InMICS: Picture of a Profession and Challenges for Higher Education

Page 1

Music Composition for the Screen: Picture of a Profession and Challenges for Higher Education

WWW.INM ICS.ORG


TABLE OF CONTENTS


4 FOREWORD

Context of the project 4 Purpose of this study 4 Authors of the study 4 Thanks 4

5 INTRODUCTION 7 PART 1 – Music for audiovisual media: the meeting of two artistic forms 1.1. The symbiosis of music and images for the creation of an artistic whole 1.1.1. The “added value” of music for audiovisual media 1.1.2. Music and images put together to create an artistic entity

8 8 12

1.2. Looking for a common artistic language between audiovisual artists and composers 1.2.1.When the audiovisual artist meets the composer 1.2.2. Collaborating has no rule except that the audiovisual artist rules

13 14 15

22 PART 2 – From the specificity of music composition for audiovisual media to the necessity of an adequate education for composers wishing to work in this field 2.1. Composing music and respecting the constraints of a production 2.1.1. The composer as member of a team 2.1.2. The impact of the budget on the composer’s working conditions 2.2. Composing music for the screen is about finding one’s own space of freedom within the constraints 2.2.1. From showing one’s own musical style to taking musical “risks” 2.2.2. Expressing one’s creativity with music requires an excellent musical education

23 23 26 28

29 30

32 CONCLUSION 33 BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books 33 Book articles 33 Newspaper articles 33 Institutional reports and surveys 33 Interviews 33

34 APPENDIX 1. Participation of professionals: overview 1.1. List of participating composers 1.2. List of participating film directors 1.3. List of participating producers 1.4. List of participating journalists 1.5. List of participating video game studios 1.6. List of participating agents

34 35 36 36 37 37 37

2. Participation of students: overview 2.1. List of participating students in music composition for audiovisual media 2.2. List of participating students in audiovisual arts 2.3. List of participating students in sound design

38 39 40 40

3. Participation of higher music education institutions: overview 3.1. Content of existing master’s programmes in music composition for audiovisual media 3.2. Shape of existing master’s programmes in music composition for audiovisual media

41 42

4. Participation of higher audiovisual arts education institutions: overview

43

43


4

FOREWORD Context of the project “ICSS” (International Creative Soundtrack Studies) is a strategic partnership, which aim is to develop a joint Master’s programme in music composition for audiovisual media entitled “InMICS” (International Master in Composition for the Screen)1. It is funded with support from the Erasmus+ programme for a t­ hree-year period (from September, 1st 2014 to August, 31st 2017). This partnership is composed of four Higher Education institutions known for their expertise in music composition for audiovisual media and four professional partners specialised in the film industry and showing a great interest in music creation.

Purpose of this study This study of music for audiovisual media has been drawn up by the “International Creative Soundtrack Studies” Erasmus+ partnership (ICSS) and is conceived as a tool, which will be used to develop the new International Master’s Degree entitled “InMICS” (International Master in Composition for the Screen). This new academic programme will be launched in September 2018. The publication of this study has been made possible thanks to all the partners involved in the ICSS project: Spread throughout in Western Europe and North America, the eight partners have created and distributed online questionnaires to professionals in the field and interviewed 45 seasoned professionals including composers, film directors, producers, video games creative directors, journalists, agents, but also students in music and audiovisual arts. They also mapped existing curricula in music composition for audiovisual media in Europe and North America, obtained feedback via online questionnaires from higher music education institutions and audiovisual arts schools regarding their expectations and the relevance of programmes specialised in music composition for audiovisual media. Our present argumentation is based on the analysis of all this material. Our objective is to share this work to help to understand the close relationship between audiovisual media and music and the issues at stake in this field in order to best prepare future composers.

Authors of the study This study was written by Pauline Patoux (Conservatoire National Supérieur Musique et Danse, Lyon, France) on behalf of all the members involved in this Erasmus+ strategic partnership: Higher Music Education institutions: • Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique et de Danse, Lyon – France • The Royal Academy of Fine Arts (KASK) and The Royal Conservatory / School of Arts of University College Ghent (HoGent) – Belgium • Conservatorio di Musica G.B. Martini, Bologna – Italy • Faculty of Music, University of Montréal – Canada

Professional partners: • International Film Festival, Aubagne – France • Film Fest Gent – Belgium • Fondazione Cineteca di Bologna – Italy • Permission Inc., Montréal – Canada

© ICSS strategic partnership. All rights reserved.

Thanks The ICSS partners would like to express their deep gratitude to the professionals, representatives of the higher music and audiovisual arts education institutions, as well as students for sharing their e ­ xperiences, opinions and ideas during interviews or via online questionnaires.

1

For more information about this Erasmus+ strategic partnership, visit its website www.inmics.org.


5

INTRODUCTION Music has always illustrated stories under different forms (tales, operas, etc.) and since their creation, audiovisual media have always been very much linked to music. What we watch comes together with music. Think about silent films, we call them “silent films” because we could not hear the sound of the dialogues, but such films have always been shown to the audience with music played live by musicians. The first film music score is considered to date back to 1908, when films started to bear a real story-telling line. Progressively, technical improvements made it possible to obtain full synchronisation and create layers of speech and sound. Music continued to be used and gradually music has been acknowledged as being a great way to influence, reinforce or contradict the dramatics of a scene. Over the course of history, music has spread across various types of audiovisual media namely interactive ones such as video games. Therefore, musical and visual elements ought to be considered together, and today maybe more than ever, since we are surrounded by a growing number of audiovisual media of all sorts in our everyday life. It could be a film at the theatre, a commercial on television, a video game played at home, or a video watched on a smart-phone, etc. There is now a great diversity of media, all likely to appeal not only to our eyesight but also to our hearing. It seems, we hear more music by watching moving images on screen than by listening to music itself. As Miles Mosley, American music composer puts it: “The business of music to visual media is more powerful now than it’s probably ever been, because we currently digest more music by looking at something than to do just by listening to it, and that’s fairly new.2”. More and more, it appears that Western societies tend to favour the perception of the eye over the perception of the ear. However, watching content without music does not seem to make sense. It feels like something is missing. French composer Philippe Schoeller talks about cinema and explains: “The eye is more important than the ear in a film. Even though music changes a film entirely; it transforms a film. Music remains the unconscious element in a film.3”. However, even if it is unconscious, music always accompanies the audiovisual medium, and con-

2 3

Mosley Miles. Personal interview. March 2015. Philippe Schoeller. Personal interview. March 2015.

sidering the importance that music and audiovisual media have taken in our daily life, the correlation between these two components has become all the more complex. Music composition for audiovisual media is a very attractive field, seen as a lucrative industry for musicians who face difficulties in the song writing and pop music sectors. Thus it has spurred many composers on to work in this specific field. Besides, it has to be pointed out that many technological developments have broadened the access to music composition for many musicians, who have not necessarily acquired the specific knowledge and skills of music composition before, even though specific curricula in this field have long existed. Thus, more musicians, namely self-taught ones, can now compose their own music for audiovisual media more easily. The correlation of these trends explains why many more musicians try to enter the field of ­music composition for audiovisual media. This sector encompasses a very wide range of media, and does not only include cinema, which may be the first medium coming to mind when thinking about the association of music and moving images on screen. Nevertheless, it would have been far too restrictive to consider only cinema when there is a wide range of audiovisual media for which music can be required. However, many of the examples we will use here to illustrate our ideas come from the cinema sector, which itself touches on a wide range of formats (feature films, animation films, short films, and documentaries). This relies on the fact that our ICSS Erasmus+ strategic partnership is composed of professional partners, whose activity is mainly based on cinema. Our study focuses on the relationship between music and audiovisual media or what we can also call moving images on screen. The use of these specific terms helps to clarify the elements we want to analyse. Many composers who write music for the screen also write music for artistic forms, such as theatre, dance or circus, where the image does not come on screen. For this study, we decided to focus mainly on audiovisual media, which are set on screen since some elements linked to the production and the industry are quite specific and very important to take into consideration for composers wishing to make a career in this field. Within the wide sphere of audiovisual media, there are projects such as contemporary performances or videos, which tend to be more associated with contemporary forms of audiovisual arts than with cinema, since such projects


6 are created outside of the traditional channels of the industry. Our aim is not to ignore these forms of audiovisual creations, especially since some of our participants are active in these domains. Still, we will use more examples taken from fields more closely related to the mainstream industry of cinema or video game. As it has developed and has been influenced by a lot of different aesthetics and forms, it is quite difficult to define whether music for audiovisual media is a genre in itself. However, due to many particularities linked to the production, composing music for audiovisual media constitutes a specific field that distinguishes itself from “traditional” music composition. It has been influenced by the history of both audiovisual media and music. Throughout the twentieth century, many new aesthetic paths were discovered and followed, yet: “… musicology and music analysis have continued to focus in recent decades primarily on those score-based lineages of twentiethcentury Western art music that conceive of musical materials primarily in the terms of orthodox music notation. They have been slow as yet to respond to those parallel waves of post-1950s developments – experimental music, electronic, electroacoustic and computer music, interactive, site-specific and installation-based sound art, as well as electronic and popular music – in which musical thought and practice are irreducible to a score, where the ontological distinction between music and sound is disturbed…4”. Here Georgina Born refers to the second chapter of Jean-Jacques Nattiez’s book Music and Discourse: Toward a Semiology of Music 5, in which he questions the definition of the concept of music itself, and tries to understand how people differentiate music from non-music. He emphasises that throughout the twentieth century the border between these two notions has shifted. Still the distinction remains, mainly attached to cultural considerations: music corresponds to what people acknowledge as such, and non-music – whether it is described as sound or noise – refers to something unpleasant or disturbing. However, since these definitions are quite subjective, the difference between the two concepts is far from being set in stone, even within a given society. Still, Jean-Jacques Nattiez shows that what was before labelled as non-music has progressively been acknowledged as being music.

4

5

Georgina Born. Music, sound and space: Transformations of Public and Private Experience (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013) 358. Jean-Jacques Nattiez. Music and Discourse: Toward a Semiology of Music (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991) 288.

When it comes to music for audiovisual media, this “ontological distinction between music and sound” raises a very interesting issue. When composed for the audiovisual medium, music is integrated into a broader sound context. A soundtrack is composed of three main elements: music, dialogues, and sound effects. Some talk about a “soundscape” as an inclusive concept to describe the sound environment created by music and sound effects and considered as a whole. Therefore, within this specific context, the distinction between music, and non-music is a blur. Composing music for the screen requires taking into account all the other elements that form the sound environment. From these considerations and observations, we will develop several points, which emerged as crucial features across the feedback we gathered from professionals and educational staffs involved in the fields of music and audiovisual media. We believe that these characteristics ought to be carefully considered when thinking about the development of a new academic programme, the aim of which is to train future composers for the screen. We currently notice a growing interest in such curricula, which are already well established and acknowledged in the Anglo-Saxon sphere, whereas in continental Europe, degrees dedicated to music composition for the screen are still just developing. However, the dynamic of this field encourages us to pursue our wish to improve the education of young composers, and to offer them a relevant curriculum at the highest level and with an international professional network. The ICSS Erasmus+ partnership hopes this outcome will help to build other initiatives willing to support the implementation of new curricula in this specific sector.


P

A

1

R

T

Music for

Audiovisual Media: the Meeting of Two Artistic Forms


P

8

A R T 1

Questioning the audience’s reception of the message conveyed by the audiovisual medium, means taking into consideration, not only the visual perception but the whole audiovisual perception, combining both senses: eyesight and hearing. In the introduction of her book Music, Sound and Space 6 , Georgina Born stresses the fact that various cross-disciplinary initiatives develop to respond to “the relative underdevelopment of analytical approaches to the social dimensions of the interweaving of music, sound and space” and to underline “the social mediation of music sound and space, whether from the perspective of their capacity to engender modes of publicness and privacy, their constitution of forms of subjectivity and personhood, their affective resonance, or their embedding in capitalist dynamics of commodification and reification.” Considering Georgina Born’s argument, our aim here is to look at how music and moving images on screen unite for the purpose of one artistic project in order to figure out what is at stake in this relationship, to then best establish the content of a specific curriculum in music composition for the screen.

1.1. THE SYMBIOSIS OF MUSIC AND IMAGES FOR THE CREATION OF AN ARTISTIC WHOLE Music for audiovisual media has a particularity: it is not meant to be primarily performed in a concert hall but rather to exist within a wider audiovisual context. The purpose of such music is first and foremost to come together with an image on screen as part of a more complex experience for the audience. Some pieces of film music are sometimes recorded on CD or performed live by some wellknown orchestras without images on screen. Still such performances are rare considering the amount of music written for the screen. While music for audiovisual media can have a life in itself, this study will focus on its specific use when it is tied with images on the screen. Therefore, we first want to focus on what Michel Chion calls the “added value” 7 of sound when combined with moving images on screen. Then, we will see how music and images are put together to create a whole artistic project.

