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40

informative platform(s): the Library Index

case studies & comparative analysis


40

informative platform(s): the Library Index

case studies & comparative analysis

Étienne-Louis Boullée, “Deuxieme projet pour la Bibliotheque du Rois”, c.1785


the Library Index

Index card: –noun a card, often relatively small, as 3 × 5 in. (7.6 × 12.7 cm), used in noting or recording information and usually filed in an index.Index cards are used for a wide range of applications and environments: in the home to record and store recipes, shopping lists, contact information and other organizational data; in business to record presentation notes, project research and notes and contact information; in schools as flash cards or other visual aids; and in academic research to hold data such as bibliographical citations or notes. An often-suggested organization method is to use the smaller 3-inch by 5-inch cards to record the title and citation information of works cited, while using larger cards for recording quotes or other data.

The Library embodies one of the last true public and open institutions in cities today. At the same time, as new media and technologies redefine traditional modes of learning, books tend to become an “old kind of software”. As information is becoming increasingly ubiquitous and available even in the most remote places, the role of the library is radically shifting from that of a physical depository of books into an informative, flexible platform that can provide other, new services for the promotion of knowledge but also fun. With or without books, libraries are gradually turning into reconfigurable places of gathering whose main activities aspire to be embedded into the local communities which they serve. The material presented in this catalogue was collected and analyzed on the occasion of the C2 Studio “informative platform(s): the new public library” at the Boston Architectural College in spring 2011. The experimental nature of this studio explores these new possibilities through the design of a medium-sized library as an architectural device able to host a variety of new learning activities and events. By viewing the library as an urban piece of “upgradeable hardware”, we will essentially determine the types of future “software” it will be able to host. In doing so, we study the synergies created by the juxtaposition of different programmatic and spatial configurations in order to synthesize an integrated, multi-functional, gathering environment.


The pool of the selected 40 projects of this critical research is not meant to necessarily represent the most typical examples of built and unbuilt libraries of the last 150 years, but rather showcase a selective cross section of the evolutionary history of the library typology since the mid-19th century. Thus, the projects were selected for inclusion primarily on the basis of their contribution to the challenging of the typology in one way or another. Each member of the studio researched individually five precedents, collected the visual material, outlined the main concepts and innovations, provided keywords and even “assessed” each project in more contemporary and ill-defined terms as “iconicity”. Following a series of collective presentations, redistribution of material and constant feedback between the team, a series of diagrams was produced in order to visualize comparative analyses on a series of aspects (such as scale, structure, materiality, circulation and geographic location among others) in an communicative and engaging way.

Women Filing Index Cards at Government Office, 1939

In that sense, the Library Index is a result of a purely collective effort and as such its raison d’être is not limited to that of a reference book for the design part of studio, but rather invite both designers and the public to re-imagine together the new role of the library.


Andreas Gursky, “Library,” 1999. Cibachrome print, mounted to Plexiglas, Edition 2/6, 79 x 142 inches, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York


Contents

2 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84

Timeline Bibliotheque Ste. Genevieve Bibliothèque nationale, Rue Richelieu Arts School Library, Glasgow Stockholm Public Library Viipuri (Vyborg) Library Beinecke Rare Books Library, Yale University History Faculty Library Geisel Library, UCSD Exeter Library Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library Boston Public Library Staatsbibliothek Berlin National Library of Kosovo Très Grande Bibliotheque Jussieu Libraries Bibliothèque Nationale de France Ryotaro Shiba Museum Library University Library, Delft Eberswalde Library Peckham Library Médiathèque de Vénissieux Sendai Mediatheque Brabant Library University Library, Utrecht Seattle Public Library Jaume Fuster Library Cottbus University Library Municipal Library, Viana Do Castelo Biblioteca Parque Espana Biblioteca Nacional de Brasília Tama Art University Library Jose Vasconcelos Library Bibliothek Luckenwalde National Technical Library Kortrijk Library Bibliothèque Multimédia à Vocation Régionale Urban Library of the Future and Centre for New Media Middle East Centre library at St Antony’s College Czech National Library Building Extension National Library in Astana

