dalam usia produktif yang mengakibatkan tingginya upah pekerja di dalam Jepang, dan perubahan orientasi perusahaan yang dipengaruhi oleh globalisasi. Upah pekerja yang relatif murah di luar Jepang,

Gambar 5. Multinasionalisasi perusahaan-perusahaan Jepang yang ditunjukkan dengan perubahan rasio produksi di luar negeri. Sumber: Japan Bank for International Cooperation, Research Report, 2012

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otoritas lokal yang berwenang, misalnya pemerintah kota. Menyusutnya aglomerasi kantorkantor cabang di kota-kota pusat region dapat terlihat dari menurunnya jumlah karyawan yang bekerja di kantor cabang tersebut. Dari kantor-kantor cabang yang berlokasi di empat kota pusat region di Jepang, seluruhnya menunjukkan penurunan jumlah karyawan sejak tahun 1996 hingga saat ini [9] (Gambar 6).

menyusutnya aglomerasi kantorkantor cabang di kota-kota pusat region (Sapporo, Sendai, Hiroshima, dan Fukuoka).

Penyusutan aglomerasi kantorkantor cabang menimbulkan dampak lainnya, yaitu meningkatnya jumlah gedunggedung perkantoran yang ditinggalkan oleh perusahaan penyewa, seperti terlihat pada Gambar 7 di bawah ini.

Menurut Oxford Dictionary of Geography, aglomerasi adalah sebuah konsentrasi kegiatan ekonomi pada sektor-sektor yang saling terkait di dalam wilayah geografis, yang disebabkan oleh faktor akumulatif seperti berkumpulnya tenaga kerja terampil dan terdidik, maupun faktor kebijakan dan perencanaan oleh

Gambar 8 di bawah menunjukkan prosentase gedung-gedung perkantoran di empat kota pusat region utama di Jepang yang ditinggalkan. Sejak tahun 1996 hingga 2003, jumlah gedung perkantoran yang ditinggalkan terus meningkat, kemudian sempat menurun pada periode 2004-2006, namun pada tahun 2007-2009

Gambar 6. Perubahan jumlah karyawan di kantor cabang pada empat kota pusat region Sumber: Japanese Establishment Census

ketersedian pekerja dalam usia produktif, kemudahan dalam memperoleh izin usaha, kedekatan dengan pasar yang mampu mengurangi biaya produksi dan ketersediaan konsumen dalam jumlah besar merupakan berbagai variabel yang mempengaruhi perubahan orientasi perusahaan untuk membangun pabrik skala besar di luar Jepang. Hal ini telah menyebabkan menurunnya investasi di dalam Jepang yang berdampak pada

Gambar 7. Gedung perkantoran yang kosong karena ditinggalkan oleh perusahaan penyewa (Karakter huruf katakana pada gambar adalahăƒ†ăƒŠăƒłăƒˆ = Tenant = Disewakan). Sumber: Hino, Field Work at Sendai City, 2012

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sebagian besar hanya terkonsentrasi di pusat kota, investasi yang lebih banyak dilakukan di luar Jepang juga menjadi salah satu sebab berhentinya pembangunan fisik di daerah suburban Tokyo seperti dijelaskan diatas. Populasi penduduk usia >65 tahun yang tinggi kini terkonsentrasi pada suburban area, sebagaimana terlihat pada peta di Gambar 10.

Gambar 8. Tren perubahan jumlah gedung perkantoran yang ditinggalkan dalam kurun waktu 1996 hingga 2009. Sumber: CB Richard Ellis : Japan Office Market View

jumlah gedung perkantoran yang ditinggalkan kembali meningkat [10].

4. Berhentinya pertumbuhan dan perkembangan kota Peta pada Gambar 9 di bawah menggambarkan bahwa pertumbuhan dan perkembangan kota Tokyo sudah berhenti sejak tahun 1985. Hal ini ditunjukkan oleh warna merah, oranye, dan

kuning pada peta, dimana sebagian besar commuter tinggal di dalam radius 60 km saja dari pusat kota Tokyo. Waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk mencapai lokasi perkantoran dari tempat tinggal adalah 1 – 2 jam. Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan fisik Kota Tokyo tidak lagi tumbuh meluas ke segala arah sebagaimana yang terjadi pada Jakarta, New Delhi, dan Bangkok. Penyebabnya adalah rendahnya jumlah populasi usia produktif di suburban dan

Pada tahun 1990 populasi penduduk usia 65 tahun keatas di luar Tokyo Metropolitan area masih berkisar 15-20%, namun pada tahun 2005 populasi penduduk usia ini meningkat menjadi 20-25% dari total populasi. Pada suburban area Kota Sendai, berhentinya pertumbuhan dan perkembangan kota di tandai dengan kosongnya kamarkamar yang tersedia pada kondominium-kondominium, rumah-rumah yang ditinggalkan oleh penghuninya, serta rumahrumah yang berpindah-tangan hak kepemilikannya, sebagaimana yang terlihat di Gambar 11.

Gambar 9. Peta prosentase commuter kota Tokyo dari 23 wards (setingkat Kecamatan di Indonesia) Sumber: Japanese Population Census

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Gambar 10. Pola spasial prosentase penduduk usia 65 tahun keatas di Tokyo Metropolitan Sumber: Japanese Population Census

Gambar 11. Kiri atas: Kondominium-kondominium tanpa penghuni di daerah suburban. Kanan atas: Rumah yang ditinggalkan oleh penghuninya di daerah suburban. Kiri bawah-kanan bawah: Rumah-rumah yang berpindah-tangan hak kepemilikannya di daerah suburban. Sumber: Ramdani, Field work at Suburban area of Sendai City, 2013

5. Compact city: penggunaan lahan intensif, sistem transportasi terintegrasi, dan membangun network Pemerintah Jepang telah dan sedang berupaya untuk mengatasi

permasalahan urbanisasi. Salah satu solusi yang telah diterapkan adalah penerapan konsep Compact city. Compact city adalah sebuah konsep untuk membangun kota dengan penggunaan lahan yang intensif, didukung oleh sistem transportasi yang terintegrasi, dan terus membangun dan memperluas network dengan berbagai kota-

kota besar lainnya di luar Jepang untuk meningkatkan kerjasama di berbagai bidang, agar kegiatan perekonomian terus berputar. Compact city di Jepang ditandai dengan bangunan-bangunan kondominium tinggi, seperti yang terlihat pada Gambar 12. Sementara itu, untuk mengatasi

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Gambar 12. Kiri: Perumahan kondominium di pusat kota; Kanan: Perumahan di suburban area

permasalahan urbanisasi di Kota Sendai, Pemerintah Kota Sendai menerapkan strategi penggunaan lahan intensif, berbasis sistem transportasi yang teritegrasi [1112], seperti yang terlihat pada Gambar 13. Sistem transportasi terintegrasi ini diharapkan dapat menghubungkan empat suburban area utama di Kota Sendai, yaitu; Izumi di bagian utara, Arai di bagian barat, Natori New Town dan Diamond City di bagian selatan, serta Moniwadai dan Yagiyama di bagian timur.

km masih terus berlangsung hingga saat ini, untuk menghubungkan bagian barat dan timur kota Sendai. Proyek ini diperkirakan akan selesai pada tahun 2015 (mundur satu tahun dari rencana semula karena gempa 11 Maret 2011). Sendai Subway Tozai Line menghubungkan Arai suburban area di bagian barat Kota Sendai dengan Yagiyama dan Moniwadai di bagian timur. Proyek pembangunan masih terus berlangsung seperti terlihat pada Gambar 14 di bawah ini.

Pekerjaan pembangunan Sendai Subway Tozai Line sepanjang 13.9

Kerjasama yang dibangun oleh Tohoku University dengan berbagai

Universitas di luar Jepang juga menjadi salah satu upaya Kota Sendai untuk bertahan. Paling tidak terdapat lima program pertukaran pelajar di Tohoku University dengan Universitas rekanan di luar Jepang, yaitu JYPE, IPLA, DEEP, COLABS, dan ICI ECP [13]. Kedatangan ratusan pelajar ini diharapkan dapat membuat ekonomi kota terus berputar dalam jangka pendek, dan dalam jangka panjang diharapkan mereka dapat menetap dan bekerja di Jepang untuk menopang perekonomian.

Gambar 13. Struktur spasial Kota Sendai: Compact city berbasis transportasi terintegrasi Sumber: Miyamoto et al, 2010 & Sendai Municipality, 2008

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[6] Itoh, T., Bando, R., 1987. Fertility change of the year of “Hinoe-uma” (Article is in Japanese). Available at http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/12155013 [7] Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, available at http://www8.cao. go.jp/shoushi/whitepaper/english/ w-2009/pdf/p4-9.pdf [8] Japan Bank for International Cooperation, Research Report, 2012, available at http://www. jbic.go.jp/en/about/business/ year/2012/index.html

Gambar 14. Proyek pembangunan Stasiun Arai Subway Tozai Line di Arai suburban area, Wakabayshi Ward, Sendai Sumber: Ramdani, Field work at Suburban area of Sendai City, 2013

6. Kesimpulan

Referensi

Urbanisasi di Jepang dipengaruhi oleh faktor internal dan eksternal. Faktor internal adalah populasi penduduk usia produktif dan tingkat kelahiran yang terus menurun. Faktor eksternal adalah globalisasi yang membuat tren investasi keluar dari Jepang. Untuk mengantisipasi terjadinya kotakota mati di Jepang, pemerintah di masing-masing kota berupaya keras untuk membangun kota menjadi Compact City. Hal ini ditandai dengan pembangunan pemukiman di tengah kota dan suburban area yang didukung oleh sistem transportasi terintegrasi dan terus membangun network dengan kotakota besar lainnya di luar Jepang untuk menjaga kestabilan ekonomi. Universitas-universitas yang terdapat di masing-masing kota juga berperan penting dalam menjalin networking untuk mendukung kehidupan kota.

[1] Japanese Population Census, available at http://www.stat.go.jp/ english/data/kokusei/ [2] Japanese Statistical Year Book, 2010, available at http://www.stat. go.jp/data/nenkan/pdf/yhyou01. pdf [3] Office for policies on cohesive society, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, available at http://www8.cao.go.jp/souki/ index-eng.html [4] “Vital Statistics” Statistics and Information Department, Minister’s Secretariat, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Japan, available at http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/ database/db-hw/

[9] Japanese Establishment Census, available at http://www.stat.go.jp/ english/data/jigyou/ [10] CB Richard Ellis : Japan Office Market View, available at http:// www.cbre.co.jp/EN/Research_ Center/MarketView/Pages/default. aspx [11] Miyamoto, K., Kojima, H., Akashi, K., Tokunaga, Y., Urban Structure Reform with Future Transport Infrastructures:The Sendai Metropolitan Area Approach. 12th WCTR, July 11-15, 2010 – Lisbon, Portugal [12] Sendai Municipality, available at http://www.city.sendai.jp/ language/english.html [13] Center for International Exchange Tohoku University, available at http://www.insc. tohoku.ac.jp/cms/index-e. cgi?pg=100915122927

[5] Yasukawa, 1977 dalam Itoh, T., Bando, R., 1987. Fertility change of the year of “Hinoe-uma”. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/12155013

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Transformation of

Jakarta Megapolitan, 1982-2013 1982

2013 Sunda Kelapa Port

Soekarno-Hatta International Airport Old Town

“Shinjyuku” of Jakarta Halim Perdanakusuma Airport Cloud Over Agricultural Field

Urbanized Area Water

University of Indonesia

Vegetation Bareland Agricultural Field

Jakarta is located on the northwest coast of Java. Officially, the area of the Jakarta Special District is ~662 km2 of land area and ~7,000 km2 of sea area. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre, and with a population of ~11 million as of November 2011, it is the most populous city in Indonesia and in Southeast Asia, and is the thirteenth most populated city in the world. The official megapolitan area, known as Jabodetabek (a name formed by combining the initial syllables of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi), is the second largest in the world, yet the megapolis`s suburbs still continue growing beyond it (ex: Depok City). This megapolitan has population of over ~30 million, making it one of the world's largest conurbations in terms of number of inhabitants. Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur, Beijing and Bangkok. “Shinjyuku” of Jakarta is new extended area of Central Business District in southern Jakarta (Source: Landsat Satellite Images year 1982 and 2013; Imageries Processing: Fatwa Ramdani, 2013)


EKONOMI

Empirical Study on the Comparison of Performance Between Sharia and Conventional Banks in Indonesia Muhammad Rifqi1,*

Graduate School of Economics and Management, Tohoku University, Japan *E-mail: rifqilazio@yahoo.com 1

Abstrak

T

his paper compares the performance of sharia and conventional banks in Indonesia. We obtain the financial ratios of the bank from financial statements and divide the ratios into 5 groups: business model, efficiency, asset quality, stability, and profitability. We utilize

independent sample t-test and linear regression to confirm our understanding. Our findings suggest that sharia banks tend to rely less on fee income in generating their profits. We also found that sharia banks are more effective than conventional banks in channeling deposits into loans. Sharia banks are also less cost-efficient than conventional banks. However, sharia banks tend to have more stable capital structure and exhibit more readiness to face external financial shocks. In terms of profitability, sharia banks generate less operating income than conventional banks do. Keywords: sharia, bank, performance

1. Introduction The resurgence of sharia banking and sharia-related business has been a phenomenon in the financial world. Some are seeing sharia banking as an appropriate alternative to conventional banking system which repeatedly failed their customers, with the biggest example be the 2008 subprime mortgage crisis. The size of sharia banking industry reached $700 billions in 2010 [1]. Being the biggest country in sharia banking in terms of size is Iran, as the entire financial system in Iran is already based on sharia laws. Next to Iran is Saudi Arabia, and followed by Malaysia in the third

place. As for Indonesia, despite being the most populous Muslim country in the world, the size of its sharia banking industry is still low, which is still the world’s 13th biggest sharia banking industry [2]. Moreover, given the fact that sharia banking industry has been spreading only recently in the financial world, it could be inferred that the sharia banking industry is still at an early stage with plenty of room to grow.