1.1.1. The “added value” of music for audiovisual media “People don’t go to the theatre to listen to a concert. It is more subtle than that. 8” claims French composer Philippe Schoeller. Music for audiovisual media has a specific role; even its absence in some scenes or some entire films is significant. Michel Chion raised the idea that what we see is always influenced by what we hear. He underlined the “added value” of sound that “engages the very structuring of visions… by rigorously framing it. 9”. “Added value” is also the notion used by French film producer Olivier Berlemont to express his opinion on the combination of music with moving images. He thinks that music has “an obvious added value: it softens a format, which is primarily didactic. It gives some sort of rhythm to it. It brings life. Composition fully participates to the drama of a film, to the story-telling and to the emotion of the audience who receives the film. 10”. Another French film producer Ron Dyens adds: “there is a dialogue between the musical sound and images. 11”. Some say that music sometimes appears as a real character. In some films, the music is so powerful that it gives the impression that there is another character on the set. Michel Chion writes: “Music is an actress, nothing more, nothing less.12”. Professionals interviewed frequently mentioned another metaphor, namely that the composer acts as a photographer who develops a film13 . Thus we under-

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Georgina Born. Music, sound and space: Transformations of Public and Private Experience (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013) 358. Michel Chion. Audio-Vision: Sound on Screen (New-York. Columbia University Press, 1994) 270. Philippe Schoeller. Personal interview. March 2015. Michel Chion. Audio-Vision: Sound on Screen (New-York. Columbia University Press, 1994) 270. Olivier Berlemont. Personal interview. March 2015. Ron Dyens. Personal interview. March 2015. Michel Chion. La musique au cinéma (Paris: Fayard, 1995) 476. This metaphor was mentioned by French composer Christophe Heral (personal interview. March 2015), and Quebec composer Charles Papasoff (personal interview. March 2015).


9 stand that associating music with moving images on screen adds sense to the images, meaning that an audiovisual medium would not be complete without music. Music helps to create another form of dialogue with the audience or with the video game player. Still it is a non-verbal dialogue, giving the audience room for interpretation. This is what American composer Jeff Beal points out: “Music is an abstract form. It’s not like words where we can know exactly what the story is. There is something mystical about music... I often find that a film is trying to get to that place. It’s not verbal; it’s not what can be said. It’s the underline, emotional, emotions and nonverbal communication... The power of it is in its abstraction. One of the things I love about it is that it can really mean different things to different people. I like the idea of a film that can have multiple interpretations, that you can watch it and you’re not necessary judging anybody.14”. Looking at video games, we observe that music has accompanied this audiovisual medium for many years. In 1971, Computer Space, the first commercialised video game, only had sound and no written music. But not long after, in 1978, a continuous music score was composed for the first time for a video game (Space Invaders). Thanks to the improvements of the technologies, music has gained a much more prominent role, and has become a great tool in underlining the dramatic progression, and in some cases even the gameplay itself. Until the moment where music is added to the game prototype, an important dimension is lacking, because music conveys a significant interactive aspect, which facilitates communication with the player. Axel Berndt and Knut Hartmann15 , in their article entitled The Functions of Music in Interactive Media, point out that: “They substitute not just real, but also non-existent sound effects, e.g., gesture illustrations like the upwards sliding glissando that illustrates a jump movement, and motivic cues that reward picking up an item.” referring to early video games such Super Mario Bros (Nintendo, 1985, music and sound effects by Koji Kondo). Music has always played a big part in video games, giving more coherence to the game and to its evolution. Thanks to some musical landmarks, the player can better know what he has achieved and what he is expected to do. Music also helps to convey emotions that images do not transmit easily. Many scholars, starting with Polish musicologist Zofia Lissa16, have studied the functions of music when it is put together with moving images. She created a list of functions that she published in her book Ästhetik der Filmmusik. Here are some of these functions, which we think ought to be described:

FUNCTION

DESCRIPTION

Musical illustration of movements and sounds

Music can be used to illustrate or emphasise movements and to stylise sounds when the music is precisely synchronised with visible or audible events and actions on screen. This function is usually called the “Mickey-Mousing” effect.

Representation of locations

Music makes it possible to play with cultural references that the audience can easily interpret and understand; whether they are geographic, ethnic, or social.

Historic associations

Music can easily refer to a specific age or period of time.

RELATED QUOTE

14 Jeff Beal. Personal interview. May 2015. 15 Axel Berndt, and Knut Hartmann. The Functions of Music in Interactive Media. In: Interactive Storytelling. First Joint International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling. (Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2008) pp. 126-131. 16 Zofia Lissa. Ästhetik der Filmmusik. (Berlin/DDR: Henschel Verlag, 1965) 456.


P

10

A R T

FUNCTION

DESCRIPTION

Deformation of sound

This is made possible by the close association of music with sound within a global soundscape. Sound can therefore be altered by the accompaniment of music or even by music covering the sound.

Comment

The audience can experience the audiovisual media while stepping back when there is an audiovisual counterpoint, meaning that the music contradicts the image on screen.

Source music (also called diegetic music)

It refers to the music, which is not only heard by the audience, but also by the characters in the scene. For example, if a scene takes place during a concert, then the music heard by the audience is the music of the concert itself.

Expression of (actor’s) emotions

Music helps to convey the characters’ feelings to the audience. Music can therefore reinforce the acting.

Symbol (e.g., national anthems)

Music is an easy way to convey ­representations and symbols that are not necessarily shown on screen but that the audience, thanks to the music, can easily identify.

Anticipation of subsequent actions

Music can not only underline and support the story-telling line, but it can also contradict the message being delivered by images on screen, or be used to anticipate what is going to happen.

Enhancement and demarcation of the film’s formal structure

For example, one musical theme can be identified to a character, or to a specific place, so that as soon as the audience hears this musical theme, it is clear that a particular reference is being made.

1

1 2 3 4

Royal Brown. Overtones and Undertones: Reading Film Music. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994) 396. Elliot Goldenthal and Julie Taymor. Personal interview. May 2015. Jeff Beal. Personal interview. May 2015. Michel Poulette. Personal interview. June 2015.

RELATED QUOTE

Royal Brown wrote: “musical scores very often tell our emotions how to read a given filmic sequence.1”.

Interviewed on the role and impact of music in a film, American film director Julie Taymor said: “Let it just support what’s already there coming from the actor, unless the actor is doing a bad job and you say to the composer: ‘can you make something happen that the actor and the director didn’t make happen? 2”.

American composer Jeff Beal: “I am always trying to write for a place of honesty because that’s where you connect, with that person, wherever they are. And if you’re trying to write from that point of view, then the audience can sort of engage with that character and have an experience and come up with an emotional response to what’s been done.3”. For him, this function is all the more important because he also writes the music for TV series, namely for House of Cards. Since the story runs over episodes and time, music helps to create landmarks for the audience that can easily refer to characters or places.


11 FUNCTION

DESCRIPTION

Multi-functionality of music (the functions are not mutually exclusive)

The use of music is very subtle since it can embody several functions at different moments. In a way, the music plays with the audience, who has to interpret both the visual and the musical clues.

Sound effects

Music is always very much linked to sound effects and is part of a broader soundscape.

Speech/Dialogue

Music can be used as a punctuation tool to create rhythm between moments when there are dialogues and moments when there is not.

The function of silence

The absence of music is meaningful to the audience who suddenly realises that there is silence.

Non-functional aspects

Music can also be played only for inner-musical and aesthetic motives.

RELATED QUOTE

Quebec film director Michel Poulette explains his conception of music within the whole sound context: “For me, the music is the breath of the work. But who says music also says silence. Sound effects. And dialogues. For me these four elements are interconnected.4”.

These categories, established fifty years ago, are still very relevant today when analysing the functions of music for the screen. Of course, since then other studies have been made on the same topic by scholars from different fields (musicology, cognitive psychology). However, many of them still refer to Zofia Lissa’s typology. Annabel J. Cohen studied the functions of film music from the cognitive psychology angle. She demonstrates that music has a real impact on the audience, influencing the way it receives the audiovisual medium. According to some of her experiments and investigations, she asserts that: “in the simplest case, the cognition of film music is additive: it sums up associations or meanings mentally generated by the different film and music components.17”. Cognitive psychology advocates that the auditory and the visual domains simultaneously stimulate the senses of the audience. She also underlines that music has an impact on our memory, when she writes: “Music does little to aid in the memory of visual cues because visual recognition is sufficiently high that supplementation is unnecessary. At the same time, the study also demonstrates that subjects are quite capable of remembering pairing of music and images.18 ”. American composer Miles Mosley well illustrates this idea when he says: “To me what’s beautiful is the marriage of the two… I like melodies that stay with you. I like music in a film which you appreciate equally the melodies that remind you of the film and the film that reminds you of the melodies.19 ”. Music and moving images are put together in order to create one unique element. In that sense, rather than dichotomising vision and hearing, anthropology today advocates the embedding of interdisciplinary research on sound and hearing in wider cultural and historical analyses of the interplay between the senses. As far as music for the screen is concerned, both audiovisual and musical aspects interact. It is its very first mission since the purpose is to create an artistic entity.

17 Annabel J. Cohen. Film Music. Perspectives from Cognitive Psychology. In: Music and Cinema (Hanover: Wesleyan University Press, 2000) pp. 360-374. 18 Idem. 19 Miles Mosley. Personal interview. March 2015.


P

12

A R T 1

1.1.2. Music and images put together to create an artistic entity Philippe Schoeller: “The relationship between the eye and the ear is an infinite invention. It is more infinite than orchestral music writing. One can invent any appeal or any repugnance.20”. The arguments mentioned above prove that music is a real “added-value” when it is put together with moving images. What we want to show now is how music and moving images can unite in order to create one unique artistic project. The use of music for audiovisual media has been handled differently depending on the place where the production was settled. Looking at the history of film music, Anglo-Saxon productions have dedicated a greater attention to music than European and French productions for instance. This can be explained by some cultural, as well as ideological and aesthetic considerations. In France for example, there has been a literate and namely what we could call a realistic filmic tradition that has long pushed music into the background of the production, arguing that it distracts the audience from perceiving the reality of a scene. Thus French cinema is characterised by the prevalence of dialogue. After dialogue comes sound and music eventually comes last. French music composer Maurice once said: “Cinema could be the great lyric expression in the arts today. But it drives back as an offence the collaboration of real musicians and gives them very few opportunities to enter the studios.21”. Anglo-Saxon productions have always dealt with music as a prominent element in a film. Looking at the history of American cinema, from silent films onwards, music has played a very important role. There is this cultural habit of manipulation and integration of music into the mix. According to Jean-Pierre Arquié, a French composers’ agent and director of JPAgency, this phenomenon is also linked to the history of American music itself. Film music attracted many European composers who emigrated to the United-States at the beginning of the twentieth century. For him, film music is part of the history of American music. It is true that still today, references made to great film music composers are often American. Nowadays differences regarding the consideration of music in films tend to fade since fewer and fewer production teams are 100% made up of people from the same country. Thanks to easier mobility and communication, it has been made possible to work abroad or to work remotely for a foreign production. “A film is an ensemble most often made of combined pieces you have to imagine as a whole. It is not simply the addition of “original” or unique collaborations – but the frame that an author, a team spirit or an unknown miracle created, and which transfigures each element.22”. This quote from Michel Chion means that music and moving images have the same purpose, which is the creation of the whole audiovisual medium. Although the artistic raw material is different and requires specific techniques and skills, the final result comes as an entity. In that sense, Quebec film director Stéphane Lapointe describes what he thinks music and filmmaking can achieve: “With music composed especially for a film, you feel the creative symbiosis.23”. Throughout the creation of the audiovisual medium, images are not the only source of inspiration, and music is not always bound to follow the idea coming from the image, it can also guide or orientate the image towards new elements that were not necessarily foreseen. Tali Goldstein, associate producer at Minority Media, explains why it is important to work closely with music from the beginning of the creation process onwards: “I involve my composers as soon as the project starts. First for inspiration, so sometimes we’re working on prototypes and we try to have music in the prototype to inspire people working.24”. Talking about filmmaking, American director Julie Taymor describes the importance of the composer’s involvement in the artistic project from its very start and takes the example of American composer Elliot Goldenthal with whom she mostly collaborates: “I think in general, it is a good thing to discuss what is the general musical language before. So even as you’re shooting, you’re imagining what kind of sound you might have, but you don’t always… I think Elliot [Goldenthal]

20 21 22 23 24

Philippe Schoeller. Personal interview. March 2015. Maurice Ravel. “Les aspirations des moins de vingt cinq ans”. Excelsior. Paris. 28 November 1933. Michel Chion. La musique au cinéma (Paris: Fayard, 1995) 476. Stéphane Lapointe. Personal interview. June 2015. Tali Goldstein. Personal interview. July 2015.