86 88 94 96 100 102

Affects Scale Structure Materiality Circulation Location

106

Colophon


Library Index Timeline

BIBLIOTHEQUE STE GENEVIEVE-Labrouste

p8

BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE, RUE RICHELIEU-Labrouste

p10

ARTS SCHOOL LIBRARY, GLASGOW-Mackintosh

p12

STOCKHOLM PUBLIC LIBRARY-Asplund

p16

p18

BAC, Spring 2011

3 4 18 8 6 8 1 9 0 9 1 8 2 9 1 5 3 9 1 3 6 9 1 8 6 9 1 9 6 9 1 2 7 9 1 2 7 9 1 2 7 9 1

p6

p14

1

EUROPE UNITED STATES CENTRAL & SOUTH AMERICA ASIA & RUSSIA UNBUILT

VILPURI (VYBORG) LIBRARY-Aalto

BEINECKE RARE BOOK & MANUSCRIPT LIBRARY-SOM

HISTORY FACULTY LIBRARY-Stirling

p20

GEISEL LIBRARY, UCSD-Pareira

p22

PHILLIPS EXETER LIBRARY-Louis Kahn

p24

MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. MEMORIAL LIBRARY-Mies van der Rohe

p26

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY-Phillip Johnson


EUROPE UNITED STATES CENTRAL & SOUTH AMERICA ASIA & RUSSIA UNBUILT

p28

STAATSBIBLIOTHEK BERLIN-Scharoun

p30

NATIONAL LIBRARY OF KOSOVO-Mutnjakovic

p32

TRES GRANDE BIBLIOTHEQUE-OMA

p34

JESSIEU LIBRARY-Koolhaas

p36

p38

BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE DE FRANCE-Perrault

RYOTARO SHIBA MUSEUM LIBRARY-Ando

p40

UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, DELFT-Mecanoo

p42

EBERSWALDE LIBRARY-Herzog & de Meuron

p48

PECKHAM LIBRARY-Alsop

p50

MÉDIATHÈQUE DE VÉNISSIEUX-Perrault

p52

2

8 7 19 2 8 9 1 9 8 9 1 3 9 9 1 5 9 9 1 6 9 9 1 7 9 9 1 9 9 9 1 9 9 9 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2

Informative Platform(s): The Library Index

SENDAI MEDIATHEQUE-Toyo Ito


EUROPE UNITED STATES CENTRAL & SOUTH AMERICA ASIA & RUSSIA UNBUILT

p54

p56

p58

SEATLE PUBLIC LIBRARY-OMA/LMN

p62

COTTBUS UNIVERSITY LIBRARY-Herzog & de Meuron

p64

MUNICIPAL LIBRARY, VIANA DO CASTELA-Siza

p66

BIBLIOTECA PARQUE ESPANA-Mazzanti

p72

p74

BAC, Spring 2011

UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, UTRECHT-Wiel Arets

JAUME FUSTER LIBRARY-Carmona

p70

3

BRABANT LIBRARY-MVRDV

p60

p68

2 0 20 4 0 0 2 4 0 0 2 5 0 0 2 5 0 0 2 5 0 0 2 6 0 0 2 7 0 0 2 7 0 0 2 7 0 0 2 8 0 0 2

BIBLIOTECA NACIONAL DE BRASILIA-Niemeyer

TAMA ART UNIVERSITY LIBRARY-Toyo Ito

JOSE VASCONCELOS LIBRARY-Kalach

BIBLIOTHEK LUCKENWALDE-FF Architekten


EUROPE UNITED STATES CENTRAL & SOUTH AMERICA ASIA & RUSSIA UNBUILT

p76

NATIONAL TECHNICAL LIBRARY-Projecktil Architekti & Helika

p78

KORTRIJK LIBRARY-REX

p80

BIBLIOTHÈQUE MULTIMÉDIA À VOCATION RÉGIONALE- OMA

p82

URBAN LIBRARY OF THE FUTURE-UN STudio

p84

4

MIDDLE EAST CENTRE LIBRARY-Hadid

p86

CZECH NATIONAL LIBRARY BUILDING EXT.-Future Systems

p88

NATIONAL LIBRARY IN ASTANA-BIG

Informative Platform(s): The Library Index

9 0 20 9 0 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 2 1 1 0 2 1 1 0 2 2 1 0 2


Bibliotheque Ste Genevieve ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Henri Labrouste Státní Technická Knihovna, Ministerstvo Školství, Mládeže a Telovýchovy Paris, France Built 19,200 S $113.2 million

CONCEPTS: Built at the beginning of the Modern era and the Industrial Revolution, the building tries to maintain a classical vocabulary but uses iron trusses to form a barrel vaulted ceiling over the large open space that is the library. The use of iron was a very cutting edge technology at the time. The result is a classical motif with an interior airyness/lightness that was previous not achievable using traditional building methods. The programmatic organization is straightforward. The building footprint is a long rectangle and the programmatic elements form concentric “rings”. The center is a reading area with tables. Circulation space forms the next “ring”, book stacks the next, the a band of small rooms and offices. On top of the band of rooms is a mezzanine level that has another band of stacks along the exterior wall.

