IN. Notes MAY. 2014
ISSUE No 2
想想：扒開兩個世代頭腦的小實驗？ 表演藝術，我們的永續經營 表演藝術的永續發展 旁敲側擊，十鼓擊樂團之不簡單經營法
永續經營從降低對補助的依存度開始 張宏維 林芳宜 張欣怡 洪凱西
2014臺北藝術節《搞砸了》 Claudine Quinn 攝影
An Experiment to Probe the Minds of Two Generations The Sustainability of Performing Arts Investing in the Future Drumming up a New Path: the Innovative Business Model The First Step toward Sustainable Five Insights from Behavioural Sciences to Nudge and Steer Charitable Giving
AWW… THANKS! 2014年4月12日，我們在台灣的Flying V平台開了一個IN.Notes 堅持雙語出版的贊助專案，截至4月24日止， 我們達到了原先設定的一期專業翻譯費用，而專案目前仍在平台上募資， 朝向亦能支持下一期的目標前進。在此要感謝目前為止實際捐款支持這個專案的朋友們。 目前in.notes僅於專題上面做雙語呈現，乃期待關注的議題，藉由同業的專業分享， 令台灣視角加入全球藝術經營的討論，因此英譯以此部分為優先。 這期我們加入一篇國際文獻的中文翻譯，更希望與國內的同業分享，激盪出更多的想法。 因為有你們，IN.Notes得以持續下去，再次感謝！
謝謝你們 Angela Pai
Kay Wang 王惠娟 陳紹元
Liting Liu 宋建璋 曾瑞蘭
PANDA表演藝術網絡發展協會 李慧珍 黃蘭貴
以及 25位無名氏 以筆劃排序
Suie Lo 徐仲驊
Volare Huang 高端禾
IN.Notes ISSUE 2
WORDS FROM THE PEOPLE
有幸參與了第一期的文字協力工作， 總覺得該多貢獻些什麼。得知第二期 的主題後，不自量力地擠出文字，寫 作過程中一直想著這些內容會不會太 枯燥，還是太理論？我始終認為，理
I was fortunate to be involved in IN.Notes’ inaugural issue and have been wanting to do more since then. When I learned of the theme of the second issue – sustainability – I managed to bang out a few words, but in the process, I kept asking myself if the writing was too dry and theoretical. However, I have always believed that theories and academic research can be useful if we know how to interpret and apply them. I have never considered myself a particularly eloquent writer, and if I could share my thoughts in writing, any art administrator could as well. I would love to see a greater variety of content from different points of views in in.notes future issues
論跟研究一定有用，端看怎麼解讀其 中的的訊息與意義。我想，如果我可 以給出一篇小文，所有的藝術行政工
作者也都可以。這份刊物是「我們 的」。期望未來能看到更多不同的內 容，更多不同的視角。 常常聽到對於政策的抱怨，或者認為 有不足之處，若窮究其原因，我一直 認為是基礎研究不夠，以致於沒有足 夠的資訊可以用來思考政策。跟表演 藝術相關的各項調查並不在政府統計 的調查範圍中，如果我們來一個民間 版的「表演藝術產業普查架構」不曉 得有沒有朋友有興趣？
We often come across complaints about the inadequacies of government policies on performing arts. The root cause of the problem lies in the lack of adequate data necessary for a comprehensive evaluation of policies, and the lack of data is due to our negligence of research. Among the numerous surveys the Taiwanese government conducts each year, none is related to performing arts. As our next step of action, instead of waiting for the government to take the initiative, how about we start conducting our own general survey on Taiwan’s performing arts industry?
很開心IN.notes要出第二期了，應該說，竟然真的 有第二期生得出來！當初第一期做完的時候心裡 有個小小的疑問，這種刊物還有辦法持續嗎？會 持續多久？不是說它的品質如何，因為就大家所
I am very pleased to see the second issue of IN.notes’, or rather, I was surprised that there is a second issue. After completing the first one, I had a doubt: will we be able to continue publishing? If so, for how long? The doubt was not a reflection of the publication’s quality, since anyone who has read the first issue would agree that both the writing and design were of highest standards, and they are the result of selfless contributions from many people. Such dedication is rare, even odd, in Taiwan these days, and who knew if we could drum up the same level of enthusiasm for a second time?
知，IN.notes#01非常棒，無論是排版或是內容，都 是極度認真並且用心的，但就是因為這份刊物裡要 集結這麼多人的心血、氣力，而且每個人都不求回 報的在分享，在現今的這個社會裡，太難得了！ 藝術行政們每天都在處理、安排、溝通、協調大
Arts administrators are constantly juggling tasks large and small and piles of piles of work to be done. Other than the daily challenges we face, social issues that need our attention, and of course, the ‘sometimes’ personal life to attend to. Aside busy schedules, our contributors devoted a considerable amount of time to writing, we editing, weighing back and forth to present valuable diversity. As I spent many late nights writing and editing, I sometimes asked myself if it was worth it. Just as soon as it popped up, I knew my answer was “yes”. This is valuable. People find meaning in participating in social movements, protests, saving trees, and we all have one thing in common: we want to achieve a cause, we choose the appropriate method and we stay on course.
上的議題大家積極的參與，同樣生活的難題更少 不了，每個人都好忙好忙，還花那麼多的心力在寫 稿、潤稿、思考內容是不是真的對彼此有益，審慎 再三，終於完成！多少次熬夜頂著黑眼圈寫稿、剪 片的同時，問過自己，「值得嗎？」但我只能說， 做自己覺得有意義的事很值得。有人覺得靜坐對自 己來說是有意義的，所以去坐，有人覺得「路過」 很有意義，所以去做，有人覺得護樹是有意義的，
所以去做，而這些事情和IN.notes都有一個共通點， 就是要有成果，必須找對方法，然後持之以恆。 看看第一期，我們可以說，方向好像是對的了，那 麼接下來要怎麼持之以恆呢？要怎麼樣讓大家的熱 情可以一直延續下去，做這些我們覺得是對的事 情？我想就是找到願意一起作夢的人，相信分享是 值得並且有意義的同伴們，一起繼續做著在這個社 會上「難得」的事吧。
Reflecting on the first issue of IN.notes, I am proud to say that we were moving in the right direction. How do we turn it into a sustainable endeavor? How can we continue to stoke our passion and persevere in what we believe in? The essays in this issue may provide some insights into those questions, but one thing I am sure of is that it takes a group of dreamers who are generous enough to share their time and ideas to keep doing what is considered rare – and odd – in our society.
這是一個資訊每秒以星星的數量產生、 以光的速度傳播的世代，我們逃不了 被資訊淹沒的命運，但資訊不等於知 識，我們如何判斷淹沒我們的是知識抑 或是垃圾？這是一個沒有答案的問題， 或者說，答案因人而異。資訊的意義， 因我們每個人的相異，而自有不同的質 變。在這裡，我們分享可能成為知識的 經驗、提供自認為是知識的資訊，但能 否成為正在閱讀的你的能量？沒有保證
書，唯有熱情和打開的大門。 In an era of information explosion and lightspeed communication, our lives are constantly inundated with words, sounds, and images. The information overflow does not equate to knowledge. How, then, do we know which is which? The answer may differ from one person to another. It is subject to our experiences and data construction. Here at IN.Notes, we share experiences that may be knowledgeworthy, and knowledge that is informative. Whether they provide you with what you are looking for, it’s no guarantee and is for you to judge. What are undeniably on these pages are enthusiasm and a door to a wider world.
Kathy Hong IN.Notes第二期了！挑戰難度提高，更有收穫。 We finally came to the 2nd issue of IN.Notes. It was delayed a 雖然我發起了兩期，然IN.Notes是屬於大家的。 tad bit. The topics presented us with big challenges, and great 期待更多朋友的投入。 夏末的第三期，大家願意認養嗎？
findings we gained from those challenges.
I had the privilege of conducting two issues, but it is not my efforts alone. Knowledge sharing is most valuable. The people, the minds, the voices, the time and the heart that went into this are most valuable. This publication belongs to all of us. Pitch in, or better yet, pitch to be an initiator for a future issue!
IN.Notes ISSUE 2
發想 in.notes Words from the People
想想： 扒開兩個世代頭腦的 小實驗 An Experiment to Probe the Minds of Two Generations
想想： 表演藝術 我們的永續經營 28 表演藝術的永續發展 張宏維 The Sustainability of Performing Arts 36 投資，開啟經營 林芳宜 Investing in the Future 46 旁敲側擊，十鼓擊樂團之不簡單經營法！ 張欣怡 Drumming up a New Path: the Innovative Business Model of the Ten Drum Art Percussion Group 56 永續經營從降低對補助的依存度開始 洪凱西 The First Step toward Sustainable Management: Decrease Reliance on Government Grants
我們 Arts People
舞蹈人的紀律 藝術行政的縝密 南部人的爽朗
Five Insights from Behavioural Sciences to Nudge & Steer Charitable Giving 77
好用小辭典 IN.Notes Dictionary 80
送人票券之後 就是一張紙了！ 探察員Researcher
Hannah的墨爾本觀察 Hannah Chuang
In.notes#2 Team 撰稿
王序平 陳景筠 張宏維 林芳宜 張欣怡 洪凱西 田珈伃 Hannah Chuang 田珈伃 劉采唐
特別感謝 PANDA表演藝術網絡發展協會 行政協力
Contributors Hsu-Ping Wang Ching-Yun Chen Hung-Wei Chang Fang-Yi Lin Hsin-Yi Chang Kathy Hong Maggie Tien Chinese Editor Maggie Tien Tsai-Tang Liu English Translation Ying-Ju Lai Chinese Translation Olivia Lo Chai-Chi Hong Visual Design Kaka Lin Initiator Kathy Hong Special Thanks to Performing Arts Network Development Association for administrative assistance.