13 gets inspired by the play, by the words but then he has to see the image, he has to see the finished movie.25”. Moreover, both music and moving images are artistic forms in which time and movement play a very important part. Janet van den Brande, graduated Master student in filmmaking from HoGent / School of Arts, Belgium), explains the similarities she sees between music writing and filmmaking: “Making a composition or making a film, it’s the same. Of course, it’s not the same, but you have the same tension. You have to build something up. You have to work towards something… For example if you have photography, it’s one still image, and everything has to be there. But in the composition you add things, and things go away, and film is a movement as well.26”. Both music and moving images can play on time and movement and turn these elements into a source of information and interpretation, which can be consistent or inconsistent. Therefore, music and moving images can either follow the same rhythm and be fully synchronised, or on the contrary be set on two different levels to create an audiovisual counterpoint and thus emphasise two ideas: the one conveyed by the moving image and the one conveyed by the music. This discrepancy between the two desynchronised elements eventually has an impact on the story-telling line. For Belgian audiovisual artist Anouk De Clercq, this play between music and moving images can create an interesting ambivalence. She herself always tries to generate contradiction: “It feels to me that there is a possible trap of being too synchronised, to illustrate the sound somehow, and that is really something I find lethal for a project. That’s why I prefer to have it at the last stages because I prefer to make first like a visual composition, so that there’s already kind of an internal rhythm going on, a pace, maybe music, you could call it music as well I guess. Then sound comes in. Then it’s about what is lacking or which part can sound betray? Sometimes you can contradict the image and it becomes much more interesting. I think it’s a more intelligent way of working with visuals and sound.27”. Quebec film producer Roger Frappier has the impression that “Quebec directors are afraid of music and have always wanted to use it in counterpoint to the image, not in support of the image. I feel that the music should support the image, although it can be used sometimes as a counterpoint.28”. As far as video games are concerned, because of the non-linearity of this medium, the issue of time becomes all the more important. Thanks to technical improvements, it has been made possible to integrate music into the game as the player gradually progresses, in order to foster interactivity throughout the game. We understand that music and images can interact in multiple, not to say infinite ways. A whole range of ideas and interpretations can arise from the association of these two artistic forms, even though the aim of musicians and visual creators remains the realisation of an artistic entity. However, the combination of music and moving images mainly relies on the collaboration between the visual artist and the music composer. If some like to talk about “symbiosis”, we will now see that this collaborative work can be difficult to establish, maybe first and foremost because finding a common language is not always an easy task.

1.2. LOOKING FOR A COMMON ARTISTIC LANGUAGE BETWEEN AUDIOVISUAL ARTISTS AND COMPOSERS When asked: “How would you describe a good film music?”, French journalist Benoît Basirico answered: “A good film music is a good music composed for one specific film… It is when the director takes a step toward the composer, trusting him and letting him suggest ideas, and simultaneously when the composer takes a step toward the director, willing to understand his film and his characters.29”. Here Benoît Basirico describes an ideal situation. Our point now is to show that the relationship between the musician and the audiovisual artist can be much more complex than that, and influences the result of their collaboration.

25 26 27 28 29

Elliot Goldenthal and Julie Taymor. Personal interview. May 2015. Janet Van Den Brande. Personal interview. June 2015. Anouk De Clercq. Personal interview. June 2015. Roger Frappier. Personal interview. June 2015. Benoît Basirico. Telephone interview. June 2015.


P

14

A R T 1

1.2.1. When the audiovisual artist meets the composer The audiovisual artist and the musician often come from different backgrounds, and have seldom or never had the opportunity to meet each other before their start to work together. Therefore, finding someone to work with, which is the first step of this collaboration, can be difficult. Since the audiovisual artist launches and founds the audiovisual medium project, he is the one likely to be looking for a composer. But audiovisual artists rarely know composers they can call and ask to get involved in the project. Therefore they often request some help and advice to choose the composer they will work with. Within the production team, producers and music supervisors can suggest someone they have been recommended or someone they have already worked with. However, depending on the size of the production, there is not necessarily a music supervisor. Therefore, the audiovisual artist mainly relies on the advice of the producer. It can happen that producers not only advise the audiovisual artist but also force him to work with a composer they have chosen. Sometimes big productions wish to work with a well-known composer for reasons relying on marketing strategies. French producer Pascale Cuenot explains that productions sometimes run against the clock, and it can have an impact on the composer’s choice: “Timing is also very important, especially in the industry of cinema. Sometimes a director really wants to work with a composer in particular, but it is not possible because the producers want someone else. It often happens in the United-States. The director can influence the choice of the composer but he does not necessarily choose his composer. So if they don’t know each other, they’d better quickly find ways to communicate.30“. As far as the composer is concerned, he can be supported by an agent, who helps him to find projects and deals with the business aspects of the profession. Canadian composer Denis Sanacore underlines the positive aspects of having an agent: “It is a good thing to have an agent, it can be very helpful in order to get informed on some scoring projects. A good agent will try to get the best working conditions, salary and will help to find you projects that fit you the best.31”. However, many composers do not have an agent, especially in non Anglo-Saxon countries. This means that composers have to look for projects by themselves. In fact, a composer is most likely to be called to work on a specific project because he has been recommended, or because the audiovisual artist or members of the production team like some of his previous compositions or the specific proposals he made for the project. A recurrent criticism is aimed at audiovisual artists who often show little interest in music, therefore when it comes to choosing a musician to collaborate with, it can be difficult to find a common language to communicate and exchange ideas. Pascale Cuenot, who has released documentaries on famous film music composers, has had the opportunity to get a lot of feedback and to observe the relationships between members of the production. She noticed that: “Words are complicated. How to describe a piece of music or an atmosphere? The director has a clear view of the screenplay and of the image. But it is often complicated to express what he wants, and sometimes he does not even know it.32”. Sometimes, audiovisual artists are even afraid of letting music enter their project because of the new dimension music can give to the image – which proves again the impact that music has when associated with images. According to famous Italian composer Ennio Morricone: “There are some directors who actually fear the possible success of music… They fear that the audience or the critics will think the film has worked because there was a very good music score.33”. Quebec film producer Pierre Even confesses that directors are not the only guilty ones. He says that producers, as well as directors often have difficulty talking about music with composers: “Generally, directors’ and the producers’ knowledge of music is rather limited. On the one hand, it is complicated to communicate our creative ideas to a composer because we do not always use the correct musical vocabulary. We use words that don’t correlate to music, so the director’s and the producer’s ideas cannot always be translated into music.34”.

30 31 32 33

Pascale Cuenot. Personal interview. April 2015. Denis Sanacore. Online questionnaire interview. June 2015. Pascale Cuenot. Personal interview. April 2015. Dalya Alberge. “Ennio Morricone: good film scores have been replaced by the bad and the ugly”. Guardian.com. 3 June 2015. 34 Pierre Even. Personal interview. June 2015.


15 Nevertheless, the new generation of audiovisual artists tends to be less reticent about working with music. On the contrary, they seem to have a real interest in music. This phenomenon is probably linked to the fact that music is becoming more and more present in everyone’s daily life. Young audiovisual artists are more likely to be influenced by pop or electronic music, and sometimes wish to work with an artist in particular, whose music they like, even though this musician has had no experience in composing for the screen. Observations made by British agent Alexander Darrel confirm this trend: “A lot of the directors coming up – and this is very important – the next generation of directors that are now 35 to 40. What have they been listening to? Have they been listening to Mozart? No, they’ve been listening to Coldplay, they’ve been listening to bands and artists and they want to work with artists or they want to work with someone with that sensibility.35”. French documentary filmmaker Sébastien Carayol stands as an example of audiovisual artists belonging to this new generation, and for whom music is a crucial element of the project. Nevertheless he explains how difficult it is for him to express his ideas in musical terms. He would really like to collaborate with music composers but he admits that he only knows very few of them. As a music-lover and vinyl collector, he always has music in his mind and tends to pick up pieces of music he already knows and likes. He adds that the latter are often rare, but correspond to the atmosphere he wishes to give to the film. “The real problem I’d have working with a composer would be to put words on what one feels and to put words on a piece of music… Since music is what came to me before everything else and still means a lot to me, I tend to go towards what I know naturally.36”. But another true fact is that musicians sometimes do not know much about cinema. In that case, it is all the more difficult to find a common language to communicate. For French agent Jean-Pierre Arquié, composers ought to learn how to talk in visual terms to exchange ideas more easily with the audiovisual artist: “As composer, when you want to convince a film director… you have to talk about cinema. You should not talk about music with him, unless this man or this woman is a real music lover and you can really share moments listening to pieces together. But still ¾ of them are no music lovers or just pretend to be. The latter are the worst because they have fixed pre-conceived ideas… We often hear that it is difficult to communicate because the director doesn’t know how to talk about music. It’s wrong. It’s the composer, who doesn’t know how to talk about cinema.37”. Considering the difficulties that musicians and audiovisual artists face in meeting, firstly, and then in communicating about a project, it is plain that there is a need to launch initiatives to make both artists meet and get to know each other’s work earlier on in the course of their respective educational career. Ideas regarding potential collaborations will be discussed later. First we will analyse in more detail the collaboration between audiovisual artists and composers.

1.2.2. Collaborating has no rule except that the audiovisual artist rules “They are like people from different cultures and language groups suddenly expected to become lovers! 38” In terms of collaboration between the audiovisual artist and the composer, no rule has ever been established. It primarily depends on the form the audiovisual artist intends to give to this collaboration, since he is the one setting the conditions of this collaborative work depending on the project he initiated. The configuration of this collaboration can be very different, according to the people involved in the relationship and to the project. What we have heard from all the professionals we interviewed or who responded to our questionnaire is: there are never two identical collaborations, even though people have been working together on several projects. In the end, it is never the same because each project is different.

35 36 37 38

Alexander Darrel. Personal interview. May 2015. Sébastien Carayol. Personal interview. March 2015. Jean-Pierre Arquié and Etienne Deletang. Personal interview. July 2015. Andy Hill. Online questionnaire interview. August 2015.


P

16

A R T 1

When it comes to cinema and more especially to feature films, some “tandems” are well known for their long-term collaboration and great work such as Bernard Herrmann and Alfred Hitchcock, ­Sergio Leone and Ennio Morricone, Federico Fellini and Nino Rota, Steven Spielberg and John Williams, Claude Lelouch and Francis Lai, Pedro Almodóvar and Alberto Iglesias, Jacques Audiard and Alexandre Desplat, etc. Working over many projects together is regarded as being the best configuration because both artists know each other: they progressively find a way to communicate, exchange ideas and trust each other, which facilitates the collaboration. In such cases, the collaboration is a real human experience and sometimes it even turns into friendship. Quebec composer Charles Papasoff39 insists on the fact that it is essential for the composer and the audiovisual artist to become friends throughout the creation process. He admits that it is not possible to get along very well with everyone, but he considers that it is always possible to find ways to get to work with someone. According to him, if the collaboration goes extraordinarily well, then the audiovisual artist is likely to call the composer again for further projects. Depending on the shape the audiovisual artist intends to give to this teamwork, the composer can start to work on a project at different stages. As far as feature films are concerned, composers most often think they are asked to compose the music too late, meaning that they only take part in the postproduction phase of the project. Sometimes composers are asked to work on the project at an early stage, which means before a film is shot, but according to composers this seems to happen too rarely. Nevertheless, most of the feedback – whether from composers, film directors, producers, agents, etc. – conveys the argument that for the sake of the project, the first musical ideas should be written as early as possible. Besides, the music composing process should follow the whole production and postproduction processes. Thus composers would have more time to understand the wishes of the audiovisual artist and better adapt their work to them. Russian composer Sergey Evtushenko presents his idea of an ideal collaboration with a film director: “Working from the very beginning – to be the same thinkers, to be involved to work on script, casting, editing and even promotion. To be codirector and have the same ‘language’ and vision. The director is my eyes and I’m his ears.40”. Quebec film director Kim Nguyen also advocates for an early involvement of the composer in the project: “I like to establish the musical tone rapidly for three or four key scenes that are very representative of the film’s universe. I like having musical tracks from the composer during the first edits so we can evolve with their work.41”. Another Quebec film director Stéphane Lapointe also agrees with this argument but points out the hurdles which can be faced when he describes his idea of the ideal collaboration with a composer: “Ideally, I would have the composer come onboard much earlier in the production so that the music could even inspire the shoot. Or even nourish our mutual creativity by beginning to discuss the music in preproduction and talk about films that color the musical direction, and, then, ask the composer for preliminary partitions. It would be so good to start to work with the composer early on because this would create something much more organic. However, this would require a lengthier investment on the part of the composer; it would require the composer to be on location during the shoot, which might be less stimulating artistically. And it also has monetary implications for the composer.42”. Within the animation film sector, work conditions for a composer are quite specific, compared to feature film. The animation filmmaking process is much longer. On average, three years are required to carry out a whole project, says French animation film producer Etienne Deletang43 . Unlike feature films, music often comes early on in the creation process and the composer starts to work at the stage of the storyboard. Composition is developed throughout the whole animation filmmaking process, which is not the case in the feature film sector. Therefore, both the composer and the audiovisual artist have time to establish a close relationship and progressively work together on the music. Belgian animation film director Raoul Servais44 always asks the composer to come and work with him on the storyboard to explain to him what his ideas are so that the musician can quickly send him some first mockups. Raoul Servais adds that since the storyboard is a very flexible tool, it is important to have the composer suggesting ideas likely to improve the visual material.