INNOVATIONS: The first building in Paris to use iron spans/columns. It is also one of the first buildings to use iron structure within a classical building style.

6

Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1843/1845-1851 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 “Light, Linear, Axial, Concentric, Open Large, central, open room with reading tables surrounded by book stacks and offices on the periphery STRUCTURE: Load bearing masonry exterior walls, iron spans and columns on the interior FACADE: Load bearing masonry MATERIALS: Masonry/Stone,Iron structure,wood finishes CIRCULATION: stairs, primary circulation around the periphery.

BAC, Spring 2011

7


BibliothÊque Nationale (Rue de Richelieu) – Salle Labrouste ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Henri Labrouste French Government (assumed) Paris, France Built 10,000 sq.ft./1000 sq.m (Estimated) S $ Unknown

CONCEPTS: The Salle Labrouste functions now as a museum rather than a library. The Richelieu branch of the national library of France houses coins, stamps, etc. The most remarkable element within the room is a series of nine pendentive domes set in a square within the room. The domes are structurally supported by ornamented, cast iron columns, which appear to undersized relative to apparent forces of the domes. The center of each dome possesses a skylight. The effect of which is to bath the room with natural light.

INNOVATIONS: Labrouste uses relatively new technology to construct a large open room, with a structurally remarkable ceiling plane.

8

Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1862-1868 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM: STRUCTURE:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Regularity, Symmetry, Openness, Slenderness, Doming and Vaulting Stacks and reading space Cast Iron columns, terracotta pendentive domes. and load-bearing masonry FACADE: N/A MATERIALS: Steel, Plaster, Wood, Terracotta CIRCULATION: Central and side aisles with flanking rows of reading tables

BAC, Spring 2011

9


Glasgow School of Art Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Charles Rennie Mackintosh Glasgow School of Art Glasgow, Scotland Built 3500 sq.ft./ 325 sq.m S $ Unknown

CONCEPTS: The building is a rather heavy construction on one of Glasgow’s major streets. However, Mackintosh livens it up by playing with the symmetry (the main door is off center, which often goes unnoticed) and using constructed decoration to provide contrast from the masonry. Inside, however, the library uses heavy wood, custom furniture and light fixtures, and tall ceilings to impress visitors. This serves to create a typical nineteenth century library mentality, so its very formal and quiet.

INNOVATIONS: The use of custom furniture and detailing helps to denote different spaces as well as to lighten the heavy tones of the dark wood. Mackintosh used materials very deliberately, which creates different zones for reading, browsing, or working in the central area. Tall central ceiling heights and balconies are Japanese inspired and mean to evoke a forest. They serve to create interesting views and play with horizontal planes.

10 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1989-1996 ICONICITY: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 AFFECTS: Symmetry, heavy, arts & crafts, dark, ironwork PROGRAM: Library, classrooms, studios STRUCTURE: Bearing masonry FACADE: large windows set into heavy masonry MATERIALS: Masonry, iron, wood, stone CIRCULATION: Central set of stairs

BAC, Spring 2011

11


Stockholm Public Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Gunnar Asplund Stockholm Sweden Built 99,999 sq ft M Unknown

CONCEPTS: This building is an example of 20th century modern architecture. Its overall form is symmetrical and driven by classical massing and elements, however, it strips or abstracts those elements into new, simplified versions of their predecessors. The focal point of the building is a large, central rotunda which houses the library’s main stacks. The rotunda is conspicuously dome-less, interpreting itself as a modern version of classicism. The books within the rotunda are all around you, 360 degrees, lining the inside of the cylinder. This is a symbol of the idea of knowledge being a continuum and all around you.

INNOVATIONS: One of the first public libraries in Sweden to use open stacks that clients could access themselves without having to ask a librarian. This system had already been in use in the US.

12 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1918/1924-1928 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM: STRUCTURE: FACADE: MATERIALS: CIRCULATION:

BAC, Spring 2011

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Inward, monumental, modern, abstract large central rotunda Steel/Concrete Brick Brick/Concrete Circular Staircase within the rotunda.

13


Viipuri Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Alvar Aalto Vyborg, Russia Built 160,000 sq.ft. L $113.2 million

CONCEPTS: The architectural framework of the library comprises several reading and lending areas stepped at different levels, with the administrative and supervisory centre at the peak. Eventually led to an interweaving of the section and ground plan, and to a kind of unity of horizontal and vertical construction.

INNOVATIONS: The site change from on a street to within a park, allowed Aalto to open up the design to light on all sides. Walls contain a forced- air ventilation system. 30� thick exterior walls w/ ventilation ducts, mechanical piping and radiant heating. The 6’ round skylights allow for diffused light throughout the year.