IN.Notes is an independent digital publication for arts professionals in Taiwan. All views are only of the author’s. For more information or to get involved, please email firstname.lastname@example.org
扒開兩個世代頭腦 的小實驗 文
王序平 陳景筠 洪凱西 田珈伃
現在的年輕人崇尚奢華、欠缺禮節、輕視權威， 對年長者毫無敬意，喜歡高談闊論卻沒什麼行動力， 他們不像過去的年輕人懂得在長者進來時起身致意。 他們頂撞父母，在客人面前喋喋不休， 進食時狼吞虎嚥，對待師長有如暴君。 蘇格拉底
飛人集社劇團 《測量》 林政憶 攝影
SCENARIO 這次的主題，IN.Notes 組了「青年組」與「青壯年組」兩個焦點訪談團體。「青 年組」為六位三十歲以下，現任職於各大小藝文團隊或演出製作的年輕藝術行政 工作者，有正職與接案人員兩種；「青壯組」平均年齡四十歲左右，組成七位包 含自表演藝術團體、瑜珈業及消費性產品業界的經理人。「青年組」事先拿到提 問綱要，「青壯組」則是由提問人現場提問。兩方會後由兩組提問人與計畫提案 人共同做議題討論、對焦與篩選。
ISSUE 這次我們僅挑出三個議題：（1）社交與人脈、（2）工作思維，與（3）科技做闡 述。在三項議題討論上，頻頻出現「原來你們是這麼想！」因而我們對彼此的邏 輯出發點，有了趣味的發現與認識， 在此提出來供參考。
I. 人脈社群的經營 Network-Building 一句常掛嘴邊的玩笑話，「出門在
句，「It’s who you know」；起初
Lucy：「希望未來能加強「行銷」這塊，但如果要 做行銷，可能要有廣大的人脈，爭取自己能夠曝光 的地方，所以就加入了PANDA。」
II. 工作思維的起點與盲點 Commonalities and Differences in Two Generation’s Work Ethics
主管放手後的自由空間，在過程當 中自我學習的部分，也害怕找方法 的時候，那種面臨到deadline不斷
雅庭：「前輩溝通技巧非常厲害，眼下明明就是預期的與實 際看到的有落差，但當面跟對方講還是可以很圓融表達想 法，甚至把對方帶往自己想要的方向。年輕一輩比較做不 到，處理事情的方法不一樣，前輩總是表現很從容，但你明 明知道前輩內心應該是不開心的，或者溝通之後又會出現新 的東西，事情又繼續往下了，成見都不會伴隨太久。」
獲得欣然接受的正面回應。差異可 能在於經驗判斷或效益評估，可是 依靠經驗法則，一定是對的嗎？到 底該如何與主管溝通？「有一天我 們累積幾年工作經驗之後，也會變 得跟前輩一樣嗎？」這樣的自我問 答常在年經藝術行政的心中不斷的 詢問。然而青年組不可否認，有 人肯帶領入行已是幸福之事，必然 減少獨自茫然找答案的時間；若遇 見行事比較謹慎的主管，給予工作 步驟執行，犯錯的機會減少。換個 角度思考，不同的團隊組織有各自 對新手的要求與標準，踏入就業環 境，不再是實習狀態，青年世代想 要尋求的究竟是怎麼樣的機會（空 間），讓青壯組思考著「找人」與 「找對的人」之間的差別。
著名管理思想家柯林斯說 (Jim Collins)：「錯誤人選 和適當人選之間有個顯著 的差異…就是前者認為自 己有的是『工作』，而後
者覺得自己有的是責任。 當別人問起『你做甚麼工 作?』時，每個人的回答都 不應該是職務的名稱，而 是個人的責任。」 青壯組認為當在找一個人的時候， 不只是找「一個人」來做事，而是 要找一個「對的人」，至於什麼是 「對的人」每個人有不同的標準和 解釋，也許是有經驗、願意學習， 也許是具有邏輯思考的能力，要能 全面思考，這個標準會因為組織的 任務不同而有條件上的差異，但有 一個放諸四海皆準的萬年條件絕對 不變:
不是成為被解決的問題。熱情和善 良也許能贏得職場入場券，但解決 問題的能力和負責任的態度，才是 能在職場上無往不利，可長可久的 關鍵。
自己經驗值；當中好壞則端視受用 者的處事心態，一致認為「學習」 與「吸收」是不停歇。即便有時無 法完全認同主管的判斷或做法，但 也不可否認前輩們的經驗老道運用 在很多地方。 不同世代確實有不同想法，看事情 的角度與行動力都不一樣，經驗或 許是最好的老師，但過去不能成為 未來的包袱，像這次「反服貿」街 頭運動從開始到抗爭不就是最好的 例子，網路傳播、組織動員、議題 討論都是這個世代所展現出來的， 也許生澀、單純，但不可否認年輕 就是最大的本錢，生長在這個時代 有太多資源值得我們做更好的發 揮，在文化工作、日常生活及社會 議題各個面向皆是，不同世代間還 是可以保有共同的價值觀，不管大 事、小事，一起把社會推往更好的 方向。
＜讓好工作找上你＞，史蒂芬.柯維、珍妮佛‧柯洛西莫，2010，天下文化，P.76 Great Work, Great Career, Stephen Covey, Jennifer Colosimo, 2009, Franklin Covey, P. 44
III. 科技的運用成為年輕世代的優勢？ The Pro’s and Con’s of Modern Technology 科技日新月異，變化萬千，如果堅
楊淑雯：「以前我們做功課，到圖書館，而現在只要動動手 指，估狗大神就能回答，但問題是，那些答案都不一定對， 而是不是有能力區別就不一定。」
或 update 速度比青年世代慢。不
大為：「曾經有一個前台經驗，有一位女生打電話來問說文山劇場有 沒有輪椅席，因為她想帶行動不便的爸爸去看演出，我從捷運站去等 他們，陪他們到劇場，前輩知道後很感動，稱讚我觀眾服務做不錯。 但其實當下沒想那麼多，只是想把服務做的周全一點。」
彥祥：「年輕人太革命，覺得老東西都不好，但老東西有老東西 的美；老一輩的也覺得年輕人都不成熟，不願意聽他們的想法。 中間這一層被長輩帶領，又被科技追趕，焦慮感更甚。我們兩邊 看，感到糾葛。」
世代差異及反思 Reflection on Generational Differences
的語句來傳遞訊息。她不諱言，或 許在二十年後，自己也會需要新一 代的翻譯機，替自己及下下一代做
An Experiment to Probe the Minds of Two Generations By Ching-yun Chen, Mina Wang, Kathy Hong, Maggie Tien
Our youth now love luxury. They have bad manners, contempt for authority; they show disrespect for their elders and love chatter in place of exercise; they no longer rise when elders enter the room; they contradict their parents, chatter before company; gobble up their food and tyrannize their teachers. Socrates
The Socrates quote might elicit different reactions from the readers: some agree with it, some scoff, and some might secretly agree but in this day and age of political correctness, find it hard to admit they do. In general, the quote reflects the intergenerational differences in values, thoughts, and social norms and behaviors.
and call for tolerance and peaceful co-existence, many authors have tried to explain that such differences between the generations are a reflection of social progress. IN.notes decided to conduct an experiment to compare the minds of two generations of arts administrators. By making a foray into each others’ worlds and stepping into each others’ shoes, we hope to gain insight into each other’s perspectives, to possibly by better understanding of each other, we will spark positive and enjoyable future collaborations.
As the quote indicates, clash between generations goes as far back as thousands of years ago, and it is certainly not an issue unique to the arts. We see it every day in Taiwan, whether played out in public or expressed as private complaints. In their attempts to promote mutual understanding
SCENARIO For the study, IN.Notes assembled two focus groups: the Generation X-ers consist of seven forty-something executives working in the fields of performing arts, yoga and fitness, and consumer products, while the Millennials were six full-time and freelance arts administrators, all under thirty, who work in either productions, cultural organizations or performing groups. The Millennials received the discussion topics before the meeting, while the Gen X-ers responded to the interviewer’s questions on the spot. After the meeting, the interviewers and the organizer summarized the findings and discussed the implications of the results.
ISSUE Comparing notes on findings from two focus groups, we concluded in summarizing three issues: (1) socializing and network building, (2) logic in the workplace, and (3) technology. In this session, both group leaders were equally surprised at the findings and gained great insights to the other generation. We decided to draw attention to the three issues in particular that we are often lost in translation, and hope to shed light to our workplaces.
I. Network-Building There’s a Chinese idiom that goes, “When away from home, one must depend on friends,” which is similar to the English saying, “It’s not what you know but who you know.” The first discussion that caught our attention was networking. Kathy, a Gen X-er, pointed out that it is concerning that many young arts administrators are not interested in networking and had little awareness of its importance. Ching-Yun Chen, a Millennial, recalled a networking event held by Taiwan’s Performing Arts Network Development Association (PANDA), “But it felt so phony socializing just for the sake of it.” Many Gen X-ers recalled that in their early career, they were thrown into projects and tasks with few instructions or guidance. During the days before the Internet, connections and support from their peers were essential for all aspects of their work, ranging from gathering information and securing funding down
to finding minor items for stage props. They reminisced about the cold calls they had to make and the meeting with strangers they had to attend. “No” was not never an acceptable answer, not because they couldn’t take rejections but because if they didn’t get things done, they would either get in real trouble or a whole show could fall through. With such dilemmas on their shoulders, they would do anything to complete the tasks. Based on those experiences, they know that professional contacts don’t become connections overnight. The new people they meet in a professional capacity all have the potential to become part of their network, but it requires careful cultivation and mutual accommodation. After a few pleasant meetings or phone exchanges, they might be considered acquaintances, and only after a few instances of collaboration would there be a solid professional relationship. There’s nothing wrong with getting together for drinks or dinner in order to
talk about work and exchange ideas. Often new friends and valuable contacts are made during those meetings. On the other hand, as the Gen X-ers lament the young people’s lack of interest in socializing and networking, this reluctance may also reflect the fact that an extensive professional connection is no longer a necessity today. The reason may be that they can find everything they need on the Internet or that their supervisors are supportive to the point of doing their work for them. If the answer is the latter, the Gen X-ers are thinking twice whether they are coddling young employees and preventing them from learning the crucial skills necessary for this profession. The Millennials tend to have a light-hearted approach to professional networking. They pointed out that they do network. The Millenials claim they network differently according to the occasion and the party. However, they don’t socialize
I would like to put more efforts in marketing, which requires a large network of connections. I joined PANDA in order to reach a wider group of people. Lucy
for the sake of it but prefer to do it in a more natural setting. When they meet up for casual dinners or drinks, they may exchange business cards, but most of the time, they simply chat as any young people do. During the focus group sessions, some of them even commented that the older generation often seemed to “network” in a conscious manner, and interaction with them sometimes felt contrived. The Millennials feel the conscious networking functions are superficial and when they do attend, business cards are swapped but aside from that, if no mutual interests were struck, the time spent is merely socializing in format and efforts in vain. Indeed, one’s connection in the industry is tested when the work calls for support from the peers. The relationships established during casual social gathering are usually superficial, and it is only so-
lidified after having worked with someone intensively on a project. However, the Millenials feel that due to their entrylevel positions, they do not find urgency in establishing a career network, and more often than not, they don’t see its necessity. In a knowledge-based era, it has become ever more imperative for arts administrators to establish their own professional circles and build meaningful relationships with their peers. Like a node in a network of people, each individual is essential in holding the net together. However, without the solid relationships that connect the dots, the individuals cannot benefit fully from cooperation and would continue to work on their own. During the focus group sessions, the Gen X-ers expressed their urgent hope that younger generation could understand the importance.
In this web of professional connections, how do I understand where my place is? What contributions can I make? In the future, am I moving up or down, or am I branching out to a different industry? Where do I start, and will I find companions along the way? These are questions young arts administrators should be asking themselves. The answer lies in their professional circles, in which they would find support and friendship, and together they would bring impact to their industries. In recent months, the social movements taking place in Taiwan proved that when groups of like-minded people work together, they can change the society. It is essential for the younger generation of arts administrator to establish their own group of like-minded peers and help each other voice their passion and what they believe in!
II. Commonalities & Differences in Two Generation’s Work Logic We often see clashes between generations in the workplace. The older generation complains that young people are unable to think logically and critically; they crack under pressure; they are inflexible; they are rude. The younger generation says their elders are micromanagers who don’t give clear instructions, they are not receptive to suggestions; they are temperamental; and the list goes on and on.
who are mostly in management positions, have tried to give their younger employees various degrees of flexibility in their work, but somehow intergenerational conflicts are still unavoidable. The Millennials think that there are anxieties and struggles unique to rookies that the older generation simply cannot identify with. At the same time, they are unencumbered by past experiences and able to embrace their passion and new ideas wholeheartedly. They claim that they need to be allowed to experiment and think independently, but they also admit that too much freedom could be intimidating and that as they explore the world, they also require a little bit of handholding. While they are excited about the opportunity to work at their own pace and learn new skills on their own, they are also anxious about making mistakes in the process, especially the ones people always seem to make right before a deadline is coming up.
The two generations may continue to throw accusations at each other and defend themselves, but they come from the same place: they all want to do their best to make great things happen. The difference in their attitude lies in their perspective. Armed with their personal and professional experiences, the Gen X-ers are able to see the big picture from a loftier standpoint; the Millennials, on the other hand, are still entangled in the midst of things, either yearning to carve out more space for themselves or rise to a higher position in the industry.
The Gen X-ers agree that whether one chooses a profession out of passion or simply a sense of responsibility, one should honor the decision by accepting all the consequences it entails, including the risks. What drive them to continue their hard work are not only the prospect of success but also the fear of failure and humiliation. Most have experienced both, but the most valuable
The Freedom to Explore the Unknown vs. The Comfort of Knowing How much space do the Millennials need to spread their wings? Should they venture out to the road less traveled, or should they follow the footsteps of their elders? The Gen X-ers,
lesson they have learned is not through the result but rather the process, which has laid a good foundation for their career.