39 40 41 42 43 44

Charles Papasoff. Personal interview. March 2015. Sergey Evtushenko. Online questionnaire interview. July 2015. Kim Nguyen. Personal interview. June 2015. Stéphane Lapointe. Personal interview. June 2015. Jean-Pierre Arquié and Etienne Deletang. Personal Interview. July 2015. Raoul Servais. Personal interview. June 2015.


17 Work conditions for a composer are also quite specific in the TV series sector compared to other audiovisual media. The approach towards time is completely different. American composer Jeff Beal, who composed the music for House of Cards relates his experience: “A typical movie score is maybe of 40 to 80 minutes long. Over the course of a season of House of Cards, you write approximately six hours of score. That’s a lot of music. It’s like two operas practically. But creatively it’s really fun because we’re telling longer stories… It kind of takes you through that grand sort of journey.45” Because of the specificities of TV series, the composer, just like the rest of the production team, starts to work at an early stage because he participates in a project, which by definition, will be further developed. In the video game industry, audiovisual artists tend to stick to one composer once they found someone they can get along well with: “It’s just like any other member of the team, once you’ve found someone you work well with and you get along well, you wish to further collaborate with that person.46” explain Louis-Felix Cauchon and Patric J. Mondou (Borealys Games artistic directors). They are looking for someone who has specific skills and especially understands the whole project and the creative guidelines that the studio team wishes to follow. Composers are very often involved from the beginning of the project onwards so that the music can inspire the rest of the team, and can help to promote the game to the public or publishers/investors. Tali Goldstein from Minority Media explains that this creative union is crucial: “One of the first things that I look for is that the composer aligns creatively with the product we are working at, that he gives himself or herself fully to the project creatively.47”. However the difference between big video game studios and smaller ones should be pointed out. Big studios work with larger teams, which means that tasks are much more divided and individualised than in smaller studios where people have to be more multitasked. Smaller studios more often work with local composers, whom they can easily meet and work with, whereas bigger studios more often work with composers who live abroad and do not physically interact with the development team. The video game creators we met have experienced both work conditions in various studios and confess that they prefer to work more closely with a composer throughout the whole development process. In that sense, smaller video game studios are quite specific in terms of work conditions since people continually work with the same team. More often, artistic directors wish to integrate the composer as permanent member of the development team, whereas members of a film production work temporarily on one specific project. There is no long-term collaborative work with the same team over many projects. Internationalisation of the sector, as well as technological improvements, have made it possible for composers to work remotely. This most certainly explains why we tend to see less collaborations involving artists from the same country. When both artists are not in the same geographical area, it sometimes happens that the composer and the audiovisual artist only share emails and do not really get to know each other. Quebec composer Michel Cusson48 observes that the relationship between the audiovisual artist and the composer is becoming increasingly rare. Choosing a new composer for a new project mostly relies on aesthetic reasons. Quebec film director Stéphane Lapointe explains how he proceeds: “I change composers with each production to explore new perspectives.49”. In the field of animation film, French producer Corinne Destombes50 says that due to the specificity of each project, the production always chooses to work with different composers because they are looking for the person, who is most likely to write the music, which will convey the atmosphere that best corresponds to the film. Quebec film producer Roger Frappier also shares this opinion on the composer’s choice and shows that the producer can also influence this decision: “Insofar as a film composer is concerned, I believe it is important to do research for each film, given a film’s distinct character, universe and rhythm. You have to be open-minded enough to look for music composers who are in tune with what you are producing… When you always use the same composer, you always get the same music in dif-

45 46 47 48 49 50

Jeff Beal. Personal interview. May 2015. Louis-Felix Cauchon and Patric J. Mondou. Personal interview. June 2015. Tali Goldstein. Personal interview. July 2015. Michel Cusson. Personal interview. June 2015. Stéphane Lapointe. Personal interview. June 2015. Corinne Destombes. Personal interview. March 2015.


P

18

A R T 1

ferent films. The producer plays an important part in searching for creative elements for every film.51”. This way of proceeding is also shared by other Quebec producer Lyse Lafontaine, who explains that “Sometimes the directors already know the composers; in this case we choose the person with whom the director wants to work. Otherwise, we suggest composers to the directors… We choose a composer in relation to the tone of the film. I do not believe that all composers are suitable for all films. We have access to a wonderful pool of composers.52”. The specificity of each project can thus justify the choice of another composer in order to find the musician who will best fit into the artistic vision of the audiovisual artist for the project. Once the composer has been chosen, he has to write music in accordance with the audiovisual artist’s ideas for his project. Therefore the composer really has to listen to the artistic wishes to then be able to suggest pieces of music that will correspond. American composer Miles Mosley53 likes to spend a lot of time talking to the audiovisual artist to get to know his artistic influences, whether they come from music or from films. Then he listens to the music and watches the films the audiovisual artist likes to try to better understand what is likely to be expected of him. Composers explain that it is their duty to take a step towards audiovisual artists. Canadian composer Denis Sanacore considers his involvement towards the audiovisual artist as such: “I get very attached to directors, because I give all that I am as an artist in order to please the director, I really try to get into his mind so I can achieve something great. I think you must try to do everything that pleases the director musically and not let your ego take over when you have to start over or else.54”. This is also the opinion shared by American composer Jeff Rona who writes: “My job is to listen, and understand their mental and emotional workings. They are trying to tell a story, and they have asked me to help them. My job is to fulfil their vision, but in my own way.55”. We understand that composers are expected to do their best to write music which corresponds to the project. In terms of collaboration, it means that there is a hierarchy between the composer and the audiovisual artist who oversees the project he has launched. Quebec film director Kim Nguyen looks for “enormous flexibility and self-effacement. I want to be able to work with a composer almost the same way I work with an actor. I look for someone who is extremely adaptable to avoid a war of egos.56”. Many professionals who participated in our study frequently mentioned the notion of “ego” and insisted on the fact that it can easily become a source of conflict since two egos are confronted. In that sense, composing music for the screen is very different from composing music for itself. As far as music for the screen is concerned, the artistic paternity of the whole project belongs to the audiovisual artist, not to the composer. There is a huge difference between operas and films for instance. The first are given the name of the composer and the second are given the name of its director. French music composer Philippe Schoeller – probably better known as music composer than as music composer for the screen – talks about the issue of ego very clearly: “There is one God on the set, it is the director. I am just a technician. It is not bad for one’s ego. But you have to be strong. In the end, the director decides. You cannot imagine it in the field of music. It is to assert the uniqueness of a film.57”. Therefore, being flexible is a key asset for musicians wishing to compose music for the screen. Quebec film director Kim Nguyen explains: “The person has to dedicate her/his creativity to serve the film, while accepting to be influenced by the soundtracks we might have suggested during the editing process.58”. Very often audiovisual artists think about some pieces of music when they start to work on their project and wish to use existing pieces of music. In that case, productions have to pay for existing music rights, which are expensive. Then, the budget left over for original music is very low. Quebec producer Lyse Lafontaine underlines: ”It all depends on the director. There are certain exceptions where we know that some directors prefer to use existing music because they write their scripts listening to that music.59”. Thus it happens that composers have to write music compatible with existing pieces of music the director wants to have for specific scenes. More and more, audiovisual artists get inspired by pieces of music, which surround them in their everyday life, and put some pieces of music

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

Roger Frappier. Personal interview. June 2015. Lyse Lafontaine. Personal interview. June 2015. Miles Mosley. Personal interview. March 2015. Denis Sanacore. Online questionnaire interview. June 2015. Jeff Rona. Online questionnaire interview. July 2015. Kim Nguyen. Personal interview. June 2015. Philippe Schoeller. Personal interview. March 2015. Kim Nguyen. Personal interview. June 2015. Lyse Lafontaine. Personal interview. June 2015.


19 called “temp tracks” on images before the composer enters the project. The idea is that composers will be inspired by these temp tracks to write musical ideas that will replace the existing pieces. This habit can be very problematic for composers, who are then inspired not only by images but also by pieces of music that they have to interpret in their own way because they obviously cannot simply copy the pieces of music they are given. Quebec film producer Pierre Even made a rather critical remark about film directors’ tendency to use temp tracks: “Directors often use a temporary theme track because they have problems verbally communicating the musical direction they want to take. By this, I mean that, during the editing process, directors can put existing songs or music in the edit to give the composer an idea of the desired direction. It is often a mistake to proceed this way because the temporary music ‘pollutes’ the composer’s creativity and limits potential directions. It is important for directors and producers to verbally communicate the musical style and tone they are seeking to avoid this type of creative pollution.60”. Composers themselves are rather sceptical about the use of temp tracks, because they feel as if it restrains their creativity. Quebec composer Michel Cusson has a more nuanced opinion on the use of temp tracks: “If the references are good, it can be very interesting… It happened to me that the temp track was absolutely horrible and I said I would make a new temp rack again. You have to think of the committee. I had to have it approved… And then one month or two months later, I came with my music. But I had them prepared. However if some [directors] fall in love with their temp racks, it is dangerous, but it can happen and it is a communication problem. I have to admit that I did the same thing when I didn’t like the temp rack, I suggested other things, and I lost the position. I suggested other musical ideas and they didn’t understand. But I preferred that rather than writing the music and end up with lots of problems because there was a mutual misunderstanding. If we didn’t understand each other at that stage, we wouldn’t have understood each other later. So I withdrew from the project.61”. It goes without saying that technological improvements have had a considerable effect on this collaboration. It is now possible to create mock-ups that the composer can easily and quickly send to the audiovisual artist. It has become very rare for a composer to meet the audiovisual artist in a studio to have him listening to musical ideas played on the piano. Now the use of mock-ups is very frequent. Thanks to the creation of new software, it is possible to listen to mock-ups sounding like believable recordings with an ensemble or an orchestra. Thus, the audiovisual artist can get a clear idea of the composer’s proposals very early on and give his opinion on the music. The use of mock-ups allows the audiovisual artist to follow the composing process and get more actively involved by giving the composer regular feedback on the music. The music creation process becomes much more precise than before. For Belgian composer Dominique Pauwels, these new possibilities represent a great change: “When you were writing music in earlier times, you were writing on paper and you had to translate this paper music on the piano for the director to explain what your intentions were with different cues. There had to be a kind of trust, very basic trust from the directors towards you because you could not let them hear what the final product would be… And this is something, which is a very big turnaround in the psychological relationship between a composer and a director. Now you have to really give convincing mock-ups..62”. Though he acknowledges here a great improvement, he does not see it as a way to gain time, on the contrary he says it has changed his habits and it is more likely to make him lose time: “I have to spend a lot more time on a project than I had to before. Because before, I just wrote it, worked with the director, got his consent, wrote the score, did the orchestration, went to the studio, recorded, made some changes, and that was it. Now this whole thing is still there but this mock-ups thing comes in-between so I have to make a mock-up. To make it a little bit convincing, there is a lot of time spent on the computer for the same result at the end.63”. However, for Dominique Pauwels the most worrying thing regarding these mock-ups is the lack of trust: “I think [it is] very very important. Because when you’re the writer, it narrows down the fields where you can work in. It leaves a very small window of opportunities for creative accidents, which are most of the time really nice moments, if you can acknowledge them.”64 . This question of trust is crucial. The audiovisual artist always has the final word in terms of image and music since it is his project from the beginning onwards. However, when the audiovisual artist could only see the scores and listen to the composer’s proposals on the

60 61 62 63 64

Pierre Even. Personal interview. June 2015. Michel Cusson. Personal interview. June 2015. Dominique Pauwels. Personal Skype interview. June 2015. Idem. Idem.