2. Sharia Banking Basics What makes a bank sharia? According to El-Hawary et al. [3], there are 4 principles that must be fulfilled by an

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islamic financial institution (hence, sharia compliant institution): symmetrical risk sharing principle, materiality, no exploitation, and no financing sinful act based on sharia laws. The interpretation of those principles are subject to a great debate between sharia banking practictioners. The interpretation may possibly be different in one country compared to another. This phenomenon is mainly because the sharia banking is not only about making money, but also involves wider ethical and moral issues [1]. Moreover, El-Hawary et al. [3] noted that basically there are 2 types of financing patterns that can be performed by an Islamic financial institution, i.e. PLS (profit and loss sharing) and non-PLS. PLS pattern is perfomed by channeling funds through lending to a business venture but is not based on collateral. Under this condition, the lender cannot make money without taking any risk (as collateralized loan is one way to reduce risk). Some examples of financial deals that fall under this category are mudharaba (partnership) and musharaka (buying stakes at a venture) The PLS pattern of Islamic financial institution is considered the most “strongly islamic” function of the institution, since this function complies with one of the most basic concept of sharia banking, i.e. profit must not be earned risk-free. On the other hand, non-PLS pattern is perfomed by channeling funds through very small loans, and usually consumption loans. Some forms of non-PLS deals are murabaha (cost-plus sale), ijarah (lease), bai’ salam (deferred delivery), bai’ muajjal (delayed payment), and jo’alah (service fee). The non-PLS pattern of Islamic financial institution is considered “weakly Islamic” due to the fact that the deal structures have many similarities with conventional, interest-based lending performed by conventional banks. In the real world, although PLS pattern of financing is much more “Islamic” in nature, the non-PLS deals are absolutely dominating the transactions done by Islamic financial institutions. Iqbal [4] found that PLS accounted for only 14% of financing patterns by Islamic banks, while murabaha (non-PLS) became the most popular deals that accounted for 65% of the financing. This evidence was supported by the findings from El-Hawary et al. [3], which stated that in 2007, 92% of Islamic Development Banks’ income was generated from non-PLS deals. Aside from the heated debate about the interpretation of sharia laws in sharia banking and the financing

pattern performed by the banks, we want to take a look at how sharia banks perform in comparison to conventional banks. A study by Beck et al. [5] discussed the characteristics of sharia banks and conventional banks and their performance comparison. Beck et al. [5] found that sharia and conventional banks are not that different in terms of business model and business orientation. They also found evidence that sharia banks are less cost-effective but have a higher intermediation ratio. Sharia banks also have higher asset quality and better capital structure. Furthermore, Beck et al. [5] also found that during crises, sharia banks performed better than conventional banks and are less likely to disintermediate. With regards to findings presented in Beck et al. [5]’s study, we try to find the evidence from Indonesia banking industry to support their findings. We also try to compare the performance between sharia and conventional banks. The ”performance” is measured from the banks’ financial ratios which are divided into five different categories, i.e. business model, efficiency, asset quality, stability, and profitability.

3. Data and Methodology In order to perform our analysis, we obtained publicly available financial statements of the banks from Indonesian Stock Exchange website (www.idx.co.id) and from each of sharia banks’s homepage. All of the financial ratios utilized in this paper are derived from the figures in financial statements. Our initial sample comprises of 42 banks, in which 11 of them are sharia and 31 are publicly listed conventional banks. Among the 11 sharia banks, 2 have not disclosed their financial statements in their respective homepages, so we eliminate those 2, leaving us with 9 sharia and 31 conventional banks. Our analysis covers the period of 2008 to 2011. Our analysis utilizes 13 financial ratios taken from the banks’ financial statements. In order to perform a more thorough analysis over the banks’ performance, we divide those ratios into 5 groups: business model, efficiency, asset quality, stability, and profitability. Table 1 shows the list of financial ratios used as variables in this paper and their respective formulas. To compare between sharia and conventional banks more effectively, we divide the indicators into 5 groups. First group is business model, where we compare the banks’ orientation in their respective operations. In

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Table 1. List of variables

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Group Business model Business model Business model Efficiency Efficiency Asset quality Asset quality Stability Stability Stability Profitability Profitability Profitability

Variable Name FEEINC NONDEPF LDR COSTIN OVHD LOSSRES LOSSPROV MATUR RETA TETA EBITTA REVTA NITA

this group, we utilize the traditional measure or bank’s operation, the loan-to-deposit ratio which measures how much loans the bank made from its deposits. This ratio was created based on the traditional and the most basic idea of the function of a bank: channeling funds from deposit to loans. Aside from loan-to-deposit ratio, we also use two other ratios previously used by Demirguc-Kunt and Huizinga [6], the fee income to total operational income and non-deposit funding to total funding. Fee income to total operational income gives us the idea of how much of the bank’s operating income that is generated by fee income paid by bank’s customers for financial services rendered instead of relying on interest rate gap to generate income. Nondeposit funding to total funding measures how much of the bank’s funding that come from sources other than customer’s deposits. Those sources include issuing financial instruments, making loans to other banks, and subordinate loans. Second group is efficiency, measured by two ratios: total operating cost to gross revenues and total operating cost to total assets, which were used by Beck T, et al. [5] in their paper. Both ratios measure how efficient the bank is in running their daily operations. Lower figures in both ratios mean higher efficiency of the bank’s operation. Third group is asset quality, as measured by loan loss reserve and loan loss provision, both are scaled by gross loans. Those indicators were also used by Beck T, et al. [5]. Those ratios measure the size of provision and reserve the bank made to cover losses from bad loans.

Formula fee income/total operational income non-deposit funding/total funding total loans/total deposit total operating cost/gross revenues total operating cost/total assets loan loss reserve/gross loans loan loss provision/gross loans liquid assets/deposit and short-term funding RE/total assets total equity/total assets EBIT/total assets gross revenues/total assets net income/total assets Higher readings in those ratios indicate lower asset (in this case, the credit given by the bank) quality of the bank. Fourth group is stability, which measures the strength and readiness of the bank in absorbing financial shocks. The first indicator of this group is maturity, measured by liquid asset to deposit and short-term funding. This indicator was also used by Beck T, et al. [5]. Higher reading in maturity indicate higher readiness of the bank’s liquidity in defending against external shocks, in this case, the bank run. The remaining 2 are derived from the classic Altman z-score model, as proposed in Altman [7]. Those ratios measure the strength of the bank’s capital in absorbing losses, in which higher reading means more stable capital condition. The final group is profitability, as measured by EBIT, gross revenues, and net income, all scaled by total assets. Those ratios are also derived from Altman z-score in Altman [7]. Higher readings of those ratios mean the bank generates more profit for its shareholders. We utilize 2 statistical tools available in SPSS 17.0 statistical software to analyze the ratios: independent sample t-test and linear regression with dummy variable. In order to perform those statistical analysis, we generate a categorical variable to define whether a bank is sharia or conventional bank. We assign number 1 for sharia banks and 0 for conventional banks. This variable will be treated as dummy variable in our analysis. In our independent sample t-test, we compare the

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means between 2 series, in this case between sharia and conventional banks series and test whether the means are statistically significant from each other. We assign each of the 13 ratios into the test and analyze whether sharia and conventional banks have statistically different ratios. In our linear regression analysis, we regress the categorical variable as our independent variable against each of the 13 ratios as the dependent variable. We analyze whether the status of the bank (either sharia or conventional) is statistically significant in explaining the ratios, and whether sharia banks have better or worse ratios than conventional banks. Our regression process follows this model: Banki=α+βIi+εi where Banki is our measure in forms of financial ratios and Ii is dummy categorical variable taking the value of 1 if the bank is a sharia bank and 0 if the bank is

conventional.

4. Comparing Sharia and Conventional Banks’ Table 2 and 3 displays the two-part result of our first statistical test: the independent sample t-test. Table 2 shows the group statistics of our sample, which is divided into sharia and conventional for each of the ratio. From table 2 we could obtain a good idea about the difference in means of the ratios from each bank category. Table 3 shows the main result of the t-test, in which we can infer whether the difference in means is statistically significant or not. In other words, we could determine whether the means of the ratio in sharia banks and conventional banks are significantly different from each other or not. From table 3, we could infer that nearly all of the ratios (11 of them) of sharia and conventional banks tend to

Table 2. Group Statistics

FEEINC NONDEPF LDR COSTIN OVHD LOSSRES LOSSPROV MATUR RETA EBITTA REVTA NITA TETA

Syariah 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

N 27 120 27 120 27 120 27 120 27 120 27 120 27 120 27 120 27 120 27 120 27 120 27 120 27 120

Mean .09772165 .12653783 .03582616 .05123234 .98194374 .72465236 .72786402 .41154475 .04379269 .03907776 .01932269 .03617020 .02765798 .02471865 .02221951 .02065118 -.01283889 -.00390732 .00102810 .00379618 .08561798 .09436286 .00452737 -.00039126 .19652421 .10149508

Std. Deviation .116786049 .087292572 .070295513 .047302426 .455418924 .148806831 .971009897 .136390662 .011888117 .016358773 .016076099 .056952059 .064174631 .126662395 .045477205 .010191196 .079666263 .208625487 .038511553 .116591377 .047146606 .022154215 .010771514 .120868018 .186227737 .051305913

Std. Error Mean .022475486 .007968685 .013528378 .004318101 .087645413 .013584143 .186870942 .012450707 .002287869 .001493345 .003093847 .005198988 .012350413 .011562642 .008752092 .000930325 .015331779 .019044814 .007411552 .010643288 .009073369 .002022394 .002072979 .011033690 .035839545 .004683568

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Table 3. Independent Samples Test

FEEINC

Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed NONDEPF Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed LDR Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed COSTIN Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed OVHD Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed LOSSRES Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed LOSSPROV Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed NPL Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed MATUR Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed RETA Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed EBITTA Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed REVTA Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed NITA Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed TETA Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F 6.859

Sig. .010

1.302

.256

31.373

.000

12.525

.001

1.639

.202

2.277

.133

.034

.854

2.277

.133

6.628

.011

.788

.376

.104

.748

5.064

.026

.639

.425

46.029

.000

t -1.450 -1.208 -1.386 -1.085 5.134 2.901 3.459 1.689 1.414 1.726 -1.520 -2.785 .117 .174 -1.520 -2.785 .345 .178 -.218 -.365 -.122 -.213 -1.450 -.941 .211 .438 4.874 2.629

be similar in numbers. Only the remaining 2 ratios are significantly different between sharia and conventional banks, i.e. loan-to-deposit ratios and total equity to total assets. In the first group of our ratios, the business model, we can see that sharia banks have higher fee income to total operating income ratio. Although the difference is not significant, we could still infer from this information that the portion of fee income component in sharia banks’ operating income tends to be less than those in

df 145 32.834 145 31.496 145 27.261 145 26.231 145 50.857 145 138.634 145 78.394 145 138.634 145 26.590 145 110.604 145 126.379 145 28.632 145 126.826 145 26.894

Sig. (2-tailed) .149 .236 .168 .286 .000 .007 .001 .103 .159 .090 .131 .006 .907 .863 .131 .006 .731 .860 .827 .716 .903 .831 .149 .355 .833 .662 .000 .014

conventional banks. This suggests that sharia banks tend to rely less to fee income to make money than conventional banks do. The next ratio in the business model group ratios is the non-deposit funding to total funding. Though not significant, the level of non-deposit funding in the total funding of sharia banks is less than those of conventional banks. This finding suggests that the loans made by sharia banks was funded mostly by deposit from its customers, not by non-deposit funding. On

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the other hand, conventional banks tend to rely more to non-deposit funding such as financial instrument issuance, borrowing from another banks, or issuing subordinate loans to finance its loan to customers than sharia banks do. An interesting finding in our analysis come from the last member of business model group ratios, which is the loan-to-deposit ratio. Our finding shows that the ratio of sharia banks is significantly bigger than the ratio of conventional banks. This means that sharia provides more loans to its customers relative to its deposits more than their conventional counterparts. In other words, higher intermediation ratio. This suggests that sharia banks in Indonesia is more effective in undertaking the most basic role of a bank, i.e. to channel funds from deposits to loans.