One notable distinction between wrong people and right people… is that the former see themselves as having “jobs,” while the latter see themselves as having responsibilities. Every person should be able to respond to the question, “What do you do?” not with a job title but with a statement of personal responsibilities. – Jim Collins
The younger generation may be eager to bring their ideas to the table, but they don’t always find a receptive ear, which may be due a thorough cost-benefit analysis, or sometimes it is simply attributed to intuition that comes from experiences. But surely “experience” cannot be the basis for all decisions? “Will we be become them in a few years?” That’s a common question young arts administrators often ask themselves as they attempt to communicate with their supervisors more effectively. They admit that some are lucky enough to have mentors who are willing to guide them, saving them the time of blindly searching for answers. Moreover, if their supervisors are especially cautious and give them step-by-step instructions, there are fewer chances for making mistakes. But on another debated note, a young professional should have the awareness that s/he is no longer an intern, and each company has different demands for a newcomer. As the Millennials think about the opportunities/freedom they need, the Gen X-ers are also thinking about the difference between an employee and the right employee.
Gen X-ers pointed out the importance of finding the right people, but who the right people are depends on the needs of each organization. Some organizations need experienced people, some prefer those who are willing to learn; in some companies, employees who are good at logical reasoning and piecing out the large puzzle are prized. There is, however, a golden standard that applies everywhere: the right person is a problem-solver, not a problem to be solved. A rookie may get his or her foot in the door through enthusiasm and a positive attitude, but the ability to solve problems and a sense of responsibility are the key to long-term success.
I am not afraid of failures. I see as many dance companies fold each year as there are new ones. Those that succeed are the anomalies. Wen-Chung Lin
I really admire my supervisor’s communication skills. When someone’s work doesn’t come up to our expectation, my supervisor is usually able to talk about it in a very calm and diplomatic manner, often skillfully guiding that person to see her point of view. It might be harder for a rookie to do that, as they tend to have a different working style. Sometimes my supervisor is annoyed, but she always remains calm. Usually after brief discussions, new ideas emerge and work is resumed. Grudges are never for long. Ya-Ting
The Millennials all want to meet a supervisor who sees their potential and can mentor them for the long haul, but they also agree that working with different people will allow them to accumulate experiences more quickly. Unanimously agreed is the fact that working with all types of people contribute to fast learning. While they may not always agree with their supervisors’ decisions or working styles, they still acknowledge that the older generation’s experiences do come in handy in many occasions. Generational differences do exist, in terms of both their perspectives and the actions they take. Experience has its advantages, but it becomes a burden when it only serves to
weigh down our actions. The recent student-led protest in Taiwan is a good example: a group of young adults were in charge of all aspects of the movement, from mobilizing the public to information dissemination to shaping public discussions on a public policies. While innocent and naively perceived, the students injected extraordinary energy to the movement. In this day and age, we are surrounded by all kinds of resources that allow us to realize our potentials in our daily lives, our professions, and in our dedication to arts and culture and social issues alike. Despite our differences, it is still possible for us to share the same value and take our society to a better place.
Millennials Ching-Yun Chen Independent Arts Professional
Cordelia Yang Company Manager, Möbius Strip Theatre
Ya-Ting Tsai Company Manager, Flying-group Theatre
Lucy Wang Secretary, OISTAT- International Organisation of Scenographers, Theatre Architects & Technicians
David Wang Event Coordinator, Thinkers’ Theatre
Yun-Hsin Chung Secretary, Taiwan Association of Theatre Technology
III. The Proâ€™s and Conâ€™s of Modern Technology
Technology can be distracting Tracy Neo In the past, I had to spend hours doing research at the library, but now all I need to do is google, and answers pop up in your face. The only problem is that not all the answers are reliable, but the tech-age natives do not necessarily know the difference. Shu-Wen Yang
As technological breakthrough takes place every day and continues to change the world we live in, the Millenials are using new technology to increase their efficiency at work, and those who persist in the old ways run the risk of being left behind. However, how do we strike a balance between effective use of technology and cultivating the basic skills required of an administrator? The Millennials pointed out that the work of an arts administrator is often time-sensitive and they are constantly bombarded with urgent issues that require their immediate attention. They may seem to be fiddling with their cell phones all the time, but in fact they are busy at work, trying to respond to messages or receive the most updated information. The Gen X-ers say technology is often origin of distractions in the workplace. It is not specifically a generation specialty. Many spend their day at work lingering on Facebook, instant messaging, tweeting; one could wonder how they are able to concentrate on anything. As their work hours and attention become fragmented, they
Facebook is my private domain, not a suitable tool for work-related communication. Pei-Hwa If you are not sure how your point contact would view Facebook as a communication tool, you should probably avoid using it for work so as not to seem unprofessional. Kathy
also lose the ability to pursue sustained logical thinking, and their organizational skills also suffer.
more and more tools becoming available, the act of communication itself is more complex than ever. Nowadays there are almost too many ways to get hold of someone: old-fashioned telephone, e-mail, Facebook, and instant messaging applications like Line and Whatsapp. However, the two generations differ in their attitude toward those communication tools. The tech natives deem all forms of communication the same. As long as they can reach the people they are looking for, they would do whatever they can with whatever means. If they can’t find someone regarding a work-related issue but sees that person updating a Facebook status, they would not hesitate to send a Facebook message with their personal account. However, Millenials admit these tactics do backfire. The recipient would refuse to admit being notified, or supervisors complain they did not receive a carbon copy.
The Millennials say that in this era of technology, they hold an advantage over the Gen X-ers. Millenials claim to live and breathe modern technology, which alters their work patterns and socializing ways from the Gen X-ers. “It is only natural that we often times are ahead receiving and updating information.” The Gen X-ers, however, worry about the way Millenials are increasingly reliant on technology. In the age of Google, when one’s fingertip can summon tens of thousands of search results in 0.24 second, everything is fast but also brief and superficial. Now that we have technology to do the “search” for us, do we also lose the chance to learn in the process of searching?
Tech Tools Increasingly Blurring the Line between Work and Personal Life
The Gen X-ers are not exactly old fossils helpless in the face of technology, and some are no less addicted to it. However, most of them still believe that in a professional setting, e-mail should be the main communication tool. Using
There is clearly a difference between the two generations in their use of technology. With
One of the most memorable experiences I had while working at the reception was when a girl called to inquire about seating for the disabled at the Wen-Shan Theater. She wanted to bring her father, who was in a wheelchair, to a show. I waited for them at the metro station and accompanied them to the theater. When my supervisor heard about it, he was very impressed and complimented me on my customer service skills. I really wasnâ€™t thinking very much but only wanted to make sure all the audience members had a good theater-going experience. David
Generation X-ers Liting Liu Deputy Executive Director, Taipei Arts Festivals Office
Wen-Chung Lin Artistic Director, WC Dance
Shu-Wen Yang Freelance Production Manager
Tracy Neo Marketing Director, K&K Foods
Pei-Hwa Chang General Manager, SPACE Yoga
Kathy Hong Executive Director, OISTAT
Yen-Hsiang Lee Company Manager, Greenray Theatre Company
Facebook for work remains a controversial topic. Some think that it belongs to the private domain, while others donâ€™t mind conducting business via social media. They do agree that Facebook and other instant messaging applications make it harder to send duplicate copies or compile and organize the messages, which can be a problem when a project needs to be tracked by a team or handed over to someone else or near the stage of completion. When problems arise, it is always easy to reach for the latest technology, but no matter how handy those tools are, they are still tools, and their efficacy depends on the usersâ€™ ability to express themselves. Technology is no substitute for
logical reasoning, good interpersonal and communication skills and logical reasoning, and we should be attentive to cultivate these skills.
Reflection on Generational Differences As the young twenties begin to enter the workforce, the Millenials find themselves unable to identify with these newbies in terms of work ethics and their thought process. Ya-Ting Tsai noticed that her junior colleagues tend to be very confident about their ability to do better than their seniors. They also tend to focus more on the results rather than the process. During the discussion, some of the participants in the Millennials group caught themselves in
mid-discussion, exchanged glances and chuckled, “is this how our seniors see us as well?” Then they began to reflect if they, too, had made the mistakes they so hastily complain about of their juniors. Zhe-Ning Yang of the Millenials admitted to often feeling like a translator between the “new” younger people and the more senior executives. She is constantly trying to find a way to relay information to both sides with the language each could understand. “Perhaps in twenty years’ time, I would need a translator too.” From the focus group sessions, we can see that while there are disagreements between generations, the cause is not necessarily due to their age but also differences in education, political leaning, socioeconomic status, and many other complicated factors. That being said, perhaps we should all drop the finger-wagging. Whatever the causes are, one thing we know is that we need to understand and learn from each other. In this small experiment, the two groups have been able to understand where the other side is coming from and how that affected their thinking, and this exchange provided invaluable material for professional arts administrators for further collaboration. Since we share the same goal of getting things done and make great art happen, we must find ways to not only pass on great equations, solutions and experiences from one generation to the next but also continue learning along the way.
Young people want to revolutionize everything and are always complaining about the old, but old things have their value, too, and can be truly beautiful sometimes. The older generation also thinks that the twenty-something people are immature and unwilling to take suggestions. For people like me in our mid-thirties, we are stuck between them. We try to follow the footsteps of our elders but at the same time also feel the pressure to catch up with the technology-savvy younger generation. As we struggle between the demands of two generations, our anxiety is at an all-time high. Yen-Hsiang
不論我們對藝術和文化有多高的評價，它們都是由整體經濟體系的 個人或機構所運作製造，因此勢必無法逃脫物質世界的限制。 藝術經濟學者Gray & Heilbrun
起，「永續（ sustainability ）」
satisfies the current needs of society
without compromising the needs of
管理學者Margaret Jane Wyszomir-
ski ，以大規模的實證研究，調查 澳洲經濟學家David Throsby以「永
重（Material and non-material well-
增列了「營運類」補助，其對象為「經政府機關許可登 記或立案滿一年且具固定專職人力一人以上，經營或從 事視覺藝術事務之財團法人、社團法人或團體等非營利
此類。思想支持則代表創意及資訊（ideas and informa-
The Sustainability of Performing Arts By Hung-Wei Chang Project Manager, Performing Arts Alliance
No matter how highly we may value them, art and culture are produced by individuals and institutions working within the general economy, and therefore cannot escape the constraints of that material world. James Heilbrun & Charles M. Gray, The Economics of Arts and Culture
How do we create a sustainable environment for performing arts? We might begin by defining â€œsustainabilityâ€?: development which satisfies the current needs of society without compromising the needs of future generations. The term first became popular during 1970â€™s and is often used in environmental science, ecology, and economics. David Throsby, an Australian economist, applied the concept of sustainability to cultural heritage and formulated several principles: equal emphasis on material and nonmaterial well-being; inter- and intra-generational equity, a concept of fairness in nurtur-
tinction among four kinds of support systems: financial support, social support, professional support, and ideational support. The four systems do not exist independently but is part of a complex, interconnected structure. Following is a more detailed description of the four systems:
ing both the current and the next generation; an “ecosystem” within which cultural development takes place; and the importance of diversity in the system and adherence to the precautionary principle to prevent foreseeable problems; most importantly, the maintenance principle of cultural system and the recognition of interdependence. The so-called cultural system is comprised of many sub-systems, all of which are interdependent of each other. Without interaction with its surroundings, a system becomes isolated, leading to increased disorder within until it either perishes or becomes static.
Financial support government grants; private donation from corporations, nonprofit foundations, and individuals; and the performance groups’ and the artists’ income.
Social support a tradition of volunteer service, the society’s general understanding of performing arts, the public’s and the policymakers’ attitudes toward performing arts, which are often influenced by the media.
