Page 1

IN. Notes MAY. 2014

ISSUE No 2

想想:扒開兩個世代頭腦的小實驗? 表演藝術,我們的永續經營 表演藝術的永續發展 旁敲側擊,十鼓擊樂團之不簡單經營法

投資,開啟經營

永續經營從降低對補助的依存度開始 張宏維 林芳宜 張欣怡 洪凱西

2014臺北藝術節《搞砸了》 Claudine Quinn 攝影

推動慈善捐款的5個行為科學觀察

An Experiment to Probe the Minds of Two Generations The Sustainability of Performing Arts Investing in the Future Drumming up a New Path: the Innovative Business Model The First Step toward Sustainable Five Insights from Behavioural Sciences to Nudge and Steer Charitable Giving


AWW… THANKS! 2014年4月12日,我們在台灣的Flying V平台開了一個IN.Notes 堅持雙語出版的贊助專案,截至4月24日止, 我們達到了原先設定的一期專業翻譯費用,而專案目前仍在平台上募資, 朝向亦能支持下一期的目標前進。在此要感謝目前為止實際捐款支持這個專案的朋友們。 目前in.notes僅於專題上面做雙語呈現,乃期待關注的議題,藉由同業的專業分享, 令台灣視角加入全球藝術經營的討論,因此英譯以此部分為優先。 這期我們加入一篇國際文獻的中文翻譯,更希望與國內的同業分享,激盪出更多的想法。 因為有你們,IN.Notes得以持續下去,再次感謝!

謝謝你們 Angela Pai

Ariel Lien

三缺一劇團

Cecilia Mu

六藝劇團 莊增榮

王如萍 許銘文

Kay Wang 王惠娟 陳紹元

Liting Liu 宋建璋 曾瑞蘭

PANDA表演藝術網絡發展協會 李慧珍 黃蘭貴

金崇慧 詹慧君

以及 25位無名氏 以筆劃排序

狠主流多媒體 端木芸珊

Suie Lo 徐仲驊

蔡如歆

Volare Huang 高端禾

鄭景純

Wen-chieh Wang

張正宜

謝竺晉

張貽萱


IN.Notes ISSUE 2

WORDS FROM THE PEOPLE

張宏維

Hung-Wei Chang

有幸參與了第一期的文字協力工作, 總覺得該多貢獻些什麼。得知第二期 的主題後,不自量力地擠出文字,寫 作過程中一直想著這些內容會不會太 枯燥,還是太理論?我始終認為,理

I was fortunate to be involved in IN.Notes’ inaugural issue and have been wanting to do more since then. When I learned of the theme of the second issue – sustainability – I managed to bang out a few words, but in the process, I kept asking myself if the writing was too dry and theoretical. However, I have always believed that theories and academic research can be useful if we know how to interpret and apply them. I have never considered myself a particularly eloquent writer, and if I could share my thoughts in writing, any art administrator could as well. I would love to see a greater variety of content from different points of views in in.notes future issues

01

論跟研究一定有用,端看怎麼解讀其 中的的訊息與意義。我想,如果我可 以給出一篇小文,所有的藝術行政工

作者也都可以。這份刊物是「我們 的」。期望未來能看到更多不同的內 容,更多不同的視角。 常常聽到對於政策的抱怨,或者認為 有不足之處,若窮究其原因,我一直 認為是基礎研究不夠,以致於沒有足 夠的資訊可以用來思考政策。跟表演 藝術相關的各項調查並不在政府統計 的調查範圍中,如果我們來一個民間 版的「表演藝術產業普查架構」不曉 得有沒有朋友有興趣?

We often come across complaints about the inadequacies of government policies on performing arts. The root cause of the problem lies in the lack of adequate data necessary for a comprehensive evaluation of policies, and the lack of data is due to our negligence of research. Among the numerous surveys the Taiwanese government conducts each year, none is related to performing arts. As our next step of action, instead of waiting for the government to take the initiative, how about we start conducting our own general survey on Taiwan’s performing arts industry?


很開心IN.notes要出第二期了,應該說,竟然真的 有第二期生得出來!當初第一期做完的時候心裡 有個小小的疑問,這種刊物還有辦法持續嗎?會 持續多久?不是說它的品質如何,因為就大家所

I am very pleased to see the second issue of IN.notes’, or rather, I was surprised that there is a second issue. After completing the first one, I had a doubt: will we be able to continue publishing? If so, for how long? The doubt was not a reflection of the publication’s quality, since anyone who has read the first issue would agree that both the writing and design were of highest standards, and they are the result of selfless contributions from many people. Such dedication is rare, even odd, in Taiwan these days, and who knew if we could drum up the same level of enthusiasm for a second time?

知,IN.notes#01非常棒,無論是排版或是內容,都 是極度認真並且用心的,但就是因為這份刊物裡要 集結這麼多人的心血、氣力,而且每個人都不求回 報的在分享,在現今的這個社會裡,太難得了! 藝術行政們每天都在處理、安排、溝通、協調大

Arts administrators are constantly juggling tasks large and small and piles of piles of work to be done. Other than the daily challenges we face, social issues that need our attention, and of course, the ‘sometimes’ personal life to attend to. Aside busy schedules, our contributors devoted a considerable amount of time to writing, we editing, weighing back and forth to present valuable diversity. As I spent many late nights writing and editing, I sometimes asked myself if it was worth it. Just as soon as it popped up, I knew my answer was “yes”. This is valuable. People find meaning in participating in social movements, protests, saving trees, and we all have one thing in common: we want to achieve a cause, we choose the appropriate method and we stay on course.

03

大小小的事情,除了工作上的難關要關關過,社會

上的議題大家積極的參與,同樣生活的難題更少 不了,每個人都好忙好忙,還花那麼多的心力在寫 稿、潤稿、思考內容是不是真的對彼此有益,審慎 再三,終於完成!多少次熬夜頂著黑眼圈寫稿、剪 片的同時,問過自己,「值得嗎?」但我只能說, 做自己覺得有意義的事很值得。有人覺得靜坐對自 己來說是有意義的,所以去坐,有人覺得「路過」 很有意義,所以去做,有人覺得護樹是有意義的,

所以去做,而這些事情和IN.notes都有一個共通點, 就是要有成果,必須找對方法,然後持之以恆。 看看第一期,我們可以說,方向好像是對的了,那 麼接下來要怎麼持之以恆呢?要怎麼樣讓大家的熱 情可以一直延續下去,做這些我們覺得是對的事 情?我想就是找到願意一起作夢的人,相信分享是 值得並且有意義的同伴們,一起繼續做著在這個社 會上「難得」的事吧。

田珈伃

Maggie Tien

Reflecting on the first issue of IN.notes, I am proud to say that we were moving in the right direction. How do we turn it into a sustainable endeavor? How can we continue to stoke our passion and persevere in what we believe in? The essays in this issue may provide some insights into those questions, but one thing I am sure of is that it takes a group of dreamers who are generous enough to share their time and ideas to keep doing what is considered rare – and odd – in our society.


這是一個資訊每秒以星星的數量產生、 以光的速度傳播的世代,我們逃不了 被資訊淹沒的命運,但資訊不等於知 識,我們如何判斷淹沒我們的是知識抑 或是垃圾?這是一個沒有答案的問題, 或者說,答案因人而異。資訊的意義, 因我們每個人的相異,而自有不同的質 變。在這裡,我們分享可能成為知識的 經驗、提供自認為是知識的資訊,但能 否成為正在閱讀的你的能量?沒有保證

02

書,唯有熱情和打開的大門。 In an era of information explosion and lightspeed communication, our lives are constantly inundated with words, sounds, and images. The information overflow does not equate to knowledge. How, then, do we know which is which? The answer may differ from one person to another. It is subject to our experiences and data construction. Here at IN.Notes, we share experiences that may be knowledgeworthy, and knowledge that is informative. Whether they provide you with what you are looking for, it’s no guarantee and is for you to judge. What are undeniably on these pages are enthusiasm and a door to a wider world.

林芳宜

Fang-Yi Lin

凱西

Kathy Hong IN.Notes第二期了!挑戰難度提高,更有收穫。 We finally came to the 2nd issue of IN.Notes. It was delayed a 雖然我發起了兩期,然IN.Notes是屬於大家的。 tad bit. The topics presented us with big challenges, and great 期待更多朋友的投入。 夏末的第三期,大家願意認養嗎?

findings we gained from those challenges.

04

I had the privilege of conducting two issues, but it is not my efforts alone. Knowledge sharing is most valuable. The people, the minds, the voices, the time and the heart that went into this are most valuable. This publication belongs to all of us. Pitch in, or better yet, pitch to be an initiator for a future issue!


IN.Notes ISSUE 2

CONTENTS 01

發想 in.notes Words from the People

06

想想: 扒開兩個世代頭腦的 小實驗 An Experiment to Probe the Minds of Two Generations

想想: 表演藝術 我們的永續經營 28 表演藝術的永續發展 張宏維 The Sustainability of Performing Arts 36 投資,開啟經營 林芳宜 Investing in the Future 46 旁敲側擊,十鼓擊樂團之不簡單經營法! 張欣怡 Drumming up a New Path: the Innovative Business Model of the Ten Drum Art Percussion Group 56 永續經營從降低對補助的依存度開始 洪凱西 The First Step toward Sustainable Management: Decrease Reliance on Government Grants


62

我們 Arts People

66

實力實例

舞蹈人的紀律 藝術行政的縝密 南部人的爽朗

問表演藝術聯盟專案經理

推動慈善捐款的 5個行為科學觀察

陳柏潔

Crawford Hollingworth

Five Insights from Behavioural Sciences to Nudge & Steer Charitable Giving 77

好用小辭典 IN.Notes Dictionary 80

走跳世界

送人票券之後 就是一張紙了! 探察員Researcher

田珈伃

Hannah的墨爾本觀察 Hannah Chuang

In.notes#2 Team 撰稿

中字協力

王序平 陳景筠 張宏維 林芳宜 張欣怡 洪凱西 田珈伃 Hannah Chuang 田珈伃 劉采唐

視覺設計

英文翻譯

林巧若

賴瀅如 發想

中文翻譯

洪凱西

羅亞琪 洪家琪

特別感謝 PANDA表演藝術網絡發展協會 行政協力

Contributors Hsu-Ping Wang Ching-Yun Chen Hung-Wei Chang Fang-Yi Lin Hsin-Yi Chang Kathy Hong Maggie Tien Chinese Editor Maggie Tien Tsai-Tang Liu English Translation Ying-Ju Lai Chinese Translation Olivia Lo Chai-Chi Hong Visual Design Kaka Lin Initiator Kathy Hong Special Thanks to Performing Arts Network Development Association for administrative assistance.

*

IN.Notes is an independent digital publication for arts professionals in Taiwan. All views are only of the author’s. For more information or to get involved, please email innotes.mag@gmail.com


IN.Notes

FEATURE

想想

扒開兩個世代頭腦 的小實驗 文

王序平 陳景筠 洪凱西 田珈伃

現在的年輕人崇尚奢華、欠缺禮節、輕視權威, 對年長者毫無敬意,喜歡高談闊論卻沒什麼行動力, 他們不像過去的年輕人懂得在長者進來時起身致意。 他們頂撞父母,在客人面前喋喋不休, 進食時狼吞虎嚥,對待師長有如暴君。 蘇格拉底

6


FEATURE

想想:扒開兩個世代頭腦的小實驗

蘇格拉底這段話恐怕你閱讀的時

世代交替中所產生的諸多狀況,

IN.Notes 於是想做一個小實

候已經產生許多的情緒。這些情

早不是個新鮮的話題,更不是藝

驗,扒開兩個世代的頭腦,分析

緒是認同也好,是嗤之以鼻也

術行政這一行的專利。在台灣每

哪裡不一樣?若是多瞭解彼此腦

罷,更或許認同以上部份敘述,

天上演的公開或私下討論不絕於

袋的運行小宇宙,是否未來合作

然基於符合時代的政治正確,不

耳。許多的文章也總企圖說明世

上更能饒富趣味,用不同的觀點

能說是恰當的文字。若要大致上

代差異乃基於社會演進的差異,

看彼此,刺激新的正面撞擊?

來說,不可否認這段話存在著世

希冀促進理解,呼籲世代間的和

代間極深的價值、思想、社會與

平相處與包容。

行為的差異。

7

飛人集社劇團 《測量》 林政憶 攝影


SCENARIO 這次的主題,IN.Notes 組了「青年組」與「青壯年組」兩個焦點訪談團體。「青 年組」為六位三十歲以下,現任職於各大小藝文團隊或演出製作的年輕藝術行政 工作者,有正職與接案人員兩種;「青壯組」平均年齡四十歲左右,組成七位包 含自表演藝術團體、瑜珈業及消費性產品業界的經理人。「青年組」事先拿到提 問綱要,「青壯組」則是由提問人現場提問。兩方會後由兩組提問人與計畫提案 人共同做議題討論、對焦與篩選。

ISSUE 這次我們僅挑出三個議題:(1)社交與人脈、(2)工作思維,與(3)科技做闡 述。在三項議題討論上,頻頻出現「原來你們是這麼想!」因而我們對彼此的邏 輯出發點,有了趣味的發現與認識, 在此提出來供參考。

I. 人脈社群的經營 Network-Building 一句常掛嘴邊的玩笑話,「出門在

青壯年工作者回憶,踏入職場之

達。這些陌生的合作夥伴尚未構成

外靠朋友」,英文也有類似的一

初,經常被主管丟到某一個案子裡

人脈。人脈需要謀合、要養成,才

句,「It’s who you know」;起初

自生自滅。在還沒有網際網路的年

會是自己的。往往工作現場便是經

浮現的討論是「社交」這個現象。

代,為了完成專案,從找資料到

營初認識的生人為人脈的第一現

青壯組的凱西提到,「我們的年輕

找材料,從找銀子到找釘子,無一

場。合作愉快就成了熟人。多次的

藝術行政對社交行動不積極或沒有

不需要多路人馬出手相救/挺。不

合作、互相牽線就成了人脈的累積

意識,很令人擔憂。」 青年組的景

熟識的就陌生call-out或拜訪,不

與持續性的經營。經營人脈,不時

筠憶起PANDA協會(表演藝術網絡

是不接受對方說「不合作」,而是

以相聚時刻喝喝酒、吃吃飯、交流

發展協會)舉辦的第一次的「藝起

無法接受,否則回去被釘死或直接

訊息達成,沒什麼不好。飯總是

Bar」社交活動:「為了社交而社交

開天窗。這種指責不是青壯年世代

要吃,跟舊識新友一起吃,照顧民

的活動看起來就好假!」

能吞嚥的,因此說什麼都要使命必

生,更穩固人脈網絡。

8


FEATURE

想想:扒開兩個世代頭腦的小實驗

Lucy:「希望未來能加強「行銷」這塊,但如果要 做行銷,可能要有廣大的人脈,爭取自己能夠曝光 的地方,所以就加入了PANDA。」

回過頭來思考,青壯組 試圖剖析現

介紹完自己之後,也許只能透過尋

個「點」(個人)存在,沒有明確

在年輕人不知社交、經營人脈社群

找共同話題來認識陌生人,最後換

建立點與點之間的關連線,人脈網

的重要性,是不是因為沒有急迫性

來一疊名片卻不等於人脈,只是流

絡中「線」與「面」能發揮的功能

的「工作需要」呢?是因為估狗大

於一種Social。

與影響有限。

工作的前輩都很呵護地主動提供答

確實當真正需要人力、需要協助時

對於自己在工作或人際中是否有垂

案?萬一答案是後者,那麼青壯年

就是驗證自己平時累積的時候了,

直和水平面向延伸的充分認識?自

世代反思提供太多協助是幫了,還

而單單透過名片式social可能無法

己目前在這個座標裡的位置何在,

是害了青年世代呢?

互相熟識,也許至少必須透過一個

能做出何種貢獻?若是移動,可能

案子的密集工作,才能確實建立關

的發展方向為何、該從哪裡出發、

青年組輕鬆看待社交,並稱年輕人

係。然而因為組織位階及工作分配

是否有同伴同行等等,都能夠在人

其實是會社交的,面對不同圈子的

上,年輕一輩可能不是最有意識進

脈社群中尋得答案。在你建立的人

朋友,也會轉換不同的模式,平輩

行社交的人,無法把「network」

脈社群中,不但能夠在需要時獲得

間有平輩的相處方式,與前輩相處

真正串連的很好,在心態上或做法

協助與共舟,還能一起造成影響。

可能又是另一種狀態。但並不會為

上都可能不如前輩積極。

近日的各項運動訴說著當一群相

神天文地理無所不知,還是帶他們

同信念的人在一起的力量有多大。

了要社交而社交,而是順其自然。 一場吃吃喝喝的聚會,交換名片、

知識時代的現在,建立自己的社

開始建立你的社群吧,為自己的生

舉酒乾杯,聊聊近況,「前輩們總

群,經營有意義的真實關係,使自

命、熱情,或者相信的事情發出點

是在工作忙碌之餘,似乎不斷『自

己成為一個連結,並於其中發揮並

聲音!