From the second group of the ratios, the efficiency, we could see a clear result that sharia banks are not as efficient as their conventional counterparts. Although not significantly different, the total operating cost to gross revenues and total operating cost to total assets of sharia banks is bigger than the conventional banks. This reading means that the cost of sharia banks in generating revenues and to manage their existing assets is bigger than conventional banks. This might due to the fact that the industry of sharia banking in Indonesia is still at early stage, thus sharia banks still have not been able to offer competitive compensation package to attract potential talents to run their businesses. This results in inefficiency in sharia banks’ daily operation. Another interesting finding comes in the asset quality group of ratios, where we found rather conflicting

Table 4. Coefficients

Variables (Constant) Syariah NONDEPF (Constant) Syariah LDR (Constant) Syariah COSTIN (Constant) Syariah OVHD (Constant) Syariah LOSSRES (Constant) Syariah LOSSPROV (Constant) Syariah MATUR (Constant) Syariah RETA (Constant) Syariah EBITTA (Constant) Syariah REVTA (Constant) Syariah NITA (Constant) Syariah TETA (Constant) Syariah

FEEINC

Unstandardized Coefficients B Std. Error .127 .009 -.029 .020 .051 .005 -.015 .011 .725 .021 .257 .050 .412 .039 .316 .091 .039 .001 .005 .003 .036 .005 -.017 .011 .025 .011 .003 .025 .021 .002 .002 .005 -.004 .018 -.009 .041 .004 .010 -.003 .023 .094 .003 -.009 .006 .000 .010 .005 .023 .101 .008 .095 .019

Standardized Coefficients Beta -.120 -.114 .392 .276 .117 -.125 .010 .029 -.018 -.010 -.120 .017 .375

t 14.862 -1.450 10.756 -1.386 33.737 5.134 10.500 3.459 27.351 1.414 7.614 -1.520 2.296 .117 10.593 .345 -.223 -.218 .389 -.122 36.515 -1.450 -.039 .211 12.146 4.874

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Sig. .000 .149 .000 .168 .000 .000 .000 .001 .000 .159 .000 .131 .023 .907 .000 .731 .824 .827 .698 .903 .000 .149 .969 .833 .000 .000

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results between loan loss reserve and loan loss provision ratios. Despite not being statistically different, the numbers in loss reserve shows that sharia banks have lower reserve, but they have slightly higher loss provision than conventional banks. In the group of stability ratios, sharia banks have slightly bigger maturity (liquid assets over deposit and short-term funding) ratio. This means that sharia banks have more stable assets than conventional banks, thus making sharia banks less sensitive to external shocks such as bank runs. The total equity relative to total assets of sharia banks is also significantly bigger than conventional. This finding suggests that sharia banks have more capital that can be used as “cushion” under banking crisis scenario, thus making sharia banks more stable than conventionals. However, the level of retained earnings relative to total assets of sharia banks is still lower than conventional banks. This might due to the fact that sharia banking is still a young industry and has only been around for several years now, thus the accumulation of earnings (in form of retained earnings) of sharia banks are still low. The final group of our ratios, the profitability ratios, also generates interesting result. Despite not being significant, the gross revenues and EBIT relative to total assets of sharia banks are lower than conventional banks. However at the bottom of financial statements, the net income, sharia banks’ numbers are bigger than conventional banks. This finding suggests that sharia banks does not rely too much on its main operating unit to make money, but instead they have “side units” which are recorded as non-operating unit to be used as their income source. Table 4 displays the result of the second statistical test that we utilize in this paper: linear regression with bank’s status as dummy variable. From table 4 we can infer the significance and the effect of sharia dummy variable on each of the ratio. In other words, we can measure what effect of being a sharia banks has on each of the ratio that we are analyzing. From table 4, we could see that sharia dummy variable is not significant in nearly all of the ratios (10 of them). Sharia dummy variable is only significant in the remaining 3 ratios, i.e. loan-to-deposit ratios, total operating cost to gross revenues, and total equity to total assets. This finding confirms our previous finding from performing independent sample t-test, in which sharia and conventional banks are significantly different

only in 2 ratios: loan-to-deposit and total equity to total assets. In terms of the sign of the coefficients, the results of linear regression perfectly confirms the result from independent sample t-test. Whenever the group statistics in independent t-test shows that the means of ratios of sharia banks are bigger than conventional banks, the coefficient sign in regression shows positive sign and vice versa. This finding strengthen our arguments made previously on the results of independent sample t-test.

5. Conclusion This paper carefully analyzes the difference in performance between sharia and conventional banks in Indonesia from a set of empirical data taken from the banks’ financial statements. We divide the analysis into 5 groups of ratios, which are business model, efficiency, asset quality, stability, and profitability. Our findings suggest that sharia banks tend to rely less on fee income in generating their profits. Evidence also suggests that sharia banks are more effective than conventional banks in performing the most fundamental role of banks: taking deposits and making loans. In terms of efficiency, sharia banks are less cost-efficient than their conventional counterparts. Conflicting results in asset quality ratios make it hard to conclude the difference between sharia and conventional banks in terms of loss reserve and provision. Our findings also suggest that sharia banks tend to have more stable capital structure and exhibit more readiness to face external financial shocks. Lastly, in terms of profitability, sharia banks generates less operating income but more net income at the bottomline of income statements. Most of our findings support the findings from Beck et al. [5] in terms of cost-effectiveness, intermediation ratio, and asset quality.

References [1] Khan, F., 2010. “How ‘Islamic’ is Islamic Banking?”. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. 76: 805-820. [2] The Banker., 2010. “Top 500 Islamic Financial Institutions”. [3] El-Hawary, D., Grais, W., Iqbal, Z., 2004. “Regulating Islamic Financial Institutions: The Nature of the Regulated”. World Bank Policy Research

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Working Paper No. 3227. [4] Iqbal, M., Ahmad, A., Khan, T., 1998. “Challenges Facing Islamic Banking”. Islamic Development Bank, Islamic Research and Training Institute Occasional Paper No. 1. [5] Beck, T., Demirguc-Kunt, A., Merrouche, O., 2013. “Islamic vs. Conventional Banking: Business Model, efficiency, and stability”. Journal of Banking and Finance. 37: 433-447. [6] Demirguc-Kunt, A., Huizinga, H., 2010. “Bank Activity and Funding Strategies”. Journal of Financial Economics. 98: 626-650. [7] Altman, E., 1968. “Financial Ratios, Discriminant Analysis and the Prediction of Corporate Bankruptcy”. Journal of Finance. pp.589-609.

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Agreement to Disagree, the Key of Managing the Excellent Putri Setiani* Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-20 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 9808579, Japan. *E-mail: putri@geo.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp

I

once worked for a private consultant company acted in education development, which just opened a new branch in my home city. The company held a big open recruitment program, and the first stage paper-test was attended by about 300 applicants which most of them were fresh graduates and final year students from many universities in and around the city. After several more stages of tests, only about 20 people that were finally accepted. I did a quick survey on these newly hired employees to figure out that nearly half of them having outstanding academic record (e.g. GPA above 3.5 out of 4.0) and/or rich of organizational experience (i.e. actively involved in projects/extracurricular work both inside and outside campus). High GPA is, of course, not an absolute warranty of excellent work

performance. However, up to now it is still used as a practical standard to measure one’s capability on problem solving. Meanwhile, organizational experience during university life could really enhance one’s capacity on team work, which is obviously beneficial for the company. This company, in which its output quality depended strongly on the employees, enforced a stricter system compared to other companies acted in the similar field. The purpose of this strict system was to maintain the company’s performance, such that it included the regulation for employee’s personal life. For illustration, the formal regulation included prohibition to smoke even outside the company’s area and after office hour (not to say that I support smoking, only to illustrate how far the rules regulated the employee).

The system worked pretty much well in the previous branches, as the company started to gain trust from the clients and society. Furthermore, it is understandable that the leaders of this company expected this new branch to be as good as or even better than the prior branches, particularly considering quality of the newly hired employees. However, despite the alreadyestablished name of this company in other prior places, this new branch was the first one in the city. Additionally, the city was a home of a lot more numbers of well-known universities in both regional and national level compared to those in the prior cities; which indicates that the new employees, to a certain extent, would have higher qualification than those in the previous branches. A very strict

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system often does not work really well on managing excellent people. What was more, in the case of this company, the regulation was nonnegotiable and the employees are obliged to accept it as is. In the case of this new branch, 5 out of about 20 recruited employees, among those were employees with the most excellent qualification, resigned only after 3 months of working and moved to a more established institutions. Major cause was discordance to the strict and nonnegotiable company’s regulation. This case, I believe is just one of the evidence of a common case in which a more excellent employee often seen to have less loyalty toward their workplace. What is the problem actually?

Potential problems of employing excellent people: Conflicting opinions Employees with excellent qualifications are obvious assets to the company or any other institutions where they belong. The “excellent people” term in this essay refers to the people having higher intelligence and/or more experience compared to the same level (age, occupation, education, etc.) majority. High self-esteem, high intelligence, persistence and courage are some of the excellent qualities that any organization would seek for. Such strong qualities are often the antecedents of a standout work performance. However, presence of the excellent employees in a company could be a drawback if the company itself is not well-managed. Along with the strength that is owned, excellent people have more tendencies to be rebellious and become a whistle-

blower. These attitudes is not always harmful, however it brings larger chance to initiate conflict. Donald M. Taylor, a scholar on intergroup relation, stated that conflict is often caused by a misalignment of goals, motivations, or actions between two parties that can be real or only perceived to exist [1]. More often than not, it is perceived as the root of disagreements, negative emotions, and maladaptive behaviour, even though it is just as likely to foster needed change through creativity and innovation [2]. Although often seen in a negative light, conflict also has positive aspects. As reflected by a scholar on business management, Abbas J. Ali, conflict can become a foundation for positive change, and can lead to the voicing of concerns to increase awareness which is important to avoid stagnation [3]. Hence, optimizing employment of excellent people is about encouraging positive aspect of conflict and reducing the potential of its negative aspect. In this case, conflict management plays a key role.

Companies’ characteristics toward conflicting opinions The excellent people often tend to stay longer in bigger and more established company, it is evident. This fact might relate with the company’s general characteristic on managing conflicting ideas. “Small companies”, particularly the start-ups, are more likely to need a stable company condition in order to grow. The consideration to build constructive conflict culture will be difficult to be cultivated when the company itself is still

in the stabilizing phase, because unconventional act and thinking tend to be considered potentially disadvantageous as it may cause turbulence for the company’s still-growing stability. Thus, small company tend to act stricter toward such rebellious thinking. On the other hand, “big companies” already have a more firm work environment and performance. With (much) larger number of employees, differences are unavoidable, such that big companies are accustomed to manage diversity, including the diversity of act and thinking. Such customary to heterogeneity gives more space for the employees to express their idea, despite the unconventionality. Therefore “Big companies” are likely to be more prepared to handle the turbulence and thus are more open to conflicting opinions. In this kind of environment, the openness to accept different thought can induce a positive culture of dialogue, which may encourage both employees and leaders to build a healthy attitude for uncommon thinking. The openness to accept different opinions may have potential to ignite conflict, yet on the other side it may importantly show company’s appreciation toward employee’s thought and thus induce employee’s involvement in the decision-making process. Employee empowerment, particularly by active participation of the employee in decision-making, is a crucial process on enhancing both individual and company performance [4]. Authorizing employees to actively participate in the decision-making process is an important part of employee empowerment, during which employee could improve their

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personal and organizational performance. Furthermore, a study by Jun, a scholar in management science, revealed that employee empowerment has a significant and positive influence on employee satisfaction6. In the case of the company I described in the beginning of this essay, regulation and decisionmaking process was mostly handled by top management team. As a result, the turnover rate was very high even only in short period of work time. The possible explanation is that the company, its culture and its leaders, was not ready to handle such qualified employees with high need of empowerment, so that the employees were dissatisfied. It has been confirmed that employee’s satisfaction related to employees’ loyalty to their companies and negatively related to their intention to turnover [5-8]. A lower level of intention to leave among satisfied employees is driven by the fact that satisfied employees are more likely to perceive greater benefits in staying in their organizations, compared with dissatisfied employees. Therefore, satisfied employees tend to show a higher level of loyalty and commitment to their companies and are unlikely to leave their jobs [9].