Studies on performing arts in Taiwan also employ the concept of an ecosystem. A few examples are the National Theater and Concert Hall’s publication, The 2002 Report on the Performing Arts Ecosystem in Taiwan, and the Council for Cultural Affairs’ An Introduction to the Ecosystem of Performing Arts Industry in 2005. The development of performing arts depends not only on financial subsidies but also the soundness of its environment. Crucial factors include the audience, the venue, the production team, and to a greater extent, the various professions that support the production of a program, as well as the media, the critic, public opinions, and even the public’s general impression of performing arts. Sometimes a matter that seems irrelevant now could have long-lasting impact in the long run.
Professional support unions, professional associations and think tanks.
Ideational support intellectual capital, such as arts education, training and academic research; government regulations on the local and national levels; government policies; freedom of speech; information dissemination In other words, financial support ensures that a group or an artist survives on a basic level. Social support refers to the individuals who either work in the field of arts and culture or who are interested in promoting it. Professional support is provided by various organizations, which may include unions, professional associations, think tanks, lobbying firms, and platforms for cultural and professional exchange, such as Performing Arts Alliance and Taiwan Association of Theatre Technology. Lastly, ideational support is represented by the exchange and sharing of ideas and information.
What is the relationship between the numerous factors that influence the development of performing arts? With limited resources, how does one begin to advance it? Margaret Jane Wyszomirski, an American scholar of arts administration, conducted a large-scale empirical study on arts and cultural organizations in the US that focused on presentation, preservation, and support services. In the study, she makes a dis33
Flying Group Theatre’s large installation Gift Wrapping at Taipei Fine Arts Museum, photo by Ching-Yun Chen 飛人集社劇團首次大型裝置作品 《打包》 ，陳景筠 攝影
The four systems influence each other, but financial support remains the most important factor. Social support, though based on individuals’ opinions, represents the entire society’s understanding and attitude toward arts and culture. While its consequences for performing arts are not immediate, the public’s sentiment often have impact on the government’s budget as well as private donors’ willingness to contribute. Like four legs of a table, the four support systems hold up the environment that nurtures arts and cultural organizations. If any of the four legs are wobbly, the organizations may continue to survive but they will never be able to thrive. While the financial support provided by the Taiwanese government is far from satisfactory, it has been steady compared to other support systems. At the moment, Taiwan’s performing arts community needs professional support urgently. In the corporate world, there are professionals who specialize in advertisement, public relations, accounting, legal services, etc., but in the performing arts community, there is no clear division of labor.
An artist or a group is often responsible for all aspects of a project, from the conceptual stage down to administrative support, marketing and communications, production, international exchange, etc. This situation forces the artists to invest too much efforts and time but often unable to produce satisfactory result.
First implemented in 1996, a “tiered” grant system for performing arts groups has proven to be effective and fostered a positive environment for many groups and artists. In order to further promote performing arts, it is imperative to increase financial support for organizations that provide professional services and serve as intermediaries between individuals and groups.
At the moment, only performing arts groups are eligible for government grants, while advocacy groups, such as think tanks, production companies, and platforms that promote cultural exchange are excluded from receiving financial support. In recent years, this problem has been addressed in the field of visual arts.
The social and ideational supports in Taiwan are more adequate, but there is still room for improvement. Taiwan’s National Culture and Arts Foundation is currently trying to institute a system incubating professional critics, but much remains to be desired in the fundamental research on government regulations and policies.
The 2013 provision to the Guidelines for the Ministry of Culture Grant Program in Visual Arts has added a category for “operation and administration.” Non-profit foundations and association and other non-profit corporations working in visual arts that have been legally registered for at least a year and have at least one full-time employee are eligible to apply. The purpose of the program is to support the development of nonprofit organizations that are dedicated to the creation, presentation, research, and promotion of visual arts. The grant could make up fifty percent of an organization’s annual budget. Similar financial support is urgently needed for performing arts and could have a positive impact on its development.
Wyszomirski’s model of the four support systems was derived from her study on American arts organizations. For Taiwan, however, there are two additional issues that affect the development of its performing arts, namely performance venues and arts education. The evolving of performance venues proves to impact artists the most. On the other hand, in order to cultivate a larger audience, we must have a more thorough arts education that would allow the society to develop a unique sense of aesthetics and foster a new generation of creative and artistic individuals.
(Archive, Information & Research )為核
經營手法取決專業類別 為了可以獲得一個漂亮的、具體的數字，不管官方或民 間，總也三兩句不離經營方針、行銷策略等。是的， 一個具體的數字，背後是許多人無形的努力。努力的項 目、方向與策略不計其數，加上表演藝術領域表面上看 起來是「一個領域」，然而其中各個不同的專業，體質
2 1 高雄衛武營藝術中心 2 台中國家歌劇院 3 台北藝術中心
文宣設計最常被窄化為宣傳活動的工具，被忽略了那是團隊最容易塑造形 象、也最容易被留下印象的一環；活動接待人力則通常被認知只要有配置人 手就好，總被忽略現場與前台接待的專業度和機動性。平時因為有隨時可傳 喚的學生、甚至替代役，所以久而久之反而忽略各項專業的重要性。每次聽 到團隊或單位意氣風發地說要建立品牌時，我就想提問：在有限的預算中， 你願意編列多少的百分比給買廣告版面、給設計、甚至設置人力專責品牌的 操作呢? 在目前的生態環境下，小型的團隊求基本生存已然費盡力氣，這個
常在不同規模的任務中並肩作戰的 藝術行政人們，有一點應該不陌 生，那就是領導─或說決策訊息的 傳達途徑越直接、文字越簡潔，則 執行效率越好。但這其中牽涉了兩 個問題，一是領導與決策者的判 斷、另一個是訊息在組織結構中的 路線，如果領導者可以做精準的決
策，可以為團隊省去許多摸索與失敗所耗費的時間，而組織結構如果不過 於複雜，那麼訊息傳遞當然迅速。這些都是大家知道的道理，但是一個能 夠做出精準決策的領導者和一個簡單卻有效能的組織，都來自人才的培養 和運用，組織願不願意用較高的薪資吸引優秀的領導者、並且投資在組織 內人員的升級培訓呢?這真是考驗組織的遠見和眼光。 近兩年臺灣北、中、南各在進行大型表演場地的興建，光是台北就有台北市 文化局的台北藝術中心和隸屬文化部、國立傳統藝術中心的當代戲曲中心， 加上台中的歌劇院、高雄的衛武營，這些場館將在2016年陸續正式加入營運 行列。屆時將開啟臺灣表演藝術的新世紀，而面對即將到來新世紀，無論是 人力需求或硬體維護與軟體規劃執行，必然需跳脫目前行之多年的思維與邏 輯，才能游刃有餘。 這陣子聽了兩場演講，一個是鹿特丹城市劇院總監Bert Determann講「劇場組 織扁平化」，以及香港西九文化管理局表演藝術行政總監茹國烈講「劇場之 策劃經營與管理」，雖然兩位講者大部分的篇幅都在於環境與場館的關係， 但是他們提出這兩個規模和使命都差距甚多的場館架構與營運方式時，不約 而同呈現了清楚、低限的人力結構，從中我們也能看到，未來表演場館的管 理，平行方向的連結將遠大於上對下的連結，而在這樣的結構裡，人力的配 置也勢必求質重於求量。台灣即將加入市場的這些場館與公部門仍有一定程 度的連結，是否能夠一改以往大而冗贅的人力結構、真正配置機動性強、工 作效能高的團隊，令人拭目以待。
Investing in the Future By Fang-Yi Lin Fang-Yi Lin is long-time observer of Taiwanâ€™s performing arts community and an administrator at the National Center for Traditional Arts, a subsidiary of Taiwanâ€™s Ministry of Culture.
National Center for the Traditional Arts oversees the National Chinese Orchestra Taiwan, the GuoGuang Opera Company, and the Taiwan BangZi Opera Company, as well as Taiwan Music Institute, which is dedicated to the preservation, collection, and research of traditional Taiwanese music. Its Traditional Arts Center in Yilan has two performance venues, with a hundred-seat and 500-seat capacity respectively. In addition, the Taiwan Xiqu Center in Taipei is slated to be completed in 2015 and begin operation in 2016. The three performance groups, currently based in different cities in Taiwan, will move to the new venue after its completion. 42
res that are fundamentally different. Strategies useful for a theatre company may be irrelevant for a dance troupe or a musical group. As an observer rather than an active participant in the private sector, I cannot provide any definite answers or a standard formula for achieving uniformly satisfactory box-office numbers. However, in order to engender further discussion, I would like to propose a few questions regarding the management of performing arts groups and venues in Taiwan.
It is no news that box-office pressure constantly looms over Taiwan’s performing arts community, especially among the musical groups. On the other hand, public institutions, such as museums, libraries, and cultural centers, also meticulously keep track of the number of visitors and the public’s participation rate. This intense focus on numbers reflects the pressing issue of survival. The more visitors hint at the neediness they are to the public and the more justification as frequent public usage. For artists and private organizations, the numbers represent the income necessary for basic living expenses and the funding of their programs. But the numbers are equally important for public institutions. As the Taiwanese government tightens its budget for arts and culture, even at a time of relatively healthy fiscal condition, various government-affiliated organizations, such as the national symphonies and traditional Chinese orchestras, theatre groups, and museums, can no longer continue with a business-asusual mindset. Among publicly funded cultural institutions, the new rule of the game is “results before budget proposals.” Most government agencies are also economizing, and the numbers that represent their achievement are essential for their survival.
The term management implies action, but it is also an attitude or philosophy that ensures an organization’s successful operation. Each component is essential and constantly in action, and there are individuals behind each action. When we discuss an organization or a venue’s management model, we should begin by focusing on the individuals who are at the basis of any management techniques.
Investing in Talents for Long-Term Gains Speaking of the need to nurture talents in art administration, a consistent situation I come across can exemplify. There are two kinds of “hidden” workforce at the National Center for Traditional Arts: the young men in alternative civilian service (an option to mandatory military service) and the students at the university where my colleagues serve as adjunct professors. They are “hidden” in the sense that while they are available to perform various tasks in the Center, they are not on the Center’s payroll and not part of the organizational structure. It is an unspoken tradition in Taiwan’s higher education that university student often volunteer to assist or intern with their professors. The members of
Different Management Techniques for Different Genres In pursuit of satisfactory numbers, both public and private organizations have embraced various corporate jargons, such as management policies, marketing strategies, etc. It is true that a concrete number represents the efforts of many people and that well-planned strategies and guidelines are essential for an organization to succeed. However, performing arts are not a singular category but encompass many gen43
the civilian service are usually assigned to governmental agencies, and those who majored in the arts and the humanities in universities would be deployed to government cultural institutions or divisions. Their duties may include the design of marketing material, filming and editing videos, photography, the production of posters and translation. The original purpose of the civilian service program is to give government agencies additional workforce, and the service members are able to take over minor tasks that require little accommodation on the agencies’ part. However, when organizations grow to take the free labor for granted, they often neglect to budget for quality professional services in design and marketing. Without making adequate investment, how could they expect high-quality products? Design of marketing materials is often considered as no more than a promotional tool, but neglects that it is vital in brand image and public impression. In the same vein, these institutions often staff
their events with volunteers and temporary staff; the professionalism and experience required of front of house staff are often overlooked. Due to the availability of student volunteers and members of the civilian service, institutions or government units neglect the importance of professionalism in services. When an organization or governmental agency talk about “brandbuilding,” questions pop into my mind: Do you budget for advertising, design and brand managers? In this challenging environment, it is probably unrealistic to demand so much of smaller institutions, whose most immediate concern is to keep afloat. However, I pose these questions with the purpose of reminding ourselves that just because the budget is tight and there is an abundance of volunteer labor, it is still imperative that we invest in talented professionals. As the Taiwanese government continues to cut funding for arts and culture, it is understandable that performing arts groups would try to utilize unpaid labor and free promotional opportunities in the short term. But in the long
run, surely we can do more to increase our professionalism and tap into new resources.