然且明確的』進行社交(network)工

獲益於其作用,青壯組急迫希望年

作。」對青年世代常常在遞上名片

輕後輩能看到其重要性。即便很多

9


II. 工作思維的起點與盲點 Commonalities and Differences in Two Generation’s Work Ethics

職場上經常看到上下關係的拉扯: 上一輩抱怨下一輩沒邏輯,不會舉

空間&舒適帶隨著 人、事、物變遷

主管放手後的自由空間,在過程當 中自我學習的部分,也害怕找方法 的時候,那種面臨到deadline不斷

一反三,抗壓性差,沒彈性、沒禮 貌;下一輩抱怨上一輩固執不採納

到底多少空間才是足夠的發展空

建言、指令不明確、事事微管理、

間?到底該親自摸索闖蕩一遭,還

翻臉跟翻書一樣快…。相互的指責

是循著前人經驗踏實學習?青壯世

青壯組認為無論什麼樣的工作都是

累積得足以挑戰台北101了。

代實驗過給予青年世代多種彈性空

自己的選擇,是熱情或是責任感的

間,仍抓不到青年世代的心,承認

驅使都好,重點是要將事情做好,

兩組世代的辯解,不斷解構,出發

收效不彰。青年世代聲明絕對要空

至於在往「做好」的路上之種種經

點卻不謀而合:希望人能把事情做

間獨立思考與嘗試,卻也承認往往

歷、要承擔的風險,很多時候是自

好。或許以一個圓做比喻,兩世代

自由度高的發展空間令人恐懼,期

己評估,最後當然是後果自受。不

站的位置不盡相似。青壯世代因工

盼適時仍有一隻手拉著看世界。

止步於成功的小確幸,而失敗的悔

作經歷豐富,以鳥瞰的視角掌握

催促或是最後犯錯的天兵狀況。

恨與雪恥的動力,更是前進的能

全盤;青年世代或許人際網絡與處

青年組認為新手有新手才有的盲點

量。無論結果好或壞,都是千金難

世經驗的累積還未更上層樓,使他

與不安,新手有自己才懂的心酸血

換的學習經驗,都是在專業職能養

們站在圓心嚮往著抵達圓周,或是

淚,但也因年輕或沒有過去束縛,

成上不可或缺的基礎。

得到圓周與圓心的空間。視角不

不缺乏熱情與想法。理直氣壯的說

同,是抽離或置身其中的思考截然

「給我空間,放手讓我揮灑」的同

年輕一輩腦子裡面有很多想法,往

不同。

時,是既期待又害怕受傷害。期待

往給予主管或前輩建議,不一定能

林文中:「失敗有甚麼好怕的? 每年那麼多舞團收掉,成功的才比較奇怪吧?!」

10


FEATURE

想想:扒開兩個世代頭腦的小實驗

雅庭:「前輩溝通技巧非常厲害,眼下明明就是預期的與實 際看到的有落差,但當面跟對方講還是可以很圓融表達想 法,甚至把對方帶往自己想要的方向。年輕一輩比較做不 到,處理事情的方法不一樣,前輩總是表現很從容,但你明 明知道前輩內心應該是不開心的,或者溝通之後又會出現新 的東西,事情又繼續往下了,成見都不會伴隨太久。」

獲得欣然接受的正面回應。差異可 能在於經驗判斷或效益評估,可是 依靠經驗法則,一定是對的嗎?到 底該如何與主管溝通?「有一天我 們累積幾年工作經驗之後,也會變 得跟前輩一樣嗎?」這樣的自我問 答常在年經藝術行政的心中不斷的 詢問。然而青年組不可否認,有 人肯帶領入行已是幸福之事,必然 減少獨自茫然找答案的時間;若遇 見行事比較謹慎的主管,給予工作 步驟執行,犯錯的機會減少。換個 角度思考,不同的團隊組織有各自 對新手的要求與標準,踏入就業環 境,不再是實習狀態,青年世代想 要尋求的究竟是怎麼樣的機會(空 間),讓青壯組思考著「找人」與 「找對的人」之間的差別。

著名管理思想家柯林斯說 (Jim Collins):「錯誤人選 和適當人選之間有個顯著 的差異…就是前者認為自 己有的是『工作』,而後

者覺得自己有的是責任。 當別人問起『你做甚麼工 作?』時,每個人的回答都 不應該是職務的名稱,而 是個人的責任。」 青壯組認為當在找一個人的時候, 不只是找「一個人」來做事,而是 要找一個「對的人」,至於什麼是 「對的人」每個人有不同的標準和 解釋,也許是有經驗、願意學習, 也許是具有邏輯思考的能力,要能 全面思考,這個標準會因為組織的 任務不同而有條件上的差異,但有 一個放諸四海皆準的萬年條件絕對 不變:

你要成為解決問題的人,而

不是成為被解決的問題。熱情和善 良也許能贏得職場入場券,但解決 問題的能力和負責任的態度,才是 能在職場上無往不利,可長可久的 關鍵。

自己經驗值;當中好壞則端視受用 者的處事心態,一致認為「學習」 與「吸收」是不停歇。即便有時無 法完全認同主管的判斷或做法,但 也不可否認前輩們的經驗老道運用 在很多地方。 不同世代確實有不同想法,看事情 的角度與行動力都不一樣,經驗或 許是最好的老師,但過去不能成為 未來的包袱,像這次「反服貿」街 頭運動從開始到抗爭不就是最好的 例子,網路傳播、組織動員、議題 討論都是這個世代所展現出來的, 也許生澀、單純,但不可否認年輕 就是最大的本錢,生長在這個時代 有太多資源值得我們做更好的發 揮,在文化工作、日常生活及社會 議題各個面向皆是,不同世代間還 是可以保有共同的價值觀,不管大 事、小事,一起把社會推往更好的 方向。

青年組更期待職場上遇到伯樂,然 也表明與不同人共事,能快速累積

<讓好工作找上你>,史蒂芬.柯維、珍妮佛‧柯洛西莫,2010,天下文化,P.76 Great Work, Great Career, Stephen Covey, Jennifer Colosimo, 2009, Franklin Covey, P. 44

11


Tracy:「現代科技造成分心。」

III. 科技的運用成為年輕世代的優勢? The Pro’s and Con’s of Modern Technology 科技日新月異,變化萬千,如果堅

青壯組則覺得科技有時會引起太多

持守舊固執己見的話,會不會造成

的紛擾,上班時間內,一下要查看

世代的隔閡過大,新的世代似乎學

臉書訊息,一下Line又響起,略有

習著如何運用新興科技增進工作效

心得時還要上推特(Twitter)或臉書

率已是不可避免的趨勢,但如何在

分享,這些都是以前工作時所不會

科技產品及行政基本功中間取得平

見到的情況。這些分心不只將工作

衡,亦是一個有趣的討論及現象。

的時間和注意力切割得零碎,甚至 連一氣呵成的邏輯結構都被打散。

青年組認為藝術行政工作習性相較

時間久了,人的組織與結構的能力

其他產業行政即時,當下要了解或

也大打折扣。

處理的事情會一直來,常常在一些 時刻需要馬上用網路連繫,也因此

年輕一輩認為他們身在科技世代,

經常被誤會一直低頭玩手機,有時

有著比起主管或前輩們有絕對優

候其實就只想立刻知道資訊是否正

勢。他們運用科技工具如空氣和水

確等。

一般自然,在工作執行及人際相 處上相對於青壯世代,產生很大的

楊淑雯:「以前我們做功課,到圖書館,而現在只要動動手 指,估狗大神就能回答,但問題是,那些答案都不一定對, 而是不是有能力區別就不一定。」

14


FEATURE

想想:扒開兩個世代頭腦的小實驗

佩華:「臉書是我的私人空間,不是拿來聯絡 公務的適當溝通工具。」

凱西:「若不確定他人怎麼看待臉書這個工具, 更應該避免拿來做公務聯繫,以防腳踩地雷。」

改變;認為或因工作繁忙、世代

這件事,兩個世代卻對於不同科技工

並不以為意,但就公務工具而言,

差異,明顯在某些時候資訊接收

具有很深的成見。

不管是臉書私訊,或即時通訊軟

或 update 速度比青年世代慢。不

體,內容不易副本給其他公務相關

過,真的如此嗎?青壯組對於青年

青年組的看法是,工具沒有分別,

人員,也難以歸檔追蹤,更別提最

們過度仰賴科技工具的狀況也憂

如何方便,就如何工作。因此用臉

後整合、交接或結案時可預見的資

心仲仲,在一個0.24秒就能有8萬

書或Line群組好工作,就用它。前

料整理困難了。

個答案的估狗時代,一切都朝快、

一分鐘,找人找不到,後一分鐘看

短、淺發展,省去了「尋找」這個

到人在臉書上活動,就一定用臉書

現代資訊取得容易,科技產品帶給

動詞,是不是也同時省略並失去了

追追追。可說是為達目的,不擇手

大家快速解決問題的方法和不同的

許多學習的機會呢?

段。不過,青年組亦承認有時候被

選項。而科技畢竟仍是工具,使用

擺道,明明有聯繫,對方卻稱不知

者的邏輯運用仍主導工具的效益。

情,陷入啞巴吃黃蓮的苦。

以思考邏輯的建立和表達能力的培

新興通訊系統裡模糊的 公私務界線

養來說,有許多閱讀及組織能力的 面對科技工具,青壯組也是上癮的

基本功還是不能被科技取代的,在

科技工具的使用習慣差異,不時在

一群,不見得全如青年組認知的

運用科技增進效率的同時,亦不能

世代工作中顯現。現今的工具多元,

「不懂」。然而談到公務,眾多

放棄自我能力的提升及培養才行。

光通訊這件事亦變得相當複雜,電

科技工具中,該組仍然堅持電子郵

話、Email、Whatsapp、Line、臉

件 email做為主要聯繫與溝通的工

書等,若是要及時「找人」,不免就

具。尤其臉書之於每個人有不同的

要使出各種工具追緝。然而「溝通」

意義,有的認定為私領域,有些人

15


大為:「曾經有一個前台經驗,有一位女生打電話來問說文山劇場有 沒有輪椅席,因為她想帶行動不便的爸爸去看演出,我從捷運站去等 他們,陪他們到劇場,前輩知道後很感動,稱讚我觀眾服務做不錯。 但其實當下沒想那麼多,只是想把服務做的周全一點。」

彥祥:「年輕人太革命,覺得老東西都不好,但老東西有老東西 的美;老一輩的也覺得年輕人都不成熟,不願意聽他們的想法。 中間這一層被長輩帶領,又被科技追趕,焦慮感更甚。我們兩邊 看,感到糾葛。」

世代差異及反思 Reflection on Generational Differences

的語句來傳遞訊息。她不諱言,或 許在二十年後,自己也會需要新一 代的翻譯機,替自己及下下一代做

在探索眼前這兩個世代的差異時,

資訊傳遞的工作。

青年組在過程中也發現自己與下一 個世代的代溝,看不慣下一代的「

兩個世代的種種討論和溝通中可以

做事邏輯」、「工作態度」等都不

驗證的是每一個世代間都有差異,

太一樣;而忽然間,青年組相視而

其發生原因不全然來自年歲的差

笑:「蛤?該不會前輩們也是這樣

距,很多來自於經濟、教育、社

看我們?」這也同時展開體檢自己

會、政治等大小環境因素結合的盤

是否也犯過同樣的錯。

根錯節,無論原因為何兩個世代都 需要互相熟悉、互相學習。

面臨到八年級的崛起,七年級的年 輕藝術行政們也有話說,蔡雅庭認

在這次的小小實驗中,雙方在過程

為,下一代可能真的很聰明,他們

當中了解彼此的想法和位置,更提

會覺得結果才是重點,而不重視中

供給相關專業的我們參考借鏡,藉

間的步驟,也強烈表達著 「我可以

由一代一代的吸收彼此的經驗,將

做得比你好」的訊息。楊喆甯在八

其傳遞下去,重要的是將事情做

年級生和自己的主管輩之間,像是

好、做完整,藝術行政的功課方能

一台翻譯機,要去替雙方找到適當

功德圓滿。

16


FEATURE

想想:扒開兩個世代頭腦的小實驗

IN.Notes

FEATURE

An Experiment to Probe the Minds of Two Generations By Ching-yun Chen, Mina Wang, Kathy Hong, Maggie Tien

Our youth now love luxury. They have bad manners, contempt for authority; they show disrespect for their elders and love chatter in place of exercise; they no longer rise when elders enter the room; they contradict their parents, chatter before company; gobble up their food and tyrannize their teachers. Socrates

17


The Socrates quote might elicit different reactions from the readers: some agree with it, some scoff, and some might secretly agree but in this day and age of political correctness, find it hard to admit they do. In general, the quote reflects the intergenerational differences in values, thoughts, and social norms and behaviors.

and call for tolerance and peaceful co-existence, many authors have tried to explain that such differences between the generations are a reflection of social progress. IN.notes decided to conduct an experiment to compare the minds of two generations of arts administrators. By making a foray into each others’ worlds and stepping into each others’ shoes, we hope to gain insight into each other’s perspectives, to possibly by better understanding of each other, we will spark positive and enjoyable future collaborations.

As the quote indicates, clash between generations goes as far back as thousands of years ago, and it is certainly not an issue unique to the arts. We see it every day in Taiwan, whether played out in public or expressed as private complaints. In their attempts to promote mutual understanding

SCENARIO For the study, IN.Notes assembled two focus groups: the Generation X-ers consist of seven forty-something executives working in the fields of performing arts, yoga and fitness, and consumer products, while the Millennials were six full-time and freelance arts administrators, all under thirty, who work in either productions, cultural organizations or performing groups. The Millennials received the discussion topics before the meeting, while the Gen X-ers responded to the interviewer’s questions on the spot. After the meeting, the interviewers and the organizer summarized the findings and discussed the implications of the results.

ISSUE Comparing notes on findings from two focus groups, we concluded in summarizing three issues: (1) socializing and network building, (2) logic in the workplace, and (3) technology. In this session, both group leaders were equally surprised at the findings and gained great insights to the other generation. We decided to draw attention to the three issues in particular that we are often lost in translation, and hope to shed light to our workplaces.

18


FEATURE

想想:扒開兩個世代頭腦的小實驗

I. Network-Building There’s a Chinese idiom that goes, “When away from home, one must depend on friends,” which is similar to the English saying, “It’s not what you know but who you know.” The first discussion that caught our attention was networking. Kathy, a Gen X-er, pointed out that it is concerning that many young arts administrators are not interested in networking and had little awareness of its importance. Ching-Yun Chen, a Millennial, recalled a networking event held by Taiwan’s Performing Arts Network Development Association (PANDA), “But it felt so phony socializing just for the sake of it.” Many Gen X-ers recalled that in their early career, they were thrown into projects and tasks with few instructions or guidance. During the days before the Internet, connections and support from their peers were essential for all aspects of their work, ranging from gathering information and securing funding down

to finding minor items for stage props. They reminisced about the cold calls they had to make and the meeting with strangers they had to attend. “No” was not never an acceptable answer, not because they couldn’t take rejections but because if they didn’t get things done, they would either get in real trouble or a whole show could fall through. With such dilemmas on their shoulders, they would do anything to complete the tasks. Based on those experiences, they know that professional contacts don’t become connections overnight. The new people they meet in a professional capacity all have the potential to become part of their network, but it requires careful cultivation and mutual accommodation. After a few pleasant meetings or phone exchanges, they might be considered acquaintances, and only after a few instances of collaboration would there be a solid professional relationship. There’s nothing wrong with getting together for drinks or dinner in order to

19

talk about work and exchange ideas. Often new friends and valuable contacts are made during those meetings. On the other hand, as the Gen X-ers lament the young people’s lack of interest in socializing and networking, this reluctance may also reflect the fact that an extensive professional connection is no longer a necessity today. The reason may be that they can find everything they need on the Internet or that their supervisors are supportive to the point of doing their work for them. If the answer is the latter, the Gen X-ers are thinking twice whether they are coddling young employees and preventing them from learning the crucial skills necessary for this profession. The Millennials tend to have a light-hearted approach to professional networking. They pointed out that they do network. The Millenials claim they network differently according to the occasion and the party. However, they don’t socialize


I would like to put more efforts in marketing, which requires a large network of connections. I joined PANDA in order to reach a wider group of people. Lucy

for the sake of it but prefer to do it in a more natural setting. When they meet up for casual dinners or drinks, they may exchange business cards, but most of the time, they simply chat as any young people do. During the focus group sessions, some of them even commented that the older generation often seemed to “network” in a conscious manner, and interaction with them sometimes felt contrived. The Millennials feel the conscious networking functions are superficial and when they do attend, business cards are swapped but aside from that, if no mutual interests were struck, the time spent is merely socializing in format and efforts in vain. Indeed, one’s connection in the industry is tested when the work calls for support from the peers. The relationships established during casual social gathering are usually superficial, and it is only so-

lidified after having worked with someone intensively on a project. However, the Millenials feel that due to their entrylevel positions, they do not find urgency in establishing a career network, and more often than not, they don’t see its necessity. In a knowledge-based era, it has become ever more imperative for arts administrators to establish their own professional circles and build meaningful relationships with their peers. Like a node in a network of people, each individual is essential in holding the net together. However, without the solid relationships that connect the dots, the individuals cannot benefit fully from cooperation and would continue to work on their own. During the focus group sessions, the Gen X-ers expressed their urgent hope that younger generation could understand the importance.

20

In this web of professional connections, how do I understand where my place is? What contributions can I make? In the future, am I moving up or down, or am I branching out to a different industry? Where do I start, and will I find companions along the way? These are questions young arts administrators should be asking themselves. The answer lies in their professional circles, in which they would find support and friendship, and together they would bring impact to their industries. In recent months, the social movements taking place in Taiwan proved that when groups of like-minded people work together, they can change the society. It is essential for the younger generation of arts administrator to establish their own group of like-minded peers and help each other voice their passion and what they believe in!


FEATURE

想想:扒開兩個世代頭腦的小實驗

II. Commonalities & Differences in Two Generation’s Work Logic We often see clashes between generations in the workplace. The older generation complains that young people are unable to think logically and critically; they crack under pressure; they are inflexible; they are rude. The younger generation says their elders are micromanagers who don’t give clear instructions, they are not receptive to suggestions; they are temperamental; and the list goes on and on.

who are mostly in management positions, have tried to give their younger employees various degrees of flexibility in their work, but somehow intergenerational conflicts are still unavoidable. The Millennials think that there are anxieties and struggles unique to rookies that the older generation simply cannot identify with. At the same time, they are unencumbered by past experiences and able to embrace their passion and new ideas wholeheartedly. They claim that they need to be allowed to experiment and think independently, but they also admit that too much freedom could be intimidating and that as they explore the world, they also require a little bit of handholding. While they are excited about the opportunity to work at their own pace and learn new skills on their own, they are also anxious about making mistakes in the process, especially the ones people always seem to make right before a deadline is coming up.

The two generations may continue to throw accusations at each other and defend themselves, but they come from the same place: they all want to do their best to make great things happen. The difference in their attitude lies in their perspective. Armed with their personal and professional experiences, the Gen X-ers are able to see the big picture from a loftier standpoint; the Millennials, on the other hand, are still entangled in the midst of things, either yearning to carve out more space for themselves or rise to a higher position in the industry.

The Gen X-ers agree that whether one chooses a profession out of passion or simply a sense of responsibility, one should honor the decision by accepting all the consequences it entails, including the risks. What drive them to continue their hard work are not only the prospect of success but also the fear of failure and humiliation. Most have experienced both, but the most valuable

The Freedom to Explore the Unknown vs. The Comfort of Knowing How much space do the Millennials need to spread their wings? Should they venture out to the road less traveled, or should they follow the footsteps of their elders? The Gen X-ers,

21


lesson they have learned is not through the result but rather the process, which has laid a good foundation for their career.

One notable distinction between wrong people and right people… is that the former see themselves as having “jobs,” while the latter see themselves as having responsibilities. Every person should be able to respond to the question, “What do you do?” not with a job title but with a statement of personal responsibilities. – Jim Collins

The younger generation may be eager to bring their ideas to the table, but they don’t always find a receptive ear, which may be due a thorough cost-benefit analysis, or sometimes it is simply attributed to intuition that comes from experiences. But surely “experience” cannot be the basis for all decisions? “Will we be become them in a few years?” That’s a common question young arts administrators often ask themselves as they attempt to communicate with their supervisors more effectively. They admit that some are lucky enough to have mentors who are willing to guide them, saving them the time of blindly searching for answers. Moreover, if their supervisors are especially cautious and give them step-by-step instructions, there are fewer chances for making mistakes. But on another debated note, a young professional should have the awareness that s/he is no longer an intern, and each company has different demands for a newcomer. As the Millennials think about the opportunities/freedom they need, the Gen X-ers are also thinking about the difference between an employee and the right employee.