P

20

A R T 1

piano, he could not get a precise idea of the final recorded result. Therefore, once he had agreed to the composer’s suggestions, he had to really trust the composer for the rest of the job. Nowadays, since the audiovisual artist can more easily listen to what the music would sound like once recorded, he can share his opinion more often and thus influence the composing process, it gives some composers the feeling that they cannot be given as much trust as before. Still, the influence of the audiovisual artist on the music depends on how much the latter wants to get involved in this process. Thus, we observe that work conditions for composers can be very different depending on the collaboration with the audiovisual artist who eventually takes decisions regarding the composer’s involvement. There is neither a specific set of rules nor an ideal configuration regarding the collaboration of the audiovisual artist and the composer. Valentin Hadjadj (French graduated student in composition for the screen from the Lyon CNSMD) seems to have already understood these characteristics when he says: “If there is one thing to know, it’s that there’s no proper rule or way of doing things to work with a director.65”. It is crucial that young composers understand this. To do so, they also have to know and understand the work of the audiovisual artist. “All composers and music supervisors must be, first and foremost, filmmakers.66” says American teacher and scholar of composition for the screen Andy Hill. Thus, students wishing to write music for the screen have to understand the aspects of filmmaking. To do so, we assume that students in both music and audiovisual arts have to meet and start working side-by-side on academic projects because it is by talking and doing things together that they will both better understand what each one expects from the other. As Andy Hill points out, so far the problem has been that: “Despite the proliferation of ‘film scoring’ programs in conservatories and university music departments, there is an absolute vacuum when it comes to music curricula with the film schools themselves, which is where the subject really ought to be taught – in a place where composers can study side-by-side with directors, writers, etc. As a result, most students leave film school with little if any understanding of how to utilize music in drama and other visual media, and most composers exit their programs with few if any filmmaker contacts.67”. We underlined those difficulties encountered by many visual artists when it comes to meeting composers and dealing with music. We are convinced that such problems can be solved if audiovisual artists get to know musicians during their studies. More concretely, higher music education institutions and schools specialised in audiovisual arts should launch partnerships and organise crosscutting workshops and seminars as opportunities to exchange knowledge and skills. On the one hand, this would be a great occasion for audiovisual arts students to get to understand sound and music, the role they can play, and how they can interact with moving images. On the other hand, it would give composition students the chance to better grasp the various aspects and constraints of filmmaking. Blomme Molenstra, Belgian student in animation film at HoGent / School of Arts, Belgium is willing to participate in such crosscutting educational projects with composers, because he thinks: “It could be very interesting to talk with these people, try some small things out and see what happens. Because it’s much closer and easier to contact such people.68”. Thus, we are persuaded that curricula dedicated to music composition for the screen should promote a crosscutting educational approach by giving both music and audiovisual arts students the opportunity to experience collaborative work within the frame of their education.

65 66 67 68

Valentin Hadjadj. Personal interview. May 2015. Andy Hill. Online questionnaire interview. August 2015. Idem. Blomme Molenstra. Personal interview. June 2015.


21 *** “Music for movies is not a genre. That’s the beauty of it. Each experience is new and different.” says Italian composer Carlo Siliotto69 . This sentence, extended to other kinds of audiovisual media, clearly describes the idea that we have developed in detail: Although it is hard to define if music for audiovisual media is a genre in itself, it presents the particularity of being conceived to go with specific images on screen. Music for the screen only exists when the two components (music and moving images) are put together towards a common goal: the creation of an entity. For this purpose, two artists have to collaborate. This relationship between the audiovisual artist and the composer is about sharing artistic ideas, which will progressively develop into a whole and unique creative project. Minority Media associate producer Tali Goldstein insists on: “Remembering that what we do is art. I think that’s an artistic work and I think it’s really important to have relevance and that connexion with the people you’re working with.70”. It is indeed important not to forget that the purpose remains based on creation. Nevertheless, audiovisual media sectors are part of a broader industry where technical, as well as economic and financial matters are at stake. Music for the screen is then undeniably subject to specific aspects and procedures linked to this industry, which is constantly evolving. In the second part of this study, we will look at the very specific aspects of the audiovisual media production and explain why composing music for the screen is a very particular profession. We will also suggest concrete educational ideas, which could be implemented in the frame of a curriculum dedicated to the education of future composers, because we are convinced that one needs to be well prepared for the psychological as well as technical characteristics of the job. This is all the more important since a growing number of musicians wish to make a career in this field. ***

69 Carlo Siliotto. Online questionnaire interview. July 2015. 70 Tali Goldstein. Personal interview. July 2015.


P

A

2 From the Specificity of Music Composition for Audiovisual Media to the Necessity of an Adequate Education for Composers wishing to make a Career in this Field

R

T


23 The first part of this study helped us to better understand the singular relationship between music and moving images, identifying the almost infinite artistic possibilities, as well as the difficulties that the meeting of these two artistic forms can create. From these observations, we have already made some proposals, which could lead to the improvement of young composers’ education. We will now concentrate on the composer’s work and analyse it on a daily basis in order to pinpoint the skills and knowledge young composers should gain when studying music composition for audiovisual media in order for them to best anticipate their professional life. Therefore, we will consider the screen as the given context within which the composer can develop his creativity.

2.1. COMPOSING MUSIC AND RESPECTING THE CONSTRAINTS OF A PRODUCTION The screen is the visual horizon of the audiovisual medium and what happens on screen is the first context of the music. This means that music has to be written in accordance to specific conditions that are linked to the screen and to the technical and financial constraints of an audiovisual medium production. We are convinced that composition students ought to be aware of them, and should also be trained to face them. However, for composers it is not all about following guidelines, it is also for them a challenge to develop their creativity within a specific context. From the understanding of this ambivalence between constraints and freedom, we will underline some key educational elements that could complete students’ background and best prepare them for the reality of the professional world.

2.1.1. The composer as member of a team Working as a composer on an audiovisual project implies respecting constraints linked to the time schedule and other requirements established by the production. When composers write music for an audiovisual medium project, they are automatically part of a production, and thus members of a team. As soon as they get involved in the project, their work very much depends on what the other members of the production say. This is why composers have to be very good listeners. Quebec composer Charles Papasoff compares composing to conducting: “As composers, we ought to be curious about all the departments involved in the creation of a movie to understand the work of others and feel like a conductor, who automatically corrects a problem with his gestural when he hears one.71”. We already insisted on the collaboration of the composer with the audiovisual artist, who is the composer’s first contact partner and certainly the most crucial one since music has to be composed in accordance to his artistic wishes. Nevertheless, being a composer for audiovisual media does not only mean dealing with music; a lot more elements await composers throughout the course of their career. They are part of a broader industry, which means that their daily professional life is not just about artistic matters, but also about technique and business. This is why they get to collaborate with different members of the production on elements, which contribute to the creative development of the project. As far as the business is concerned, questions have to be addressed to the producer, even though sometimes, discussions with the producer go beyond the latter aspects and tackle creative and artistic issues. This is the point made by Quebec composer Michel Cusson who says: “There are producers who are very helpful, who understand all the dimensions of a movie. They do not only care about financial matters.72”. The relationship established between the composer and the producer depends on whether the composer has an agent or not. If so, the agent’s role is to deal with all the business aspects of the work with the producer, which saves the composer some time that he would have to dedicate to it otherwise. If not, then the producer is a key person, whom the composer ought to talk to regarding financial and contractual matters. The fact is, many composers do not work with agents, especially at the beginning of their career. Still they have to find projects, sign contracts, but also organise the whole production part of their work, which goes from booking studios, to working

71 Charles Papasoff. Personal interview. March 2015. 72 Michel Cusson. Personal interview. June 2015.


P

24

A R T 2

with orchestrators among many other tasks. All of this can be time consuming when one is not used to dealing with the business aspects of the profession. This is why we believe that curricula in music composition for the screen should offer students courses dedicated to business, including intellectual property and copyright law, seminars on how to draw up a budget, on how to negotiate contractual conditions, etc. Furthermore, it is important that students become familiar with the use of communication tools because they are key elements to the development of one’s career nowadays. Regarding all the technical matters, composers ought to discuss with various members of the production such as music supervisors, sound designers, dubbing mixers, music and picture editors, etc. American composer Jeff Rona points out that throughout the whole production and postproduction processes, the composer gets to collaborate with different members of the production. He identifies three key work partners: “The director of course. But picture editors have the greatest insight into the structure and musical needs of many projects. Towards the end I am involved with the sound team, especially the dubbing mixer.73”. According to French journalist and film director Thierry Jousse, the editor acts as a go-between for the director and the composer: “When the director is not keen on music, the editor often launches ideas in the director’s stead or together with him. So he talks a lot with the composer. The editor is a very important work partner.74”. Italian composer Carlo Siliotto also points out that: “Editors are important for the pace of the story-telling, the time transitions and in general for the needs of the movie.75”. We assume that discussions with the editor are likely to help the composer to better understand how his music can adapt to the moving image. Working with the editors on concrete elements for the editing is a crucial creative stage of the development of the project, and it allows the composer to go beyond the theoretical talks he had with the audiovisual artist. Besides, we already mentioned that music is part of a broader soundscape integrating music, sound effects and dialogues. Therefore, composers are advised to work in close collaboration with sound designers. This is the point made by many of our interviewees such as American composer Miles Mosley: “Whom you do have to talk to is the sound designer. He has to occupy a certain frequency depending on the scene… It helps the final product if you are aware sonically where the sound designer is.76”. As far as video games are concerned, composers and sound designers are also expected to work very closely throughout the whole game development process. For Tali Goldstein, associate producer at Minority Media, this collaboration is essential: “It’s super important for us to have the sound designer and the composer working together and understanding what the other does because after all it’s a layered material and they cannot compete.77”. The composer is also often asked to create not only the music but the sound effects as well. According to the Game Audio Survey published in September 2015, “80% of all composers who delivered music for a game also delivered at least some sound effects78”. Composers are not only tied to others’ opinions, they are also very dependent on others’ specific schedule and rhythm. As mentioned above, composers often arrive on a project at the postproduction stage, and are asked to write the music very quickly. Thus, they have to get used to working well and efficiently under pressure. Young composers we have met are already aware of this specific aspect of the profession and many of them take it as a challenge and source of motivation and creativity. Therefore composers are required to be very flexible regarding both the artistic wishes of the production and the production schedule, which they have to adapt to. However, in order to easily discuss with the production members, composers have to try to adjust their musical discourse to the references of people working with moving images. This is why it is very important that young composers know and understand the images and their characteristics so that the dialogue between the two parties favours the creation of an artistic entity. Students wishing to make a career as composers for audiovisual media often have a particular

73 74 75 76 77 78

Jeff Rona. Online questionnaire interview. July 2015. Thierry Jousse. Personal interview. March 2015. Carlo Siliotto. Online questionnaire interview. July 2015. Miles Mosley. Personal interview. March 2015. Tali Goldstein. Personal interview. July 2015. GameSoundCon, “GameSoundCon Game Audio Industry Survey 2015”. Survey. September 2015. Web.


25 interest in moving images, no matter which medium is concerned. Therefore, it creates a sort of automatic link between music and moving images, just like American composer Miles Mosley explains: “Tying music to a visual medium has, in my instance, come a lot from being fan of cinema. I don’t know that anything replaces first having a passion for bringing to life what something looks like, by guiding people with music into it and have those emotions.79”. However, all students might not have a passion for a specific audiovisual medium. Besides, they probably do not have an extensive knowledge of theoretical, historical, aesthetical and technological aspects related to audiovisual media. This justifies the necessity of delivering courses dedicated to moving images. Students should really have insight into audiovisual and film perception from different approaches, to better understand how composers can contribute to the grasp of moving images by acting on another sense: that of hearing. Therefore, it is important that students get to know which elements are at stake in the fields of film theory and cognitive science. As we understand from American composer Jeff Beal, being able to read music is as important as being able to read the message conveyed by the moving images: “I think it’s really important to become literate about film, not just about music. You certainly have to become a great musician. There’s a lot of work you have to do, just learning how to write music before, before you think about writing for the screen but also I learned in my career that I wanted to become as literate about cinema as I was about music, because cinema is a form of literature.80”. Beyond those theoretical aspects, students in composition for the screen should have a historical approach of audiovisual media and get to know the evolution of this specific link between sound and moving images. American director Julie Taymor wishes that young composers had a better understanding of the history of audiovisual media: “I think that the lack of knowledge of young people of the history of film, and of foreign films – foreign to America –, world films is really terrible.81”. It is also crucial that musicians understand the various ways of story-telling and to what extent music can have an impact on the interpretation of moving images: confirming the story-telling line conveyed by images, or disrupting it by the creation of a counterpoint. It would also be important for students to approach more technical components such as framing and colouring techniques. Julien Bellanger (French student in music composition for the screen at the CNMSD in Lyon) is keen on acquiring more knowledge in filming techniques for instance. He considers: “It is necessary for a composer who wants to work with images to know how to make a film, and how to work with people who make a film: what are the deadlines? And beyond this, on a simply technical viewpoint: what’s a zoom? What’s a tracking shot, etc.? Because music might be needed to highlight such techniques.82”. Students should be trained to pay attention to such details, which transmit many keys of understanding that composers can use to best respond to the moving images with their music. Composers have to understand moving images. This is what American composer Miles Mosley explains: “When you score a film, the first thing you try to figure out is why are we seeing what we’re seeing? What’s the purpose of it? Then you know what it sounds like. You’re trying to find the heart of it, you’re trying to find the middle of it.83”. It is important to take into consideration that each audiovisual medium has its own specific characteristics. Therefore, and because there is a wide range of audiovisual media for which composers are likely to write music, students should be offered courses dedicated to different audiovisual media. From one audiovisual medium to another, techniques, issues relating to time, software and work conditions can vary greatly. In the field of video game for examples, audiovisual artists are looking for composers who already know the specific techniques and tools. Borealys artist directors clearly say: “You need to be very very versatile. For us, the first thing we like is when we have the same person composing and dealing with sound effects… We also need someone who understands the video game making techniques, but it is something rather rare.84”. Young composer Valentin Hadjadj has already perceived that teamwork is really important for a

79 80 81 82 83 84

Miles Mosley. Personal interview. March 2015. Jeff Beal. Personal interview. June 2015. Elliot Goldenthal and Julie Taymor. Personal interview. June 2015. Julien Bellanger. Personal interview. June 2015. Miles Mosley. Personal interview. March 2015. Louis-Felix Cauchon and Patric J. Mondou. Personal interview. June 2015.