A Sound Staffing Structure Can Increase an Organization’s Efficiency We should also not neglect the influence – or the impact – the staffing structure may have on an organization. For experienced art administrators, one thing they would all agree on is the importance of leadership. In other words, in the process of decision-making, the more direct the line of communication is and the more concise the written messages are, the more efficient the process would be. There are two determining factors: the leader’s judgment and the line of communication within an organization. If a leader can make a timely and intelligent decision, s/he would save the team much time from fumbling and experimenting with failure. If an organization has a straightforward staffing structure, communication would naturally be more efficient. Those are common sense. However, an
intelligent leader who can make wise decisions and an efficient communicative organization both require nurturing and investment of resources. But would culture institutions be willing to offer competitive compensation for highly qualified executives and also train future leaders within the organization? This question tests an organization’s long-term vision and strategic thinking. In the coming two years, Taiwan’s performing arts will be ushered into a new era with the completion and operation of large-scale performance venues by 2016. These venues include the Taipei Arts Center, which is overseen by the city’s Department of Cultural Affairs, the Taiwan Xiqu Center, a venue under the National Center of Traditional Arts, Taichung National Opera House, and Kaohsiung’s WeiWu Ying Center for the Arts, both under the newly inaugurated National Center for Performing Arts. However, it also means we are facing new challenges in issues of human resources, the buildings’ maintenance and the venues’ operational needs. In order to adapt to this new era, we can no longer work with a businessas-usual attitude. I attended two talks recently, one given by Bert Determann, the Director of Rotterdam City Theatre, on the horizontal organizational structure in the theatre industry. The other one was given by Louis Yu Kwok-Lit, the Executive Director of performing arts at Hong Kong’s West Kowloon Cultural District, and it was about the planning and management of theaters. Both Mr. Determann and Mr. Yu focused on the relationship between a venue and its surroundings. While the venues and the management techniques they discussed were very different in terms of their capacities and objectives, both speakers emphasized the importance of a straightforward, open staffing structure. In the future, the management of performance venues will be based on a horizontal structure rather than a vertical/hierarchical one. In a horizontal structure, maintaining a select number of high-quality employees will be the priority. The aforementioned new performance venues in Taiwan are all affiliated with governmental agencies in one way or another, whether they can avoid a bureaucratic and convoluted organizational structure and foster a new culture in arts administration in Taiwan by assembling flexible, efficient teams is highly anticipated.
旁敲側擊 十鼓擊樂團之 不簡單經營法！ 文
入行以來，扣除在台待過財團法人 的歲月，算算以專職行政身分待過 的表演團隊是屈指可數。離開台灣
初見十鼓是在 2011 年的法國亞維
下，到十鼓文化村 2007 年開園，
隊或者園區，其經營能否持久永續，端看經營者是否能 秉持理念和初衷，致力維護創立初期的堅實基礎，永不 懈怠。在十鼓從無到有的十五年間，從教學中心、洽接 各式商演的職業樂團到雙文創園區的開發營運，其經營 方針不以營利為主要訴求，而是能同時兼顧團體利益的 追求，基於對社會的貢獻和回饋、對土地、對團員及其 家人的使命感，持續不斷努力以追求更為良好的經營績 效。在計算利潤的同時，也要同步對於社會做出更大的 貢獻，如此才能創造出群（集）體需要的滿足，為眾人 和社會做出實質的貢獻。
人才，邁向永續經營的挑戰 從事藝文這一行，眾所皆知除了崇高的理想性外，還要 擁有隨時燃燒不滅的熱情和堅忍不拔的毅力。但，藝術 行政工作的高工時、低薪資，也讓許多再有熱情和意志 力的行政們，往往搖頭嘆息、拂袖而去。新人剛來上工 未滿試用期就離職，或者好不容易撐過一年、熬了第二 年正以為駕輕就熟之際也鬧走人，等不到新人交接就撒 手而去。這類人才留不住的事情雖早已屢見不鮮，但其 實卻是團隊能否持續、穩定經營的最大隱憂。 儘管管理階層年資久、經驗豐，但是手下團隊的高流動 率，除了讓整體士氣欲振乏力之外，不僅會影響基層人 員貫徹經營方針的執行力，也徒增了管理階層大頭們的 小事工作量及不確定感，讓經營是否永續這事陷入發展 窘境。如何能讓現行及未來計畫的執行發展得以延續和 貫徹？設法留住人才、培育並重視經驗傳承，會是十鼓 現階段及未來發展需強化的重點。
Drumming up a New Path: the Innovative Business Model of the Ten Drum Art Percussion Group By Hsin-Yi Chang
In my career as an arts administrator, I had held few full-time posts when I was in Taiwan. Since the four years overseas, I have collaborated with more than a dozen Taiwanese groups or projects. Among these, Tainan’s Ten Drum Art Percussion Group has taken one of the most unusual and innovative paths toward development and sustainability. I first learned of Ten Drum at the Avignon Off Festival in 2011. At the time, all I knew was that it was the troupe’s second appearance in Avignon and that as an emerging percussion troupe in southern Taiwan, it rivaled the eminent U Theatre in the north. However, it was clear that the two percussion groups differ in both their performance styles and philosophies. U Theatre emphasizes the union of art and spirituality – its students begin their musical education with meditation practice. Like ancient Chinese poetry, its performance is exquisite, elegant, and infused with Zen. Ten Drum, on the other hand, has developed its theory about agriculture and nature’s influence on music and rhythm. The group aims to carry on Taiwan’s Taoist traditional culture as embodied in 52
the music and dance during temple festivals. Like a folktale, its performance is accessible and often has includes a narrative element.
network of parents, students, and patrons the school had built over the years, a group of supporters volunteered in the rebuilding effort. Starting from scratch, each volunteer contributed what he or she could, and after several years of hard work, Ten Drum Cultural Village had its grand opening in 2007.
Transformation from a Local Percussion School to a Performance Troupe and a Multi-Purpose Cultural Park
With strong beliefs in Ten Drum’s mission, many of the students and their parents volunteered in the renovation project and made financial contributions. During this monumental transformation, the school also aimed to allow all the volunteers and friends of the cultural village to participate in its operation by providing job opportunities for them. Since the school was established fifteen years ago, many founding members who have worked on the renovation of the cultural village and weathered through the most difficult early days are now full-time percussionists and administrators at the troupe and are also responsible for cultivating the next generation of Ten Drum musicians. Others work in management positions and have become the school founder Shi Hsieh’s right hands.
Ten Drum had its start in downtown Tainan in 1999 as a percussion school for special-needs children. Shi Hsieh, the founder of the school, developed a unique educational method that combined percussion music and sport, which allowed the students to improve their motor skills and achieve spiritual and physical balance. As the school became increasingly popular and the enrollment number climbed, neighbors began to complain about the noise coming from the studios, forcing the school to search for a new site. The crisis turned out to be a new opportunity. After much effort, the school was relocated to the ground of the former Rende Sugar Refinery, which is not far from the downtown area but remote enough that the school didn’t have to worry about disturbing the neighbors. Originally named the Ten Drum Cultural Village, it is now Ten Drum Rentang Culture Creative Park.
Ten Drum Art Percussion Group and Ten Drum Cultural Creativity Company currently operate two cultural parks in Taiwan, one at the original Rende Sugar Refinery site in Tainan and the other at the former Ciatou Sugar Refinery in Kaohsiung. Focusing on percussion art, culture, history, the environments, and education, the parks have three main departments: performance, park administration, and education. With Hsieh himself overseeing the operation of the two parks, there are over one hundred employees in total, excluding temporary and part-time tour guides. The performance troupe has about
The relocation was a risky gamble. While the school was no longer a neighborhood troublemaker, the move brought an even bigger challenge: how could a small group of musicians and educators turn an abandoned factory and the surrounding five-hectare land, with nothing but an endless expanse of wild grass and dilapidated buildings, into a percussion school? After a lengthy fundraising campaign, the school was only able to pay the rent but had little resources left for further renovation. Thanks to the large 53
seventeen full-time percussionists who are based in either Rende or Ciaotou, and some live in the employees’dormitory inside the parks. They mainly perform the troupe’s repertory numbers at the parks but also tour overseas and give performances in Taiwan. Other than their daily practice, the percussionists are responsible for the maintenance of the parks as well as keeping up with the tradition of self-sufficiency by working at the vegetable gardens. The administrators of the troupes are usually between twenty and thirty-five years old, but most of them have been playing drums for over ten years. Many are Mr. Hsieh’s first group of students.
The parks has refurbished the old equipment and buildings of the sugar refineries and turned them into exhibitions on Taiwan’s industrial history. Within the parks are also restaurants, coffee shops, souvenir shops, and hostels. The one-day package included guided tours on the history and the surroundings of parks, local cultures, the process of drum production, and the history of the Ten Drum Percussion Group. But the main attractions are the percussion performance and the hands-on experience of drum playing. Many visitors, young and old, had little exposure to cultural activities before their trip to the cultural parks, but during the packaged tour, they attend their first concert in a theater and try playing percussion for the first time.
Starting in 2001, it became the norm for people in Taiwan to have two days off each week. With the extra leisure time, people began taking mini holidays during the weekends, and the opening of the Rende Cultural Park in 2007 coincided with the rapid growth in the tourism industry. During the early days of the park, Ten Drum Art Percussion Group performed a repertory of half-our shows regularly, but that alone was not enough to attract a large crowd. As a solution, the park collaborated with travel agencies to promote oneday packaged tours. With its convenient location right off the highway exit and a well-planned roster of activities, the park began to turn a profit within three years. Soon tour buses were bringing record crowd into the park who filled up the theater. Long gone are the days when the park remained empty, with only a few stragglers wandering around.
Armed with the Mission to Preserve Traditional Culture, Ten Drum Aims to Pass on a Passion for Percussion Music The three departments at the Ten Drum Group, performance, education, and park administration, are interdependent and carry equal importance in the company’s management philosophy. In order to cultivate an appreciation for traditional percussion art among young people, the educational department has developed a teaching method that combines percussion music, sport, and entertainment and established the so-called DSE (Drums, Sports, Entertainment) Ten Drum Music Centers in Taiwan and overseas. At the same time, the company also forms not-for-profit partnership with various educational institutions. A school that is a member of the Ten Drum Alliance might include percussion lessons in their curriculum and allocate funding for the purchase
The success of the cultural parks is due to the company’s multi-pronged approach to marketing that combines art, entertainment, and tourism.
of the instruments. Ten Drums’ Educational Department would then provide teacher’s training and consultation on lesson plans.
sors to arrive. Those stories are not new, but they represent a real problem in maintaining a sustainable, reliable team.
The other goal of the two cultural parks is to preserve the heritage of Taiwan’s sugar industry and promote this cultural asset among the general public. If we were to apply the theory of sustainable management to arts administration, a company or a cultural park’s sustainability depends on the management’s ability to build upon its solid foundation and continue to operate the business with integrity and idealism. In the past fifteen years, Ten Drum’s business model has never been centered on profit-making. Instead, it is based on the company’s sense of responsibility toward the land, its employees, and their families. The music centers, the percussion troupe, and the two cultural parks all aim to benefit the members of the entire company as well as maximize its contribution to the society.
The high turnover rate among the employees not only damages the team spirit but also affects their efficiency. In this atmosphere of uncertainty, the experienced managers are often forced to take over minor tasks, leaving little time for long-term planning. The biggest challenge Ten Drum and the performing arts community in Taiwan face now is to find a way to carry out current and future projects and ensure their sustainability. Ten Drum’s future lies in its ability to retain and nurture talents as well as ensuring that the traditional art of percussion would be passed down to the next generation.