Gen X-ers pointed out the importance of finding the right people, but who the right people are depends on the needs of each organization. Some organizations need experienced people, some prefer those who are willing to learn; in some companies, employees who are good at logical reasoning and piecing out the large puzzle are prized. There is, however, a golden standard that applies everywhere: the right person is a problem-solver, not a problem to be solved. A rookie may get his or her foot in the door through enthusiasm and a positive attitude, but the ability to solve problems and a sense of responsibility are the key to long-term success.

I am not afraid of failures. I see as many dance companies fold each year as there are new ones. Those that succeed are the anomalies. Wen-Chung Lin

22


FEATURE

想想:扒開兩個世代頭腦的小實驗

I really admire my supervisor’s communication skills. When someone’s work doesn’t come up to our expectation, my supervisor is usually able to talk about it in a very calm and diplomatic manner, often skillfully guiding that person to see her point of view. It might be harder for a rookie to do that, as they tend to have a different working style. Sometimes my supervisor is annoyed, but she always remains calm. Usually after brief discussions, new ideas emerge and work is resumed. Grudges are never for long. Ya-Ting

The Millennials all want to meet a supervisor who sees their potential and can mentor them for the long haul, but they also agree that working with different people will allow them to accumulate experiences more quickly. Unanimously agreed is the fact that working with all types of people contribute to fast learning. While they may not always agree with their supervisors’ decisions or working styles, they still acknowledge that the older generation’s experiences do come in handy in many occasions. Generational differences do exist, in terms of both their perspectives and the actions they take. Experience has its advantages, but it becomes a burden when it only serves to

weigh down our actions. The recent student-led protest in Taiwan is a good example: a group of young adults were in charge of all aspects of the movement, from mobilizing the public to information dissemination to shaping public discussions on a public policies. While innocent and naively perceived, the students injected extraordinary energy to the movement. In this day and age, we are surrounded by all kinds of resources that allow us to realize our potentials in our daily lives, our professions, and in our dedication to arts and culture and social issues alike. Despite our differences, it is still possible for us to share the same value and take our society to a better place.

23

Millennials Ching-Yun Chen Independent Arts Professional

Cordelia Yang Company Manager, Möbius Strip Theatre

Ya-Ting Tsai Company Manager, Flying-group Theatre

Lucy Wang Secretary, OISTAT- International Organisation of Scenographers, Theatre Architects & Technicians

David Wang Event Coordinator, Thinkers’ Theatre

Yun-Hsin Chung Secretary, Taiwan Association of Theatre Technology


III. The Pro’s and Con’s of Modern Technology

Technology can be distracting Tracy Neo In the past, I had to spend hours doing research at the library, but now all I need to do is google, and answers pop up in your face. The only problem is that not all the answers are reliable, but the tech-age natives do not necessarily know the difference. Shu-Wen Yang

As technological breakthrough takes place every day and continues to change the world we live in, the Millenials are using new technology to increase their efficiency at work, and those who persist in the old ways run the risk of being left behind. However, how do we strike a balance between effective use of technology and cultivating the basic skills required of an administrator? The Millennials pointed out that the work of an arts administrator is often time-sensitive and they are constantly bombarded with urgent issues that require their immediate attention. They may seem to be fiddling with their cell phones all the time, but in fact they are busy at work, trying to respond to messages or receive the most updated information. The Gen X-ers say technology is often origin of distractions in the workplace. It is not specifically a generation specialty. Many spend their day at work lingering on Facebook, instant messaging, tweeting; one could wonder how they are able to concentrate on anything. As their work hours and attention become fragmented, they

24


FEATURE

想想:扒開兩個世代頭腦的小實驗

Facebook is my private domain, not a suitable tool for work-related communication. Pei-Hwa If you are not sure how your point contact would view Facebook as a communication tool, you should probably avoid using it for work so as not to seem unprofessional. Kathy

also lose the ability to pursue sustained logical thinking, and their organizational skills also suffer.

more and more tools becoming available, the act of communication itself is more complex than ever. Nowadays there are almost too many ways to get hold of someone: old-fashioned telephone, e-mail, Facebook, and instant messaging applications like Line and Whatsapp. However, the two generations differ in their attitude toward those communication tools. The tech natives deem all forms of communication the same. As long as they can reach the people they are looking for, they would do whatever they can with whatever means. If they can’t find someone regarding a work-related issue but sees that person updating a Facebook status, they would not hesitate to send a Facebook message with their personal account. However, Millenials admit these tactics do backfire. The recipient would refuse to admit being notified, or supervisors complain they did not receive a carbon copy.

The Millennials say that in this era of technology, they hold an advantage over the Gen X-ers. Millenials claim to live and breathe modern technology, which alters their work patterns and socializing ways from the Gen X-ers. “It is only natural that we often times are ahead receiving and updating information.” The Gen X-ers, however, worry about the way Millenials are increasingly reliant on technology. In the age of Google, when one’s fingertip can summon tens of thousands of search results in 0.24 second, everything is fast but also brief and superficial. Now that we have technology to do the “search” for us, do we also lose the chance to learn in the process of searching?

Tech Tools Increasingly Blurring the Line between Work and Personal Life

The Gen X-ers are not exactly old fossils helpless in the face of technology, and some are no less addicted to it. However, most of them still believe that in a professional setting, e-mail should be the main communication tool. Using

There is clearly a difference between the two generations in their use of technology. With

25


One of the most memorable experiences I had while working at the reception was when a girl called to inquire about seating for the disabled at the Wen-Shan Theater. She wanted to bring her father, who was in a wheelchair, to a show. I waited for them at the metro station and accompanied them to the theater. When my supervisor heard about it, he was very impressed and complimented me on my customer service skills. I really wasn’t thinking very much but only wanted to make sure all the audience members had a good theater-going experience. David

Generation X-ers Liting Liu Deputy Executive Director, Taipei Arts Festivals Office

Wen-Chung Lin Artistic Director, WC Dance

Shu-Wen Yang Freelance Production Manager

Tracy Neo Marketing Director, K&K Foods

Pei-Hwa Chang General Manager, SPACE Yoga

Kathy Hong Executive Director, OISTAT

Yen-Hsiang Lee Company Manager, Greenray Theatre Company

Facebook for work remains a controversial topic. Some think that it belongs to the private domain, while others don’t mind conducting business via social media. They do agree that Facebook and other instant messaging applications make it harder to send duplicate copies or compile and organize the messages, which can be a problem when a project needs to be tracked by a team or handed over to someone else or near the stage of completion. When problems arise, it is always easy to reach for the latest technology, but no matter how handy those tools are, they are still tools, and their efficacy depends on the users’ ability to express themselves. Technology is no substitute for

26

logical reasoning, good interpersonal and communication skills and logical reasoning, and we should be attentive to cultivate these skills.

Reflection on Generational Differences As the young twenties begin to enter the workforce, the Millenials find themselves unable to identify with these newbies in terms of work ethics and their thought process. Ya-Ting Tsai noticed that her junior colleagues tend to be very confident about their ability to do better than their seniors. They also tend to focus more on the results rather than the process. During the discussion, some of the participants in the Millennials group caught themselves in


FEATURE

想想:扒開兩個世代頭腦的小實驗

mid-discussion, exchanged glances and chuckled, “is this how our seniors see us as well?” Then they began to reflect if they, too, had made the mistakes they so hastily complain about of their juniors. Zhe-Ning Yang of the Millenials admitted to often feeling like a translator between the “new” younger people and the more senior executives. She is constantly trying to find a way to relay information to both sides with the language each could understand. “Perhaps in twenty years’ time, I would need a translator too.” From the focus group sessions, we can see that while there are disagreements between generations, the cause is not necessarily due to their age but also differences in education, political leaning, socioeconomic status, and many other complicated factors. That being said, perhaps we should all drop the finger-wagging. Whatever the causes are, one thing we know is that we need to understand and learn from each other. In this small experiment, the two groups have been able to understand where the other side is coming from and how that affected their thinking, and this exchange provided invaluable material for professional arts administrators for further collaboration. Since we share the same goal of getting things done and make great art happen, we must find ways to not only pass on great equations, solutions and experiences from one generation to the next but also continue learning along the way.

Young people want to revolutionize everything and are always complaining about the old, but old things have their value, too, and can be truly beautiful sometimes. The older generation also thinks that the twenty-something people are immature and unwilling to take suggestions. For people like me in our mid-thirties, we are stuck between them. We try to follow the footsteps of our elders but at the same time also feel the pressure to catch up with the technology-savvy younger generation. As we struggle between the demands of two generations, our anxiety is at an all-time high. Yen-Hsiang

27


IN.Notes

FEATURE

想想

表演藝術 我們的永續經營

28


FEATURE

01

想想:表演藝術, 我們的永續經營

IN.Notes

FEATURE

表演藝術的永續發展 文

張宏維

表演藝術聯盟專案經理

不論我們對藝術和文化有多高的評價,它們都是由整體經濟體系的 個人或機構所運作製造,因此勢必無法逃脫物質世界的限制。 藝術經濟學者Gray & Heilbrun

表演藝術如何永續經營?若我們

個「生態系統」,故維持多樣性及

於社會上的媒體、評論、輿論,甚

先從「永續」的定義及來源看

建立預警原則,以避免可預見的問

至社會大眾對表演藝術的印象,都

起,「永續( sustainability )」

題,而最重要的是保存文化體系與

會影響表演藝術發展。我們認為可

一詞首見於 1970年代,常用在生

承認互相依存 。

能無關緊要的事情,到頭來可能是

態、環境及經濟學上。其定義為

影響最深的因素。

「既能滿足我們現今的需求,又

所謂「系統」為許多「次系統」組

不損害子孫後代能滿足他們的需

合而成,系統之間彼此互相依存。

既然影響表演藝術發展的因素如此

求的發展模式development

which

若系統少與外界交互往來,成為所

眾多,這些因素彼此之間的關係為

satisfies the current needs of society

謂「封閉系統」,則可能造成系統

何?在資源有限的情況下,該如何

without compromising the needs of

內的亂度增加,造成系統的毀滅或

著手協助表演藝術發展?美國藝術

future generations」。

趨於靜止。

管理學者Margaret Jane Wyszomir-

ski ,以大規模的實證研究,調查 澳洲經濟學家David Throsby以「永

國內對表演藝術的研究也使用了

美國的文化藝術組織,主要為呈

續」的概念應用在文化遺產(cul-

「生態」及「系統」的概念,2002

現(presenting)、保存(preserv-

tural

heritage)領域,並整理出幾

年兩廳院的《九十一年表演藝術生

ing)及協助(supporting)文化藝

項原則,包括物質與非物質發展並

態報告》專書以及2005年文建會的

術發展的組織。整理歸納出提出支

重(Material and non-material well-

《表演藝術產業生態系統初探》。

撐文化藝術組織(團體)發展的

being),除了現在之外,也要同時

都以這樣的概念出發。表演藝術的

四大支援系統(support

注重下一代發展,即所謂跨世代公

發展,不是只有補助就好,表演藝

模型,分別是:財務資助(Finan-

平(intergenerational equity)及世代

術的發展,仰賴的是整個體系的健

cial

內公平(intragenerational equity);

全,從觀眾、場館到團隊,再擴大

Support)、專業協助(Professional

而最重要的是,將文化發展視為一

到支援演出製作的各行各業,乃至

Support)及思想支持(Ideational

29

system)

Support)、社會協力(Social


Support)。此四者並非各自獨立存在,而是互相影響的

欠缺的是「專業協助」。表演藝術界尚未有專業分工的

複雜結構。四大支援系統組成如下:

服務組織,例如,協助行政、傳播行銷、製作、國際交 流的專業組織或平台。在商業界,有廣告、公關公司、

財務

會計師、律師等專業服務者協助,而表演藝術的從業者

政府補助、私人捐助(包含企業、基金會及個人)以及

往往從播種插秧,到穀子的收割銷售都要一手包,往往

藝術團隊及藝術家的自營收入等

造成業界從業者投資過多心力及時間,還達不到期望的

社會

成果。

志願服務風氣、整體社會對表演藝術的認知、政策單位

而在現今的補助制度下,補助僅限於表演藝術團體,協

及公眾對表演藝術的態度(受媒體報導影響)等

助表演藝術發展的專業組織,如智庫、製作公司、交流

專業

平台等各類專業服務組織,皆無法獲得政府補助。而在

私部門專業組織(工會、協會)以及民間智庫等單位

視覺藝術領域,這個現象已經有了改善。

思想 智慧資本(包括藝術教育、藝術家訓練、學術研究)、

2013年修訂的「文化部視覺藝術類補助作業要點」中,

法規(中央及地方政府)、政策、資訊流通及言論自由

增列了「營運類」補助,其對象為「經政府機關許可登 記或立案滿一年且具固定專職人力一人以上,經營或從 事視覺藝術事務之財團法人、社團法人或團體等非營利

換句話說,財務資助為實際的錢;社會協力代表每個在

組織」,補助內容為「長期從事視覺藝術相關之創作、

業界或對文化藝術領域有興趣或幫助的個人;專業協助

策展、研究、推廣等非營利組織營運發展」,補助之金

為協助文化藝術領域發展的各類組織,如工會、協會、

額可達全年預算的百分之五十。而此類的補助,在表演

智庫、政治遊說、交流平台等,例如表演藝術聯盟(

藝術也同樣必要,更可以對表演藝術的發展有正面且積

中華民國表演藝術協會)、台灣技術劇場協會等均屬

極地力量。

此類。思想支持則代表創意及資訊(ideas and informa-

tion)的流通及分享。

自1996年開始的在「分級獎助」補助正是以這樣的精神 輔助表演藝術團隊的運作,這些年下來,已可證明這樣

這四大支援系統彼此影響,但其中最重要的,還是財務

的補助方式確有成效。補助「中介組織」及「專業服務

資助。而社會協力面向由許多「個人」組成,也就是整

組織」正是表演藝術發展不可或缺的下一步。

體社會對文化藝術的認知及態度,雖看似不直接相關, 但卻直接影響公部門預算編列方向以及私部門對文化藝

在「思想支持」及「社會協力」上,發展情況比「專業

術的捐贈風氣。這四個支援系統,可以想像成桌子的四

協助」好些,但仍待努力。評論制度現在國藝會已經努

隻腳,四隻腳撐住的桌面,就是文化藝術組織得以發展

力進行中,但法規以及政策的基礎研究,都還有待積極

的基盤與環境。四隻腳即使不穩,文化藝術也可以照常

進行。衡量美國的情況,表演藝術的場館發展以及藝術

發展,但長期來看,缺了任何一股支撐力量,文化藝術

教育相關問題並沒有被放進此模型中,以臺灣的發展現

組織就無法健全發展。

況來看,除上述的四大支持力量外,還應該將此二點考 慮進去。表演藝術場館的發展影響表演團體最深,觀眾

在「財務資助」上,政府的投入雖然不令人滿意,但相

的經營但仍有賴藝術教育的札根推廣,讓全民美學基礎

較於其他三股力量,反而相對穩定。在目前環境中,最

穩固,創造具有美感和創意能力的下一代公民。

30


FEATURE

31

想想:表演藝術, 我們的永續經營


01

IN.Notes

FEATURE

The Sustainability of Performing Arts By Hung-Wei Chang Project Manager, Performing Arts Alliance

No matter how highly we may value them, art and culture are produced by individuals and institutions working within the general economy, and therefore cannot escape the constraints of that material world. James Heilbrun & Charles M. Gray, The Economics of Arts and Culture

How do we create a sustainable environment for performing arts? We might begin by defining “sustainability�: development which satisfies the current needs of society without compromising the needs of future generations. The term first became popular during 1970’s and is often used in environmental science, ecology, and economics. David Throsby, an Australian economist, applied the concept of sustainability to cultural heritage and formulated several principles: equal emphasis on material and nonmaterial well-being; inter- and intra-generational equity, a concept of fairness in nurtur-

32


FEATURE

想想:表演藝術, 我們的永續經營

tinction among four kinds of support systems: financial support, social support, professional support, and ideational support. The four systems do not exist independently but is part of a complex, interconnected structure. Following is a more detailed description of the four systems:

ing both the current and the next generation; an “ecosystem” within which cultural development takes place; and the importance of diversity in the system and adherence to the precautionary principle to prevent foreseeable problems; most importantly, the maintenance principle of cultural system and the recognition of interdependence. The so-called cultural system is comprised of many sub-systems, all of which are interdependent of each other. Without interaction with its surroundings, a system becomes isolated, leading to increased disorder within until it either perishes or becomes static.

Financial support government grants; private donation from corporations, nonprofit foundations, and individuals; and the performance groups’ and the artists’ income.

Social support a tradition of volunteer service, the society’s general understanding of performing arts, the public’s and the policymakers’ attitudes toward performing arts, which are often influenced by the media.

Studies on performing arts in Taiwan also employ the concept of an ecosystem. A few examples are the National Theater and Concert Hall’s publication, The 2002 Report on the Performing Arts Ecosystem in Taiwan, and the Council for Cultural Affairs’ An Introduction to the Ecosystem of Performing Arts Industry in 2005. The development of performing arts depends not only on financial subsidies but also the soundness of its environment. Crucial factors include the audience, the venue, the production team, and to a greater extent, the various professions that support the production of a program, as well as the media, the critic, public opinions, and even the public’s general impression of performing arts. Sometimes a matter that seems irrelevant now could have long-lasting impact in the long run.

Professional support unions, professional associations and think tanks.

Ideational support intellectual capital, such as arts education, training and academic research; government regulations on the local and national levels; government policies; freedom of speech; information dissemination In other words, financial support ensures that a group or an artist survives on a basic level. Social support refers to the individuals who either work in the field of arts and culture or who are interested in promoting it. Professional support is provided by various organizations, which may include unions, professional associations, think tanks, lobbying firms, and platforms for cultural and professional exchange, such as Performing Arts Alliance and Taiwan Association of Theatre Technology. Lastly, ideational support is represented by the exchange and sharing of ideas and information.

What is the relationship between the numerous factors that influence the development of performing arts? With limited resources, how does one begin to advance it? Margaret Jane Wyszomirski, an American scholar of arts administration, conducted a large-scale empirical study on arts and cultural organizations in the US that focused on presentation, preservation, and support services. In the study, she makes a dis33


Flying Group Theatre’s large installation Gift Wrapping at Taipei Fine Arts Museum, photo by Ching-Yun Chen 飛人集社劇團首次大型裝置作品 《打包》 ,陳景筠 攝影

The four systems influence each other, but financial support remains the most important factor. Social support, though based on individuals’ opinions, represents the entire society’s understanding and attitude toward arts and culture. While its consequences for performing arts are not immediate, the public’s sentiment often have impact on the government’s budget as well as private donors’ willingness to contribute. Like four legs of a table, the four support systems hold up the environment that nurtures arts and cultural organizations. If any of the four legs are wobbly, the organizations may continue to survive but they will never be able to thrive. While the financial support provided by the Taiwanese government is far from satisfactory, it has been steady compared to other support systems. At the moment, Taiwan’s performing arts community needs professional support urgently. In the corporate world, there are professionals who specialize in advertisement, public relations, accounting, legal services, etc., but in the performing arts community, there is no clear division of labor.