Solution: An agreement to disagree, a room to grow “Honest differences are often a healthy sign of progress.” -Mahatma GandhiLearning from the culture of “big companies”, the key point of managing excellent employees is to concede in the first place

that conflicting opinions are just inevitable. The awareness to accept conflicting ideas as a common part in the workplace will automatically reduce resistance toward differences and thus a constructive culture of conflicting idea is more likely to be cultivated. A positive attitude toward opposing ideas, particularly from the leaders, will bring positive impact for both employee and company. The agreement to disagree, gives room to differences which will encourage creative and innovative thinking, which may improve individual and company’s performance. It also shows company’s attention on employee’s opinion, as well as company’s intention to empower the employee that it may increase the satisfaction level toward the company, which in return resulted in improvement of loyalty. Once the constructive culture has been established, conflicting opinion can be a fruitful source of fresh ideas. Excellent people, with their strong qualities, are individuals with high need to achieve. Such thirst for challenge and self-improvement often can only be addressed by giving chance for empowerment. The best reward for the excellent is to give space and conviction for their idea to grow. To encourage the excellent, give them an agreement to disagree. ***

References [1] Taylor, D. M., & Moghaddam, F. M. 1994. Theories of intergroup relations: International social psychological perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/ Greenwood Publishing Group Inc.

[2] Kaushal, R., Kwantes, C.T. 2006. The role of culture and personality in choice of conflict management strategy. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30: 579-603. [3] Ali, A.J. 1996. Organizational development in the Arab world. Journal of Management Development, 15: 4–21. [4] Jun, M., Cai, S., Shin, H. 2006. TQM practice in maquiladora: Antecedents of employee satisfaction and loyalty. Journal of Operations Management, 24: 791–812. [5] Brown, S.P., Peterson, R.A. 1993. Antecedents and consequences of salesperson job satisfaction: Meta-analysis and assessment of causal effects. Journal of Marketing Research, 30: 63–77. [6] Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., Gaertner, S. 2000. A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research implication for the next millennium. Journal of Management, 26: 463–488. [7] Hom, P.W., Kinicki, A.J. 2001. Toward a greater understanding of how dissatisfaction drives employee turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 975–987. [8] Martensen, A., Gronholdt, L. 2001. Using employee satisfaction measurement to improve people management: An adaptation of Kano’s quality types. Total Quality Management, 12: 949–957. [9] Guimaraes, T. 1997. Assessing employee turnover intentions before/after TQM. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 14: 46–63.

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Land use changes in the wetland environment, Riau Province, Indonesia

1988

2002 Wetlan d

Tropical forest Land clearing stage

Wetland

Village

Village

Village

We tla n

d

Land clearing stage

Tropical forest

Wetland almost completely removed d

Village We tla n

Land clearing stage

2012

Village

Center of socioeconomic activities along Provincial road network

Tropical forest completely converted into oil palm plantation

Village

(Source: Landsat Satellite Images year 1988, 2002, and 2012; Photos & Imageries Processing: Fatwa Ramdani, 2013)


TICA

Effects of Pack Aluminizing Temperatures α2-Ti3Al/γ-TiAl Intermetallics towards Hot Corrosion Behavior at 850°C Fadhli Muhammada, Eddy Agus Basukib Departement of Metallurgical Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung a Email: fadhlim_08@students.itb.ac.id, b Email: basuki@mining.itb.ac.id

Abstrak

I

n this study, the hot corrosion of Ti-46Al-2Cr-2Mo intermetallics coated with pack aluminizing methods at various temperatures is investigated. The hot corrosion resistance of the alloy has also been evaluated in order to determine the best temperature process of pack aluminizing.

The hot corrosion testing is done in mixed of Na2SO4 + NaCl melts at 850°C. The experiment results show that pack aluminizing at 900°C gives the best corrosion resistance followed by pack aluminizing at 1000°C. However, pack aluminizing at 1100°C gives poor corrosion resistance due to the formation of the crack on the coating layer. This crack makes pitting propagate and increase corrosion rate. As a consequence, a severe corrosion occurs on the alloy coated at 1100°C. The pack aluminizing process is best done at temperature between 900 - 1000°C for 10 hours.

Keywords—Coating; hot corrosion; intermetallics; pack aluminizing; titanium aluminide.

I. Introduction Intermetallics alloys of Ti-Al have attracted considerable interest among industrial companies for high temperature applications such as aeroengine and automotive engine. Due to their lower density (a half of nickel based superalloy density), high yield strength at high temperature, good creep resistance, and good oxidation/corrosion resistance. These intermetallics alloys regarded as strong substitute candidate for conventional titanium alloy in the compressor part and

also Ni-Based superalloys in the lower pressure turbine part [1]. γ-TiAl alloys are currently being used for turbocharger rotors in automotive engine [2] and have now been introduced for turbine blades in General Electric’s GENx engine [3]. The cast Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb, which passed the FAR33 certification in 2007 for GENx engines that will power the B787, is regarded as the greatest breakthrough in the TiAl technology up to now [1].

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One of the major problem from two phases intermetallics alloys α 2-Ti3Al/γ-TiAl is their oxidation resistance that relatively poor at temperature above 750°C. To improve oxidation resistance and hot corrosion resistance of these alloys, these alloys are protected by aluminum coating on their surface. Generally, the formation of this coating layer is done by enrichment of Al, Cr, and Si on the surface of the material. Due to their abilities to form protective oxide scale Al 2O3, Cr2O3, dan SiO2 [4]. Between these three kind of oxide, Al 2O3 is the most stable oxide scale for applications at temperature above 900°C. Cr2O3 and SiO2 scale tend to form volatile phase at temperature higher than 900°C [5]. Aluminide coating on Ti-Al system (TiAl 2 and TiAl3) was done by pack aluminizing methods. This method has been chosen because the process is easy, cheap, and could applied on relatively complex shapes. In this study, the effects of various temperatures of pack aluminizing are evaluated towards hot corrosion behavior on two phases intermetallics alloys α 2-Ti3Al / γ-TiAl at 850°C.

II. Experimental Procedures Substrate used in this experiments is intermetallics alloys that contain 46%-at Al, 2%-at Cr, 2%-at Mo, and the rest is Ti. Pack aluminizing was done at various temperatures such as 900°C, 1000°C, 1100°C for 10 hours. The pack consists of 23%-wt Al powder as coating source, 2%-wt NH4Cl as activator, and the rest Al 2O3 as inert filler. Generally, the experiments was performed according to the flowchart on Fig.1.

A. Production of α2-Ti Al/γ-TiAl substrate The TiAl alloys were preapared by melting metals in an electric arc furnace (EAF-DC) under high purity argon atmosphere. The buttons of the material were then further homogenized by heating in a tube furnace at 1100°C for 10 hours in argon atmosphere. The as homogenized substrate was then cut to obtain several samples in a dimension of 8 mm x 7.5 mm x 2 mm using wire cutter. The samples were then polished by abrasive paper and cleaned by ultrasonic cleaner. This sample will be used as substrate for pack aluminizing.

Fig. 1. Flowchart of experimental procedures.

B. Pack Aluminizing Coating was done by pack aluminizing method with various temperatures. The prepared pack was mixed of aluminum powder, activator NH4Cl, and Al 2O3. The mixed composition of pack is served on Table 1. Table I

Pack Composition Material Aluminum NH4Cl Al 2O3

Function Coating source Aktivator Inert filler

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Weight % 23 2 75

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The pack filler was dried first in an oven at 110°C for 24 hours to exclude the moisture. The pack materials, retort, and samples were put into an argon box. Argon gas was then flowed for ± 100 ml/minute and leave for 15 minutes to purge the air out from argon box. The pack materials were mixed throughly for 15 minutes and the samples were inserted into the retort made from alumina, closed with the lid, and sealed with alumina cement (showed in Fig. 2). Retort that has been filled with pack materials and samples were inserted into tube furnace. Argon was flowed with the rate of 10 mL/minutes for 10 minutes to purge the air. The furnace was heated at 175°C for 1 hour to remove the moisture. The temperature was then increased at various operating temperature such as at 900°C, 1000°C, dan 1100°C, respectively, for 10 hours. After 10 hours, the furnace was turned off and the argon was kept flowed until the temperature reached room temperature. The retort was then taken out of furnace, washed by water and cleaned by ultrasonic cleaner. The schematic ilustration of pack aluminizing process is showed in Fig. 3.

Fig. 2. (a) Retort that has been filled and sealed, (b) Schematic ilustration of the placement of the samples in retort, (c) Schematic ilustration of the placement of the retort in tube furnace.

C. Hot Corrosion Testing Hot corrosion testing was performed to know the resistivity of the sample that coated by pack aluminizing process at various temperatures, and also to determine which temperature of pack aluminizing process was produced the best corrosion resistance. Hot corrosion were carried out in 75%-wt Na 2SO4 + 25%-wt NaCl at 850°C for 1 hours, 5 hours, and 10 hours. The examined samples were completely immersed into the molten salts in ceramic crucibles with lids at 850°C at muffle furnace. The samples were removed from the furnace at regular interval, cooled in air, washed in boiling water to remove the salts on the surface of the samples, and dried in hot air. The corrosion kinetics was characterized by measured the oxide thickness that formed using optical microscope. Na2SO4 salts was formed due to the present of sulphur from fuel, air consisted of NaCl salts and moisture, and also oxidative environment. The following reaction might happened in the combustion chamber at aeroengine : 2NaCl + ½ O2 + SO2 + H 2O → Na2SO4 + 2HCl.

(1)

Due to this reaction, the corrosion testing was done using the mixture of Na 2SO4 and NaCl salts.

Fig. 3. Schematic ilustration of pack aluminizing process.

D. Microstructure Characterization The corroded samples were mounted by resin, grinded by abrasive paper, polished by diamond paste, and etched in a solution of 10 mL HF, 5 mL HNO3, and 85 mL water. The samples were then analyzed by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped by energy dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/ EDS).

III. Results Fig. 4 shows the microstructure of pack aluminizing samples, respectively, at 1100°C, 1000°C, and 900°C. Pack aluminizing at 1100°C was produced coating layer with average thickness 35.45 µm and interdiffusion layer with average thickness 33.14 µm. Pack aluminizing at 1000°C was produced coating layer with the average

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thickness 39.34 µm and the interdiffusion layer with the average thickness 12.40 µm. And pack aluminizing at 900°C was produced coating layer with the average thickness 80.08 µm and no interdiffusion layer was produced. Hot corrosion testing was done on the samples that coated at 900°C, 1000°C, and 1100°C and the uncoated samples to analyze the depth of corrosion so that the corrosion rate can be calculated. The depth of corrosion on each sample was measured using the software that connected to optical microscope. Each sample was measured ten times at different locations.

IV. Discussions A. Mechanism of Coating Formation The mechanism of coating formation on the substrate can be described schematically in Fig. 6. In the first stage aluminum atoms brought by Al-halides deposits on the surface of the substrate. The deposited Al the further will diffuse into the substrate (stage 2). The aluminum content in the region close to the surface will be increased and form TiAl 2 (stage 3). With the time the amount of TiAl 2 phase increases (stage 4). The coalescence of TiAl 2 phase would produce a continuous

Fig. 4. Cross sectional microstructures of pack aluminized sample at (a) 1100°C, (b) 1000°C, (c) 900°C.

Fig. 5. Cross sectional microstructures after hot corrosion for 10 hours for (a) The sample coated at 1100°C, (b) The sample coated at1000°C, (c) The sample coated at 900°C.

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layer of TiAl 2 (stage 5).

B. Analysis of Corrosion Rate

Since the flux of Al atoms diffuse from TiAl 2 to the substrate through the TiAl 2 – environment interface cause the content of Al in the region close to the surface of TiAl 2 increases (stage 6). When the Al content in this region reaches the composition of TiAl3, The intermetallic phase of TiAl3 is developed (stage 7). The diffusion coefficient of TiAl3 ( TiAl3) is higher than the diffusion coefficient of TiAl 2 ( TiAl 2). Consequently, this causes the rate of interface movement of TiAl3 – TiAl 2 faster than interface movement of TiAl 2 – substrate (stage 7). This leads to the thicker layer of TiAl3 compared to TiAl 2 layers.