Finding and Retaining Talented Arts Administrators to Achieve a Sustainable Future
Don’t miss Ten Drums at
Idealism and passion are must-have qualities for people who want to work in arts and culture, but perseverance and pragmatism are equally important. However, many ambitious arts administrators in Taiwan have found the long work hours and relatively low pay discouraging. It is not uncommon to see new employees leave a position during the trial period, and for those who managed to stay, they often left within a few years in frustration, sometimes in such a hurry that they don’t even wait for their succes-
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Aug 1-12 6:00pm Aug 13-17 5:00pm Aug 19-24 6:30pm Tickets
Aug 1-2(Preview) £10, £8, £32(family) Aug 3-24 £12, £10, £40(family) Venue
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永續經營從降低 對補助的依存度開始 文
提到永續經營，現今多數人第一想法 是要減少碳排放量、節約能源…等。 在此提出思考台灣的表演藝術團隊的 「永續經營」，能否從降低對公部門 補助的依存度。
兩派經濟學家辯論著節約是不是救經濟的唯一途徑。其 一提倡撙節無法刺激市場，必造成經濟發展阻塞，甚 至閉鎖。任何人遇到財務吃緊，本能的必先思考緊縮預 算。在台灣的表演藝術領域，個人認為這絕對行不通。 沒有其他原因，乃因我們日常信奉的教條已經是能省則 省，又哪裡還有得省？再緊縮或刪減預算，不僅影響士
監Michael Kaiser提出的「The Cycle輪迴理論」，精闢說
觀眾開發與累積的速度遠落後內容的激增。 拿人力來說，勞力密集的我們，科技的輔助雖能縮短許 台灣的表演團隊許多是餓不死，活不好。一年兩季的演
The First Step toward Sustainable Management: Decrease Reliance on Government Grants By Kathy Hong Kathy Hong is currently the Executive Director of OISTAT and sits on the board of Performing Arts Network Development Association.
The word “sustainability” calls to mind actions that reduce: energy conservation, lowering one’s carbon footprints, etc. What we are referring here with “sustainability” in discussing management of Taiwan’s performing arts groups, the “reduction” would apply to the necessity for us to lower our reliance on government grants.
Abandoning the Cost-Down Mindset
In recent years, we are seeing more and more new theatre companies, new artists, and new productions blooming. Many municipal governments and art centers are organizing constant arts festivals. On top of that, arts agencies regularly bring in excellent productions from overseas. The performing arts market is not just saturated, it is exploding. Even for the most devoted arts enthusiasts, there are only so many shows they can attend in one weekend. While the increase in the number of shows certainly helps attract a larger crowd, the speed of audience cultivation simply cannot catch up with the exponential growth of the performing arts industry in Taiwan.
When encountering financial difficulties, our first instinct is to cut the budget. Like economists now debate, austerity is not the one and only sustainable solution and may even be harming your development. Without a robust market, the economy would remain stagnant or even shut down completely. Let’s take this into consideration. I believe the same can be said for performing arts in Taiwan. Our artists and administrators are already indoctrinated with the idea that we need to economize, so much so that most of us have become used to operating on a bare minimum budget. Further budget cut would not only have a negative impact on the staff’s morale but also restrict significantly the organization’s activities. Michael Kaiser, the president of the Kennedy Center in Washington, DC, proposed a theory of “the cycle,” which emphasizes the importance of the engine that powers a successful arts organization: a good program is essential for its survival, but a good program must be complemented by a strong marketing campaign that generates a far-reaching energy, which would compel the customers to buy tickets, donate, and participate in the program.
Most of the performing arts organizations in Taiwan are merely able to survive, but few flourish. They rely on government grants to sustain the standard two productions each season. This two-season standard can also be seen as the consequence of the grant cycles in Taiwan. In order to survive, performing groups often need to churn out a production for each semi-annual grant application cycle. While the number of shows has increased, the amount of government grants has not significantly risen. Considering the state of the world economy and a general trend among governments all over the world toward cutting arts and culture budget, we don’t expect to see the Taiwanese government angelically increase its subsidies for arts and culture any time soon. While it would be impossible to demand Taiwan’s performing arts groups to be self-reliant, and it would be preposterous to demand so, helping performing groups become gradually less reliant on government grants would be a more practical approach.
Take human resources as an example, while technology can make many tasks easier, certain aspects of arts administration still require a human touch and attention to details, such as audience cultivation and fundraising. Those are labor-intensive jobs. Real phone conversations cannot be replaced by an automated voice, visits to a potential donor, talks given in public, and business lunch with a future collaborator cannot be replaced by promotional e-mails. It is es-
sential to have enough staff to maintain a broad customer base.
only two ways to increase the ticket sales: add more performances or increase the ticket price, but both strategies have their risks. Labor cost usually does not decrease with increased number of shows. On the other hand, higher ticket price could potentially discourage the audience from attending the shows.
Instead of downsizing, perhaps we can think about ways to maximize the potential of the existing team by adjusting their responsibilities. Afterwards we might even need new hires to fill in certain gaps in order to ensure that the production value remains high. Let us assume that for every one hundred dollars in marketing cost, we can bring in one thousand dollars in revenue, cutting that one hundred dollars might have saved some costs temporarily, but the organization is actually losing a prospective nine hundred dollars.
How about exploring two other options for new sources of income: donor contributions and new activities? While the labor resources required for fundraising activities are not as clear-cut as the increased cost associated with additional shows, it is evident that it requires expertise. Moreover, the success of a campaign depends on the organization’s long-term efforts in brand-building and a consistent output of quality productions. When these aspects are successfully linked and seen by the public or targeted donors, fundraising efforts will see a more evident and rich harvest.
I will use the ticket sales staff as an example. They are not just ticket sellers but a bridge between the customers and the theatre company. While they are selling tickets, they may interact with the customers. The interaction would allow the theatre company to obtain useful information about the customers and also develop a sense of loyalty among them, which in turn would encourage them to return for future shows.
An organization could also increase its earned income by engaging in new activities. No matter what those are, they should fit into the organization objective and be part of its “narrative.” Moreover, the activities should be able to promote the organization’s core values. Commonly employed new activities include lectures, classes and expanded products related to children’s shows. However, unless the educational activities are presented in replicable formats, such as videos and interactive media, it will not bring in much revenue, as operating a classroom costs too much and is too labor-intensive. It is not to say this should be disregarded, but perhaps worth digging into extending these activities to a product that can actually decrease costs by each quantity sold. As for products related to shows, you have to ask yourself, “Will they sell
Development and Expansion rather than Budget Cut For most arts organizations, the biggest step they can take toward sustainability is gradually decreasing their reliance on government grants. With this as a goal, they also need to think about developing new sources of income. Most of arts organizations’ earned income comes from ticket sales or a negligibly small number of related merchandise, and it usually has to balance the production cost against government grant and its earned income. There are
beyond this season ?” If not, their shelf life is too short, and will likely end up taking up too much space in the warehouse.
income for the organization. “They are already receiving a discount or even rent-free for the space, those are government properties, and not appropriate for receiving organizations to use public resources to engage in for-profit activities.” As surprised as I was with the response, I realized that this was how most of the general public as well as elected officials would think.
Unlike our counterparts in the West, most performing arts organizations in Taiwan don’t have our own theaters, often not even a small studio. Without a permanent base, it is difficult for performing groups to maintain their presence in the local community or have space for any business operations. For the purpose of promoting its productions and institutional marketing efforts, it is essential that an organization has a certain degree of visibility in public. We need to think about stretching and utilizing our existing resources, perhaps props, costumes, scripts, and any kind of intangible knowledge, for new activities. As resources are limited for everyone and surely the road down survival lane can be lonely, we should also seek out new partners who can create synergy. However, before starting any new pursuits, we should evaluate carefully whether these new activities could actually generate more income, or if it would simply consume resources and all our energy for nothing.
What the public and the government officials don’t realize is that performing arts organizations have very little profit to draw on, at least not in Taiwan. Compared to other media, such as TV or the Internet, performing arts definitely reach a smaller audience, but its impact on them could be much more profound. A play, a dance, or a concert, or an opera could change a person’s life or open up a new realm of ideas for him/her. Its power could be far-reaching, often influencing not only an individual but also his/her community as well. The government’s attempt to utilize idle public buildings and spaces will allow many performing arts groups to finally have a base of their own. However, the government needs to approach this with an open mind and give performing groups more flexibility in using those spaces. In the process, these creative entities might be able to share their work with a wider audience, provide services that may increase earned income, and in time, significantly become less reliant on government subsidies. Most importantly, as these arts groups settle into their permanent homes, they would be able to strengthen their involvement in the local community and promote cultural engagement from the ground up. Isn’t that also vital to a nation’s cultural development?
A Word to the Government: No One is Trying to Get Rich Working in Performing Arts! Most performing arts groups in Taiwan long for a permanent base where they can operate and create. I recently spoke with officials from Taipei’s Urban Regeneration Office regarding repurposing idle spaces. The official asked for suggestions on performing groups suitable for a certain space that will be released for redevelopment. During our conversation, I asked why arts organizations were not allowed to utilize the space for any engagements that might bring in
Arts People 舞蹈人的紀律 藝術行政的縝密 南部人的爽朗 表演藝術聯盟主打的國際牌 陳柏潔深植台灣表藝印象於國際場域
01 你目前於表演藝術聯盟 擔任什麼樣的角色？ 我目前主要是籌畫執行「國際發展」項目，以及參與其他企劃與發展型態的內容。
剛加入表演藝術聯盟的時候，所有的同事如同一體般，一起分工執行不同的專案。好處 是對所有執行的業務都能有全面的了解，也能廣角觀察台灣表演藝術的環境。到了2010 年的時候，我主要負責大型節慶活動專案的統籌規劃，像是「台北國際花卉博覽會」常 態展演活動以及「華山藝術生活節」。我從那時開始接觸國際事務，發掘我對國際連結的 許多想法和熱情。表盟在過去幾年的發展中，確立國際連結是未來要繼續主力推動的項目 之一。我們在2013年底開始籌畫「表演藝術國際交流平台」計畫（Taiwan Performing Arts
發展面向，對於我也是一堂新的學習課程。除了觀察、 理解各類型表演藝術的差異性，以及其在整體環境中的 狀態與樣貌，亦學習如何與政府組織溝通與合作，讓表 演藝術的需求和議題能被看見、討論，更進一步透過政 策制定或是專案計畫，尋找到提升與改善的途徑。
是否在工作中曾面對的挑戰 令你產生抗拒或 其他心理上的挑戰？
你認為現階段做的事情 為什麼重要？ 你預想有什麼影響？
營管理和國際合作…等項目。然而，我們(表演藝術工作 者)其實也明白，政府因為種種規範考量或是專業認知的 差異，通常無法在短期內，對各項發展的需求與期待，
採取積極作為。因此，我認為民間組織也應自主開啟行 動，儘管不會是件容易的事，但卻可以建立參考模式與 案例，創造彈性較高的發展空間，也能為台灣表演藝術 帶來正面能量；面對政策總有變遷因素，前進之路滯礙
藝術創作者、策展人、製作人、藝術行政等工作者，親 身體驗國際交流事務，從學習與參與當中獲得養分與練 習，讓視野擴大到亞洲之外，觸發更多的創意，相對 的，也可以透過平台，在國內引導更多的討論，加深大 家對產業發展的關注，使台灣的夥伴更緊密交流與團 結，產生正向的循環關係。
當你不代表任何表演團隊 在藝術市集內又是扮演 什麼樣的角色？
公務員心態感到驚訝，這是在美國不會面臨的狀況。然 而，這幾年來，許多公立表演場館因為自主改善、透過 政策協助或是面對新場館的競爭，在服務品質與專業技 術(人員)層面皆已大幅的提升，甚至已有堪稱模範的場 館出現。其實，亞洲國家多半都會經歷相同的過程(韓國
司、場館(Production House)或表演團隊，除此之外，常 態出席藝術市集，透過國家政策推動，以推廣其表演藝 術及尋求資源合作對象為任務的，多半是韓國、澳洲、
北歐等國的政府組織，因此，難免有些外國朋友誤以為 我們應該是政府機構。現階段的狀態，我們是國際認識 台灣表演藝術的媒介，台灣對於許多外國朋友而言，仍
作人平台 Asia Producers’ Platform」計畫，將在韓國首爾
舉辦首屆的「亞洲製作人工作營 Asia Producers’ Platform
從美國回到台灣 從舞者跳入表演藝術行政 有曾經讓你感到文化衝擊的 人事物嗎？
行走國際，你都特別留意什麼? 「學習、 分享、溝通、合作、永續。」這五 個關鍵字，是我每次出國參與國際會議或是藝術市集的
Five Insights from Behavioural Sciences to Nudge and Steer Charitable Giving 推動慈善捐款的 5個行為科學觀察 By Crawford Hollingworth, Founder of The Behavioural Architects Original story published on The Marketing Society
Behavioural economics is a hot topic these days and you’ve probably come across its application in a variety of everyday situations; from choice architecture prompting you to select healthier food in the canteen, to altered defaults which help you to save for your retirement, to social norms encouraging you to reduce your energy bills. In this article we look at various research findings and insights around charitable giving.