34


FEATURE

An artist or a group is often responsible for all aspects of a project, from the conceptual stage down to administrative support, marketing and communications, production, international exchange, etc. This situation forces the artists to invest too much efforts and time but often unable to produce satisfactory result.

想想:表演藝術, 我們的永續經營

First implemented in 1996, a “tiered” grant system for performing arts groups has proven to be effective and fostered a positive environment for many groups and artists. In order to further promote performing arts, it is imperative to increase financial support for organizations that provide professional services and serve as intermediaries between individuals and groups.

At the moment, only performing arts groups are eligible for government grants, while advocacy groups, such as think tanks, production companies, and platforms that promote cultural exchange are excluded from receiving financial support. In recent years, this problem has been addressed in the field of visual arts.

The social and ideational supports in Taiwan are more adequate, but there is still room for improvement. Taiwan’s National Culture and Arts Foundation is currently trying to institute a system incubating professional critics, but much remains to be desired in the fundamental research on government regulations and policies.

The 2013 provision to the Guidelines for the Ministry of Culture Grant Program in Visual Arts has added a category for “operation and administration.” Non-profit foundations and association and other non-profit corporations working in visual arts that have been legally registered for at least a year and have at least one full-time employee are eligible to apply. The purpose of the program is to support the development of nonprofit organizations that are dedicated to the creation, presentation, research, and promotion of visual arts. The grant could make up fifty percent of an organization’s annual budget. Similar financial support is urgently needed for performing arts and could have a positive impact on its development.

Wyszomirski’s model of the four support systems was derived from her study on American arts organizations. For Taiwan, however, there are two additional issues that affect the development of its performing arts, namely performance venues and arts education. The evolving of performance venues proves to impact artists the most. On the other hand, in order to cultivate a larger audience, we must have a more thorough arts education that would allow the society to develop a unique sense of aesthetics and foster a new generation of creative and artistic individuals.

35


02

IN.Notes

FEATURE

投資,開啟經營 文

林芳宜

表演藝術生態觀察者 目前於文化部所屬國立傳統藝術中心擔任行政管理師

國立傳統藝術中心旗下有臺灣國樂

在表演藝術圈裡不難聽到團隊憂心票房,尤以音樂團體

團、國光劇團和臺灣豫劇團三個表

最為顯著,而屬於政府的公共場館,如美術館、圖書 館、博物館或文化園區等,則每季都要統計「來園/館

演團隊、以及以資料、資訊與研究

數」、「民眾參與度」,這些數字呈現造訪館所的民眾

(Archive, Information & Research )為核

人數,它所呈現的,說穿了,就是「生存」的事情,

心的臺灣音樂館,另外經營位於宜蘭

因為人數越多,表示越被民眾所需要,也就是民眾使用 率越高。而民間團隊需要這些數字帶來收入,才能養活

羅東的傳藝園區,園區內現有500人座

藝術家們、才能繼續有錢製作節目;而公部門不需擔心

與100人座之表演場地各一,目前於台

生存嗎? 未必。在政府財政日益減縮─即使財政狀況良

北市興建當代戲曲中心,預定於2015

好,分配給文化預算的數字也無法成長─的當下,各隸 屬於政府的文化機關單位如公樂團、劇團、美術館與博

年完成、2016年第一季開始試營運。

物館等,也已不像從前,可以闊綽營運,「先做出成績

屆時,目前散居於台北、宜蘭、高雄

再來要錢」,是公部門裡的遊戲規則,多數機關單位也

等地之團隊,將進駐該戲曲中心。

得努力的一分錢當兩分錢用,所以代表成績的數字,對 機關單位的生存也很重要。

經營手法取決專業類別 為了可以獲得一個漂亮的、具體的數字,不管官方或民 間,總也三兩句不離經營方針、行銷策略等。是的, 一個具體的數字,背後是許多人無形的努力。努力的項 目、方向與策略不計其數,加上表演藝術領域表面上看 起來是「一個領域」,然而其中各個不同的專業,體質

36


FEATURE

想想:表演藝術, 我們的永續經營

臺灣戲曲中心

差異性卻非常大,適用戲劇類的,

如果我們回歸「經營」的字義,這

可能不適合舞團,但舞團合用的,

是一個動詞,但同時這也是確立一

音樂團體用起來可能毫無效果。如

個組織(這裡指稱的是表演團體和

何獲得漂亮的數字,很難有一套讓

展演場館)是否能夠得以正常運作

大家照表操課的捷徑。更何況筆者

的思維。組織裡每一個環節的動

也非實際經營者,只能就一個生

作,都是經營進行式,也是營運的

態觀察者多年的觀察與歸納,提

動脈,這些動作都來自人,所以當

出對於表演團體、展演場館等的

我們思辯一個團隊或一個場館的經

「經營」,提出一些值得思考的

營模式時,就會回到「人」的討

問題。

論,因為從「人」可以建構出所有 的層面。

37


38


FEATURE

想想:表演藝術, 我們的永續經營

1

3

2 1 高雄衛武營藝術中心 2 台中國家歌劇院 3 台北藝術中心

39


投資「人」,

問題對他們而言似乎太嚴苛了,但

提高品質與續航力

提出這個問題只是希望大家別因為

講到人的功能,請容我舉一個不斷在我週遭發生的狀況為例。我工作的地方

眼前預算窘迫或如前面所述有隨候

有兩種隱藏的人力,一是文化替代役、二是在大學兼課的同仁所授課學校班

差遣的替代人力,而忘記投資在各

級的學生。為什麼說是隱藏人力呢?因為他們不領單位的薪水、不在組織架

項專業的重要性。提出這個問題,

構編制中,但前者因為服役地點就在單位裡、後者則是臺灣高等教育的變相

也是希望大家想想,當來自國家的

傳統,所以成為隨時可派用的人力。文化替代役通常都是畢業自文化相關科

資源越來越少的時候,除了節源盡

系,所以被分發到各文化單位,最常被交派的工作從文宣品設計、影像拍錄

量使用免費人力免費露出之外,是

剪接、照相、製作宣傳背板、翻譯等。這本來就是文化替代役的立意,並無

否也可以努力開源,充實投資的彈

不當,許多時候只是臨時派遣、或是小小的調整、或是小型活動的文宣設計

藥庫?

製作,也都算份內之事。然而當因為平時有這些人力可用,而致使編列活動 預算時,都不編列正常的設計費、或是真正的專業人力時,又怎能期待能有

良好的人力結構,事半功倍

到位精良的呈現呢

另外我們也不能忽略人力結構對經 營效果的影響─或說效應,對於經

文宣設計最常被窄化為宣傳活動的工具,被忽略了那是團隊最容易塑造形 象、也最容易被留下印象的一環;活動接待人力則通常被認知只要有配置人 手就好,總被忽略現場與前台接待的專業度和機動性。平時因為有隨時可傳 喚的學生、甚至替代役,所以久而久之反而忽略各項專業的重要性。每次聽 到團隊或單位意氣風發地說要建立品牌時,我就想提問:在有限的預算中, 你願意編列多少的百分比給買廣告版面、給設計、甚至設置人力專責品牌的 操作呢? 在目前的生態環境下,小型的團隊求基本生存已然費盡力氣,這個

40

常在不同規模的任務中並肩作戰的 藝術行政人們,有一點應該不陌 生,那就是領導─或說決策訊息的 傳達途徑越直接、文字越簡潔,則 執行效率越好。但這其中牽涉了兩 個問題,一是領導與決策者的判 斷、另一個是訊息在組織結構中的 路線,如果領導者可以做精準的決


FEATURE

策,可以為團隊省去許多摸索與失敗所耗費的時間,而組織結構如果不過 於複雜,那麼訊息傳遞當然迅速。這些都是大家知道的道理,但是一個能 夠做出精準決策的領導者和一個簡單卻有效能的組織,都來自人才的培養 和運用,組織願不願意用較高的薪資吸引優秀的領導者、並且投資在組織 內人員的升級培訓呢?這真是考驗組織的遠見和眼光。 近兩年臺灣北、中、南各在進行大型表演場地的興建,光是台北就有台北市 文化局的台北藝術中心和隸屬文化部、國立傳統藝術中心的當代戲曲中心, 加上台中的歌劇院、高雄的衛武營,這些場館將在2016年陸續正式加入營運 行列。屆時將開啟臺灣表演藝術的新世紀,而面對即將到來新世紀,無論是 人力需求或硬體維護與軟體規劃執行,必然需跳脫目前行之多年的思維與邏 輯,才能游刃有餘。 這陣子聽了兩場演講,一個是鹿特丹城市劇院總監Bert Determann講「劇場組 織扁平化」,以及香港西九文化管理局表演藝術行政總監茹國烈講「劇場之 策劃經營與管理」,雖然兩位講者大部分的篇幅都在於環境與場館的關係, 但是他們提出這兩個規模和使命都差距甚多的場館架構與營運方式時,不約 而同呈現了清楚、低限的人力結構,從中我們也能看到,未來表演場館的管 理,平行方向的連結將遠大於上對下的連結,而在這樣的結構裡,人力的配 置也勢必求質重於求量。台灣即將加入市場的這些場館與公部門仍有一定程 度的連結,是否能夠一改以往大而冗贅的人力結構、真正配置機動性強、工 作效能高的團隊,令人拭目以待。

41

想想:表演藝術, 我們的永續經營


02

IN.Notes

FEATURE

Investing in the Future By Fang-Yi Lin Fang-Yi Lin is long-time observer of Taiwan’s performing arts community and an administrator at the National Center for Traditional Arts, a subsidiary of Taiwan’s Ministry of Culture.

National Center for the Traditional Arts oversees the National Chinese Orchestra Taiwan, the GuoGuang Opera Company, and the Taiwan BangZi Opera Company, as well as Taiwan Music Institute, which is dedicated to the preservation, collection, and research of traditional Taiwanese music. Its Traditional Arts Center in Yilan has two performance venues, with a hundred-seat and 500-seat capacity respectively. In addition, the Taiwan Xiqu Center in Taipei is slated to be completed in 2015 and begin operation in 2016. The three performance groups, currently based in different cities in Taiwan, will move to the new venue after its completion. 42


FEATURE

想想:表演藝術, 我們的永續經營

res that are fundamentally different. Strategies useful for a theatre company may be irrelevant for a dance troupe or a musical group. As an observer rather than an active participant in the private sector, I cannot provide any definite answers or a standard formula for achieving uniformly satisfactory box-office numbers. However, in order to engender further discussion, I would like to propose a few questions regarding the management of performing arts groups and venues in Taiwan.

It is no news that box-office pressure constantly looms over Taiwan’s performing arts community, especially among the musical groups. On the other hand, public institutions, such as museums, libraries, and cultural centers, also meticulously keep track of the number of visitors and the public’s participation rate. This intense focus on numbers reflects the pressing issue of survival. The more visitors hint at the neediness they are to the public and the more justification as frequent public usage. For artists and private organizations, the numbers represent the income necessary for basic living expenses and the funding of their programs. But the numbers are equally important for public institutions. As the Taiwanese government tightens its budget for arts and culture, even at a time of relatively healthy fiscal condition, various government-affiliated organizations, such as the national symphonies and traditional Chinese orchestras, theatre groups, and museums, can no longer continue with a business-asusual mindset. Among publicly funded cultural institutions, the new rule of the game is “results before budget proposals.” Most government agencies are also economizing, and the numbers that represent their achievement are essential for their survival.

The term management implies action, but it is also an attitude or philosophy that ensures an organization’s successful operation. Each component is essential and constantly in action, and there are individuals behind each action. When we discuss an organization or a venue’s management model, we should begin by focusing on the individuals who are at the basis of any management techniques.

Investing in Talents for Long-Term Gains Speaking of the need to nurture talents in art administration, a consistent situation I come across can exemplify. There are two kinds of “hidden” workforce at the National Center for Traditional Arts: the young men in alternative civilian service (an option to mandatory military service) and the students at the university where my colleagues serve as adjunct professors. They are “hidden” in the sense that while they are available to perform various tasks in the Center, they are not on the Center’s payroll and not part of the organizational structure. It is an unspoken tradition in Taiwan’s higher education that university student often volunteer to assist or intern with their professors. The members of

Different Management Techniques for Different Genres In pursuit of satisfactory numbers, both public and private organizations have embraced various corporate jargons, such as management policies, marketing strategies, etc. It is true that a concrete number represents the efforts of many people and that well-planned strategies and guidelines are essential for an organization to succeed. However, performing arts are not a singular category but encompass many gen43


the civilian service are usually assigned to governmental agencies, and those who majored in the arts and the humanities in universities would be deployed to government cultural institutions or divisions. Their duties may include the design of marketing material, filming and editing videos, photography, the production of posters and translation. The original purpose of the civilian service program is to give government agencies additional workforce, and the service members are able to take over minor tasks that require little accommodation on the agencies’ part. However, when organizations grow to take the free labor for granted, they often neglect to budget for quality professional services in design and marketing. Without making adequate investment, how could they expect high-quality products? Design of marketing materials is often considered as no more than a promotional tool, but neglects that it is vital in brand image and public impression. In the same vein, these institutions often staff

their events with volunteers and temporary staff; the professionalism and experience required of front of house staff are often overlooked. Due to the availability of student volunteers and members of the civilian service, institutions or government units neglect the importance of professionalism in services. When an organization or governmental agency talk about “brandbuilding,” questions pop into my mind: Do you budget for advertising, design and brand managers? In this challenging environment, it is probably unrealistic to demand so much of smaller institutions, whose most immediate concern is to keep afloat. However, I pose these questions with the purpose of reminding ourselves that just because the budget is tight and there is an abundance of volunteer labor, it is still imperative that we invest in talented professionals. As the Taiwanese government continues to cut funding for arts and culture, it is understandable that performing arts groups would try to utilize unpaid labor and free promotional opportunities in the short term. But in the long

44

run, surely we can do more to increase our professionalism and tap into new resources.

A Sound Staffing Structure Can Increase an Organization’s Efficiency We should also not neglect the influence – or the impact – the staffing structure may have on an organization. For experienced art administrators, one thing they would all agree on is the importance of leadership. In other words, in the process of decision-making, the more direct the line of communication is and the more concise the written messages are, the more efficient the process would be. There are two determining factors: the leader’s judgment and the line of communication within an organization. If a leader can make a timely and intelligent decision, s/he would save the team much time from fumbling and experimenting with failure. If an organization has a straightforward staffing structure, communication would naturally be more efficient. Those are common sense. However, an


FEATURE

intelligent leader who can make wise decisions and an efficient communicative organization both require nurturing and investment of resources. But would culture institutions be willing to offer competitive compensation for highly qualified executives and also train future leaders within the organization? This question tests an organization’s long-term vision and strategic thinking. In the coming two years, Taiwan’s performing arts will be ushered into a new era with the completion and operation of large-scale performance venues by 2016. These venues include the Taipei Arts Center, which is overseen by the city’s Department of Cultural Affairs, the Taiwan Xiqu Center, a venue under the National Center of Traditional Arts, Taichung National Opera House, and Kaohsiung’s WeiWu Ying Center for the Arts, both under the newly inaugurated National Center for Performing Arts. However, it also means we are facing new challenges in issues of human resources, the buildings’ maintenance and the venues’ operational needs. In order to adapt to this new era, we can no longer work with a businessas-usual attitude. I attended two talks recently, one given by Bert Determann, the Director of Rotterdam City Theatre, on the horizontal organizational structure in the theatre industry. The other one was given by Louis Yu Kwok-Lit, the Executive Director of performing arts at Hong Kong’s West Kowloon Cultural District, and it was about the planning and management of theaters. Both Mr. Determann and Mr. Yu focused on the relationship between a venue and its surroundings. While the venues and the management techniques they discussed were very different in terms of their capacities and objectives, both speakers emphasized the importance of a straightforward, open staffing structure. In the future, the management of performance venues will be based on a horizontal structure rather than a vertical/hierarchical one. In a horizontal structure, maintaining a select number of high-quality employees will be the priority. The aforementioned new performance venues in Taiwan are all affiliated with governmental agencies in one way or another, whether they can avoid a bureaucratic and convoluted organizational structure and foster a new culture in arts administration in Taiwan by assembling flexible, efficient teams is highly anticipated.

45

想想:表演藝術, 我們的永續經營


03

IN.Notes

FEATURE

旁敲側擊 十鼓擊樂團之 不簡單經營法! 文

Hsin-Yi Chang

入行以來,扣除在台待過財團法人 的歲月,算算以專職行政身分待過 的表演團隊是屈指可數。離開台灣

地方型擊樂教學中心轉型 擊樂團和鼓村經營

更多的建設,就在當地因為教學結 緣、累積出的人脈,認同十鼓打造

1999年,十鼓於台南市區設立擊樂

鼓樂文化村的理念,這時便成了志

至今四年多,若是要加上各式包山

教學中心,教學法強調特教理念,

願者捲起袖子、褲管,開始了螞蟻

包海的長短期專案服務過的團隊,

讓特殊或好動的孩子也能從鼓術運

雄兵的建設工作,日復一日的幾年

那少說應該也有十來個。要從這些

動合併擊樂的練習中,達到手腦協

光景終於讓十鼓文化村在2007年正

合作過的夥伴裡,談團隊經營、甚

調和身心靈的平衡,當時也讓許多

式開園營運。

至談永續的話,我想最另類的大概

家長趨之若鶩。不過也因為學生為

莫屬台南十鼓擊樂團!