P

26

A R T 2

composer when it comes to writing music for audiovisual media. He explains: “When we work as composers for audiovisual media, we are actually part of a team, and we have to serve the image, unlike musicians composing music for concerts who are separated from the rest.85”. Good communication is essential to create good working conditions, even though one can never avoid last minute changes, as explains American composer Miles Mosley: “There is a lot of moving parts to film, and everyone is trying to do the best he can. But there are surprises every time. Preparation kinds of keep you ahead of all that stuff. Making sure that you’re in communication is important.86“. Composers for audiovisual media do not work for themselves. They collaborate with others on the creation of an artistic project, for which music is associated with moving images. However, depending on projects, the role, collaborations and responsibilities of the composer can vary because of financial reasons. We will now see to what extent the budget can have an impact on the music composition process.

2.1.2. The impact of the budget on the composer’s working conditions It has to be pointed out that the composer’s work can be very different from one audiovisual medium to another. But it can also be very different from one production to another even within the same audiovisual medium field. In the United-States, production teams tend to be bigger than elsewhere in Canada or Europe for example. The size of the production together with its budget have a sizeable impact on the work environment. French composer Jean-Claude Petit puts this fact forward: “We cannot compare working conditions in the USA to working conditions in France. Traditions and working conditions there are based on the division of tasks. In other words, there is one sound designer who deals with the whole music and one editor or music editor. In France, we do not have these resources. Besides, in the USA, if the composer is well known, he is granted everything. He’s got three orchestrators around him and sometimes he’s asked to write one hour and a half of music within ten days. It’s a real industrial work with huge teams.87”. The bigger a production is, the more divided are the tasks. Therefore, specific professions such as music editors, who are both editors and musicians, are very likely to be found in American productions, where the work is more individualised, and not so much in European productions. According to French music supervisor and composers’ agent Marie ­Sabbah, there have been music supervisors and music editors for much longer in the United-States than in France for instance, where this profession is currently just becoming established. The reason why such professions are not commonly found in France for example is because budgets are lower. What often happens, adds Marie Sabbah88 , is that composers themselves decide to cut their own budget, so that there is money left to hire a music editor. And when it is not possible and the budget is too little, composers have to be very multi-tasked. They cannot focus only on artistic aspects. They also have to deal with technical matters, that they spare themselves if they are surrounded by a bigger team. Some composers choose to work with their own team around them. Within this team, there are colleagues, with whom they regularly work over many projects, but only on musical aspects. Jeff Rona explains that he is used to working with a musical team: “I very rarely ask other composers to write, but I have had help in reworking pieces, adding polish, revisions, etc. I have orchestrators, editors and engineers that help me.89”. Some others prefer to work in a more isolated manner and do the whole musical work on their own. It remains quite unusual that a few composers work together on the music for the same project. However, American teacher and scholar of composition for the screen Andy Hill is convinced that “composer consortiums and team efforts are the model for the future.90”. Budget is of course always a crucial issue. Music for the screen is very often regarded as a lucrative field because it is closely linked to the audiovisual medium industry. This is why many musicians coming from other musical sectors wish to work as composers for audiovisual media. However, a unanimous observation is made regarding the decrease of production budgets in the cinema industry for instance. It is more and more difficult to find funding. The proportions of this phenomenon are different if we look at productions in the United-States, Canada, Great Britain or continental Europe.

85 Valentin Hadjadj. Personal interview. May 2015. 86 Miles Mosley. Personal interview. March 2015. 87 Séverine Abhervé, N. T. Binh, and José Moure. Musiques de films : nouveaux enjeux. (Bruxelles : Les Impressions Nouvelles, 2014) 224. 88 Marie Sabbah. Personal interview. July 2015. 89 Jeff Rona. Online questionnaire interview. July 2015. 90 Andy Hill. Online questionnaire interview. August 2015.


27 Nevertheless, all of them suffer from financial problems. Nowadays, everyone on a set has to work with less money. Budget allocated to music is no exception to this rule. Simultaneously, expectations towards musical outcomes remain very high or are even higher than before. This downward trend in budget has important consequences, namely on music recording possibilities. For Marie Sabbah, budget matters must be transparent to the composer from the beginning, because if the composer knows how much money he is allocated, he can better adjust his work according to the recording costs. It goes without saying that recording a whole symphonic orchestra is much more expensive than recording a small ensemble. An alternative has been found to continue having music recorded by orchestras but for less money: a growing number of recordings are relocated namely from the UnitedStates to Europe (often London or Belgium) or from Western European countries to Eastern European ones such as Hungary or Bulgaria because costs are lower there. Budget decrease has also encouraged the use of electronic samples. For productions, it is a way of saving the money they would have spent on real recordings. Nowadays technological improvements have made it possible to obtain good quality music created on computers instead of having real musicians recording music in a studio. Here budget and technological trends converge towards this new way of making music. American composer Jeff Rona considers that this leads to a more democratic access to music composition for audiovisual media: “Modern production techniques have made scores at every budgetary level sounds much better. There’s a little more democracy than before.91”. American teacher and scholar of composition for the screen Andy Hill shares a much more sceptical view point on this topic: “Another risk is that budget-minded producers may eventually mistake the simulacrum for the real thing and move to eliminate live recording altogether. That would deprive future audiences of the sweeping emotional experience of hearing real instruments in the score.92”. Considering how closely budget and musical possibilities are linked, it is essential that producers and directors have a better knowledge of music, so that they can think and talk about it with the composer in more realistic terms. Quebec producer Pierre Even acknowledges this causal connection: “All creative choices are inevitably linked to the available production budget.93” and adds: “Certain composers are more expensive than others because of their experience, reputation and the projects, on which they have worked. Of course, the budget has a determining influence on the choice of the composer. Having said that, more experienced composers are sometimes still keen to work on a project in spite of a limited budget. We choose the composers according to their sound; as producers, our task is to persuade the composers to work on a project in spite of the budgetary limitations.94”. Working with lower budget seems a long-term trend that composers have to face, especially young ones who enter the field since they are expected to work for less money while delivering a top quality creation. Preparation is indeed a key element. And the sooner one is aware of these very specific working conditions, the better it is. This is why we believe that it is essential to give students in composition for the screen the opportunity to meet professionals who can share their experiences. This way, students would get to know the responsibilities and working habits of their future colleagues. Therefore, teachers responsible for curricula dedicated to music composition for audiovisual media should invite professionals from this sector. However, according to French composers’ agent and music supervisor Jean-Pierre Arquié95 , it is primarily important to invite professionals, who do not necessarily like music, because throughout their professional career composers do not get to work only with people, who share a musical interest. On the contrary, Jean-Pierre Arquié considers that students should get to meet and talk with people, who are less confident working with music. Discussing with professionals remains probably the best way for students to start creating their own network, which is crucial to finding job opportunities. We are convinced that delivering an education in music composition for the screen is not only about providing students with musical skills, but also about enhancing their employability. This is why we insist on the fact that students should gain some professional experience. In that sense, we think that the possibility to do an internship supervised both by an educational institution and a professional structure is an interesting option. We consider that curricula dedicated to music

91 92 93 94 95

Jeff Rona. Online questionnaire interview. July 2015. Andy Hill. Online questionnaire interview. August 2015. Pierre Even. Personal interview. June 2015. Idem. Jean-Pierre Arquié and Etienne Deletang. Personal interview. July 2015.


P

28

A R T 2

composition for audiovisual media should include an internship period at some point of the degree. This would be a good way to respond to the composers’ need to acquire professional experience. French agents and music supervisors Marie Sabbah96 and Jean-Pierre Arquié97 both advise students to look for opportunities to start working as a composer’s assistant. They assume it is a very good occasion to follow the whole composing and producing processes while meeting people, thus providing a great opportunity for them to broaden their professional network. Students who specifically wish to compose music for video games are also advised to start gaining professional experience as soon as possible. Borealys Games artistic directors98 are aware of the fact that finding paid projects is difficult for young composers. But according to them, when possible, it is always good to participate in such projects in order to meet and work with people likely to recommend you later on. It also shows one’s motivation and it is an opportunity to gather concrete material to show to potential employers. Besides, Louis-Felix Cauchon and Patric J. Mondou explain that apart from participating in such unpaid projects, composers can work as sound testers for bigger companies. This is what many young composers do to earn a living. For Borealys artistic directors, it is an occasion to have a paid job, which is still related to sound, but also to get to observe people working, and become familiar with the various aspects of the production. Composers are part of a team with various schedules and constraints due to technical as well as financial matters. They have to take them all into consideration and adapt to them. This is one crucial aspect of the profession students should be aware of early on. But it is also very important to stress that the composer doesn’t just depend on others’ will, he also has a great role to play through his music, because – as it was previously proved – music influences the visuals. Belgian animation film director Raoul Servais explains that when he thinks about a new animation film project, he does not only consider the images, the action or the story-telling, he also thinks about the music, even if it is still very vague in his mind: “I already have something in mind that will change progressively while talking with the composer.99”. What Raoul Servais says underlines that the composer does not only follow the audiovisual artist’s guidelines, he is also expected to suggest ideas. “The composer, together with the editor is the first critical viewer of the film.” as French film director Bertrand Tavernier said to Thierry Jousse who interviewed him in June 2012100 . We will thus now focus on the artistic space of freedom that the composer can find in order to express his creativity. We will also see to what extent the composer can reveal his own musical ideas and eventually identify which elements the composer can rely on to develop his music.

2.2. COMPOSING MUSIC FOR THE SCREEN IS ABOUT FINDING ONE’S OWN SPACE OF FREEDOM WITHIN THE CONSTRAINTS Confirming Bertrand Tavernier’s idea, Italian composer Carlo Siliotto stresses the idea that composing music for the screen leads to a double duty. It is about receiving guidelines but it is also about interpreting and transforming them into another specific artistic form. According to Carlo Siliotto, what counts is: “Getting the point of the movie. Being able to be the first spectator for it. Being ready to receive emotions for you to give back.101”. When composing music for audiovisual media, it is essential to respect some constraints linked to the creation of the project. However, this does not necessarily mean that the composer is restrained from expressing his creativity. On the contrary, it is his job to compose in his own style within the framework given by the production. Composers are asked to write music for a specific project, and they have to respect the artistic guidelines the audiovisual artist establishes. In that sense, composing music for audiovisual media is very different from composing music to be performed at a concert. When writing music for moving images, composers have various sources of inspiration aside from their own, since they discuss with the audiovisual artist, watch images, listen to pieces of music the audiovisual artist likes or to temp racks, etc. What American composer Jeff Rona says aptly describes

96 97 98 99 100 101

Marie Sabbah. Personal interview. July 2015. Jean-Pierre Arquié and Etienne Deletang. Personal interview. July 2015. Louis-Felix Cauchon and Patric J. Mondou. Personal interview. June 2015. Raoul Servais. Personal interview. June 2015. Bertrand Tavernier. Interview by Thierry Jousse. Cinema Song. France Musique. 28 June 2012. Radio. Carlo Siliotto. Online questionnaire interview. July 2015.


29 this specific aspect of music composition for the screen: “My job is not to have freedom, but to bring my own personal approach to the visions of the project.102”.