行為經濟學是近年很夯的一個話題，你或許經常 在許多日常情境中運行行為經濟學：從選擇架構 （choice architecture）推促你在餐廳選擇較健康的 食物；更改預設選項（ default）為退休生活增加 儲蓄；或激勵你降低能源花費的社會規範（social
Britons gave a total of £9.3 billion to charitable causes last year - the same amount that was spent on the London Olympics in total - and 150,000 charities base their headquarters in the UK. In a typical month around 55% of us will give money to charity, at levels of £10 or thereabouts. Yet charities still struggle to raise funds. As fundraising consultant Tony Knerr commented: ‘There is an extraordinary amount of money available. The lack is of good ideas on how to get the basket under the apple tree.’
五萬個慈善機構將總部設在英國。55%的英國人平 均一個月捐款金額在10英鎊上下。然而，慈善機構 仍需不斷尋求捐款。募款諮詢專家湯尼‧聶爾如此 評論：「可流動的資金超乎想像的多，缺少的其實 是如何讓人們付諸實行、真正捐獻的好點子。」 本文將探討能讓慈善機構增加捐款的五種不同 手法。 首先，我們要來看看英國政府內部的 Behavioural
In this article we explore five different ways in which a charity might be able to increase donations.
小組）所做的研究：旨在利用行為經濟學，進行幾 個實驗方案，如何令人們能輕易於職場上進行慈 善捐獻。近期BIT與慈善援助基金會（Charities Aid
We’ll start with the UK government’s Behavioural Insight Team (BIT) which has been trialing some interesting schemes to make charitable giving easier in the workplace, using behavioural economics. Together with the Charities Aid Foundation, BIT recently published a new report on ‘Applying behavioural insights to charitable giving‘ which looks at the impact of several different trials.
1. Donate more tomorrow
2. Converting legacy desire into action
BIT have been working with the Home Retail Group (which owns Argos and Homebase) and the Charities Trust to trial a new way of encouraging charitable giving in the workplace by using a system known as auto-escalation. This is a clever adaptation of a famous US scheme called Save More Tomorrow, which encourages people to save more for retirement by asking them to commit to saving more when they get their next pay rise, thereby reducing the pain of what is known by behavioural economists as ‘loss aversion’. Saving more ‘today’ means we’re sharply aware of the resulting reduction in our take home income, but by committing to save more ‘tomorrow’ - as soon as we begin to earn more - we experience no loss in take-home income, making saving easier. Auto-escalation has now become extremely successful in the US and many retirement savings institutions offer it.
Legacies are an important source of income for charities, and they also make financial sense since inheritance tax is reduced for people who leave more than 10% of their estate to a charitable cause. However, BIT noted that there was a disconnect between people’s attitudes to legacies - around 35% of people want to leave money to a charity - and their actual behaviour - only 7% of wills actually contain a charitable bequest. So BIT looked at using a trigger to prompt more people into leaving money to charity in their wills. They used social norms as that trigger, encouraging people to nominate a charity in their will by reminding them that many other people had also left charitable legacies. Collaborating with Co-operative Legal Services and Remember a Charity, the trial ran on 1000 customers who were given different messages by will writers:
BIT adapted this model, and instead of committing to increasing retirement savings, employees were asked to commit to auto-escalation of workplace donations by 3% each year. Initially take-up of the scheme was low, with only 10% of new donors opting in. So in October 2012, they changed the default, making enrollment to the scheme the automatic setting, but allowing employees to opt-out if they preferred. This has had a significant impact and the takeup rate rose dramatically to 49%. BIT estimate that this could raise an additional £3 million per annum for charities if launched across all payroll schemes.
• W ill writer A [Baseline]: Customers not specifically asked to donate. • W ill writer B [Plain ask]: “Would you like to leave any money to charity in your will?” • W ill writer C [Social norms]: “Many of our customers like to leave money to charity in their will. Are there any causes you are passionate about?”
BIT與英國零售集團Home Retail Group（旗下擁有
Argos和Homebase兩大居家品牌）及慈善信託基金 （Charities Trust）進行一項鼓勵在職場上的慈善捐
儲蓄計畫」（Save More Tomorrow），的自動升級 （auto-escalation）的方法。「明日儲蓄計畫」原為
了鼓勵人們替退休生活儲蓄，讓人們承諾於加薪時 提高儲蓄率，這麼做的同時，能降低行為經濟學家 所謂「損失趨避」★1（loss aversion）所帶來的痛苦
構。於是BIT運用社會規範（social norms）★3 的方
為諾貝爾經濟學得主的Daniel Kahneman與行為科學家Amos Tversky提出的「展望理論」（Prospect Theory）中，說明人們有「趨避損失」的心理傾 向。研究發現損失對人們的心理衝擊程度，約為收益所帶來心理衝擊程度高出2.5倍。人們為了趨避損失，經常展現不理性行為，導至蒙受更大 的損失。這與傳統經濟學假設的理性決策模式並不符合，畢竟只要期望值為正數（平均收益大於損失），人們應該會選擇參加，但事實並非如 此，因為人們做決策時考量的並非只有單純的經濟誘因，還包括心理動機等其他因素。例如，試驗顯示，（A）許多人寧願選擇無風險(即100% 的機會)地獲得$3000，而不會選擇有80%的機會贏得$4000的賭博；然而，（B）在同樣的這些人當中會有一些人偏愛20%的機會贏得$4000，而不 會選擇25%的機會贏得$3000。實際上，Ｂ組方案的形成只是將Ａ組方案的原有概率分別降低75% 而已。 資料來源：MBA智庫百科、投資×心理學×書院 ★2
為人們若沒有主動填入選項，將被認定為預設值的選項。因此改變預設值往往能扭轉計畫結果與影響力。例如在器官捐贈上，預設值若為「不捐 贈」，則公民需自主改變選擇，登錄為「願意捐贈者」，對提升器官捐贈比率成效較低；反之，若預設值為「願意捐贈者」，則公民需要主動更 改預設值，登錄為「不捐贈」，此預設值的改變勢必提升捐贈者的比例。 ★3
指人的行為受到周遭人們行為很大的影響。更具體來說，人的行為常會受到自身想與群體一致的願望驅策，特別是在他們認同那個群體時更是如 此。社會規範在商業領域的應用，最明顯的是用在銷售或廣告活動中，有太多例子顯示，稍加修改一下廣告詞就可能讓產品獲益無窮。如果你想 鼓勵的行為並非既有的社會規範，「強調其他人的正面行為」這種常見的做法，並不會有任何幫助。 資料來源：《哈佛商業評論》2012年10月號〈靠群眾力量賺大錢〉
BIT found that using social norms increased the percentage of will customers leaving a legacy to a charity to over 15% from around 5% and also doubled the size of contributions. The social norm group raised twice as much as the Baseline group (see graph below) and in total raised £990,000 from 1,000 individuals, which represents an increase of £825,000 above the baseline group.
a donation?’, and an intervention group were told the same, but with the additional line ‘Even a penny will help.’ This tiny addition not only led to an increased rate of contribution of 50% vs 29% - it also (notably) made no difference in the size of contribution. So more people were giving and were not giving any less. Cialdini and Schroeder believe that this was due to what they call a ‘legitimising effect’ - making it ok to give a little (altering what behavioural economists call the ‘subjective norm’ – what we think we should really be doing according to our perceptions of societal norms) rather than directly asking for small amounts.
3. Anchoring low to build donation rates Something that causes a bit of a dilemma for charities is the issue of small requests. Asking for a small donation can often lead to a small donation, and a correspondingly low level of funding raised. Yet asking for larger donations can generate the standard excuses: ‘I don’t have that kind of money right now,’ or ‘I already give to many charities,’ with the additional problem that because they’ve been asked to make a large donation people feel that it is not acceptable to give a smaller amount instead, leading to low response rates.
Another strategy for raising donation amounts uses the behavioural economic concept of anchors. When making a choice, we are often affected by the context in which we make that choice and the other options available. We anchor to extremes and tend to pick the middle option as a compromise – a phenomenon called ‘Extremeness Aversion’. For example, Oxfam present three pre-set options for people who want to make a one-off donation online. It changes from year to year – currently it’s set at £18, £50, £100 on the website. £100 probably seems a bit high for the average person, even for a one-off donation, but £18 feels quite low and is perhaps a deliberately odd amount. So donors are subtly directed to opt for the middle option of £50. (The circle is already helpfully marked at £50 too.) Donors are further encouraged to see the £50 level as desirable by its also being suggested in the ‘Own amount’ box and so they are given another helpful nudge in that direction.
Behavioural scientists Robert Cialdini and David Schroeder tackled this problem in a fascinating field experiment and found a simple solution. They recruited a team of researchers who posed as fundraisers in a door-to-door campaign across a middle-income suburban housing area. They tested two scripts: a control group were told ‘I am collecting money for the American Cancer Society. Would you be willing to help by giving
這項實驗與Co-operative Legal Services與Remember a
• 立遺囑人甲 （基本組） ：
行為科學家Robert Cialdini和David Schroeder為此難
• 立遺囑人乙 （直截了當組） ：
• 立遺囑人丙 （社會規範組） ：
BIT發現，利用社會規範的提示，在遺矚中實際留 下部分遺產捐助慈善機構的客戶，從原先的5％提 升至超過百分之15％，而捐獻金額也雙倍成長。社
（對照組僅29％），值得注意的是，捐款金額並未 明顯差異。也就是說，更多人捐款了，但平均捐款 金額卻沒有變少。Cialdini和Schroeder認為這是基於
4. ‘I’ll match you’ – If I give, they give Over time, charities and non-profit institutions have come to rely on a simple rule of thumb for fundraising – that of matching gifts, where a $100 donation from an individual to a non-profit organisation is matched by another $100 from another donor such as an employer. Looking at this technique through the eyes of behavioural science, we might speculate that its success could be due to reciprocity and commitment effects. It is motivating if we know that someone else has pledged to match whatever we donate. However, it has often been thought that the higher the ‘matched’ donation, the more effective it is at getting people to donate. For example, when a $100 donation is matched by a $200 or even $300 sum from the charity itself (a 2:1 or 3:1 ratio, rather than a 1:1 ratio). Fundraising experts preach that you should ‘never underestimate the power of a challenge gift…and a richer challenge (2:1) greatly adds to the match’s attractiveness’. Behavioural economists Dean Karlan and John List, finding that advice on matching was based largely on anecdotal evidence, decided to test this rule of thumb in a set of field experiments. What they found countered some of the convention wisdom on ‘matching’. Testing different letters on 50,000 prior donors to a liberal political organisation in the US, they found that although matching did indeed have a significant impact on both response rate and amount donated, larger matching ratios had no
additional impact. For 1:1 ratios, the probability that an individual might donate increased by 22% and the amount donated rose by 19%, but 2:1 or 3:1 had no further effect. So using matching gifts to incentivise potential donors is a useful tool, but there is no need to go overboard.