數眾多,再加上頻繁的鼓樂練習,

這些一路情意相挺的學生和家長

時常引起鄰居關切,催促著十鼓另

們,因為認同創村理念,不求回報

初見十鼓是在 2011 年的法國亞維

覓新居。危機或許是轉機,在多方

的付出和投資,讓十鼓也在這巨大

儂外圍藝術節(Avignon

Off)。

努力下後來找到離市區不遠又無

的轉型期裡,期許自己能透過園

當時只知道此團第二次在法國亞維

左鄰右舍的仁德糖廠(舊稱十鼓文

區的經營,讓所有幫助、見證文化

儂登台,聽說在台灣越來越有名

化村),現改稱為十鼓仁糖文創園

村建設的人都能有機會參與園區

氣,遂有北優人、南十鼓一說。兩

區。

營運,甚至許諾能提供他們個人及

團的表演或說推動鼓樂藝術最大的

其家人合適的工作場域,藉以維繫

不同點,在於前者強調道與藝的結

這個以小博大的賭注,雖暫時讓十

大夥的日常生活。當時參與園區建

合,從靜坐再習擊鼓,作品富含禪

鼓免除吵到鄰居安寧的擔憂,但是

設、苦過來的創團夥伴們,轉眼十

意且精緻高雅,猶如文言文。而後

卻帶來了更大的挑戰,如何從荒煙

五年過去,不僅成了專職團員、各

者則以自創的農樂論(師法自然)

蔓草中,將斷垣殘壁的廢棄廠房和

司樂團重要行政職務外,也負責培

為核心理念,以傳承台灣廟堂鑼鼓

五公頃的荒地變成練習鼓樂的場

育下一代青年團員的教學工作,更

的道教鼓樂文化為發展重點,作品

域?四處籌募資金頂下廠區,扣除

成為園區經營管理的中流砥柱,是

則著重風景敘事,猶如白話文學。

租金後眼見也沒有多餘的資金再做

為創辦人謝十的左右手。

46


FEATURE

47

想想:表演藝術, 我們的永續經營


目前兩文創園區由十鼓擊樂團和十

下,到十鼓文化村 2007 年開園,

擊鼓。多數民眾不論老少,踏進十

鼓文創股份有限公司共同營運。以

全台吹起週末輕旅行的風潮。當時

鼓園區就真的是他們第一次進劇

鼓樂藝術、人文、古蹟、生態和

在園區推行上演定目劇的劇碼,半

場、第一次看演出、第一次手持鼓

教育為發展架構,分別規劃為演

小時的演出,最擔憂的莫過於沒有

棒打鼓,這個可能是他們自己平時

出部、鼓村部以及教學部,三個部

入園民眾,因為沒人購票入園,劇

不會主動參與或規劃的活動。但是

門各司其職共同負責文創園區的

場內就不會有觀眾入場。在眾人集

透過參與這個觀光行程,也間接達

經營,向上呈報創辦人、向下管理

思廣益規劃園區一日遊觀光行程,

到潛移默化的效果,至少促成了他

約百來位員工(不含臨時、短期園

再加上位於交流道口的地利之便,

們和劇場的第一次親密接觸。

區導覽解說員)。樂團方面,現專

和知名旅行社的合作推動下,在開

職團員共十七位,分別進駐台南仁

園後的第二、三年,園區開始轉虧

糖和高雄橋糖兩文創園區,主要負

為盈,旅行社帶來魚貫駛入園區的

鼓樂文化的傳承和推動共有 文化財的使命感

責每日定目劇演出,其次為接演國

遊覽巴士,創下園區內人山人海的

樂團演出、鼓樂教學、園區經營三

內商演以及國外邀演。團員們平日

景象,而每日定目劇台下觀眾席總

者循環再生、相輔相成的共構概

工作作息除固定練團之外,也需要

是四百滿座,昔日開園初期靠散客

念,是為十鼓的經營核心。傳承

協助清掃打理園區,包括種菜及菜

入園、小貓兩三隻的冷清景象已不

鼓樂文化須從小紮根,教學部發

園管理以維持園區內自給自足的傳

復見。

展出結合鼓樂、運動和休閒的教

統。部份重要團員也居住於園區內

學概念,在台灣及海外各地分設

的十鼓居(員工宿舍)。資歷深且

園區經營的成功,著眼文化休閒和

D.S.E.教學中心,同時也發起鼓樂

擔綱樂團重要行政職的團員,年紀

觀光旅遊,靠的是五感體驗式行

結盟的「鼓盟」概念,以非營利推

也許介於二十到三十五歲間,但個

銷。園區除了原地保留糖廠建物及

廣教學運動招募合作夥伴,例如各

個至少都有十年以上的鼓齡,也就

機具,將之重新整理或修建後對外

地學校能安排課程時間、師資且購

從創團或創村初期跟著創辦人習鼓

開放民眾參觀外,也附設餐飲區(

入十鼓樂器,向教學部提出申請即

至今。

十鼓蔬食苑、鼓波咖啡)、紀念商

能成為鼓盟一員,教學部則協助提

品販賣部以及掛單客樂捐留宿的十

供課程規劃等諮詢。

堅持信念和熱忱, 轉守為攻的多角化經營策略

鼓居。一日遊的行程,除了入園導 覽解說園區生態、地方文化、製鼓

園區經營則是以設法原地保留台灣

2001年,政府開始施行週休二日,

過程、篳路襤褸的創團成名過程

糖業的工業遺產,努力推動糖廠成

民眾開始能自由規劃週末假日時

外,最重要的是帶領民眾進入劇場

為全民共有文化財為宗旨。若套用

間。在當時旅遊業者的推波助瀾

親眼觀賞樂團演出,還有親身體驗

企業永續經營的理論,姑且不論團

48


FEATURE

隊或者園區,其經營能否持久永續,端看經營者是否能 秉持理念和初衷,致力維護創立初期的堅實基礎,永不 懈怠。在十鼓從無到有的十五年間,從教學中心、洽接 各式商演的職業樂團到雙文創園區的開發營運,其經營 方針不以營利為主要訴求,而是能同時兼顧團體利益的 追求,基於對社會的貢獻和回饋、對土地、對團員及其 家人的使命感,持續不斷努力以追求更為良好的經營績 效。在計算利潤的同時,也要同步對於社會做出更大的 貢獻,如此才能創造出群(集)體需要的滿足,為眾人 和社會做出實質的貢獻。

人才,邁向永續經營的挑戰 從事藝文這一行,眾所皆知除了崇高的理想性外,還要 擁有隨時燃燒不滅的熱情和堅忍不拔的毅力。但,藝術 行政工作的高工時、低薪資,也讓許多再有熱情和意志 力的行政們,往往搖頭嘆息、拂袖而去。新人剛來上工 未滿試用期就離職,或者好不容易撐過一年、熬了第二 年正以為駕輕就熟之際也鬧走人,等不到新人交接就撒 手而去。這類人才留不住的事情雖早已屢見不鮮,但其 實卻是團隊能否持續、穩定經營的最大隱憂。 儘管管理階層年資久、經驗豐,但是手下團隊的高流動 率,除了讓整體士氣欲振乏力之外,不僅會影響基層人 員貫徹經營方針的執行力,也徒增了管理階層大頭們的 小事工作量及不確定感,讓經營是否永續這事陷入發展 窘境。如何能讓現行及未來計畫的執行發展得以延續和 貫徹?設法留住人才、培育並重視經驗傳承,會是十鼓 現階段及未來發展需強化的重點。

49

想想:表演藝術, 我們的永續經營


50


FEATURE

51

想想:表演藝術, 我們的永續經營


03

IN.Notes

FEATURE

Drumming up a New Path: the Innovative Business Model of the Ten Drum Art Percussion Group By Hsin-Yi Chang

In my career as an arts administrator, I had held few full-time posts when I was in Taiwan. Since the four years overseas, I have collaborated with more than a dozen Taiwanese groups or projects. Among these, Tainan’s Ten Drum Art Percussion Group has taken one of the most unusual and innovative paths toward development and sustainability. I first learned of Ten Drum at the Avignon Off Festival in 2011. At the time, all I knew was that it was the troupe’s second appearance in Avignon and that as an emerging percussion troupe in southern Taiwan, it rivaled the eminent U Theatre in the north. However, it was clear that the two percussion groups differ in both their performance styles and philosophies. U Theatre emphasizes the union of art and spirituality – its students begin their musical education with meditation practice. Like ancient Chinese poetry, its performance is exquisite, elegant, and infused with Zen. Ten Drum, on the other hand, has developed its theory about agriculture and nature’s influence on music and rhythm. The group aims to carry on Taiwan’s Taoist traditional culture as embodied in 52


FEATURE

the music and dance during temple festivals. Like a folktale, its performance is accessible and often has includes a narrative element.

想想:表演藝術, 我們的永續經營

network of parents, students, and patrons the school had built over the years, a group of supporters volunteered in the rebuilding effort. Starting from scratch, each volunteer contributed what he or she could, and after several years of hard work, Ten Drum Cultural Village had its grand opening in 2007.

Transformation from a Local Percussion School to a Performance Troupe and a Multi-Purpose Cultural Park

With strong beliefs in Ten Drum’s mission, many of the students and their parents volunteered in the renovation project and made financial contributions. During this monumental transformation, the school also aimed to allow all the volunteers and friends of the cultural village to participate in its operation by providing job opportunities for them. Since the school was established fifteen years ago, many founding members who have worked on the renovation of the cultural village and weathered through the most difficult early days are now full-time percussionists and administrators at the troupe and are also responsible for cultivating the next generation of Ten Drum musicians. Others work in management positions and have become the school founder Shi Hsieh’s right hands.

Ten Drum had its start in downtown Tainan in 1999 as a percussion school for special-needs children. Shi Hsieh, the founder of the school, developed a unique educational method that combined percussion music and sport, which allowed the students to improve their motor skills and achieve spiritual and physical balance. As the school became increasingly popular and the enrollment number climbed, neighbors began to complain about the noise coming from the studios, forcing the school to search for a new site. The crisis turned out to be a new opportunity. After much effort, the school was relocated to the ground of the former Rende Sugar Refinery, which is not far from the downtown area but remote enough that the school didn’t have to worry about disturbing the neighbors. Originally named the Ten Drum Cultural Village, it is now Ten Drum Rentang Culture Creative Park.

Ten Drum Art Percussion Group and Ten Drum Cultural Creativity Company currently operate two cultural parks in Taiwan, one at the original Rende Sugar Refinery site in Tainan and the other at the former Ciatou Sugar Refinery in Kaohsiung. Focusing on percussion art, culture, history, the environments, and education, the parks have three main departments: performance, park administration, and education. With Hsieh himself overseeing the operation of the two parks, there are over one hundred employees in total, excluding temporary and part-time tour guides. The performance troupe has about

The relocation was a risky gamble. While the school was no longer a neighborhood troublemaker, the move brought an even bigger challenge: how could a small group of musicians and educators turn an abandoned factory and the surrounding five-hectare land, with nothing but an endless expanse of wild grass and dilapidated buildings, into a percussion school? After a lengthy fundraising campaign, the school was only able to pay the rent but had little resources left for further renovation. Thanks to the large 53


seventeen full-time percussionists who are based in either Rende or Ciaotou, and some live in the employees’dormitory inside the parks. They mainly perform the troupe’s repertory numbers at the parks but also tour overseas and give performances in Taiwan. Other than their daily practice, the percussionists are responsible for the maintenance of the parks as well as keeping up with the tradition of self-sufficiency by working at the vegetable gardens. The administrators of the troupes are usually between twenty and thirty-five years old, but most of them have been playing drums for over ten years. Many are Mr. Hsieh’s first group of students.

The parks has refurbished the old equipment and buildings of the sugar refineries and turned them into exhibitions on Taiwan’s industrial history. Within the parks are also restaurants, coffee shops, souvenir shops, and hostels. The one-day package included guided tours on the history and the surroundings of parks, local cultures, the process of drum production, and the history of the Ten Drum Percussion Group. But the main attractions are the percussion performance and the hands-on experience of drum playing. Many visitors, young and old, had little exposure to cultural activities before their trip to the cultural parks, but during the packaged tour, they attend their first concert in a theater and try playing percussion for the first time.

Starting in 2001, it became the norm for people in Taiwan to have two days off each week. With the extra leisure time, people began taking mini holidays during the weekends, and the opening of the Rende Cultural Park in 2007 coincided with the rapid growth in the tourism industry. During the early days of the park, Ten Drum Art Percussion Group performed a repertory of half-our shows regularly, but that alone was not enough to attract a large crowd. As a solution, the park collaborated with travel agencies to promote oneday packaged tours. With its convenient location right off the highway exit and a well-planned roster of activities, the park began to turn a profit within three years. Soon tour buses were bringing record crowd into the park who filled up the theater. Long gone are the days when the park remained empty, with only a few stragglers wandering around.

Armed with the Mission to Preserve Traditional Culture, Ten Drum Aims to Pass on a Passion for Percussion Music The three departments at the Ten Drum Group, performance, education, and park administration, are interdependent and carry equal importance in the company’s management philosophy. In order to cultivate an appreciation for traditional percussion art among young people, the educational department has developed a teaching method that combines percussion music, sport, and entertainment and established the so-called DSE (Drums, Sports, Entertainment) Ten Drum Music Centers in Taiwan and overseas. At the same time, the company also forms not-for-profit partnership with various educational institutions. A school that is a member of the Ten Drum Alliance might include percussion lessons in their curriculum and allocate funding for the purchase

The success of the cultural parks is due to the company’s multi-pronged approach to marketing that combines art, entertainment, and tourism.

54


想想:表演藝術, 我們的永續經營

FEATURE

of the instruments. Ten Drums’ Educational Department would then provide teacher’s training and consultation on lesson plans.

sors to arrive. Those stories are not new, but they represent a real problem in maintaining a sustainable, reliable team.

The other goal of the two cultural parks is to preserve the heritage of Taiwan’s sugar industry and promote this cultural asset among the general public. If we were to apply the theory of sustainable management to arts administration, a company or a cultural park’s sustainability depends on the management’s ability to build upon its solid foundation and continue to operate the business with integrity and idealism. In the past fifteen years, Ten Drum’s business model has never been centered on profit-making. Instead, it is based on the company’s sense of responsibility toward the land, its employees, and their families. The music centers, the percussion troupe, and the two cultural parks all aim to benefit the members of the entire company as well as maximize its contribution to the society.

The high turnover rate among the employees not only damages the team spirit but also affects their efficiency. In this atmosphere of uncertainty, the experienced managers are often forced to take over minor tasks, leaving little time for long-term planning. The biggest challenge Ten Drum and the performing arts community in Taiwan face now is to find a way to carry out current and future projects and ensure their sustainability. Ten Drum’s future lies in its ability to retain and nurture talents as well as ensuring that the traditional art of percussion would be passed down to the next generation.

Finding and Retaining Talented Arts Administrators to Achieve a Sustainable Future

Don’t miss Ten Drums at

Idealism and passion are must-have qualities for people who want to work in arts and culture, but perseverance and pragmatism are equally important. However, many ambitious arts administrators in Taiwan have found the long work hours and relatively low pay discouraging. It is not uncommon to see new employees leave a position during the trial period, and for those who managed to stay, they often left within a few years in frustration, sometimes in such a hurry that they don’t even wait for their succes-

Edinburgh Fringe Festival 2014! Dates

Aug 1-12 6:00pm Aug 13-17 5:00pm Aug 19-24 6:30pm Tickets

Aug 1-2(Preview) £10, £8, £32(family) Aug 3-24 £12, £10, £40(family) Venue

Edinburgh International Conference Centre

55


04

IN.Notes

FEATURE

永續經營從降低 對補助的依存度開始 文

洪凱西

放棄撙節思考

提到永續經營,現今多數人第一想法 是要減少碳排放量、節約能源…等。 在此提出思考台灣的表演藝術團隊的 「永續經營」,能否從降低對公部門 補助的依存度。

兩派經濟學家辯論著節約是不是救經濟的唯一途徑。其 一提倡撙節無法刺激市場,必造成經濟發展阻塞,甚 至閉鎖。任何人遇到財務吃緊,本能的必先思考緊縮預 算。在台灣的表演藝術領域,個人認為這絕對行不通。 沒有其他原因,乃因我們日常信奉的教條已經是能省則 省,又哪裡還有得省?再緊縮或刪減預算,不僅影響士

台灣表演藝術圈,每年劇團、創作者、作品不斷的增

氣,只會更加綁腳,什麼都做不了。美國甘迺迪中心總

加,各場館與縣市政府傾力舉辦藝術節慶,外加經紀公

監Michael Kaiser提出的「The  Cycle輪迴理論」,精闢說

司經常性引進國外精湛作品。市場不是用飽和來形容,

明動能的重要性:藝文組織要生存,一定要產出好的節

而是以「大爆炸」比擬。即便是重度藝文使用者,一個

目;精采的節目,絕對要積極強勢的行銷讓眾所皆知;

週末也分身乏力。一般觀眾的拓展,需要時間,雖說內

廣為傳播的能量與力量,始能令顧客上門買票、捐款與

容產物的增加絕對有助於觀眾的開拓,然而眾所皆知,

合作等。

觀眾開發與累積的速度遠落後內容的激增。 拿人力來說,勞力密集的我們,科技的輔助雖能縮短許 台灣的表演團隊許多是餓不死,活不好。一年兩季的演

多路程,如觀眾關係與募款活動等,仍需事必躬親,才

出輪迴,多半靠公部門補助生存與創作,也可以說為

能達到三心服務:用心、細心、貼心。電話一通通打,

了趕上補助期,便要事生產,有創作才能拿到補助。隨

門一個個敲,場子一個個講,朋友一個個交。沒有這人

著創作量增產,公部門補助未顯見增長。以世界經濟現

力,長遠的客戶盤如何經營與維護。

狀與各國的政府補助文化藝術預算逐漸下降而論,文 化預算增加在補助面是難上加難。既然僧多粥少,團隊

我們或能思考不刪減團隊人力物力,而是想著如何讓團

要能持續經營,別說自營,那是不可能也不該成為政府

隊力量倍增,可視需求調整人員的業務配置;甚至考

對團隊的要求,比較實際的或許該思考逐年降低受補助

量增加人力,試算多聘的人力可以補足調整後的哪些面

比率。

相,提高的產值是否足夠。換個角度想,若每100元的

56


FEATURE

想想:表演藝術, 我們的永續經營

行銷預算能帶進1000元的收入,那麼省了100元,在支

台灣表演團隊狀況不如歐美劇團許多擁有自己的空間,

出面看來是撙節,實則是讓團隊損失900元的可能收入。

甚至小劇場。台灣團隊沒有固定的對外據點,較無法營 造「所在感」,更沒有開門可以做生意的複合式空間。

舉例說票務人員還能做什麼樣的服務,除了被動接訂

團隊需保持在社會上、在群眾心裡有存在感,除了作品

單,在接訂單時,或許增加與顧客的互動,一方面取得

行銷,劇團度間斷的品牌行銷極具關鍵。無論利用自身

進一步資訊,也將陌生客人逐漸轉為劇團的朋友,第一

累積的資源(如道具、服裝、劇本、知識等),轉換既

線與顧客互動的人員是最好的橋樑,逐步培養顧客的粘

有資源成為新業務,或尋求合作夥伴,開創新業務,請

性與忠誠度,提高回購率。

先沈澱在各面相是否為耗損或是加分。在資源有限情況 下,尋求夥伴關係,讓一加一大於二才是利器。

開源,非節流 對於團隊來說,若能逐年降低對於公部門補助的依存

對政府喊話:表演藝術圈的人最古意

度,便是跨出健康永續經營的一大步。有了此方向,便

別以

防弊心限制永續發展

要思考開闢劇團的財源。

固定場館是台灣表演藝術團隊的期盼也是心酸。去年遇

多數團隊的自營收入(earned income)不外乎來自票房

到都更處的同仁表示新的閒置空間要釋出,詢問推薦合

或少少的衍生商品收入。票房收入與政府補助,可說是

適團隊。初步交換意見,我提問為何場館不讓團隊做營

劇團唯二的收入來源。因此每每要以兩收入源試圖打平

利行為?「拜託!都已經免費或低租金給團隊進駐減輕

製作成本。增加票房收入,不外乎場次增加,或票價提

負擔,團隊怎麼能利用公資源做私利的事情!」這回應

高。兩者皆令團隊心驚驚。然而場次增加,人力成本無

令我吃驚,不過回神想想,或許許多議員、民眾都抱持

法減少;票價提高又怕觀眾不買單。

同樣的想法。

那麼,開闢財源是否朝能提升「募款」(contributions)

大家真的認為表演藝術團隊能夠賺大錢?在台灣是不可

與開展「新業務」(new activities)前進?募款人力上或許

能。表演藝術觸及率(reach)遠不及大眾傳媒,但對於

不如場次增加的固定成本,仍須放入許多精神,專人經

每個觸及的人有著深淺不同的影響。有人因一齣戲、一

營。募款要成功,更倚賴劇團始終一致的價值與形象,

支舞、一場演奏、一個歌劇的親身經驗改變一生,或啟

以及精采的作品。這些細節到位並彰顯出來,用力讓大

發一個新思維。這個觸及所造成的改變便是100%的影

眾知曉,募款成功可被期待。

響。影響一個人正也影響著他個人周邊的社群,以此類 推,影響力也真不小。

開展新業務則希望增加新的自營收入。新業務不管是什 麼,都仍然要延續與推展團隊的核心價值始有故事性與

活化閒置空間,讓團隊從無殼到有殼,若能持更開放態

說服力。開展新業務的常見模式包括授課,以及兒童作

度,讓團隊思索更多使用空間的方式,甚至與更多人分

品的衍生商品。以授課而言,若非能將其轉換為可被複

享其服務,從空間活動的活動中開始自營,不僅能夠逐

製的形態如影片,或是互動教材,隨著售出單位數逐漸

漸減少未來對公部門伸手要補助的比率,更是藉由紮營

回收成本;親自授課有其魅力,但仍屬付出成本高的勞

深耕,強化所在社群的文化力量,讓文化影響力逐漸擴

力密集業務。而因演出產生的衍生商品,如節目冊、玩

散發酵的好方式。

具娃娃等,在架上生命週期又太短,經常徒留一倉庫。

57


04

IN.Notes

FEATURE

The First Step toward Sustainable Management: Decrease Reliance on Government Grants By Kathy Hong Kathy Hong is currently the Executive Director of OISTAT and sits on the board of Performing Arts Network Development Association.