Between all of the pack aluminizing process, pack aluminizing at 900 shows the most effective coating layer to protect substrate because it has the lowest corrosion rate. From the graphic, we can conclude that pack aluminizing at lower temperature give lower corrosion rate. It was also confirmed from the thickness data that the pack aluminizing at lower temperature has given thicker coating layer. The coating layer of TiAl3 was also comfirmed effective enough to protect substrate againts hot corrosion.

Fig. 6. Model of mechanism of coating formation on α 2-Ti3Al/γ-TiAl.

There was a deviation at the graphic on Fig. 7. The graphic showed that the alumina coated sample at 1100°C has higher corrosion rate than the uncoated sample. This phenomena can possibly occur if the process time of pack aluminizing was too long. If the process time was too long, all of Al powder, which is the coating source, would quickly deposit at the surface of the substrate and running out while the activator was still present, as a consequences, the Al that has deposited at the surface of the substrate may rediffuse outward to the pack due to the gradient of activity. This process leads the cracks of the coating layer as showed in Fig. 4(a). The cracks tend to form pits that could increase the corrosion rate and trigger more corrosion damage on the substrate than the uncoated sample with flat surface structure.

Fig. 7. Corrosion kinetics of pack aluminizing smples at various temperatures.

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Fig. 8 shows the initiation of pitting at the samples exposured for 1 hour in the molten salts. The EDS analysis shows the present of 72,49% Al 2O3, 25,77% TiO2 , and 1,74% Cr2O3. It can be seen that the oxide mixture was formed pitting. The pitting formation was caused by the present of NaCl that significantly increase the corrosion rate of TiAl alloy. Generally, Al 2O3 and TiO2 formed on the alloy surface at the beginning of corrosion. However, in the molten Na2SO4 + NaCl, it is possible that TiO2 and Al 2O3 react with NaCl according to this following reaction [6,7,8] : 2NaCl + Al 2O3 + ½O2 → 2NaAlO2 + Cl 2

(2)

NaCl + TiO2 + O2 → NaTiO4 + ½ Cl 2

(3)

The Cl 2 produced is able to penetrate through oxide scales quickly along pores or cracks. Cl 2 may then react with Ti and Al directly on the alloy surface to form volatile chlorides. Ti + Cl 2 → TiCl 2

(4)

Al + Cl 2 → AlCl3

(5)

The volatile chlorides may diffuse outward through the cracks or pores to the outer surface of the alloy. At the surface of the scales, where the oxygen potential is high, the volatile chlorides may reoxidize by this reaction : TiCl 2 + O2 → TiO2 + Cl 2

(6)

2AlCl3 + O2 → Al 2O3 + 3Cl2

(7)

Cl 2 is regenerated and ready to rediffuse into the alloy surface. At the scale-alloy interface, the amount of Al and Ti are consumed in the process, until, in the meantime, pits will initiate on the alloy surface. Because the oxygen potential is much lower at the botom of the pits, the volatile chlorides form and are transported outward. This process makes the pits propagate, so the alloy surface is nonuniform. According to this mechanism, the self-sustaining-corrosion process may occur with only small quantities of chloride phases. The chlorides just act as catalysts [7,8]. This mechanism is also supported by SEM image at the examined samples showed at Fig. 9(a). Many cracks presents as the result of pitting propagation.

Fig. 9 shows the SEM analysis for the pack aluminide samples at 1000°C that exposured in the molten salts for 10 hours with the magnification of 150x and 1500x. The oxide was thick and penetrate deep enough into the coating layer, the EDS analysis at the outer coating layer (spot 1) shows the oxide that formed were dominated by 72.21% Al 2O3 and 22.55% TiO2 scales, and also small amount of Cr2O3 and MoO3. SO3 was also found at the outer layer. However, EDS analysis at the inside coating layer (spot 2) shows the formed oxides were also dominated by 54.13% Al 2O3, 44.48% TiO2 , and 1.4% Cr2O3. There was no sulfides present at all of the examined samples but it was found that small amount of sulphur react with oxygen to form SO3, it is meant that a little of sulfidation process was occured but the process was not dominant. This phenomena may happen because the hot corrosion testing was carried out at oxidizing environments. At oxidizing environments, oxide scales form readily because of high oxygen activity. Thus, oxidation dominates the corrosion reaction. When the environment is reducing (i.e., low oxygen potentials), the corrosion reaction becomes a competition between oxidation and sulfidation. Thus, lowering oxygen activity tends to make the environment more sulfidizing, resulting in increased domination by sulfidation [9].

Fig. 8. SEM image of cross sectional microstructure after hot corrosion for 1 hour at pack aluminized sample at 1000°C.

The mechanism also explains the cause of pack aluminizing at 1100°C suffer the severe corrosion damage, as like explained before that the formation of coating layer of TiAl3 has brittle properties and has many cracks, these cracks could lead pitting to propagate easily so that could increase corrosion rate.

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Acknowledgment The authors would like to thank Dr. Sunara Purwadaria for allowing us to use the laboratory of Electrometallurgy and Corrosion, and all technical staff at Department of Metallurgical Engineering Institute of Technology Bandung for their assistances.

References [1] M. Thomas, M.-P. Bacos – Processing and Characterization of TiAl-based Alloys: Towards an Industrial Scale. The Onera Journal Aerospace Lab, Issue 3, November 2011. [2] T. Tetsui – Development of a New TiAl Turbocharger for High Temperature Use. Third International Workshop on γ-TiAl Technologies, Bamberg, Germany, 29-31 May 2006 (unpublished) [3] R.E. Schafrik – A Perspective on Intermetallic Commercialization for Aero-Turbine Applications. Structural Intermetallics 2001, edited by K.J. Hemker et al, TMS, pp. 13-17, 2001.

Fig. 9. SEM image of cross sectional microstructures after hot corrosion for 10 hour at pack aluminized sample at 1000°C. (a) 150x magnification, (b) 1500x magnification.

V. Conclusions In Na2SO4 + NaCl melts at 850°C, the severe corrosion damage occurs on the uncoated samples and the samples coated at 1100°C. This damage happened because the pack aluminizing process was too long so the Al that has deposited at the surface of the substrate may rediffuse outward to the pack. Pack aluminizing at 900°C showed the lowest corrosion rate in the molten salts because of the formation of dense TiAl3 layer that makes Cl2 difficult to diffuse through the pore and crack. Therefore, this prevents pitting to propagate. The coating layer stability will decrease with the pack aluminizing temperature increase at the same process time. Therefore, the pack aluminizing process on two phase intermetallic alloys 2 fasa Ti-46Al-2Cr-2Mo was better done at 900 - 1000°C for 10 hours. The existence of chloride, even in a little amount, can accelerate the corrosion rate.

[4] Birks, N. dan G. H Meier, Introduction to High Temperature Oxidation of Metals, Edward Arnold (Publisher) Ltd, London 1983. [5] Tiroi, Bouman, Studi Kinetika Proses Pack Aluminizing Aktivitas Rendah pada Logam Ni dan Paduan Inconel-625 dengan Aktivator NH4Cl. Tugas Akhir S-1 Teknik Pertambangan ITB. 1996. [6] J. R. Nicholls, J. Legget, dan P. Andrews, Material Corrosion. 48, 56. 1997. [7] T. Zhaolin, Fuhui Wang, dan Weitao Wu, Hot Corrosion Behavior of TiAl-Base Intermetallics in Molten Salts. Oxidation of Metals, Vol. 51, Nos. 3/4, 1999. [8] Zhang, K., Zhengwei Li, dan Wei Gao, Hot corrosion behaviour of Ti-Al based intermetallics. Elsevier, Material Letters 57, 2002, hal 834 – 843. [9]ASM Handbook, High Temperature Corrosion and Materials Applications, ASM International. 2007.

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Sundanese Script Recognition Using Zoning Feature Extraction and Support Vector Machine Classification Mulia I.1 and Mushthofa2 Department of Computer Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor. Email: 1isnan.mulia@gmail.com, 2mush@ipb.ac.id

Abstrak

T

his research aims to compare the performance of three variants of zoning feature extraction method in Sundanese script recognition, i.e. Image Centroid and Zone (ICZ), Zone Centroid and Zone (ZCZ), and hybrid method ICZ and ZCZ. The data used in this

research is generated in the form of image files containing a Sundanese character within each file. Feature extraction method used is the variations of zoning method: ICZ, ZCZ, and hybrid method ICZ and ZCZ. The numbers of zones used are 4, 6, 8, and 12 zones. Support Vector Machine used as classifier, with linear, quadratic, polynomial, and RBF kernel. Among the feature extraction methods used, the hybrid feature extraction method ICZ and ZCZ obtain maximum accuracy, for all the number of zones used. The highest accuracy obtained is almost 94%. On the other side, the usage of more zones in the feature extraction process increases accuracy significantly, for all the feature extraction methods used. From these results, it can be concluded that hybrid method ICZ and ZCZ gains the best accuracy among all feature extraction methods used in this reserarch.

Keywords—Pattern recognition, Sundanese script, Support vector machine, Image Centroid and zone (ICZ), Zone centroid and zone (ZCZ).

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I. Introduction A. Background Pattern recognition is one of the developments of Artificial Intelligence, which enables computers to recognize characters patterns which are recognized by human. Pattern recognition can be used to recognize printed writings and handwritings, also Latin script and non-Latin script, as practiced by Mubarok [3], and Rajashekararadhya and Ranjan [5]. One of non-Latin writings is Sundanese script writings. Sundanese script is one of Indonesian native script. It has been used by Sundanese people since five centuries ago. By Decree of Governor of West Java number 434/Sk.614-Dis.Pk/99 about Sundanese script standardization, Sundanese script is like being resurrected in Sundanese people’s life, in West Java [1]. Since April 2008, Sundanese script has been included into Unicode character list, version 5.1 [6]. In order to socialize Sundanese script, one can teach it to students through Sundanese books. Another way is by using Sundanese script in street signs, as found in some street signs in some West Java cities. Sundanese script writings, both written in books and street signs, raise its own problems for some people in understanding it, especially for people who do not know Sundanese script at all. In order to facilitate Sundanese script recognition, a computer system that can read and recognize Sundanese script writings is needed.

using hybrid feature extraction method ICZ and ZCZ with Neural Network and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) as classifiers.

B. The Goal and The Scope This research aims to compare the performance of three variants of zoning feature extraction method in Sundanese script recognition, i.e. ICZ, ZCZ, and hybrid method ICZ and ZCZ. The scope of this research are the following: Sundanese characters used are the swara (vocal), ngalagena (consonant), and the numeral characters. The model only recognizes printed characters. The multiclass SVM method used is the SVM one-versus-all [2].

II. Methods This research is done through some phases shown in Fig. 1. A. Data Collection Data used in this research obtained by generating character images using vector graphics editor. After some adjustments (character position adjustment, change background color, etc), the Sundanese characters are then exported into PNG image files, to be used as the training and the testing data.

There has not been many research conducted in Sundanese script recognition. One of the research done is by Mubarok [3]. The research recognized Sundanese handwritten strokes in on-line way, using desktop application and mouse as data input medium. Then data input is processed and recognized using Kohonen Neural Network. The research obtained average accuracy of 75.36% for normal strokes, and 75.36% for noised strokes. In this research, Sundanese script recognition model will be built, using Zoning feature extraction and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification. Variations of feature extraction method used are methods proposed by Rajashekararadhya and Ranjan: Image Centroid and Zone (ICZ), Zone Centroid and Zone (ZCZ), and hybrid method ICZ and ZCZ [5]. On their research, Rajashekararadhya and Ranjan obtained average recognition rate for handwritten Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam numerals above 90%,

Fig. 1. The research phases

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Sundanese characters used are in the form of single character present in the Unicode standard, e.g., “ka”, “ga”, and “nga” characters. Data for each character is given different variations. For example, variations for character “ka” are shown in Fig. 2.

B. Data Preprocessing In this phase, image data which are generated before will be preprocessed in order to be used in the next step. Preprocessing methods used are image binarization and cropping character part from each image.

C. Feature Extraction Feature extraction method used is zoning method. This method has some variations, such as Image Centroid and Zone (ICZ), Zone Centroid and Zone (ZCZ), and hybrid method ICZ and ZCZ, based on Rajashekararadhya and Ranjan [5].

D. K-fold Cross-validation Feature extraction data are then divided into training and testing data using k-fold cross-validation. It divides all data into k equal-sized subsection data, then sequentially use one subsection data as testing data and the other k-1 subsection data as training data. We use k=5 for this research.

E. SVM Training and Testing SVM training is done using feature-extracted training data which is divided using k-fold cross-validation. In this research, SVM training using four kernel function: linear, quadratic, polynomial, and Radial Basis Function (RBF). The model obtained from training then tested using feature-extracted testing data which is divided using k-fold cross-validation.