2.2.1. From showing one’s own musical style to taking musical “risks” Composers are chosen to work on a project first and foremost for their own and personal composing style. French composers’ agent and music supervisor Jean-Pierre Arquié is frequently asked by many composers to become their agent. He told us how he selects the candidates, and according to which criteria he decides whether or not he wants to represent a composer. For him the most important is the composer’s style: “What I’m looking for is style. I’m not so much interested in the knowhow. I need to be surprised, to have different colours, to see different ways of reacting and I need to see personalities being progressively revealed, and giving a little bit of themselves.103”. Borealys Games studio founders also consider style as a crucial asset for composers: “For us what counts is the style of the person to be sure that it matches our project.104”. Although composers do not give their name to the audiovisual project, they remain artists with a creative mind. It has to be said here that within a film production, three contributors are considered as authors: the director, the screenwriter and the composer. The composer’s participation in a project goes beyond an entire dedication to the audiovisual artist’s view. As composers, their role is also to make proposals and to suggest ideas in order to find what might be missing from the picture. Within the frame of the audiovisual medium, composers have to look for their own space of freedom. For American composer Miles Mosley, this is easy to do because he considers that: “the visual medium provides the most freedom… When you work in the visual media, you’re selling the dream of whatever that project is… From a composing standpoint, where you start is the most exciting. What you do first, where you head off is the freest you can ever be. Freedom of what this is going to sound like.105”. Being given this space of freedom can also lead some composers to take inventive initiatives, which can be considered as “musical risks”. We asked many composers whether or not they manage to introduce personal elements, which do not entirely follow the direction of the audiovisual artist. French composer Laurent Eyquem clearly explains that it all depends on the director himself. He adds that in the cinema sector, there is often a big difference between directors with much experience, who are more inclined to accept innovative suggestions from the composer and young directors: “There are really two opposites. When I work with directors that have a long career, that had many nominations, worked with many composers, usually it is extremely easy because they want to work with me for what I can bring to the movie. Then it’s very often like total freedom, they bring me the movie and say: ‘now it’s your baby, bring your idea of the film through your music’. When you work with first time directors, it’s hard because it’s their first movie, they want to micro-manage a lot of it and therefore they really think they know better what should be there for the movie. Very often, they love so much the temp music because they heard it so many times during the editing that it takes a lot of courage and strength but very often that happens when we don’t agree on a cue… Sometimes it’s a fight and at the end it’s nice to work with a director who will accept that kind of challenge and it’s nice to be able show them that we can bring something to the movie. So I take a lot of freedom all the time.106”. Nevertheless, American composer Jeff Rona insists on the fact that one should never forget the general creative context within which music comes into play. Though musical initiatives can be unexpected and bring a whole new dimension to the image, they never come out of nowhere, and must somehow be related to the moving image: “As long as you remember that the music is there to serve the project, and not the other way around. There are usually at least a couple of opportunities in each score to step forward and do something bold, but it has to be in context. That’s essential in every decision you make on the score.107”. We understand that composers can find their own space of freedom on a project. But on a more

102 103 104 105 106 107

Jeff Rona. Online questionnaire interview. July 2015. Jean-Pierre Arquié and Etienne Deletang. Personal interview. July 2015. Louis-Felix Cauchon and Patric J. Mondou. Personal interview. June 2015. Miles Mosley. Personal interview. March 2015. Laurent Eyquem. Personal interview. May 2015. Jeff Rona. Online questionnaire interview. July 2015.


P

30

A R T 2

global scale, music for the screen is a field opened to a multitude of musical possibilities. We already said that music for the screen is not a genre, which could be identified as such, because it encompasses all the possible and existing music genres. French composer Jean Wiener clearly illustrated this particular aspect of music for audiovisual in general and film music for instance: “What is marvellous about film music is that in the same piece one has to know how to write a cha-cha-cha as well as a Te Deum.108”. According to French composer Jean-Claude Petit, the possibility of going from one genre to another is very enriching in a musician’s career: “It’s this multidisciplinary approach which is interesting for us as film music composers.109”. It means composers should be very curious. Quebec composer Charles Papasoff explains: “What’s interesting for me is to investigate another culture, discover it, and be able to include some of its elements in the music.110”. Thus, “Open-mindedness111” and versatility are key assets for a composer as underlined by American film director Julie Taymor: “I’m also interested in flexibility and… that he [the composer] is able to be fluent in different forms.112”. Therefore, composers should feel comfortable writing music in all sorts of styles. American composer Miles Mosley insists on the fact that getting a great knowledge in ethnomusicology is crucial: “Studying so many different types of music has allowed me to be very flexible when it comes to scoring films or any type of visual medium. If you only know about one type of music, then you only guide people in one direction. Diversification is key to a composer… Studying lots of styles of music and being comfortable is what makes everything possible.113”.

2.2.2. Expressing one’s creativity with music requires an excellent musical education Therefore, young composers need to have excellent skills and knowledge in music composition but also to understand the particular aspects of the moving image in order to then be able to best express their musical creativity. Feedback we gathered from programmes offering students a dedicated curriculum in music composition for audiovisual media helped us to figure out some key features. It is first required to have a solid education in music theory and composition in general with courses in composition, theory, ear training, harmony, counterpoint, ethnomusicology orchestration, and arrangement for the screen. American composer Miles Mosley emphasises this idea: “As a composer for visual media… going through the, sometimes boring, but very meticulous theory training and understanding how instruments function is the beginning of it… Why blending instruments in a certain way makes a certain sound, makes people think of certain emotions.114”. Many academic programmes also offer conducting classes to students in composition for audiovisual media. This skill can be very useful when they have to conduct their own music. Composition students are often surrounded by instrumentalists in higher music education institutions, which creates a great opportunity to work together in almost professional conditions within an academic context. Julien Bellanger (French student in music composition for audiovisual media at the CNSMD in Lyon) realises that it is a chance to be able to collaborate with musicians and have his music performed: “There’s a possibility to try out things… It’s a kind a safety net… For example, I wrote a piece for brass instruments, I went to see brass instrumentalists and asked them whether it was ‘playable’. It is great to have all these instrumentalists around and to get the opportunity to go and see them and say: ‘I need you for a project’. And if they have time we can record and better understand how instruments function.115”. Aside from classical music training, it is essential that such programmes integrate technology as another main aspect. Students need to learn how to use technological tools because it will inevitably be part of their career. Students should be trained to work with specific software dedicated to music

108 Jean Wiener. Interview by Renaud Bezombes and Philippe Carcassonne. Cinematographe n°62. November 1980. Magazine. 109 Séverine Abhervé, N. T. Binh, and José Moure. Musiques de films : nouveaux enjeux. (Bruxelles : Les Impressions Nouvelles, 2014) 224. 110 Charles Papasoff. Personal interview. March 2015. 111 Jeff Rona. Online questionnaire interview. July 2015. 112 Elliot Goldenthal and Julie Taymor. Personal interview. May 2015. 113 Miles Mosley. Personal interview. March 2015. 114 Idem. 115 Julien Bellanger. Personal interview. June 2015.


31 technology, synthesis, sampling, drum programming, etc. It is also very important that sound design is part of the education of students in composition for the screen. Therefore it is essential that a part of such a curriculum is dedicated to studio work so that students get used to these specific working conditions. Having a solid classical, as well as technological music background is a crucial asset for young composers who will then be able to use these skills and adapt them to their own personality and to the various projects they will undertake. Aside from gaining great musical skills, students should further develop their own personality, style and curiosity. We have interviewed some students who confessed that beyond acquiring skills and knowledge, they also expect to take advantage of their studies to concentrate on their personal artistic and creative sense. They have the opportunity to try out different things and figure out what best suits to them while remaining curious and open-minded. All professionals claim that it is first and foremost important to choose a project depending on its quality and in accordance with one’s personality. Jean-Pierre Arquié urges composers to make wellconsidered choices rather than to jump at every opportunity because he highlights the fact that one can quickly and easily be judged on one project and then be categorised. This is why it is important that composers think about a project twice before getting involved, even though there is money at stake. American composer Miles Mosley encourages composers to dedicate themselves to a project if they like it, no matter whether it is paid or not. He puts it this way: “And if you love love love love a project, just do it and forget about the money because it’s not about that. If you love love love love the project, that means the people love love love it too. And sometimes you got to just do something because the world deserves it.116”. Asked what he thinks is expected from the new generation of young composers for visual media, American teacher and scholar of composition for the screen Andy Hill gave us an answer: “They are expected to understand drama and storytelling as well as harmony and counterpoint, technology as fully as musical technique, and on top of this, function as capable entrepreneurs and business people, and quite often as their own publicists and agents.117”. We are aware of the fact that it is quite ambitious to implement in only two years all the ideas we have raised and which are so clearly summarised by Andy Hill in the above statement, regarding the content of a master’s degree dedicated to the education of composers for the screen. However, we believe that it is important to keep them all in mind when planning the development of our international master’s in composition for the screen (InMICS) in the best conditions. Asking ourselves the question of how students can best acquire all the skills and knowledge we identified as being important for them implies, among other considerations, clearly defining the profile of the future students, because they will have to prove that they have already acquired some of crucial skills and knowledge before entering the programme.

116 Miles Mosley. Personal interview. March 2015. 117 Andy Hill. Online questionnaire interview. August 2015.


32

CONCLUSION All the unique characteristics of music composition for the screen that we have been observing and analysing demonstrate that this profession is very specific. Nowadays, some might think that being a composer for audiovisual media is an easy job, accessible to almost anyone. But we assume that the arguments exposed here in this study will prove them wrong. Based on the precious feedback from both educational and professional domains, our Erasmus+ strategic partnership is convinced that it is crucial to promote this profession. The composition of music for the screen currently faces important changes whether linked to technological improvements or to economical and financial aspects. In many ways, this field has become simultaneously more attractive and more accessible to many musicians than it was previously. This phenomenon creates a competitive environment among composers. The sector shows a great dynamism. However, as it seems, music composition for audiovisual media remains rather under-developed within the educational sphere in Europe. This is why we claim that there is something to be done to solve this paradoxical situation. Thus, we hope that our work will help widen, reinforce and improve the education of young composers and support the development curricula best adapted to the evolutions of the field.


33

BIBLIOGRAPHY Books • • • • • • • • •

Abhervé, Séverine, and Binh, N. T., and Moure, José. Musiques de films : nouveaux enjeux. Bruxelles. Les Impressions Nouvelles. 2014. Print. Born, Georgina. Music, Sound and Space: Transformations of Public and Private Experience. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. 2013. Print. Brown, Royal. Overtones and Undertones: Reading Film Music. Berkeley and Los Angeles. University of California Press. 1994. Print. Buhler, James, Caryl Flinn, and David Neumeyer. Music and Cinema. Hanover. Wesleyan University Press. Print. Chion, Michel. Audio-Vision: Sound on Screen. New-York. Columbia University Press. 1994. Print. Chion, Michel. La musique au cinéma. Paris. Fayard. 1995. Print. Lissa, Zofia. Ästhetik der Filmmusik. Berlin/DDR. Henschel Verlag. 1965. Print. Nattiez, Jean-Jacques. Music and Discourse. Toward a Semiology of Music. Princeton. Princeton University Press. 1991. Print. Porcile, François, and Alain Garel. La musique à l’écran. Paris. CinémAction-Corlet. Télérama. 1992. Print.

Book articles •

Berndt, Axel and Hartmann, Knut. The Functions of Music in Interactive Media. In: Interactive Storytelling. First Joint International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling. Berlin Heidelberg. Springer-Verlag. 2008. pp. 126-131. Print.

Newspaper articles •

Alberge, Dalya.“Ennio Morricone: good film scores have been replaced by the bad and the ugly”. guardian.com. 3 June 2015. Web. <http://www.theguardian.com/music/2015/jun/03/ennio-morricone-good-film-scores-replaced-by-badand-ugly> • Leloup, Jean-Yves. “La débandade originale”. next.liberation.fr. 31 March 2015. Web. <http://next.liberation.fr/cinema/2015/03/31/la-debandade-originale_1232328> • Ravel, Maurice. “Les aspirations des moins de vingt cinq ans”. Excelsior. 28 November 1933. Print.

Institutional reports and surveys •

Dupin, Marc-Olivier. La Musique à l’image. Les enjeux d’une meilleure prise en compte de la musique originale dans la création cinématographique et audiovisuelle. Rapport de mission. October 2011. Print. GameSoundCon, “GameSoundCon Game Audio Industry Survey 2015”. Survey. September 2015. Web. <http://media.wix.com/ugd/ebb935_109f128500324e33aac33f9a37fb6c9e.pdf>

Interviews • •

Wiener, Jean. Interview by Renaud Bezombes and Philippe Carcassonne. Cinématographe n°62. November 1980. Magazine. Tavernier, Bertrand. Interview by Thierry Jousse. Cinema Song. France Musique. 28 June 2012. Radio.