The word “sustainability” calls to mind actions that reduce: energy conservation, lowering one’s carbon footprints, etc. What we are referring here with “sustainability” in discussing management of Taiwan’s performing arts groups, the “reduction” would apply to the necessity for us to lower our reliance on government grants.

58


FEATURE

想想:表演藝術, 我們的永續經營

Abandoning the Cost-Down Mindset

In recent years, we are seeing more and more new theatre companies, new artists, and new productions blooming. Many municipal governments and art centers are organizing constant arts festivals. On top of that, arts agencies regularly bring in excellent productions from overseas. The performing arts market is not just saturated, it is exploding. Even for the most devoted arts enthusiasts, there are only so many shows they can attend in one weekend. While the increase in the number of shows certainly helps attract a larger crowd, the speed of audience cultivation simply cannot catch up with the exponential growth of the performing arts industry in Taiwan.

When encountering financial difficulties, our first instinct is to cut the budget. Like economists now debate, austerity is not the one and only sustainable solution and may even be harming your development. Without a robust market, the economy would remain stagnant or even shut down completely. Let’s take this into consideration. I believe the same can be said for performing arts in Taiwan. Our artists and administrators are already indoctrinated with the idea that we need to economize, so much so that most of us have become used to operating on a bare minimum budget. Further budget cut would not only have a negative impact on the staff’s morale but also restrict significantly the organization’s activities. Michael Kaiser, the president of the Kennedy Center in Washington, DC, proposed a theory of “the cycle,” which emphasizes the importance of the engine that powers a successful arts organization: a good program is essential for its survival, but a good program must be complemented by a strong marketing campaign that generates a far-reaching energy, which would compel the customers to buy tickets, donate, and participate in the program.

Most of the performing arts organizations in Taiwan are merely able to survive, but few flourish. They rely on government grants to sustain the standard two productions each season. This two-season standard can also be seen as the consequence of the grant cycles in Taiwan. In order to survive, performing groups often need to churn out a production for each semi-annual grant application cycle. While the number of shows has increased, the amount of government grants has not significantly risen. Considering the state of the world economy and a general trend among governments all over the world toward cutting arts and culture budget, we don’t expect to see the Taiwanese government angelically increase its subsidies for arts and culture any time soon. While it would be impossible to demand Taiwan’s performing arts groups to be self-reliant, and it would be preposterous to demand so, helping performing groups become gradually less reliant on government grants would be a more practical approach.

Take human resources as an example, while technology can make many tasks easier, certain aspects of arts administration still require a human touch and attention to details, such as audience cultivation and fundraising. Those are labor-intensive jobs. Real phone conversations cannot be replaced by an automated voice, visits to a potential donor, talks given in public, and business lunch with a future collaborator cannot be replaced by promotional e-mails. It is es-

59


sential to have enough staff to maintain a broad customer base.

only two ways to increase the ticket sales: add more performances or increase the ticket price, but both strategies have their risks. Labor cost usually does not decrease with increased number of shows. On the other hand, higher ticket price could potentially discourage the audience from attending the shows.

Instead of downsizing, perhaps we can think about ways to maximize the potential of the existing team by adjusting their responsibilities. Afterwards we might even need new hires to fill in certain gaps in order to ensure that the production value remains high. Let us assume that for every one hundred dollars in marketing cost, we can bring in one thousand dollars in revenue, cutting that one hundred dollars might have saved some costs temporarily, but the organization is actually losing a prospective nine hundred dollars.

How about exploring two other options for new sources of income: donor contributions and new activities? While the labor resources required for fundraising activities are not as clear-cut as the increased cost associated with additional shows, it is evident that it requires expertise. Moreover, the success of a campaign depends on the organization’s long-term efforts in brand-building and a consistent output of quality productions. When these aspects are successfully linked and seen by the public or targeted donors, fundraising efforts will see a more evident and rich harvest.

I will use the ticket sales staff as an example. They are not just ticket sellers but a bridge between the customers and the theatre company. While they are selling tickets, they may interact with the customers. The interaction would allow the theatre company to obtain useful information about the customers and also develop a sense of loyalty among them, which in turn would encourage them to return for future shows.

An organization could also increase its earned income by engaging in new activities. No matter what those are, they should fit into the organization objective and be part of its “narrative.” Moreover, the activities should be able to promote the organization’s core values. Commonly employed new activities include lectures, classes and expanded products related to children’s shows. However, unless the educational activities are presented in replicable formats, such as videos and interactive media, it will not bring in much revenue, as operating a classroom costs too much and is too labor-intensive. It is not to say this should be disregarded, but perhaps worth digging into extending these activities to a product that can actually decrease costs by each quantity sold. As for products related to shows, you have to ask yourself, “Will they sell

Development and Expansion rather than Budget Cut For most arts organizations, the biggest step they can take toward sustainability is gradually decreasing their reliance on government grants. With this as a goal, they also need to think about developing new sources of income. Most of arts organizations’ earned income comes from ticket sales or a negligibly small number of related merchandise, and it usually has to balance the production cost against government grant and its earned income. There are

60


FEATURE

beyond this season ?” If not, their shelf life is too short, and will likely end up taking up too much space in the warehouse.

想想:表演藝術, 我們的永續經營

income for the organization. “They are already receiving a discount or even rent-free for the space, those are government properties, and not appropriate for receiving organizations to use public resources to engage in for-profit activities.” As surprised as I was with the response, I realized that this was how most of the general public as well as elected officials would think.

Unlike our counterparts in the West, most performing arts organizations in Taiwan don’t have our own theaters, often not even a small studio. Without a permanent base, it is difficult for performing groups to maintain their presence in the local community or have space for any business operations. For the purpose of promoting its productions and institutional marketing efforts, it is essential that an organization has a certain degree of visibility in public. We need to think about stretching and utilizing our existing resources, perhaps props, costumes, scripts, and any kind of intangible knowledge, for new activities. As resources are limited for everyone and surely the road down survival lane can be lonely, we should also seek out new partners who can create synergy. However, before starting any new pursuits, we should evaluate carefully whether these new activities could actually generate more income, or if it would simply consume resources and all our energy for nothing.

What the public and the government officials don’t realize is that performing arts organizations have very little profit to draw on, at least not in Taiwan. Compared to other media, such as TV or the Internet, performing arts definitely reach a smaller audience, but its impact on them could be much more profound. A play, a dance, or a concert, or an opera could change a person’s life or open up a new realm of ideas for him/her. Its power could be far-reaching, often influencing not only an individual but also his/her community as well. The government’s attempt to utilize idle public buildings and spaces will allow many performing arts groups to finally have a base of their own. However, the government needs to approach this with an open mind and give performing groups more flexibility in using those spaces. In the process, these creative entities might be able to share their work with a wider audience, provide services that may increase earned income, and in time, significantly become less reliant on government subsidies. Most importantly, as these arts groups settle into their permanent homes, they would be able to strengthen their involvement in the local community and promote cultural engagement from the ground up. Isn’t that also vital to a nation’s cultural development?

A Word to the Government: No One is Trying to Get Rich Working in Performing Arts! Most performing arts groups in Taiwan long for a permanent base where they can operate and create. I recently spoke with officials from Taipei’s Urban Regeneration Office regarding repurposing idle spaces. The official asked for suggestions on performing groups suitable for a certain space that will be released for redevelopment. During our conversation, I asked why arts organizations were not allowed to utilize the space for any engagements that might bring in

61


IN.Notes

Arts People 舞蹈人的紀律 藝術行政的縝密 南部人的爽朗 表演藝術聯盟主打的國際牌 陳柏潔深植台灣表藝印象於國際場域

62


Arts People

01 你目前於表演藝術聯盟 擔任什麼樣的角色? 我目前主要是籌畫執行「國際發展」項目,以及參與其他企劃與發展型態的內容。

剛加入表演藝術聯盟的時候,所有的同事如同一體般,一起分工執行不同的專案。好處 是對所有執行的業務都能有全面的了解,也能廣角觀察台灣表演藝術的環境。到了2010 年的時候,我主要負責大型節慶活動專案的統籌規劃,像是「台北國際花卉博覽會」常 態展演活動以及「華山藝術生活節」。我從那時開始接觸國際事務,發掘我對國際連結的 許多想法和熱情。表盟在過去幾年的發展中,確立國際連結是未來要繼續主力推動的項目 之一。我們在2013年底開始籌畫「表演藝術國際交流平台」計畫(Taiwan Performing Arts

Connection,簡稱TPAC),目標就是要建立由民間中介組織常態經營的國際交流平台。

02

INFO

陳柏潔

從團隊的行政到一個平台 工作上的不同挑戰是什麼?

出身熱愛舞蹈的家庭,自己從小夢想當國家級運動 員,最後仍走上學舞之途。習舞過程有甘有苦,成就

我參與團隊工作的時間並不長,在過程中所體驗到的一

一個開朗知足的大女孩。在紐約出社會,踏入Elisa

項挑戰,是去鑽研與認同表演團隊的藝術理念;經由曼

Monte Dance現代舞團擔任專職舞者。2004年返國

菲老師,我學習到對事物要抱持開放的態度,才有機會

轉入幕後,經歷蘭陽舞蹈台北團,結識她生命中的天

擁抱意外的驚喜,而與林懷民老師工作的過程中,我則

使-羅曼菲,因而加入雲門2 的行政團隊。2007年

體認到,自己對於台灣文化認知的缺乏。當時的業務,

底,收拾行曩抱著要回高雄選里長的目標,當選的卻

有很大的比重在於舞蹈藝術的推廣,要如何以平易近人

是誠品書店高屏區企劃。2009年,有著雙語才能、

的方式,讓群眾在生活中體驗並接受表演藝術,是一份

能文善舞又動能十足的柏潔回到台北,加入表演藝術

需要恆心與智慧的長期任務,也是每一個表演團隊最大

聯盟(圈內人暱稱「表盟」)至今,默默幫助台灣表演

的挑戰。進入平台組織後,主要的接觸對象,從觀眾變

藝術界在國際發聲,成為國際藝術市集中辨識度最高

成表演團隊與文化機關,面對的課題是更大範圍的環境

的台灣表藝俠女。

發展面向,對於我也是一堂新的學習課程。除了觀察、 理解各類型表演藝術的差異性,以及其在整體環境中的 狀態與樣貌,亦學習如何與政府組織溝通與合作,讓表 演藝術的需求和議題能被看見、討論,更進一步透過政 策制定或是專案計畫,尋找到提升與改善的途徑。

63


03

05

是否在工作中曾面對的挑戰 令你產生抗拒或 其他心理上的挑戰?

你認為現階段做的事情 為什麼重要? 你預想有什麼影響?

我厭惡刻意奉承和無意義的服從。曾在某些業務往來的 過程中有此經驗,所幸最終仍找到雙方都能接受的溝通

表盟持續提出台灣需要正視及檢討文化政策的議題,其

與工作的模式,順利完成任務。

中包含劇場興建、團隊扶植、創作、人才培育,劇場經

04

營管理和國際合作…等項目。然而,我們(表演藝術工作 者)其實也明白,政府因為種種規範考量或是專業認知的 差異,通常無法在短期內,對各項發展的需求與期待,

面對挑戰 你有什麼樣的策略面對?

採取積極作為。因此,我認為民間組織也應自主開啟行 動,儘管不會是件容易的事,但卻可以建立參考模式與 案例,創造彈性較高的發展空間,也能為台灣表演藝術 帶來正面能量;面對政策總有變遷因素,前進之路滯礙

「悲觀的積極者」;這似乎是我從舞者時期就發展出來

難行時,文化的本質則是能夠橫越困難的大橋,而這一

的特質(練習,練習,再練習。總覺得可以再好一點),

切是需要用人民的雙手慢慢打造出來。

因此有些同事會覺得我神經兮兮。對我而言,很多挑戰 都發生在「開始」的階段,我習慣在腦海裡寫劇本(執

表演藝術產業是一個個扣環組合而成的鏈結,目前台灣

行方案),從開幕到結尾演練一遍,除了收整我過分跳躍

的鏈結尚未完備,除了表演藝術工作者各自努力之餘,

的思緒,同時也能帶給自己安全感,更重要的是理解我

我認為應該要支持與提升中介組織的角色與任務,逐步

在做的事情的意義。當我仔細思考正向、反向與期望的

的協助每個扣環更緊密的扣合。若以我目前專注的國際

狀態,面對突發狀況,多半可以在密室之中找到呼吸的

發展項目而言,我們需要一個永續經營的交流平台,

洞口。而且,專案負責人思緒清楚,才能夠盡責的解決

用實際的作為創造和世界溝通的網絡,從經驗的累積,

各項問題。當然,偶爾也會遇到自身想法上的障礙,此

建立具備信任度的夥伴關係。我希望平台計畫將可以獲

時,身邊聰慧又熱心的同事們,就是我面對困境時的最

得足夠的支持,讓我們可以鼓勵並協助更多台灣的青年

大支柱。

藝術創作者、策展人、製作人、藝術行政等工作者,親 身體驗國際交流事務,從學習與參與當中獲得養分與練 習,讓視野擴大到亞洲之外,觸發更多的創意,相對 的,也可以透過平台,在國內引導更多的討論,加深大 家對產業發展的關注,使台灣的夥伴更緊密交流與團 結,產生正向的循環關係。

64


Arts People

06

當你不代表任何表演團隊 在藝術市集內又是扮演 什麼樣的角色?

公務員心態感到驚訝,這是在美國不會面臨的狀況。然 而,這幾年來,許多公立表演場館因為自主改善、透過 政策協助或是面對新場館的競爭,在服務品質與專業技 術(人員)層面皆已大幅的提升,甚至已有堪稱模範的場 館出現。其實,亞洲國家多半都會經歷相同的過程(韓國

我們(表盟)是台灣表演藝術的入口平台。在國際表演藝

和日本過去的狀態和台灣也很相似),畢竟歐美國家的劇

術市集裡頭,鮮少看到像表盟這樣的民間組織平台角色

場發展歷史、專業制度與經營模式,是經過長時間的發

(非買家或製作單位),參加者多半是經紀公司、製作公

展,才有現今的完善面貌。

08

司、場館(Production House)或表演團隊,除此之外,常 態出席藝術市集,透過國家政策推動,以推廣其表演藝 術及尋求資源合作對象為任務的,多半是韓國、澳洲、

你的下一個目標是什麼?

北歐等國的政府組織,因此,難免有些外國朋友誤以為 我們應該是政府機構。現階段的狀態,我們是國際認識 台灣表演藝術的媒介,台灣對於許多外國朋友而言,仍

除了繼續努力推動國際連結,我還有好多目標呀!感覺

是一片未被探索的新大陸,他們期待可透過表盟獲得有

要花一輩子時間才能完成一些事,開啟一些行動。今年

關台灣表演藝術的相關資訊,而表盟則相對的大量吸收

表盟和韓國、日本及澳洲國際夥伴共同合作的「亞洲製

國際經驗和知識,以利後續分享給國內的表演藝術團

作人平台 Asia Producers’ Platform」計畫,將在韓國首爾

隊。以長遠的終極目標來看,希望能讓台灣表演藝術在

舉辦首屆的「亞洲製作人工作營 Asia Producers’ Platform

國際佔有一席之地及媒合國際合作。

Camp」,而明年則由表盟籌畫在台灣舉辦第二屆的工

07

作營。另一個近期內希望可以實現的,是創造與經營一 個藝文聚落空間,提供表演藝術另一個交流的場域。

09

從美國回到台灣 從舞者跳入表演藝術行政 有曾經讓你感到文化衝擊的 人事物嗎?

行走國際,你都特別留意什麼? 「學習、 分享、溝通、合作、永續。」這五 個關鍵字,是我每次出國參與國際會議或是藝術市集的

從一名舞者,轉身幕後藝術行政,再換軌到平台組織,

理念,希望能讓台灣表演藝術的印象,慢慢深植於其他

每一次都是思維的碰撞。在舞蹈的學習過程中,我學習

國家代表的意識當中,讓台灣在國際表演藝術領域,不

到紀律、觀察與創意,這對我後來的每份工作都有很大

再是陌生的國家。各國在交流過程中,除了結識友人之

的幫助。我自認為是像水一樣的人,能適應各種工作環

外,同時也務實的尋找國際資源及合適的國際夥伴,希

境,雖然偶爾也有波濤洶湧的時刻。若要說相對於美國

望能為表演藝術工作者創造更多的機會,也讓世界能有

時期的反差,應是我剛回到台灣的前兩年,對於當時

更多精采的作品。

台灣部分公立表演場館的專業技術與態度的缺乏,以及

65


IN.Notes

Five Insights from Behavioural Sciences to Nudge and Steer Charitable Giving 推動慈善捐款的 5個行為科學觀察 By Crawford Hollingworth, Founder of The Behavioural Architects Original story published on The Marketing Society

66


實力實例

Behavioural economics is a hot topic these days and you’ve probably come across its application in a variety of everyday situations; from choice architecture prompting you to select healthier food in the canteen, to altered defaults which help you to save for your retirement, to social norms encouraging you to reduce your energy bills. In this article we look at various research findings and insights around charitable giving.