Fig. 2. Variations of character “ka”

F. Analysis From the result of SVM training and testing using different kernel function, result for performance of SVM algorithm in Sundanese character recognition obtained. The accuracy for each classification result is obtained using following formula:

Meanwhile, points to be analyzed are feature extraction method and number of zones used.

III. Result A. Data Collection Data used in this research obtained by data generation using Inkscape, a vector graphics editor, and SundaneseLatin font. In SundaneseLatin font, there are 40 Sundanese characters, consisting of 7 swara (vocal) characters, 23 ngalagena (consonant) characters, and 10 numeral characters (0-9). For each of the 40 characters, 10 character images in the form of PNG file is generated, each with different variations in character position, character color and background color, as shown in Fig. 3. At the end of this phase, 400 image data are obtained.

B. Data Preprocessing In this step, the generated image data undergo these processes: binarization, cropping, and resize. The generated image data is in the RGB format. Since the identification process will depend on the input image being in the binary format (1 for foreground and 0 for background) we perform the following process: convert into binary and invert the values (0 to 1, 1 to 0). Image cropping is needed because only the character part which will be processed, while the background part will be discarded. The steps are following. First, specify upper, lower, left, and right boundaries of the character part. Then image elements which are inside the boundary is taken as the new image. After cropping, the images obtained have different sizes. In order to obtain images with the same size, we should resize the cropped images. After doing observation, it is determined that the new image size is 60x56 pixels. The comparison between real image before data preprocessing, after binarization and cropping, and after binarization, cropping, and resizing shown in Fig. 4.

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D. SVM Classification

Fig. 3. Examples of generated character images

The next phase is the classification using SVM [4]. We use the One-Versus-All Multi-Class SVM schema in order to be able to classify the classes of the characters [2]. With this technique, we must build as many SVM models as the number of classes present in the data, i.e. 40 classes for this research, each class representing every characters. The number of data used for the SVM training is 320, and the number of testing data used is 80. Data allocation is done using 5-fold cross-validation. After the data is divided using k-fold cross-validation, we perform the SVM classification. The SVM models are built using four different types of kernel functions, i.e. linear (polynomial with order 1), quadratic (polynomial with order 2), polynomial with order ≼ 3, and Radial Basis Function (RBF). Using these four kernel functions, a number of 1728 experiment units are formed. After performing the training and testing phase, only 1667 classification result are obtained. The remaining test units failed to achieve a usable model due to problems with convergence during the training phase.

E. Analysis Fig. 4. (a) Non-preprocessed image, (b) image after binarization and cropping, and (c) image after binarization, cropping, and resize

C. Feature Extraction Feature extraction method used is the variation from zoning method, i.e. Image Centroid and Zone (ICZ), Zone Centroid and Zone (ZCZ), and hybrid method ICZ and ZCZ. The number of zones used are 4, 6, 8, and 12 zones. Feature extracted data of ICZ and ZCZ algorithm obtained from implementing ICZ and ZCZ algorithms mentioned by Rajashekararadhya and Ranjan [5], meanwhile data extracted using the hybrid algorithms ICZ and ZCZ are obtained by merging the features extracted using ICZ and using ZCZ. After performing feature extraction using ICZ and ZCZ algorithm and using four different numbers of zones, twelve datasets with different dimensions are obtained, as shown in Table 1.

After the accuracy values for all the combinations of the kernel functions and parameters are obtained, the cumulative accuracy values are calculated based on the feature extraction method and the number of zones. For accuracy results based on the feature extraction method and number of zones used, analysis is performed on the average of accuracy values from the classification result for each dataset. Average accuracy result based on feature extraction method and number of zones used shown in Table 2, while Fig. 5 visualize Table 2 from different point of view: (a) feature extraction method, and (b) number of zones used. If we observe the s based on the feature extraction method used (Fig. 5.a.), it can be seen that feature extraction method ZCZ gains better accuracy than the feature extraction method ICZ for the number of zones 6, 8, and 12. On the contrary, feature extraction method ICZ gains better accuracy than feature extraction ZCZ for number of zones 4. This may be due to the fact that the ICZ method which is a global feature extraction method, i.e., it fetches features from the image globally. On the other hand, the ZCZ method is local feature extraction method, i.e., it fetches features from image

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based on the local pattern information so that the features extracted are more detailed and can increase the accuracy of the classification result. Table 1 List Of Dimension Of Feature Extracted Data

Feature Extraction Method

Number of Zones 4

6

8

12

ICZ 400 x 4 400 x 6 400 x 8 ZCZ 400 x 4 400 x 6 400 x 8 ICZ + ZCZ 400 x 8 400 x 12 400 x 16

400 x 12 400 x 12 400 x 24

Table 2 Average Accuracy Based On Feature Extraction And Number Of Zones Used

Number of Zones 4 6 8 12

Feature Extraction Method ICZ

ZCZ

75.03% 83.91% 82.75% 88.35%

67.88% 84.99% 88.26% 90.79%

ICZ + ZCZ 89.74% 91.17% 91.51% 93.99%

The hybrid feature extraction method ICZ and ZCZ, on the other hand, gain the best accuracy for all number of zones used. Moreover for the number of zones 6, 8, and 12, the value is over 90%, and the highest accuracy obtained is almost 94%. This is reasonable, because the data obtained using the hybrid feature extraction method ICZ and ZCZ is combination of ICZ data and ZCZ data, and this combined data should produce higher accuracy than each feature alone. If we observe the result based on the number of zones used (Fig. 5.b.), it can be seen that the accuracy increases along with the addition of the number of zones used in the feature extraction. A small deviation occured in the feature extraction using ICZ, i.e., the usage of 6 zone produces higher accuracy than the usage of 8 zones. In general, this can be caused by the number of features extracted from the image, because the number of zones affects the number of features extracted. The higher the number of zones, the more features extracted from the image, both local feature and global feature. This can and does increase accuracy. From this result, it can be said that, in general, increasing the number of zones used can increase accuracy.

IV. Conclusion Pattern recognition is one of the developments of Artificial Intelligence, which enables computers recognize patterns which is recognized by human. Pattern recognition often used in OCR and HCR processes. In this research, recognition model of printed Sundanese script is built using feature extraction method zoning and Support Vector Machine classification. This research aims to compare the performance of three variants of zoning feature extraction method in Sundanese script recognition, i.e. ICZ, ZCZ, and hybrid method ICZ and ZCZ.

Fig. 5. Average accuracy based on (a) feature extraction method, and (b) number of zones used

From results obtained, it is known that hybrid feature extraction method ICZ and ZCZ obtains the highest accuracy, for all number of zones used in feature extraction method. The highest accuracy obtained is almost 94%. Meanwhile, for the number of zones used, accuracy obtained increases along with addition of number of zones used in feature extraction, for all feature extraction methods used. Thus, the combination of ICZ and ZCZ with a high number zones would be an ideal feature extraction method in obtaining the best accuracy result for the Sundanese script recognition.

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References Baidillah I, Darsa UA, Abdurahman O, Permadi T, Gunardi G et al. 2008. Direktori Aksara Sunda untuk Unicode. Bandung: Pemerintah Provinsi Jawa Barat. Hsu CW, Lin CJ. 2002. A Comparison of Methods for Multiclass Support Vector Machines. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks 13 (2): 415-425. Mubarok. 2010. Pengenalan Tulisan Tangan Aksara Sunda Menggunakan Kohonen Neural Network [thesis]. Bandung: Fakultas Pendidikan Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Osuna EE, Freund R, Girosi F. 1997. Support Vector Machines: Training and Applications. AI Memo 1602, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Rajashekararadhya SV, Ranjan PV. 2008. Efficient Zone Based Feature Extration Algorithm for Handwritten Numeral Recognition of Four Popular South Indian Scripts. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology 4 (12): 1171-1181. [Unicode]. 2008. The Unicode Standard, Version 5.1 Archived Code Charts. http://www.unicode.org/ Public/5.1.0/ charts/CodeCharts.pdf [Dec 27, 2011].

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Industrial Mapping in Capital City District of Jakarta by using Analytic Hierarchy Process and Strategic Management Approach Anna Felicia Kusumaningtyas 1,a, Andri Wijaya 2,b, and Arian Dhini3,c Industrial Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok. Email: anna.felicia@ui.ac.id, b Email: andri.wijaya91@ui.ac.id 3 Industrial Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok. c Email: arian@ie.ui.ac.id 1,2 a

R

egional development is important for the existence of an area. One method to develop a region can be applied by focusing on its core competence. This study discusses the core competencies of DKI Jakarta as a way for empowering the area. The method consists of

Analytic Hierarchy Process and Strategic Management Approach. The result stated that the core competencies of DKI Jakarta are transportation and textile industries. Then, a strategic roadmap is made to expand those industries.

Keyword : core competence, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), strategic management

1. Introduction Development of a region is necessary for enhancing public welfare and its existence. However, every region has its strength and weakness to be developed, including human resources, material resources, infrastructure support, and governmental support. Nowadays, industrial sector becomes the main aspect to be empowered as the competitive advantage of a region. It is considered as an essential factor to create a new job employment and increase regional revenue. The concept of core competency was introduced by Prahalad and Hamel (1990) as a competitive advantage for future competition. Core competency is defined as an integrated bundle of skills and technologies that delivers value to the company and customer. In

some counties, core competency could be used as a development foundation, since it states the competitive advantage of those counties. Markides, Prahalad, and Hamel (1990) stated that core competency must have these characteristics : offer a real value for customers, should be difficult for competitors to imitate, and provide potential access to wide variety of markets. From regional economy perspective, core competency is a group of integrated skills that could be used to build regional competitive advantages by exploiting the uniqueness of it (Depperin, 2007). Radiah and Rosli (2009) stated that Japan applies “One Village One Product” concept, while Malaysia does “One District One Industry” policy. In Indonesia, we have a similar program, named “Satu Kabupaten Satu Kompetensi Inti (Sakasakti)”.

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However, there are some regions who have not found their local competencies, yet. Capital City District of Jakarta, abbreviated in Indonesian to DKI Jakarta, is an example of a region that has not recognized and mapped its core competencies. Therefore, this research focuses to help Capital City District of Jakarta to discover its potencies. The output will form an industrial map generated by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Strategic Management approach.

2. Research Methodology Regional core competencies can be determined by reviewing some internal and external factors, based on a region’s industrial sector and subsector. These required data, which could be found in Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS), will be learned thoroughly so that it could interprete the prime industry from Capital City District of Jakarta. After choosing the prime sector, the subsector can be appointed. Prime subsector is set by learning the BPS data as before, then we can get an industry that has the biggest added value. This subsector will be determined as the core competency of Capital City District of Jakarta. The determination of Jakarta’s core competency implements AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method. AHP could be used to analyze quantitative or qualitative data. Mostly, AHP is utilized to solve multi objective and multi criteria problems based on preferences ratio of each element. Weighing in AHP process eases us to make a decision, since the decision maker has cognitive and thought inadequacy. AHP offers a problem solving way that involves all of complexity sources with many criteria (Latifah, 2005). Core industrial subsector must be based on some criteria. These criteria are chosen by Dinas Perindustrian dan Energi DKI Jakarta and enriched by literature study. Besides, we also arrange interview with four experts, who come from an academician and three industrial practicians. According to the interview results, we determine the weight for each criteria. To point the main industrial sector, we collect various secondary data of each sector that meet those criteria. Meanwhile, deciding the subsector is just based on existing subsector in Jakarta. Verification and validation are necessary by interviewing experts.

When core industry of Jakarta was established, the next step is formulating strategies for each subsector by using strategic management approach. Strategic management approach involves three stages of strategy arrangements, which are input stage, matching stage, and decision stage. Input stage is a step to collect data to recognize actual condition of an industry. By using tools of Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix and External Factor Evaluation Matrix, internal and external condition of an industry could be explained. Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE) is a strategic management tool for auditing or evaluating major strengths and weaknesses in functional areas of a business. The IFE matrix can be created using the following five steps: 1. Identify both strengths and weaknesses in all industrial sector. It is suggested to identify 5-10 internal factors, but the more, the better. 2. Assign a weight that ranges from 0.00 to 1.00 to each factor. The weight assigned to a given factor indicates the relative importance of the factor. Make sure the sum of all weights is 1.00. 3. Assign a 1 to X rating to each factor. Rating captures whether the factor represents a major weakness (rating = 1), a minor weakness (rating = 2), a minor strength (rating = 3), or a major strength (rating = 4). 4. Multiply each factor’s weight by its rating. This will give a weighted score for each factor. 5. Sum the weighted scores for each factor. This provides the total weighted score for an industrial subsector. Total weighted scores well below 2.5 point to internally weak business. Scores significantly above 2.5 indicate a strong internal position. External Factor Evaluation (EFE) matrix method is a strategic-management tool often used for assessment of current business conditions. The EFE matrix is a good tool to visualize and prioritize the opportunities and threats that a business is facing. The EFE matrix is very similar to the IFE matrix. The major difference between the EFE matrix and the IFE matrix is the type of factors that are included in the model. While the IFE matrix deals with internal factors, the EFE matrix is concerned solely with external factors. External factors assessed in the EFE matrix are the ones that are subjected to

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the will of social, economic, political, legal, and other external forces.

determinant of the strategy. This point shows the strategy that a company should follow.