5. Seeing the end in sight Online funding/sponsorship websites such as Kiva in the US and JustGiving in the UK make a point of displaying not only the amount of money raised so far, but also how this equates to the desired target in percentage terms. This allows donors to see themselves in the powerful position of tipping the balance - rounding up a current total to a heftier sum - and there’s no denying the satisfaction to be had from taking someone’s total raised so far from say, £455, to a mighty £500 and in so doing pushing the percentage ever closer to the 100% mark. Kiva add to the motivating narrative by featuring details about projects and loans which are close to meeting their target eg. showing that Josefina Del Carmen (see below) has already raised 75% of the money she needs to buy farming goods. This technique of focusing on percentages is based on more research conducted by Karlan and List. They analysed what difference already having raised a percentage of the fundraising target made to the final sum raised, testing the theory that it would positively impact on the final sum, as part of a fundraising campaign at the University of Central Florida.
現象叫做「極端趨避」（extremeness aversion）。比 方說，拯救貧窮的Oxfam樂施會為線上捐款機制設定
行為經濟學家 Dean Karlan 與 John List 認為提高
evidence ） ★4。因此他們開始一連串的實驗檢驗這
四、1+1≥2 ── 我捐，你就跟著捐
法則──也就是「配對募款」，意即當一個人捐 出一百元，將有另一捐款者（像是企業主）捐出 一百元來呼應，形成配對。以行為科學的角度來
係指來自傳聞、故事的證據。有些傳聞往往細節詳細、詡詡如生，讓人印象深刻；有些案例則以新聞、八卦的形式被人一傳再傳，造成三人成 虎，讓人聽久了便信以為真。 資料來源：維基百科
Their results were impressive – increasing the percentage already raised from 10% to 67% led to improved response rates: 3.7% vs 8.2% of the solicited individuals. And not only do more individuals respond, but the size of donations increases as well. • at 10% of target achieved, the average donation was around $15; • at 33% of target achieved, the average donation was $26; and • at 67% of target achieved, the average donation was almost
interpret as a shortcut indicator of the fundraiser’s credibility. (Interestingly, JustGiving further prompt the social norm effect by including details of the most generous donor to date in their breakdown of individual sponsorship progression, and this can be a compelling message. It’s not donor matching, but it sends a subtle hint about levels of donation nonetheless.) There may be other things at work though too – reaching goals is initially hard work and donor motivation can be low near the beginning as the prospect of reaching the end goal seems very distant. When we are closer to the end, motivation picks up, so donating to a cause close to its target can be more appealing. If donors can see how their contribution is helping to chunk the progress of the target total it encourages strategic and, perhaps therefore, more generous giving. So our warm feelings of generosity are rewarded more when we can add £10 to £480 of a £500 target for example, than an initial £10 to kickstart the entire £500 target.
They also found that people gave fewer small donations when a large percentage had already been achieved, and large gifts (defined as over $20) were more frequent Why might posting the percentage of target achieved be effective in raising funds though? Looking at this using insights from behavioural science can help to cast light on some possible hypotheses. Karlan and List speculated for example, that it was used by donors as a signal or rule of thumb for the deserving nature or quality of the aim. This may be due to two different reasons; in the case of the kind of fundraising operated by Kiva, it could be perceived as signalling a commitment to cause from the charity - in that they were willing to devote some of their own scarce resources to it; another reason might be that because private individuals had already made donations this could lead to herding and social norm effects which other potential donors might
We also tend to prefer gains today rather than having to wait for future gains (something behavioural economists call time inconsistency), and knowing that a donation today could result in meeting the target very soon is more motivating. So if you need to raise some money, think about communicating how much has already been raised and how close you are to the desired target, before you go out asking for donations.
節。例如公開顯示Josefina Del Carmen已經募得購買
入計畫，會引發從眾的羊群效應（herding）★5 及 社會規範效應（social norms），使得其他潛在的
款的定義為超過20美金的捐款金額。） 我們也傾向於今日的收穫，而非等待未來的收成， 為何公開達成目標進度的百分比能有效提高募款？
指管理學上一些企業的市場行為的一種常見現象。經濟學裡經常用「羊群效應」描述經濟個體的從眾跟風心理。羊群是一種很散亂的組織，平 時在一起也是盲目地左沖右撞，但一旦有一頭羊動起來，其他的羊也會不假思索地一哄而上，全然不顧前面可能有狼或者不遠處有更好的草。 因此比喻人都有一種從眾心理。 資料來源：MBA智庫百科 ★6
Many of us want to give (or want to give more) to charity, but we often fail to deliver on our intentions. As with so many of our plans, there can be a gap between what we intend to do and what we actually end up doing and charitable giving is one of the plans that we can easily let slip; it needs some trigger action. These simple behavioural tools such as motivating people to give by telling them that others are giving and how much, or manipulating the anchors and reference points for donations, or giving donors the satisfaction of feeling as if their donation has made a real difference, or playing to the way we discount the future are all powerful ways to increase charitable giving and goal attainment very easily, with few additional costs to bear. These insights are also relevant to nearly all forms of fundraising - from attaining venture capital funding or departmental budgets or maybe even The Behavioural Architects’ fundraising for social projects!
許多人想捐獻（或者捐獻更多）給慈善機構，但卻 常常沒有貫徹這個意念。就如同我們很多的計畫一 般，想要做的與實際做的事情之間，往往有所落 差，而慈善捐獻便是其中一個我們常忽略的計畫。 這需要一些激勵。文中洞悉的這些簡單行為學技 巧，都是增加慈善捐獻和達成目標很有用的方法， 而且不需要多花什麼錢，像是，告訴人們其他人也 付諸行動捐款（以及捐了多少）以刺激他們、改變 捐款的錨點和參考值、讓捐款者得到滿足感，覺得 自己的捐款真的有幫助，或者想辦法讓未來的目標 更靠近。這些手法可用在幾乎所有形式的募款── 從創投資本募款到部門預算，甚至是為我們組織 （The Behavioural Architect）的社企計畫來募款！
投標的英文怎麼說？ 送人票券之後就是一張紙了！ 「殺費」是什麼東西？ 簡單的幾個英文單字分享，讓大家好用又好記 探察員Researcher
請大家不要想著公關票就直覺的翻成「Public relations ticket」
「free tickets」有些類似「索票」的概念。而「Complimentary」有恭維的意思，所以「Complimentary tickets」就有帶
Paper the House
票的英文說法就變成了「paper the house」囉。
The main strategy behind “papering the house” is to create positive word-of-mouth about a show.
I’ve got complimentary tickets for a concert.
Submission of Tender
Kill Fee 補償之稿費
是「submission of tender」。如果是要招標則是叫別人來，所 以就要用「call for tender」。
The magazine ended up going from 64 to 58 pages, and so they didn’t use my assigned article. However, they had promised me a kill fee of 25%, so my work wasn’t a total loss.
We are now studying the tender submission for works projects over the internet 例：我們正在研究讓承包商透過網路來繳交工程的標書。
例 ： 這 雜 誌 的 內 容 從 64頁 縮 減 成 了 58頁 ， 他 們 沒 有 用 我 的 文 章 ， 但 是 他 們 有 承 諾 要 給 我 25% 的 補 償 稿 費 ， 所以我也不算損失太多。
繁文縟節 按照字面上來說就是「紅色的帶子」，那這為什麼是繁文縟 節的意思呢？是因為以前英國官方文件上都是用紅色的布條 繫成一捆一捆的，所以「紅色的帶子」也就在19世紀初之後 被做為一個常見的比喻，形容官方的一些複雜流程所造成的 延誤事項。
We have to cut through all of the red tape to quickly attain a goal. 例：我們必須跳過所有的繁文縟節，以便迅速實現目標。
Bureaucracy 官僚體制 單字超過了十個字母好難背！那我們把字拆開來看看，再 了解一下它的意思就比較好記了。有時面對國外團隊好難解 釋台灣的官方政策要求，很無奈的時候就可以用「 bureauc-
racy」 來說明，這個字在中文看起來好像不是很好的詞， 但是在英文來說卻是一個中性的詞語。這個單字是用「Bureau」—希臘文的「治理」和「Cracy」—具有民主、貴族的 意義兩個組合而成，而民主或是貴族的統治是不是就很有「 官僚」的感覺呢？於是兩個字加起來就是bureaucracy官僚的 意思囉！
英文 生活 冷知識
GO Dutch 是大家出門的時候平均分攤，這起源是來自英國，以前英國 人暗諷荷蘭人非常吝嗇，所以出去吃飯的時候一起分攤錢， 算得很精就好像是荷蘭人一樣，就叫做「go Dutch」 但現 在不想用這種帶有偏見的英文成語的話，工作上可以用share
cost來說，如果是一般的生活用語也可以說share the bill。
常常聽到別人說英文的時候，幾個單字我們都認識，但拼起來也許就有其他的意思。 要表達的時候，原來不用想得太複雜，一句話就代表千言萬語。 英文用法和中文解讀大不同，一個單字背後也許有其他的意義，用錯了多害羞。 在這邊提供幾個簡單的英文，用有趣或拆解的方式分享，不用死背就可以很有記憶點。 如果大家有其他相關的英文單字建議或提供，也歡迎大家MAIL到innotes.email@example.com來，統整過後會一同分享給大家。
墨爾本──著重發展在地團隊 NEON獨立劇場藝術節 文
眾的La Mama Theatre和Theatre Works，或是Malt-
我所參加的講座主題為：The Art of Adaptation – Is
adapting an easy way out? 我發現即便許多團隊並沒有自己的表演場地，整個
雪梨Belvoir Theatre駐團導演Simon Stone、墨爾本
FRAUGHT OUTFIT劇團藝術總監Adena Jacobs、 澳洲雪梨Sydney Theatre Company藝術總監Andrew Upton、新生代劇本作家Joanna Murray-Smith和劇評 家Cameron Woodhead等藝術工作者就各自的角色發
事：NEON Independent Theatre Festival，由墨爾本
在 NEON 藝術節我看到獨立劇場在創作上追求突
去年我看的作品是The Hayloft Project★3 劇團的By
Their Own Hands。作品的故事其實並不驚豔，改
的在演員們如何完結這個故事。 回頭看到台灣，我們不乏機會在國內看見高水準的 藝術節除了劇團演出外，值得一提藝術節的講座部
雪梨與墨爾本兩個城市究竟誰是澳洲的文化首都的討論， 已經不是新鮮事。兩地都有支持的民眾與聲音。前任雪梨 藝術節總監Lindy Hume便在她的部落格中直言：Don’t buy
the Melbourne spin, Sydney is the cultural capital of Australia. 別信墨爾本的誇大宣傳，雪梨才是澳洲的文化首都。 ★2
墨爾本劇團成立於1953年，是澳洲歷史最悠久的公立專業 劇團，也是英語國家中最具規模的劇團之一。目前擁有一 座劇院Southbank Theatre和一棟總部大樓。 ★3
澳洲鬼才導演Simon Stone成立於2007年，曾獲得2010年墨 爾本藝穗節-最佳表演藝術節目獎、2009年雪梨劇場獎-最 佳獨立製作獎等多項重要獨立劇場獎項。
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Feature | An Experiment to Probe the Minds of Two Generations Feature | Sustainability of Performing Arts Organisations in Taiwan in.notes...
Published on May 29, 2014
Feature | An Experiment to Probe the Minds of Two Generations Feature | Sustainability of Performing Arts Organisations in Taiwan in.notes...