推動慈善捐款的5個行為科學觀察

行為經濟學是近年很夯的一個話題,你或許經常 在許多日常情境中運行行為經濟學:從選擇架構 (choice architecture)推促你在餐廳選擇較健康的 食物;更改預設選項( default)為退休生活增加 儲蓄;或激勵你降低能源花費的社會規範(social

norms)。本文將透過不同的研究結果和發現,來 理解慈善捐款行為。

2013年,英國人在慈善捐款上,共捐獻了93億英 鎊,相當於舉辦倫敦奧運的總花費;而至今共有十

Britons gave a total of £9.3 billion to charitable causes last year - the same amount that was spent on the London Olympics in total - and 150,000 charities base their headquarters in the UK. In a typical month around 55% of us will give money to charity, at levels of £10 or thereabouts. Yet charities still struggle to raise funds. As fundraising consultant Tony Knerr commented: ‘There is an extraordinary amount of money available. The lack is of good ideas on how to get the basket under the apple tree.’

五萬個慈善機構將總部設在英國。55%的英國人平 均一個月捐款金額在10英鎊上下。然而,慈善機構 仍需不斷尋求捐款。募款諮詢專家湯尼‧聶爾如此 評論:「可流動的資金超乎想像的多,缺少的其實 是如何讓人們付諸實行、真正捐獻的好點子。」 本文將探討能讓慈善機構增加捐款的五種不同 手法。 首先,我們要來看看英國政府內部的 Behavioural

Insight Team(簡稱BIT,中文直譯:行為洞察研究

In this article we explore five different ways in which a charity might be able to increase donations.

小組)所做的研究:旨在利用行為經濟學,進行幾 個實驗方案,如何令人們能輕易於職場上進行慈 善捐獻。近期BIT與慈善援助基金會(Charities Aid

Foundation)共同發表報告《行為經濟學在慈善捐

We’ll start with the UK government’s Behavioural Insight Team (BIT) which has been trialing some interesting schemes to make charitable giving easier in the workplace, using behavioural economics. Together with the Charities Aid Foundation, BIT recently published a new report on ‘Applying behavioural insights to charitable giving‘ which looks at the impact of several different trials.

獻上的應用 》,檢視了這些實驗所造成的影響。

67


1. Donate more tomorrow

2. Converting legacy desire into action

BIT have been working with the Home Retail Group (which owns Argos and Homebase) and the Charities Trust to trial a new way of encouraging charitable giving in the workplace by using a system known as auto-escalation. This is a clever adaptation of a famous US scheme called Save More Tomorrow, which encourages people to save more for retirement by asking them to commit to saving more when they get their next pay rise, thereby reducing the pain of what is known by behavioural economists as ‘loss aversion’. Saving more ‘today’ means we’re sharply aware of the resulting reduction in our take home income, but by committing to save more ‘tomorrow’ - as soon as we begin to earn more - we experience no loss in take-home income, making saving easier. Auto-escalation has now become extremely successful in the US and many retirement savings institutions offer it.

Legacies are an important source of income for charities, and they also make financial sense since inheritance tax is reduced for people who leave more than 10% of their estate to a charitable cause. However, BIT noted that there was a disconnect between people’s attitudes to legacies - around 35% of people want to leave money to a charity - and their actual behaviour - only 7% of wills actually contain a charitable bequest. So BIT looked at using a trigger to prompt more people into leaving money to charity in their wills. They used social norms as that trigger, encouraging people to nominate a charity in their will by reminding them that many other people had also left charitable legacies. Collaborating with Co-operative Legal Services and Remember a Charity, the trial ran on 1000 customers who were given different messages by will writers:

BIT adapted this model, and instead of committing to increasing retirement savings, employees were asked to commit to auto-escalation of workplace donations by 3% each year. Initially take-up of the scheme was low, with only 10% of new donors opting in. So in October 2012, they changed the default, making enrollment to the scheme the automatic setting, but allowing employees to opt-out if they preferred. This has had a significant impact and the takeup rate rose dramatically to 49%. BIT estimate that this could raise an additional £3 million per annum for charities if launched across all payroll schemes.

• W  ill writer A [Baseline]: Customers not specifically asked to donate. • W  ill writer B [Plain ask]: “Would you like to leave any money to charity in your will?” • W  ill writer C [Social norms]: “Many of our customers like to leave money to charity in their will. Are there any causes you are passionate about?”

68


實力實例

推動慈善捐款的5個行為科學觀察

初,加入這項計畫的人很少,只有10%的新捐款人

一、為明日捐獻

選擇加入此方案。因此,2012年十月,計畫更改預 設值(default)★2,將員工參與此計畫的預設值改

BIT與英國零售集團Home Retail Group(旗下擁有

為自動加入,然員工仍可自由選擇退出。這一變更

Argos和Homebase兩大居家品牌)及慈善信託基金 (Charities Trust)進行一項鼓勵在職場上的慈善捐

預設值產生了很大的效果,使得參加率大幅提升到

獻行動的新實驗。該實驗取材自美國著名的「明日

計畫,每年將可增加三百萬英鎊的慈善捐款額。

49%。BIT估計,倘若所有的薪資方案都推動這項

儲蓄計畫」(Save More Tomorrow),的自動升級 (auto-escalation)的方法。「明日儲蓄計畫」原為

二、實際驅動遺產捐獻

了鼓勵人們替退休生活儲蓄,讓人們承諾於加薪時 提高儲蓄率,這麼做的同時,能降低行為經濟學家 所謂「損失趨避」★1(loss aversion)所帶來的痛苦

遺產捐獻是慈善機構一項重要的收入來源。就資產

感。若是為「今日」提高儲蓄比率,表示我們現下

規劃上,遺產捐獻是有利的,當人們將資產的百分

將清楚感受到可花費薪資因儲蓄而減少,但若是承

之十以上作為慈善捐獻,遺產稅將大幅降低。然而

諾在未來薪資增加的第一時間增加儲蓄比率,我們

BIT也注意到一種現象:人們對於遺產捐獻的態度

並不會感受可花費薪資因此減少,儲蓄這回事也就

和他們實際的行動力有所落差。 35%的人們有意

簡單許多。自動升級方法在美國極為成功,許多的

願捐贈遺產給慈善機構,而實際上卻只有7%的人

退休儲蓄機構皆提供此方案。

真正在遺囑中規劃將遺產捐出予慈善用途。BIT便 思考著如何鼓勵更多人在遺囑中將財產捐給慈善機

BIT採用這個自動升級的模式於提升員工的捐款。

構。於是BIT運用社會規範(social norms)★3 的方

原本應用在請員工承諾增加退休儲蓄率,英國改採

式,提醒人們有許多人亦將遺產捐獻予慈善用途,

請員工承諾於每年薪資自動升級3%的捐款率。起

希望藉此鼓勵人們在遺囑中指定捐獻慈善機構。

★1

損失趨避(loss aversion)

為諾貝爾經濟學得主的Daniel Kahneman與行為科學家Amos Tversky提出的「展望理論」(Prospect Theory)中,說明人們有「趨避損失」的心理傾 向。研究發現損失對人們的心理衝擊程度,約為收益所帶來心理衝擊程度高出2.5倍。人們為了趨避損失,經常展現不理性行為,導至蒙受更大 的損失。這與傳統經濟學假設的理性決策模式並不符合,畢竟只要期望值為正數(平均收益大於損失),人們應該會選擇參加,但事實並非如 此,因為人們做決策時考量的並非只有單純的經濟誘因,還包括心理動機等其他因素。例如,試驗顯示,(A)許多人寧願選擇無風險(即100% 的機會)地獲得$3000,而不會選擇有80%的機會贏得$4000的賭博;然而,(B)在同樣的這些人當中會有一些人偏愛20%的機會贏得$4000,而不 會選擇25%的機會贏得$3000。實際上,B組方案的形成只是將A組方案的原有概率分別降低75% 而已。 資料來源:MBA智庫百科、投資×心理學×書院 ★2

預設值(default)

為人們若沒有主動填入選項,將被認定為預設值的選項。因此改變預設值往往能扭轉計畫結果與影響力。例如在器官捐贈上,預設值若為「不捐 贈」,則公民需自主改變選擇,登錄為「願意捐贈者」,對提升器官捐贈比率成效較低;反之,若預設值為「願意捐贈者」,則公民需要主動更 改預設值,登錄為「不捐贈」,此預設值的改變勢必提升捐贈者的比例。 ★3

社會規範(social norm)

指人的行為受到周遭人們行為很大的影響。更具體來說,人的行為常會受到自身想與群體一致的願望驅策,特別是在他們認同那個群體時更是如 此。社會規範在商業領域的應用,最明顯的是用在銷售或廣告活動中,有太多例子顯示,稍加修改一下廣告詞就可能讓產品獲益無窮。如果你想 鼓勵的行為並非既有的社會規範,「強調其他人的正面行為」這種常見的做法,並不會有任何幫助。 資料來源:《哈佛商業評論》2012年10月號〈靠群眾力量賺大錢〉

69


BIT found that using social norms increased the percentage of will customers leaving a legacy to a charity to over 15% from around 5% and also doubled the size of contributions. The social norm group raised twice as much as the Baseline group (see graph below) and in total raised £990,000 from 1,000 individuals, which represents an increase of £825,000 above the baseline group.

a donation?’, and an intervention group were told the same, but with the additional line ‘Even a penny will help.’ This tiny addition not only led to an increased rate of contribution of 50% vs 29% - it also (notably) made no difference in the size of contribution. So more people were giving and were not giving any less. Cialdini and Schroeder believe that this was due to what they call a ‘legitimising effect’ - making it ok to give a little (altering what behavioural economists call the ‘subjective norm’ – what we think we should really be doing according to our perceptions of societal norms) rather than directly asking for small amounts.

3. Anchoring low to build donation rates Something that causes a bit of a dilemma for charities is the issue of small requests. Asking for a small donation can often lead to a small donation, and a correspondingly low level of funding raised. Yet asking for larger donations can generate the standard excuses: ‘I don’t have that kind of money right now,’ or ‘I already give to many charities,’ with the additional problem that because they’ve been asked to make a large donation people feel that it is not acceptable to give a smaller amount instead, leading to low response rates.

Another strategy for raising donation amounts uses the behavioural economic concept of anchors. When making a choice, we are often affected by the context in which we make that choice and the other options available. We anchor to extremes and tend to pick the middle option as a compromise – a phenomenon called ‘Extremeness Aversion’. For example, Oxfam present three pre-set options for people who want to make a one-off donation online. It changes from year to year – currently it’s set at £18, £50, £100 on the website. £100 probably seems a bit high for the average person, even for a one-off donation, but £18 feels quite low and is perhaps a deliberately odd amount. So donors are subtly directed to opt for the middle option of £50. (The circle is already helpfully marked at £50 too.) Donors are further encouraged to see the £50 level as desirable by its also being suggested in the ‘Own amount’ box and so they are given another helpful nudge in that direction.

Behavioural scientists Robert Cialdini and David Schroeder tackled this problem in a fascinating field experiment and found a simple solution. They recruited a team of researchers who posed as fundraisers in a door-to-door campaign across a middle-income suburban housing area. They tested two scripts: a control group were told ‘I am collecting money for the American Cancer Society. Would you be willing to help by giving

70


實力實例

推動慈善捐款的5個行為科學觀察

這項實驗與Co-operative Legal Services與Remember a

容易引出種種藉口:「我目前沒那麼多錢」或「我

Charity合作,測試了一千名客戶,提供遺囑上關於

已經捐款給很多慈善機構了。」此外會造成的另一

捐獻的不同條文書寫方法:

個問題,便是大筆金額的捐款請求,經常讓人們覺

• 立遺囑人甲 (基本組) :

得不好意思只捐小筆金額,導致極低的達成率。

客戶並未特別被要求進行捐獻。 (註:不做捐獻提示。)

行為科學家Robert Cialdini和David Schroeder為此難

• 立遺囑人乙 (直截了當組) :

題進行了一項很有趣的實驗,並找到了一個簡單的 解決方法。他們徵召一組研究人員,扮成募款人,

「您是否願意在遺囑中留下部分遺產捐助慈善

在中等收入的郊外住宅區,進行挨家挨戶的探訪募

機構?」

款活動。他們測試了兩個不同版本的說詞:對照組

• 立遺囑人丙 (社會規範組) :

的說詞是,「我正在替美國癌症協會募款,您是否

「我們有許多客戶樂意在遺囑中留下部分遺產捐助

願意捐款幫助他們?」而實驗組的說詞,只是在那

慈善機構。您是否熱衷並認同於某些慈善活動?」

問句之後,多加了一句,「即使只有一分錢也幫得 上忙。」這短短的一句話,不僅提升捐款率到50%

BIT發現,利用社會規範的提示,在遺矚中實際留 下部分遺產捐助慈善機構的客戶,從原先的5%提 升至超過百分之15%,而捐獻金額也雙倍成長。社

(對照組僅29%),值得注意的是,捐款金額並未 明顯差異。也就是說,更多人捐款了,但平均捐款 金額卻沒有變少。Cialdini和Schroeder認為這是基於

會規範組所募到的款項較基本組多出一倍(見上面

他們所謂的「合理化效應」──比起直接請人們捐

圖表),在這一千名客戶中,三組共募得 99萬英

獻小筆金額,此舉讓人們覺得,付出的少並沒有關

鎊,比基本組所募得的多出82.5萬英鎊。

係(改變了行為經濟學家所謂的「主觀規範」,也 就是,根據我們所認知的社會規範,我們會認為自

三、錨定小額,提升捐獻

己應該做出什麼樣的行為)。

慈善機構一直對於小額募款感到兩難。小筆金額的

另一增加捐款金額的策略,運用行為經濟學的錨定

捐款請求,通常導致人們只捐小金額,因此所募得

概念(anchors)。當我們在做選擇時,通常會受到

的總金額便很少;然而,大筆金額的捐款請求,又

當時情境和其他選項的影響。我們會錨定極端的兩

71


4. ‘I’ll match you’ – If I give, they give Over time, charities and non-profit institutions have come to rely on a simple rule of thumb for fundraising – that of matching gifts, where a $100 donation from an individual to a non-profit organisation is matched by another $100 from another donor such as an employer. Looking at this technique through the eyes of behavioural science, we might speculate that its success could be due to reciprocity and commitment effects. It is motivating if we know that someone else has pledged to match whatever we donate. However, it has often been thought that the higher the ‘matched’ donation, the more effective it is at getting people to donate. For example, when a $100 donation is matched by a $200 or even $300 sum from the charity itself (a 2:1 or 3:1 ratio, rather than a 1:1 ratio). Fundraising experts preach that you should ‘never underestimate the power of a challenge gift…and a richer challenge (2:1) greatly adds to the match’s attractiveness’. Behavioural economists Dean Karlan and John List, finding that advice on matching was based largely on anecdotal evidence, decided to test this rule of thumb in a set of field experiments. What they found countered some of the convention wisdom on ‘matching’. Testing different letters on 50,000 prior donors to a liberal political organisation in the US, they found that although matching did indeed have a significant impact on both response rate and amount donated, larger matching ratios had no

72

additional impact. For 1:1 ratios, the probability that an individual might donate increased by 22% and the amount donated rose by 19%, but 2:1 or 3:1 had no further effect. So using matching gifts to incentivise potential donors is a useful tool, but there is no need to go overboard.

5. Seeing the end in sight Online funding/sponsorship websites such as Kiva in the US and JustGiving in the UK make a point of displaying not only the amount of money raised so far, but also how this equates to the desired target in percentage terms. This allows donors to see themselves in the powerful position of tipping the balance - rounding up a current total to a heftier sum - and there’s no denying the satisfaction to be had from taking someone’s total raised so far from say, £455, to a mighty £500 and in so doing pushing the percentage ever closer to the 100% mark. Kiva add to the motivating narrative by featuring details about projects and loans which are close to meeting their target eg. showing that Josefina Del Carmen (see below) has already raised 75% of the money she needs to buy farming goods. This technique of focusing on percentages is based on more research conducted by Karlan and List. They analysed what difference already having raised a percentage of the fundraising target made to the final sum raised, testing the theory that it would positively impact on the final sum, as part of a fundraising campaign at the University of Central Florida.


實力實例

個選項,並選擇其間中庸的選項作為妥協──這個

推動慈善捐款的5個行為科學觀察

大提升該策略的吸引力。」

現象叫做「極端趨避」(extremeness aversion)。比 方說,拯救貧窮的Oxfam樂施會為線上捐款機制設定

行為經濟學家 Dean Karlan 與 John List 認為提高

一次性捐款三個預設選項。選項每年浮動,而目前

配對募款比率的原則屬軼事型證據( anecdotal

預設的三個金額選項分別是18英鎊、50英鎊及100英

evidence ) ★4。因此他們開始一連串的實驗檢驗這

鎊。100英鎊對一般人而言似乎稍嫌高,雖然僅是一

個原則。結果發現與傳統對呼應配對募款的提高比

次性捐款,18英鎊的觀感又過低,並且是個奇怪的

率原則認知相左。他們取樣來自一個自由政治組織

非整數。因此捐款者被巧妙地引導,做出中間的選

的5萬名捐款人,寄出不同的信件測試配對募款比

擇:50英鎊。不僅圈圈亦標註在此選項,50英鎊的

率。他們發現配對募款策略的確對捐款率和捐款額

金額也被預先填入「自訂金額」的欄位中,再度刺

有顯著的影響,但配對比的提高並沒有額外效果。

激捐款者對此捐款金額的認同,成了有力的推促。

當配對募款比率為1:1,個人捐款率增加22%,捐 款金額增加19%;但2:1或3:1的比率則無明顯效

四、1+1≥2 ── 我捐,你就跟著捐

果。因此肯定使用配對募款策略引導潛在的捐款者

慈善機構和非營利組織向來依賴一個簡單的募款

五、親眼看見終極目標

是效益極高的工具,但其實沒有必要執念增加配對 比率。

法則──也就是「配對募款」,意即當一個人捐 出一百元,將有另一捐款者(像是企業主)捐出 一百元來呼應,形成配對。以行為科學的角度來

線上募款/贊助網站如美國微型借貸網Kiva與英國

看,此策略的成功來自於互惠和承諾兩個效應。

慈善募款網JustGiving,除了公開至今募集的款項,

因有人承諾配對捐出和我們同等的捐獻,相當激

更以百分比顯示募款金額與終極目標的相對關係。

勵人心。而呼應

這種手法使

「配對」的捐款

得捐款者清

額度越高,就越

楚看見自己

容易驅使人們進

處在具有決

行捐款,尤其當

定性的有力

一百元捐款的呼

位置──足

應配對金額超越

以將讓現下

1: 1的比率,甚

的總額向前

至是兩百元、或

躍進。不可 否認的是,當捐款者親賭自己將原本募款額從455

三百元的金額時(2:1或3:1的比率),人們的捐 款意願大幅提高。募款專家稱千萬別「低估配對募

英鎊增加到500英鎊,朝向更接近目標的百分比前

款的力量……更高的配對募款比率(2:1)絕對大

進,滿足感大增。Kiva網站刺激捐款提升的方式,

★4

軼事型證據(anecdotal evidence)

係指來自傳聞、故事的證據。有些傳聞往往細節詳細、詡詡如生,讓人印象深刻;有些案例則以新聞、八卦的形式被人一傳再傳,造成三人成 虎,讓人聽久了便信以為真。 資料來源:維基百科

73


Their results were impressive – increasing the percentage already raised from 10% to 67% led to improved response rates: 3.7% vs 8.2% of the solicited individuals. And not only do more individuals respond, but the size of donations increases as well. • at 10% of target achieved, the average donation was around $15; • at 33% of target achieved, the average donation was $26; and • at 67% of target achieved, the average donation was almost

interpret as a shortcut indicator of the fundraiser’s credibility. (Interestingly, JustGiving further prompt the social norm effect by including details of the most generous donor to date in their breakdown of individual sponsorship progression, and this can be a compelling message. It’s not donor matching, but it sends a subtle hint about levels of donation nonetheless.) There may be other things at work though too – reaching goals is initially hard work and donor motivation can be low near the beginning as the prospect of reaching the end goal seems very distant. When we are closer to the end, motivation picks up, so donating to a cause close to its target can be more appealing. If donors can see how their contribution is helping to chunk the progress of the target total it encourages strategic and, perhaps therefore, more generous giving. So our warm feelings of generosity are rewarded more when we can add £10 to £480 of a £500 target for example, than an initial £10 to kickstart the entire £500 target.