Matching stage has a goal to generate suitable strategy for developing a business unit. Tools that are often used in this stage are SWOT Matrix and BCG Matrix. However, only SWOT Matrix that will be used in this research. SWOT Matrix, stands for Strength-WeaknessOpportunity-Threat, provides information that is helpful in matching the firm’s resources and capabilities to the competitive environment in which it operates. As such, it is instrumental in strategy formulation and selection. Involving four cells in two rows and two columns, it records the strategies from internal and external factors stated in input stage. The top left cell contains Strength-Opportunity Strategies, which pursue opportunities that are good fit to the company’s strength. Weakness-Opportunity Strategies, located on top right cell, overcome weaknesses to pursue opportunities. The bottom left cell, named StrengthThreat Strategies, identify ways that the firm can use its strength to reduce its vulnerability to external threats. The last one, Weakness-Threat Strategies, establish a defensive plan to prevent the firm’s weaknesses from making it highly susceptible to external threats.

On the X axis of the IE Matrix, an IFE total weighted score of 1.0 to 1.99 represents a weak internal position. A score of 2.0 to 2.99 is considered average. A score of 3.0 to 4.0 is strong. On the y axis, an EFE total weighted score of 1.0 to 1.99 is considered low. A score of 2.0 to 2.99 is medium. A score of 3.0 to 4.0 is high.

The final stage, named decision stage, aims to choose a feasible strategy to be implemented. By considering both external and internal factors as stated in input stage, industries could pick an appropriate strategy for their sustainability. Common tool to evaluate and pick a trategy is Internal-External Matrix. The Internal-External (IE) matrix is another strategic management tool used to analyze working conditions and strategic position of a business. The Internal External Matrix or IE matrix is based on an analysis of internal and external business factors which are combined into one suggestive model. The IE matrix is a continuation of the EFE matrix and IFE matrix models. The IE matrix is based on the following two criteria: 1. Score from the EFE matrix -- this score is plotted on Y-axis 2. Score from the IFE matrix – this score is plotted on X-axis The IE matrix works in a way that we plot the total weighted score from the EFE matrix on the Y axis and draw a horizontal line across the plane. Then take the score calculated in the IFE matrix, plot it on the X axis, and draw a vertical line across the plane. The point where horizontal line meets vertical line is the

These strategies would be a base for composing an industrial development road map of Jakarta.

3. Results Capital City District of Jakarta has an important role as the capital of Indonesia, so that various business sectors are centralized there. According to Badan Pusat Statistik (2011), manufacturing industry gives the largest contribution for Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) of Jakarta. During 2011, industrial sector contributed 15,81% of Jakarta’s GRDP. Meanwhile, this sector was growing for about 4,06% from 2010 to 2011, above the average growth of national industries. For establishing the main industrial sector, AHP is applied during process initiation. In this case, there are 3 levels considered, shown in the following diagram.

Fig. 1. Hierarchy of core competency determination

The first level, named Level 0, is the main goal of this research, which aims to decide a core competency for Capital City District of Jakarta. The next level, called Level 1, there are 9 criteria that are divided into sociocultural criteria and economical criteria. Sociocultural criteria involves human resource examination, environmental effect, supports from goverment policies, and contribution to GDRP. Economical one include the quantity of a business unit, supply chain management, added value, investment

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rate, and export value. The last level, named Level 2, is used to list the examined industrial sectors. Fig. 1 shows the hierarchy of core competency determination process. This process involves 4 experts as our respondents, whose judgments would be analyzed by using pairwise comparison matrix in Expert Choice 2000 software. These opinions must be validated by calculating their inconsistency ratio, based on each eigen value. Those expert judgments consist of 1 to 9 ratio between two criteria, which shows the significancy of a criteria, compared to the other. A criteria that has larger value is considered to have stronger potency. Scoring 1 = equal, 3 = slightly favors, 5 = strongly favors, 7 = very strongly favors, 9 = extreme favors. Further details could be seen in the following figure. After composing criteria’s weight by using AHP matrix, decision for core competencies of Jakarta could be decided by comparing two industries in each criteria. Data used for this comparison are gotten from various articles. Thus, it can be concluded that automotive and textile industry have the largest core competencies among the others. Automotive industry, which scores 0.234 of 1.00, consists of 2 main subsectors : motor vehicles, trailers, and semi trailers; and other transport equipments. Textile industry, which scores 0.144 of 1.00, are divided into textiles, wearing apparel, also tanning and dressing of leather. These subsectors are determined by reviewing their existence in Jakarta in Figures 2011. However, only automotive industry,

who has the biggest impact to Jakarta, would be examined further to compose some strategies for their development. Motor vehicles, trailers, and semitrailers subsector employs 26.441 employees on its 35 business units throughout Jakarta.With added value of Rp 37.814.382.479 in 2011, this industry could contribute 7,78% to GDRP of Jakarta. However, it affected environment so badly by consuming 16,6% of total fossil fuel used at Jakarta in 2011. Other transport equipments subsector, has 16 business units throughout Jakarta with about 18.331 employees. Having export value of 19,66% of total export from Jakarta, it contributes 7,78% to GDRP of Jakarta. However, the investment rate for this industry seems to be low, just 5,69% of total investment in Jakarta. Besides weaknesses and strengths, they also face some opportunities and threats. Jakarta’s population that grew 1,41% per year would create a potential market for these subsectors. Moreover, population growth in Jakarta could provide a big amount of human resources to be employed. Consumer index, which gains 110,4 point in 2012, seems increasing by 1,04 point per year. It means that people’s purchasing power is getting higher from year to year. Indonesian International Motor Show, raw material availability, and government policy have to be considered as opportunity, too. In other hand, inflation rate reaching 4,12% (year-to-year) must be noted to be its biggest threats. According to those actual conditions, IFE and EFE Matrix for each subsector can be composed

Fig. 2. Pairwise comparison among criteria

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distinctively as a base for further examination. Motor vehicles, trailers, and semitrailers subsector scores 3.37 out of 4.00 in IFE Matrix, whereas other transport equipment scores 2.97 out of 4.00. Generally, they can be concluded as having a strong internal position.

Their opportunities and threats are used for arranging EFE Matrix, which scores 2.43 for motor vehicles, trailers, and semitrailers then scores 2 for other transportation equipment. It can be inferred that they have a weak external position.

Fig. 3. IFE Matrix for Motor Vehicles, Trailers, and Semitrailers Industry

Fig. 4. IFE Matrix for Other Transportation Equipments Industry

Fig. 5. EFE Matrix for Motor Vehicles, Trailers, and Semitrailers

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Fig. 6. EFE Matrix for Other Transportation Equipments Industry

Fig. 7. SWOT Matrix for Motor Vehicles, Trailers, and Semitrailers Industry

Fig. 8. SWOT Matrix for Other Transportation Equipments Industry

Those factors, which are listed in IFE and EFE Matrix, would be used to compose SWOT Matrix for both of them. These following SWOT matrixes will contain various strategies that could be applied for each subsector. After arranging SWOT Matrix for strategy generation stage, we can decide the best strategy by using IE Matrix. Mapping IE Matrix is not as difficult as composing EFE and IFE Matrix. As stated in previous chapter, IE Matrix shows a firm’s position based on its internal and external position. Motor vehicles, trailers, and semitrailers industry (number 1) has a significant strength in its internal factors. However, it can not handle external factors properly, which makes it placed

on the left-middle cell. Subsector of other transportation equipments does not have internal strength as strong as the previous subsector, so it is just placed on “Average” cell. In addition, its external factors make it located on “Medium” cell. According to the literature, a firm that has strong IFE score with medium EFE score must grow and expand its business process. It is able to be realized by differentiation and opening a large number of business unit. Thus, it is better for motor vehicles, trailers, and semitrailers industries to expand their business process horizontally. Integrating SWOT and IE matrix will result the best strategies for this industry are expanding

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is expansion, which is related to grow or build firm’s business. Meanwhile, other transportation equipments subsector must hold and maintain the existing business units.

Acknowledgement We are indebted to Fauzia Dianawati who has given us this project and Rahmat Nurcahyo-Farizal for their pioneering work in analyzing the core competency of Kabupaten Bekasi. We thank Sri Bintang Pamungkas and Romadhani Ardi of their advices in the criteria selection and weighing; Teuku Y. Zagloel, Akhmad Hidayatno, and Dana Santoso of being our experts; and Parulian Tambunan of his time to give our required data. This work was supported by Dinas Perindustrian dan Energi Provinsi DKI Jakarta. Fig. 9. IE matrix for both industries

distribution network and adding business unit by empowering human resources and goverment support. Meanwhile, other transportation equipment, who has average score for both IFE and EFE, must take a stabilization strategy, which aims to maintain its business process. The real strategy would tend to increase efficiency by utilizing effective human resources and apply a better investment regulation for attracting investor. In the long term, they can reach a stabilized position that enables them to grow and expand their business units.

4. Conclusion Core competencies of Capital City District of Jakarta was determined from the largest GDRP contribution, those who gives the biggest economic contribution in Jakarta. Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process, automotive industry has been chosen as the main competency in Jakarta, with score 0.234 of 1.00. Automotive industry is the most potential sector based on 9 criteria, which are human resource, environmental effect, supports from goverment policies, contribution to GDRP, number of establishment, supply chain management, added value, investment rate, and export value. It is divided into two subsectors : motor vehicles, trailers, and semitrailers; and other transport equipments. Each subsector would be analyzed further to create a development roadmap, based on IFE-EFE Matrix, SWOT Matrix, and IE Matrix.

References Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Jakarta. 2011. Jakarta Dalam Angka (Jakarta in Figures). Bradford, Robert W., Peter J. Duncan, and Brian Tarcy. Simplified Strategic Planning : A No-Nonsense Guide for Busy People Who Want Results Fast! Departemen Perindustrian Republik Indonesia. 2007. Peta Jalan Pengembangan Kompetensi Inti Industri Daerah. Jakarta. Latifah, S., 2005. Prinsip-prinsip Dasar Analytic Hierarchy Process. Sumatera Utara: e-USU Reposritory. Nurcahyo, Rahmat, Farizal, Edwin Setiadi, and Saparudin. February 2012. Penentuan dan Pengembangan Kompetensi Inti Kabupaten Bekasi. Jurnal Teknik Industri, Vol. 13, No. 1, page: 37–42. Prahalad, C.K. and Hamel, G., 1990. The Core Competence of the Corporation. Harvard Business Review, May- June. Prahalad, C.K. and Hamel, G., 1994. Competing for the Future. Boston – MA: Harvard Business School Press. Radiah, A.K. and Rosli, 2009. Success Factor for Small Rural Entrepreneurs under One District One Industry Programme in Malaysia. International Journal of OVOP. Vol 5, No. 2, pp. 147–162.

IE Matrix has shown that the most appropriate strategy for motor vehicles, trailers, and semitrailers industry

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3 Dimension view of the caldera of

Mount Tambora , Sumbawa, West Nusa Tenggara Gunung Tambora (atau Tamboro) adalah gunung bertipe stratovolcano aktif, juga dikenal sebagai gunung berapi komposit yang terletak di pulau Sumbawa, Indonesia. Sumbawa diapit di bagian utara dan selatan oleh kerak samudera, dan Gunung Tambora terbentuk oleh zona subduksi aktif di bawahnya. Hal inilah yang menyebabkan Gunung Tambora terangkat setinggi 4.300 m, yang merupakan salah satu puncak tertinggi di kepulauan Indonesia. Aktivitas vulkanik bersejarah mencapai klimaks pada letusan 10 April 1815, salah satu letusan gunung api terbesar dalam sejarah dunia (Sumber: Citra Satelit Landsat 2013 dan SRTM; Pengolahan Citra: Fatwa Ramdani, 2013)


ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

Environmental Change Monitoring of A Large Seasonal-Tropical Lake with Low Accessibility in West Kalimantan, Indonesia Fatwa Ramdani1,* Institute of Geography, Geo-environment, Graduate School Science, Tohoku University, Japan *E-mail: fatwa@s.tohoku.ac.jp

1

Abstrak

T

his study observes the environmental change of Lake Sentarum, West Kalimantan, Indonesia in a 19-years (1990–2009) time interval using the archive of moderate resolution Landsat TM5 satellite images. An image interpretation methodology was

applied on wet season’s acquisition date for better and more consistent evaluation of the water condition. Multitemporal analysis of three different time period showed that the environment changed and the lake becomes shallow during the last nineteen years. This condition, however, was probably interconnected with the presence of oil palm plantation activity and deforestation. This study showed that medium resolution satellite images can successfully be used for the monitoring of large seasonal-tropical lake with low accessibility.