34

APPENDIX

1. PARTICIPATION OF PROFESSIONALS: OVERVIEW

Altogether, 59 professionals participated in our study, sharing their experience and thoughts on music for audiovisual media. The graphs below show the contribution of these professionals according to their activity and their origin.

Participation of professionals

Composers

3

Directors

4

Producers Agents

4

Journalists Video game studios

27 11

10

Participating professionals’ origin

Belgium

10

Brazil

10

Canada (Quebec) Finland

1

1 2

France Germany Great-Britain

3

Italy

1

Russia

13

17

1

USA


35 1.1. List of participating composers

NAME

INTERVIEW / QUESTIONNAIRE

NATIONALITY

Jean-Michel BERNARD

Personal interview

FR

Miles MOSLEY

Personal interview

USA

Philippe SCHOELLER

Personal interview

FR

Michel CUSSON

Personal interview

CA

Christophe HERAL

Personal interview

FR

Charles PAPASOFF

Personal interview

CA

Dominique PAUWELS

Personal interview

BE

Jeff BEAL

Personal interview

USA

Stephen WARBECK

Personal interview

UK

Elliot GOLDENTHAL

Personal interview

USA

Laurent EYQUEM

Personal interview

FR/CA

Bob & Bill

Personal interview

CA

Denis SANACORE

Online questionnaire

CA

Jari KNUUTINEN

Online questionnaire

FI

Jay GRUSKA

Online questionnaire

USA

Raf KEUNEN

Online questionnaire

BE

Sergey EVTUSHENKO

Online questionnaire

RU

Terry DAVIES

Online questionnaire

UK

Viana ANDERSEN

Online questionnaire

Brazil

Michel HERR

Online questionnaire

BE

Selma MUTAL

Online questionnaire

FR/NL

Jeff RONA

Online questionnaire

USA

Carlo SILIOTTO

Online questionnaire

IT

Wim MERTENS

Online questionnaire

BE

Hummie MANN

Online questionnaire

USA

Andy HILL

Online questionnaire

USA

Lelio CAMILLERI

Online questionnaire

IT


36 1.2. List of participating film directors

NAME

INTERVIEW / QUESTIONNAIRE

NATIONALITY

Sébastien CARAYOL

Personal interview

FR

Pascale CUENOT

Personal interview

FR

Julie TAYMOR

Personal interview

USA

Anouk DE CLERCQ

Personal interview

BE

Raoul SERVAIS

Personal interview

BE

Griet TECK

Personal interview

BE

Janet VAN DEN BRANDE

Personal interview

BE

Kim NGUYEN

Personal interview

CA

Stéphane LAPOINTE

Personal interview

CA

Michel POULETTE

Personal interview

CA

1.3. List of participating producers

NAME

INTERVIEW / QUESTIONNAIRE

NATIONALITY

Antoine LE CARPENTIER

Personal interview

FR

Olivier BERLEMONT

Personal interview

FR

Corinne DESTOMBES

Personal interview

FR

Ron DYENS

Personal interview

FR

Pierre EVEN

Personal interview

CA

Lyse LAFONTAINE

Personal interview

CA

Roger FRAPPIER

Personal interview

CA

Maes STEVEN

Online questionnaire

BE

Beth KRAKOWER

Online questionnaire

USA

Suzi CIVITA-JONES

Online questionnaire

USA

Pia HOFFMANN

Online questionnaire

DE


37 1.4. List of participating journalists

FIRST AND LAST NAME

INTERVIEW / QUESTIONNAIRE

NATIONALITY

Thierry JOUSSE

Personal interview

FR

Benoit BASIRICO

Telephone interview

FR

Jean-Yves LELOUP

Personal interview

FR

Robin BROOS

Online questionnaire

BE

1.5. List of participating video game studios

FIRST AND LAST NAME

INTERVIEW / QUESTIONNAIRE

INSTITUTION / COMPANY

Tali GOLDSTEIN

Personal interview

Minority Media

CA

Simon DARVEAU & Atu AL MEHRA

Personal interview

Spearhaed Games

CA

Patric MONDOU & Louis-Felix CAUCHON

Personal interview

Borealys Games

CA

NATIONALITY

1.6. List of participating agents

FIRST AND LAST NAME

INTERVIEW / QUESTIONNAIRE

INSTITUTION / COMPANY

Marie SABBAH

Personal interview

Marie Sabbah Agency

FR

Jean-Pierre ARQUIÉ

Personal interview

JPAgency

FR

Etienne DELETANG

Personal interview

JPAgency

FR

Alexander DARREL

Personal interview

Cool Music Interactive

UK

NATIONALITY


38

2. PARTICIPATION OF STUDENTS: OVERVIEW

We gathered feedback from 38 students in various disciplines related to music for audiovisual media to enrich our analysis with their ideas and expectations. The graphs below show the contribution of these students according to their main discipline of study and their origin.

Participation of students

Students in music composition Students in audio-visual arts

3

Students in sound design

14 21

Participating students’ origin

France Canada

3

Belgium

10

19

The Netherlands

6


39 2.1. List of participating students in music composition for audiovisual media

NAME

INTERVIEW / QUESTIONNAIRE

INSTITUTION

NATIONALITY

Valentin HADJADJ

Personal interview

CNSMD, Lyon

FR

Julien BELLANGER

Personal interview

CNSMD, Lyon

FR

Erwann CHANDON

Online questionnaire

CNSMD, Lyon

FR

Igor TROPPÉE

Online questionnaire

CNSMD, Lyon

FR

Thibault COHADE

Online questionnaire

CNSMD, Lyon

FR

William EDERY

Online questionnaire

Université Lumière Lyon 2

FR

Medhat HANBALI

Online questionnaire

Faculty of Music, University of Montréal

CA

Sophie-Agnès MONGEAU

Online questionnaire

Faculty of Music, University of Montréal

CA

Amelie BOUITA

Online questionnaire

Faculty of Music, University of Montréal

FR

Xavier-Charles FECTEAU

Online questionnaire

Faculty of Music, University of Montréal

CA

Vincent FLINIAUX

Online questionnaire

Faculty of Music, University of Montréal

FR

Ariane BERUBE

Online questionnaire

Faculty of Music, University of Montréal

CA

Guillaume TANGUAY

Online questionnaire

Faculty of Music, University of Montréal

CA

Leandre MONETTE

Online questionnaire

Faculty of Music, University of Montréal

CA

Théo GJINI

Online questionnaire

Faculty of Music, University of Montréal

FR

Anthony DENEYER

Online questionnaire

Royal Conservatory, Mons

BE

Simon VANNESTE

Online questionnaire

Royal Conservatory, Mons

BE

Pieter VANDAELE

Online questionnaire

Royal Conservatory, Mons

BE

Eliott DELAFOSSE

Online questionnaire

Royal Conservatory, Mons

FR

Joost VAN DUPPEN

Online questionnaire

Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Antwerp

BE

Mirek COUTIGNY

Online questionnaire

HoGent / School of Arts

BE


40 2.2. List of participating students in audiovisual arts

NAME

INTERVIEW / QUESTIONNAIRE

INSTITUTION

NATIONALITY

Blomme MOLENSTRA

Personal interview

HoGent / School of Arts

BE

Tim VERHAEGEN

Personal interview

HoGent / School of Arts

BE

Wietse PALMANS

Personal interview

HoGent / School of Arts

BE

Michiel DONT

Personal interview

HoGent / School of Arts

BE

Joosje HENDRIKX

Personal interview

HoGent / School of Arts

BE

Reinier KROESE

Online questionnaire

HoGent / School of Arts

NL

Jade MADOE

Online questionnaire

HoGent / School of Arts

BE

Masha BERKERS

Online questionnaire

HoGent / School of Arts

NL

Charles DHONDT

Online questionnaire

HoGent / School of Arts

BE

Jeroen BLOM

Online questionnaire

RITCS School of Arts, Brussels

NL

Dries MESSELY

Online questionnaire

RITCS School of Arts, Brussels

BE

Vincent VAN DEN OUDEN

Online questionnaire

RITCS School of Arts, Brussels

BE

Sam MATHIEU

Online questionnaire

RITCS School of Arts, Brussels

BE

Jerome VAN HOE

Online questionnaire

RITCS School of Arts, Brussels

BE

2.3. List of participating students in sound design

NAME

INTERVIEW / QUESTIONNAIRE

INSTITUTION

NATIONALITY

Benjamin THEUNS

Online questionnaire

RITCS School of Arts, Brussels

BE

Samuel ALBRECHT

Online questionnaire

RITCS School of Arts, Brussels

BE

Serge THOMAS

Online questionnaire

RITCS School of Arts, Brussels

BE


41

3. PARTICIPATION OF HIGHER MUSIC EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS: OVERVIEW

We contacted the higher music education institutions members of the AEC (Association Européenne des Conservatoires de Musique, Académies de Musique et Musikhochschulen) and sent them a questionnaire we created to learn more about the education of musicians wishing to compose music for audiovisual media in Europe. Among them, 32 institutions responded to our questionnaire. More than 53% of the responding institutions deliver courses/curricula dedicated to music composition for audiovisual media.

Number of responding institutions

Number of responding institutions offering courses/curricula in music composition for audiovisual media

5

4

3

2

1

0

ia

str

Au

um

lgi

Be

d

na

Ca

c)

be

ue

Q a(

d

lan

Fin

e

nc

Fra

y

an

rm

Ge

y

ar

ng

Hu

ly

Ita

ay

rw

No

nia

ma

Ro

ain

Sp

en

ed

Sw

ds nd rla lan er tze i h et Sw eN Th

y

ke

r Tu

Answers from Higher Music Education Institutions

The partners also looked for information on higher music education institutions – inside and outside of the AEC network – delivering courses, modules or programmes dedicated to music composition for audiovisual media in and outside Europe. We gathered data on the contents of academic offers in 27 institutions spread throughout Northern America (12) and Europe (8 in continental Europe and 7 in the United-Kingdom and Ireland). This research helped us to identify key features regarding the content of academic programmes specialised in music composition for audio-visual media. From these observations, we drew up the documents below:


42 3.1. Content of existing master’s programmes in music composition for audiovisual media MAIN MODULES Composition

• Individual and collective courses • Conception of individual and team projects • Composition courses focused on a specific aspect • Master classes with composers, film directors, editors, soud designers, etc.

Applied composition

• Interactive music for video games • Improvisation on images • Pastiche

Film history and analysis

• Film and film music history • Analysis of film music

Technologies and production

• Music sequencers • Plugins (synthesizers, samplers, virtual instruments and effects) • MIDI controller • Studio recording • Musical mix

Orchestration and arrangement

• Orchestration applied to music for audiovisual media • Musical arrangement applied to music for audiovisual media

Complementary modules

• Score writting and editing • Conducting

MEASURES TO BROADEN AND REINFORCE THE LINKS WITH THE PROFESSIONAL WORLD Recordings with musicians

• With instrumentalists students or other ensembles • Remotly online

Measures to foster students’ employability

• Business & management courses (contractual and legal aspects, conception of portefolios and communication tools) • Interships • Career centre • Alumni network

Partnerships

• Festivals • Institutions/Schools specialised in audiovisual and visual arts • Collaboration with various professionals: film directors, composers, producers, video game studios, sound designers, etc.


43 3.2. Shape of existing master’s programmes in music composition for audiovisual media

ENTRY REQUIREMENTS AND ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES Entry requirements

• Bachelor in music • Proof of a certain level in English • Portfolio: presentation projects (scores et recordings) • Written test and interview • Good use of technological tools

Assessment procedures

Continuous assessment Master thesis Personal project in music composing for audiovisual media

4. PARTICIPATION OF HIGHER AUDIOVISUAL ARTS EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS: OVERVIEW We also contacted higher education institutions specialised in audiovisual arts. 12 institutions responded to our questionnaire. Among them 9 offer courses in music composition. The percentage of institutions with a specific academic offer in music composition among the responding institutions is high. We assume that the fact of offering such courses motivated the institutions to answer our questionnaire.

3

Number of responding Schools Number of responding audiovisual arts school offering courses in music composition

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

da

na

Ca

ba

Cu

d

lan

Fin

y

an

rm

Ge

n

no

ba

Le

d

lan

Po

Answers from Audiovisual Arts Schools

en

ed

Sw

UK

A

US


WWW.INMICS.ORG

This project is funded with support from the European Commission

This study report reflects only the views of the authors and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which might be made of the information contained herein


Issuu converts static files into: digital portfolios, online yearbooks, online catalogs, digital photo albums and more. Sign up and create your flipbook.