They also found that people gave fewer small donations when a large percentage had already been achieved, and large gifts (defined as over $20) were more frequent Why might posting the percentage of target achieved be effective in raising funds though? Looking at this using insights from behavioural science can help to cast light on some possible hypotheses. Karlan and List speculated for example, that it was used by donors as a signal or rule of thumb for the deserving nature or quality of the aim. This may be due to two different reasons; in the case of the kind of fundraising operated by Kiva, it could be perceived as signalling a commitment to cause from the charity - in that they were willing to devote some of their own scarce resources to it; another reason might be that because private individuals had already made donations this could lead to herding and social norm effects which other potential donors might

We also tend to prefer gains today rather than having to wait for future gains (something behavioural economists call time inconsistency), and knowing that a donation today could result in meeting the target very soon is more motivating. So if you need to raise some money, think about communicating how much has already been raised and how close you are to the desired target, before you go out asking for donations.

74


實力實例

推動慈善捐款的5個行為科學觀察

便是針對接近達成目標的計畫,增加激勵性的細

致使缺乏資源的慈善組織亦願意付出己身少量的資

節。例如公開顯示Josefina Del Carmen已經募得購買

源支持;另一個原因則是,當有眾多個人捐款者投

農具所需金額的75%了。

入計畫,會引發從眾的羊群效應(herding)★5 及 社會規範效應(social  norms),使得其他潛在的

此著重於比例原則的技巧乃根據Karlan和List的研究

捐款者將之解讀為募款者的信用可靠。(有趣的

成果。他們就比例增加對於達成終極目標有正向影

是,JustGiving進一步利用社會規範效應,在贊助計

響做分析,並以中央佛羅里達大學進行的一項募款

畫進度中,呈現最慷慨的捐款者。這造成令人注目

計畫測試此理論。

的效果,雖然不是配對募款,卻也隱約暗示了捐款 的貢獻程度。)

研究結果相當引人注目──當已募得款項的百分比 從原先的10%提高到67%,募款迴響因而從原先的

其他因素也影響著捐款意願與表現──募資計畫之

3.7%,提高到8.2%。不僅更多人響應捐款,個人

初,因離最終目標的距離似乎相當遙遠,捐款者的

捐款金額也同時增加。

動機在剛開始都很低,推動上較為困難。當我們離

• 當目標達成率為10%,平均捐款金額約莫15美金;

目標越接近,動機漸強,乃因捐款給離目標較近的

• 當目標達成率為33%,平均捐款金額是26美金;

計畫,吸引力較大。倘若捐款者能看見自己的捐款

• 當目標達成率為67%,平均捐款金額近40美金。

如何幫助目標的進展,易激勵策略性或更大方的捐 贈。因此,我們慷慨解囊捐款10英鎊的溫馨舉動,

研究也發現,當越接近目標達成時,人們相對較不

貢獻於已募得480英鎊的500英鎊募資計畫,滿足感

傾向小額捐款,反而較常轉向高額捐款。(高額捐

遠大於貢獻在離500英鎊距離遙遠的計畫初期。

款的定義為超過20美金的捐款金額。) 我們也傾向於今日的收穫,而非等待未來的收成, 為何公開達成目標進度的百分比能有效提高募款?

意即行為經濟學家所稱的「時間不一致性」(time

以行為科學的角度來探討這個問題,或可驗證某

inconsistency)★6。今天的捐款若能大幅推進目標的

些假設:Karlan和List推測,捐款者將這數據視為

達成,將使我們的動機更強烈。未來當你需要募款

計畫的可靠性或價值。可能的原因有二:人們或許

時,在要求捐款前,思考如何呈現與傳達已募得金

就Kiva過去的募資計畫屬性判斷,慈善組織願就某

額與目標距離等訊息。

計畫背書,該募資計畫有著較高的價值與可靠性,

★5

羊群效應(herd effect)

指管理學上一些企業的市場行為的一種常見現象。經濟學裡經常用「羊群效應」描述經濟個體的從眾跟風心理。羊群是一種很散亂的組織,平 時在一起也是盲目地左沖右撞,但一旦有一頭羊動起來,其他的羊也會不假思索地一哄而上,全然不顧前面可能有狼或者不遠處有更好的草。 因此比喻人都有一種從眾心理。 資料來源:MBA智庫百科 ★6

時間不一致性(time inconsistency)

在行為經濟學裡指稱每個人在自己的時間軸上對同一件事於「現在」與「未來」有著不同的喜好,促使不同的決定。在此理論,「現在」的相 對價值,比「未來」來得高。

75


Conclusion

結論

Many of us want to give (or want to give more) to charity, but we often fail to deliver on our intentions. As with so many of our plans, there can be a gap between what we intend to do and what we actually end up doing and charitable giving is one of the plans that we can easily let slip; it needs some trigger action. These simple behavioural tools such as motivating people to give by telling them that others are giving and how much, or manipulating the anchors and reference points for donations, or giving donors the satisfaction of feeling as if their donation has made a real difference, or playing to the way we discount the future are all powerful ways to increase charitable giving and goal attainment very easily, with few additional costs to bear. These insights are also relevant to nearly all forms of fundraising - from attaining venture capital funding or departmental budgets or maybe even The Behavioural Architects’ fundraising for social projects!

許多人想捐獻(或者捐獻更多)給慈善機構,但卻 常常沒有貫徹這個意念。就如同我們很多的計畫一 般,想要做的與實際做的事情之間,往往有所落 差,而慈善捐獻便是其中一個我們常忽略的計畫。 這需要一些激勵。文中洞悉的這些簡單行為學技 巧,都是增加慈善捐獻和達成目標很有用的方法, 而且不需要多花什麼錢,像是,告訴人們其他人也 付諸行動捐款(以及捐了多少)以刺激他們、改變 捐款的錨點和參考值、讓捐款者得到滿足感,覺得 自己的捐款真的有幫助,或者想辦法讓未來的目標 更靠近。這些手法可用在幾乎所有形式的募款── 從創投資本募款到部門預算,甚至是為我們組織 (The Behavioural Architect)的社企計畫來募款!

76


IN.Notes

DICTIONARY

投標的英文怎麼說? 送人票券之後就是一張紙了! 「殺費」是什麼東西? 簡單的幾個英文單字分享,讓大家好用又好記 探察員Researcher

田珈伃

贈票

Complimentary Tickets

觀其形,察其義,當我們要贈票的時候,就是希望要讓觀眾

請大家不要想著公關票就直覺的翻成「Public relations ticket」

坐滿整個表演廳,但是又無法收取費用,所以這些原本有價

,相對第一個單字來說,其實公關票就是免費的票券,但

的「ticket」就變成了一張沒有價錢的「paper」,也因此贈

「free tickets」有些類似「索票」的概念。而「Complimentary」有恭維的意思,所以「Complimentary tickets」就有帶

Paper the House

票的英文說法就變成了「paper the house」囉。

公關票

著敬意贈送給你票券意思,也就是公關/貴賓券囉。(嫌字太長 EX.

的話,簡稱comp tickets對方也會知道是什麼意思滴)

The main strategy behind “papering the house” is to create positive word-of-mouth about a show.

PS:也有人說公關票叫「bribery tickets」,但是bribery有賄

例:「贈票」的行銷策略,

EX.

背後的意義就是在創造正向的口碑效益。

I’ve got complimentary tickets for a concert.

賂的意思,就似乎不那麼好聽了……

例:我得到了一張演唱會的公關票


Submission of Tender

Kill Fee 補償之稿費

投標

有時候我們千百萬分的不願意,但是天有不測風雲,如果請

除了大家比較知道的「 bid」是投標的意思之外,另外還有

人家寫稿或是作插畫時,對方已經完成了草稿,但是案子卻

一種說法是用「tender」。因為「tender」本身有溫柔的,軟

突然被取消了,這時候就會有Kill Fee的產生,也就是說這是

弱的意思,而投標這種事,態度也不能太硬是吧,就是要把

因為案子被「KILL」了而產生的費用。(通常會先寫在合約

態度放軟,讓自己的提案容易被接受,所以投標就也可以說

裡,佔的%數也是雙方會事先談好哦)

是「submission of tender」。如果是要招標則是叫別人來,所 以就要用「call for tender」。

EX.

The magazine ended up going from 64 to 58 pages, and so they didn’t use my assigned article. However, they had promised me a kill fee of 25%, so my work wasn’t a total loss.

EX.

We are now studying the tender submission for works projects over the internet 例:我們正在研究讓承包商透過網路來繳交工程的標書。

例 : 這 雜 誌 的 內 容 從 64頁 縮 減 成 了 58頁 , 他 們 沒 有 用 我 的 文 章 , 但 是 他 們 有 承 諾 要 給 我 25% 的 補 償 稿 費 , 所以我也不算損失太多。

Red Tape

Red Tape

繁文縟節 按照字面上來說就是「紅色的帶子」,那這為什麼是繁文縟 節的意思呢?是因為以前英國官方文件上都是用紅色的布條 繫成一捆一捆的,所以「紅色的帶子」也就在19世紀初之後 被做為一個常見的比喻,形容官方的一些複雜流程所造成的 延誤事項。

EX.

We have to cut through all of the red tape to quickly attain a goal. 例:我們必須跳過所有的繁文縟節,以便迅速實現目標。

78


IN.notes Dictionary

好用小辭典

單字 釋義

Bureaucracy 官僚體制 單字超過了十個字母好難背!那我們把字拆開來看看,再 了解一下它的意思就比較好記了。有時面對國外團隊好難解 釋台灣的官方政策要求,很無奈的時候就可以用「 bureauc-

racy」 來說明,這個字在中文看起來好像不是很好的詞, 但是在英文來說卻是一個中性的詞語。這個單字是用「Bureau」—希臘文的「治理」和「Cracy」—具有民主、貴族的 意義兩個組合而成,而民主或是貴族的統治是不是就很有「 官僚」的感覺呢?於是兩個字加起來就是bureaucracy官僚的 意思囉!

英文 生活 冷知識

GO Dutch 是大家出門的時候平均分攤,這起源是來自英國,以前英國 人暗諷荷蘭人非常吝嗇,所以出去吃飯的時候一起分攤錢, 算得很精就好像是荷蘭人一樣,就叫做「go Dutch」 但現 在不想用這種帶有偏見的英文成語的話,工作上可以用share

cost來說,如果是一般的生活用語也可以說share the bill。

常常聽到別人說英文的時候,幾個單字我們都認識,但拼起來也許就有其他的意思。 要表達的時候,原來不用想得太複雜,一句話就代表千言萬語。 英文用法和中文解讀大不同,一個單字背後也許有其他的意義,用錯了多害羞。 在這邊提供幾個簡單的英文,用有趣或拆解的方式分享,不用死背就可以很有記憶點。 如果大家有其他相關的英文單字建議或提供,也歡迎大家MAIL到innotes.mag@gmail.com來,統整過後會一同分享給大家。

79


IN.Notes

走跳世界

墨爾本──著重發展在地團隊 NEON獨立劇場藝術節 文

HANNAH CHUANG

來到有澳洲文化首都美稱的墨爾本 ★1,這裡的獨

主流或具實驗性質的展演空間;以至於像fortyfive-

立劇場和表演藝術活動發展豐富的讓人驚訝。就我

downstairs或是Northcote市政廳(墨爾本藝穗節的主

所觀察到,這裡有許多空間提供給表演藝術團隊發

場館)等提供藝術節、展覽活動的空間,讓藝術家

揮,例如:黑盒子實驗劇場,可容納約60~100名觀

有機會實驗與創造各種表演藝術的可能性。這樣

眾的La Mama Theatre和Theatre Works,或是Malt-

的展演空間在整個城市就有不下 15個場所。而當

house Theatre約五百席的三層樓中型劇場,製作非

我在網路上搜尋墨爾本獨立劇場的資料時,名單

80


IN.notes

走跳世界

上列了有將近一百個表演團體。只要有時間,幾

及開放給所有劇場愛好者的講座,這些完全免費。

乎不怕沒表演可看。

我所參加的講座主題為:The Art of Adaptation – Is

adapting an easy way out? 我發現即便許多團隊並沒有自己的表演場地,整個

(劇本改編是否為比較容易的創作之路)。邀請

產業還能夠如此蓬勃發展,不僅是因為擁有豐富的

雪梨Belvoir Theatre駐團導演Simon Stone、墨爾本

平台提供藝術家發揮,更多的是團隊彼此之間的合

最明顯的例子就是墨爾本一年一度的獨立劇場大

FRAUGHT OUTFIT劇團藝術總監Adena Jacobs、 澳洲雪梨Sydney Theatre Company藝術總監Andrew Upton、新生代劇本作家Joanna Murray-Smith和劇評 家Cameron Woodhead等藝術工作者就各自的角色發

事:NEON Independent Theatre Festival,由墨爾本

表觀點。除了就創作的角度討論,像是什麼叫做改

最具代表性和規模的墨爾本劇團(Melbourne Theatre

編?更改原作結局或故事背景還是改編嗎?等定義

Company★2) 主辦。從五月開始,為期三個月,邀

探討,對於改編原作的著作權問題,也占了頗大的

請五個劇團創作作品,不限內容形式,擁有完全創

討論篇幅。

作與支持,共同創造出一個重視在地發展的環境。

作自由的獨立劇場藝術節。五個劇團都有為期11天 的檔期,墨爾本劇團負責提供場地、宣傳和售票工

在 NEON 藝術節我看到獨立劇場在創作上追求突

作。對於這些團隊來說,是一展身手的好機會。

破和高品質。而讓我更受啟發的,是舞台下的藝術 工作者,如藝術行政、策展人、製作人、劇評家,

去年我看的作品是The Hayloft Project★3 劇團的By

以及對於一般民眾所給予的藝術教育機會,是如此

Their Own Hands。作品的故事其實並不驚豔,改

豐富與多元。透過講座或工作坊,把圈內人串聯在

編大家熟知的伊底帕斯悲劇。然而表演的形式卻頗

一起,建立更密切的網絡,給予劇團和更多藝術工

別出心裁。表演的場地類似兩廳院的實驗劇場,觀

作者互相交流與對話的機會,讓這塊地方的表演活

眾安穩的坐在面對舞台的階梯式觀眾席,而兩位演

動更加蓬勃。一個講座單元不但加強了藝術節本身

員一出場便邀請全場約150名觀眾下到台前來,進

的內容強度(這些講座與談人都是澳洲劇場界的要

行一場互動演出。觀眾像參加戲劇工作坊一樣,演

角),更讓許多沒有接觸過,或誤以為獨立劇場只

員像是導師,一邊講述故事,一邊隨機指定某些觀

是業餘演出的人,能夠重新認識獨立劇場。甚至讓

眾成為某些角色。活潑的觀眾也許依照角色指示表

外來者(如同我),一窺當地的表藝生態和發展。

演,觀眾所產生的舞台效(笑)果,反而賦予這老

而我深刻感受到每一位藝術工作者所擁有的共同目

掉牙的希臘悲劇一些新的生命力。而觀眾與演員更

標,便是如何讓墨爾本(澳洲)的表演藝術發展更

因為有這樣近距離的接觸,在下半場反而非常專注

好,激發更多創意。

的在演員們如何完結這個故事。 回頭看到台灣,我們不乏機會在國內看見高水準的 藝術節除了劇團演出外,值得一提藝術節的講座部

國際演出,獲得跨國合作經驗,以及登上國際舞

分NEON EXTRA,有別於一般的大師講座,單純

台。但也許現在我們更可以讓表演藝術相關的統籌

聽名人分享創作心得感想, NEON更重視年輕創

組織,發揮串聯彼此的功能,創造藝術行政實際交

作者和藝術行政之間的交流。有針對年輕劇作家的

流的空間。向內耕耘帶動國內表藝團體發揮創意,

寫作工作坊,給獨立劇場製作人的交流座談會,以

實踐從國際經驗得來的靈感,是該有所行動了。

81


82


IN.notes

走跳世界

★1

雪梨與墨爾本兩個城市究竟誰是澳洲的文化首都的討論, 已經不是新鮮事。兩地都有支持的民眾與聲音。前任雪梨 藝術節總監Lindy Hume便在她的部落格中直言:Don’t buy

the Melbourne spin, Sydney is the cultural capital of Australia. 別信墨爾本的誇大宣傳,雪梨才是澳洲的文化首都。 ★2

墨爾本劇團成立於1953年,是澳洲歷史最悠久的公立專業 劇團,也是英語國家中最具規模的劇團之一。目前擁有一 座劇院Southbank Theatre和一棟總部大樓。 ★3

澳洲鬼才導演Simon Stone成立於2007年,曾獲得2010年墨 爾本藝穗節-最佳表演藝術節目獎、2009年雪梨劇場獎-最 佳獨立製作獎等多項重要獨立劇場獎項。

83


We welcome your suggestions & feedback at

innotes.mag@gmail.com

NEXT 84

Notes

ISSUE No 3

IN.

Profile for in.notes

in.notes#2- May 2014  

Feature | An Experiment to Probe the Minds of Two Generations Feature | Sustainability of Performing Arts Organisations in Taiwan in.notes...

in.notes#2- May 2014  

Feature | An Experiment to Probe the Minds of Two Generations Feature | Sustainability of Performing Arts Organisations in Taiwan in.notes...

Profile for innotes
Advertisement