Keywords: environmental monitoring, seasonal-tropical lake, remote sensing, Kalimantan, Indonesia ©2013. Persatuan Pelajar Indonesia Jepang. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction The rapid land use change due to the large increase of palm oil production over the past 30 years explains in part a concern for the sustainability of palm oil production. The global land area of mature oil palm increased from 3.5 Mha in 1975 to 13.1 Mha in 2005. The largest increase is found in Malaysia (increasing from 0.4 to 3.6 ha) and in Indonesia (increasing from 0.1 to 3.9 ha) [1], including the area of immature oil palm (0.4 Mha in Malaysia [2]) and 1.6 Mha in

Indonesia [3] in 2005) On Kalimantan Island, Indonesia, the land-cover of oil palm plantation based on remotely-sensed image is increased in line with the deforestation rate, mostly after 1990 and 2000. The year 2000 is a period of government reformation when the decentralization program was established. In Kalimantan Island oil palm development increased in the period 2002-2009. In West Kalimantan alone, the expansion of the oil palm plantation increased from 262,761 Ha in the period of

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1990-1998, to 2,822,506 Ha in the period of 2002-2010 [4]. This condition, however, was possibly interconnected with the sedimentation process in the Lake Sentarum National Park (TNDS) in West Kalimantan. TNDS is a representative of wetland ecosystem of the lake, freshwater swamp forest and tropical rain forest in Borneo. TNDS as a seasonal lake, located on the Kapuas river basin, which is about 700 km from the estuary leading to the South China Sea. Bounded by hills and highlands, TNDS is a catchment area and the regulator of the water system in the Kapuas River Basin. Thus, the water supply for areas located downstream of the Kapuas River is highly dependent on fluctuations of water collected in the lake. The aquatic systems from freshwater lakes and flooded forests creates a unique environment in the TNDS. The water colored is dark reddish because it contains tannins from peat in the surrounding forest. In the rainy season, the depth of the lake water can reach 6-8 meters and cause the surrounding forest to be submerged situations. Meanwhile, during the dry season, where the water level in Sungai Kapuas gradually decreased, water from TNDS will flow into the Kapuas River so that the river discharge is relatively stable. Recent surveys in and around the TNDS suggests that the site comprises faunal biodiversity of both bioregional and global importance. Site faunal inventory has yielded a globally significant listing of 240 confirmed fish species, or 71% of Borneo’s freshwater fish; not including 19 potentially new and endemic species awaiting confirmation. This data suggests the site to be the most biodiversed in Indonesia with respect to freshwater fish, and one of the world’s most biodiversed lake systems, with 237 confirmed bird species, and a tentative listing of 143 mammal species (representing 48% and 65% of Borneo’s bird and mammal species, and 14% and 65% of Borneo’s endemic bird and endemic mammal species) [5] Considering the rich biodiversity of the site, immediate conservation effort is required. Due to the low accessibility to this area, the actual condition of physical health of this lake is monitored using multi-temporal series of satellite images. The present study addresses the following question: How the medium resolution satellite images can successfully be used for the monitoring of large seasonal-tropical lake with low accessibility?

2. History 2.1 History Designated as a regional area Lake Sentarum Nature Reserve for the first time in 1981 with a status as a nature reserve is based on the Director General of Forestry Decree No. 2240/DJ/I/1981 dated 15 June 1981 with 80,000 Ha area [6]. Lakes Sentarum Region defined to be the area of Nature Reserves in 1982 by Decree No. 757/Kpts/Um/10/1982 with 80,000 ha area. This area is managed as a Wildlife Sanctuary by Forestry Department, represented by the office of Sub Conservation Center Natural Resources based in Pontianak, West Kalimantan [6]. In 1994 the Wildlife Lake Sentarum determined to be a Ramsar site in Indonesia, because it is one of the representatives of floodplain area. This area is very important, not only in Indonesia, but also for the world. The Sentarum Lake National Park is one type of ecosystem most extensive stretch of flooding remains in good condition in Indonesia, even in Southeast Asia [6]. In 1999, the status of Lake Sentarum changed again into the Lake Sentarum National Park (TNDS) through Decree of the Minister of Forestry and Plantations No.. 34/Kpts-II/1999 dated 4 February 1999 with an area of 132,000 Ha. On February 1, 2007 through the Ministerial Regulation No. P.03/Menhut-II/2007 [6].

2.2 Location, Topography, and Soil TNDS is situated in the Kapuas Hulu Regency, West Kalimantan Province (Figure 1). It lies approximately 700 kilometers from Pontianak. The administration area includes 7 (seven) Districts; Batang Lupar, Badau, Embau, Bunut Hulu, Suhaid, Selimbau and Semitau. Geographically, TNDS situated between 00 º 45 ‘- 01 º 02’ north latitude and 111º 55 ‘- 112 º 26’ east longitude or about 100 km away in the north of the Equator line. Topography of Lake Sentarum is generally flat or lowland basin (lebak lebung in local language) the floodplain area surrounded by the mountains, namely Lanjak Mountains in the north, Muller Mountains in the East, the Madi Plateau Kelingkang Mountains in the south and west. Alluvial soil is mostly found along the banks of the Tawang river in the area of Leboyan Lanjak. In hilly areas such as Bukit Semujan and Tekenang and hills that surround the TNDS, soil type is Podsolic with red yellow color. Deep peat swamps are generally found in

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Figure 1. Study Area

the center section between Lake Sentarum complex and the Kapuas river (in the Southern Regions). Type of peatland is peat swamp Ombrogen [6].

2.3 Lake and river condition The high rainfall greatly affects the condition of the Lake Sentarum, with location and condition are in the midst of mountain ranges make this area as a catchment area. In rainy season the lakes in the area of Lake Sentarum will be flooded, due to the flow of water from the surrounding hills and from the overflow of the Kapuas river, that entered the lake. About 9-10 months of the year most of the lowland basin will be submerged at a depth of between 6-14 m, while in the long dry season most of the lake will be dried, and only permanent lakes are still filled with water. There are two main rivers in the area of Lake Sentarum, namely Tawang river and Leboyan river. Tawang river is a river that connects between the Kapuas River with a complex of lakes in the TNDS, while the Leboyan river is the downstream of Embaloh river [6].

2.4 Accessibility TNDS is difficult to access, from Pontianak-SintangSemitau using four-wheel vehicle about 11 hours or from Sintang-Semitau use longboat (Bandong) taken about seven hours. From Semitau to the location using a motor-boat to Lanjak. Pontianak-Putussibau by plane

about two hours and from Putussibau using longboat to Nanga Suhaid about seven hours. Due to this low accessibility, remote sensing technology is very suitable to monitor the physical health of the lake.

3. Methodology The time interval period covered by medium resolution satellite images from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) 5 is 19 years, from year 1990 to 2009 (Table 1). The acquisition date is in the wet season for a better and consistent evaluation of water level condition. Table 1. Data used in this study

ID LT41200591990168XXX03

Acquisition Path/ Date Row June 17, 1990 120/59

LT51200592004183BKT00 LT51200592009212BKT00

July 01, 2004 120/59 July 31, 2009 120/59

Satellite image source: http://glovis.usgs.gov

We transformed Landsat TM 5 images in the visible and near infrared spectral regions into Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Indice (WDRVI). To derive the WDRVI we applied the following equation from Gitelson, 2004 [7]. WDRVI = α*N-R/(α*N+R) Where, 0.1 < α < 0.2

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N represent for near infrared (band 4); and R represents for red (band 3), Îą used in this study is 0.15 We used WDRVI because reported to be more sensitive than the standard Normalized Difference Vegetation Index - NDVI [8] WDRVI was used to increase the contrast between pixel values in the transition zone from vegetated to nonvegetated areas (open water or lake bottom in low water conditions). This contrast is valuable to understand the sedimentation process in the lake. To highlight the land use land cover in the imageries, we show the imageries in false-natural color, we employed an RGB combination using band 7 (short-wave infrared), band 4 (near infrared), and band 2 (green). This combination makes the interpretation of the land cover become easier.

4. Result and Discussions In 1990, the satellite acquired of TNDS in June, the wet months in which the lake can hold much of water. However, in 2004 (in July, the wet months in West Kalimantan) heavy sedimentation has been occurring (Figure 2) due to the loss of tropical forests. In July 2009, despite the wet months in West Kalimantan, TNDS no longer able to hold water as well as in the year 1990, and large scale of bare-soil appeared (bright yellow and dark red color of the center and right of Figure 2). Large scale of dried-swamp vegetation were appeared in the period 2004-2009. Furthermore the lake also became more shallow in this period as shown in the Figure 2, the color of the water became lighter than in the year 1990.

Since three years ago, ecosystems in the TNDS Kapuas Hulu getting worse due to the opening of oil palm plantations in the adjacent of the national park area. Every year sedimentation process increased by 5 cm. The opening of oil palm estates in rural areas or in the west-north part of TNDS believed to be the cause of the sedimentation (Figure 3). Data from the Central TNDS, there are at least eight oil palm plantations operating in the area around the TNDS. Generally, the opening of eight plantations is owned by PT Sinar Mas. There are already planted, some are still in the seedling stage. The sludge sedimentation has occurred since 2008 along with the land clearing of forests for oil palm plantation [9]. If the sedimentation of mud in TNDS continues to deteriorate, the impact to damage to the lake ecosystem will be very large. The high sedimentation makes TNDS could not hold the rainwater, so when the rainfall rate is high, the water will overflow into the Kapuas River, so the entire watershed of Kapuas will affected by floods. If there is a long drought event, the Kapuas River basin also will become dry. About 20,000 people who lived around the TNDS would be affected. Their livelihood as fishermen will also be lost. Natural resources of TNDS, like fish and honey-bee reached about Rp. 20 billion per year. This figure does not include ecotourism and the other potential natural resources [9]

5. Conclusion This study successfully explained how the medium resolution satellite images can be used for the monitoring of large seasonal-tropical lake with low accessibility. Considering the rich biodiversity and the socioeconomic functions of the TNDS, more buffer

Figure 2. Large scale of dried-swamp vegetation and bare-soil due to sedimentation that caused by deforestation in the northern part of the Lake Sentarum.

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Figure 3. Large scale (~23 km2) of oil palm plantation (red polygon) in the west-north part of the TNDS believed to be the cause of the sedimentation.

area protection is needed to avoid from deforestation that could induce huge and wide sedimentation in the future. The buffer area should be supported by national policy from the national government. The law enforcement and pressure from all stakeholders will play a main role to protect the TNDS in West Kalimantan.

Reference [1] FAOSTAT, 2008. ProdSTAT. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Retrieved 09.03.2011 from http://faostat.fao.org/ [2] MPOB, 2008. Economics and Industry Development Division—Statistics. Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Retrieved 02.9.2010 from http://econ.mpob.gov. my/economy/EID_web.htm [3] IPOC, 2005. Indonesian Palm Oil Statistics 2005. Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC), Biro Pusat Statistik (BPS) and Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan, Jakarta, Indonesia, 64 pp. [4] Ramdani, Fatwa., 2011. Analysis of oil palm expansion and tropical rainforest conversion in Indonesia, 1980-2010. Tohoku University. Japan

[5] Jeanes, Kevin., Meijaard, Erik., 2010. Danau Sentarum’s wildlife: Biodiversity value and global importance of Danau Sentarum’s wildlife, Retrieved 2011-03-7 from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G193827521.html [6] BTNDS (Balai Taman Nasional Danau Sentarum)., 2007. Buku Informasi Taman Nasional Danau Sentarum., Retrieved 10.03.2011 from www.dephut. go.id/files/D_Sentarum.pdf [7] Gitelson, A.A., 2004. Wide dynamic range vegetation index for remote quantificationof biophysical chracteristics of vegetation. Journal of Plant Physiology, 161, 165-173. [8] Jones, H.G., Vaughan, R.A., 2010. Remote sensing of vegetation. Principle, techniques, and applications. Oxford University Press. New York, United States. [9] Suriyansyah, Budi. 2011. Ekosistem TNDS terancam ekspansi sawit. Retrieved 06.3.2011 from http://www.equator-news.com/utama/ekosistem-tndsterancam-ekspansi-sawit

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