14 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1927-1935 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM: STRUCTURE: FACADE: MATERIALS: CIRCULATION:

BAC, Spring 2011

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 international style, timber ceiling, undulating ceiling, sunken auditorium, children’s library, lending room, reading rooms, stacks stone cladding and stucco concrete, stone, stucco wood, concrete, skylights grand staircases join the different levels and areas to one another

15


Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Gordon Bunshaft (Skidmore, Owings, + Merrill) Yale University New Haven, Connecticut Built 125,000 sq.ft./ 11,612 sq.m L $8 million

CONCEPTS: The library is rectangular with six stories of hard stacks above ground, as well as three underground extending to the university quadrangle. The semi transparent marble provides diffuse natural light without harmful direct light that might damage rare folios. The building is made of heavy materials, yet seems to float over the university quadrangle on which it is sited. Its height and depth use Platonic proportions (twice the depth of the height and three times the length). The interior includes a glass-walled core collection of British works, gifted by King George III.

INNOVATIONS: The BRBL is the largest library in the world reserved for the exclusive preservation of manuscripts and rare books- thus, no circulation, all reserve. Their collection includes rare books printed in any location before 1601, those printed in Latin America prior to 1751, books printed in North America before 1821, newspapers and periodicals printed in the US prior to 1851, Slavic, Eastern European, and Middle Eastern books printed through the eighteenth century, and European tracts and pamphlets printed prior to 1801, and many others.

16 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1961-1963 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Translucent, rare, infamous, proportional, hovering Study areas, classrooms, reading rooms, catalogue room, microfilm room, offices, an exhibition hall, and book storage STRUCTURE: Prefab, tapered steel trusses covered with gray granite , 88’ high by 131’ long, which transfer loads to four corner columns. FACADE: Granite framing of translucent marble panels 1.25” thick MATERIALS: Marble, granite, bronze, precast granite aggregate concrete, and glass CIRCULATION: A revolving door entrance that leads to two flanking stairways leading to the mezzanine level which houses rotating exhibitsed off the main level.

BAC, Spring 2011

17


History Faculty Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

James Stirling University of Cambridge, Law Cambridge University, England Built 30,000 sq ft L $113.2 million

CONCEPTS: It was necessary to provide multi-directional approaches in the History Faculty. To allow for different cross-campus circulation routes four entrances have been provided, two of which are at ground level. The visual connection from all parts of the building is the most important element to the Faculty library. The purpose of the expansive glass ceiling is to allow shadow-less daylight into the reading areas.

INNOVATIONS: Part of the site was not available and the design had to be turned 90ยบ. The steel truss roof the most technical element as it has a controlled climate cushion contaning heaters, ventilation louvers, fan extracts all adjustable to the outside climate and maintaining a constant atmosphere within.

18 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1963-68 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM: STRUCTURE: FACADE: MATERIALS: CIRCULATION:

BAC, Spring 2011

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 accessible, stepping, brutalist, glass reading room, 12,600 sf of shelving, staff, seminar and common rooms steel frame, concrete, brick cladding steel trusses and glass glass, concrete, brick, steel elevator cores, stairs surround reading rooms

19


University of California Geisel Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

William Pereira University of San Diego San Diego, California Built 300,000 sq.ft./3,000 sq.m L $5.4 million

CONCEPTS: One of the first buildings to be designed and built for the UCSD campus, the form of the Geisel library was to represent the idea of higher learning. On each side of the building the reinforced concrete trusses appear as hands lifting the diamond-shaped volume. The entrance volume is below-grade and has two entrances. A plaza on grade was designed around the main core of the building. The large overhang affords shade to users on hot, sunny days. There is no access to the library of the plaza level. The building has been in many movies and is subject to a number of urban legends on the UCSD campus.

INNOVATIONS: .

20 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1969 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Symmetry, Layering, Tesselated, Stepping Reading space, stacks, administration, special collections, seminar rooms STRUCTURE: Reinforced concrete FACADE: Concrete floor and ceiling plates, 1/4� glazing, painted steel mullion frame. MATERIALS: Concrete, glazing, painted steel, wood CIRCULATION: Main access into library below plaza level. The central core provides access to each floor.

BAC, Spring 2011

21


Exeter Academy Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Louis I. Kahn Exeter Academy Exeter New Hampshire Built 88,894 sq.ft./73,254 sq.m M $4 million

CONCEPTS: Louis Kahn was chosen for the design of the Academy library by a committee in 1965 “for his sympathetic use of brick and his concern for natural light.” The library was designed to be “the intellectual center for the community”. The library is the largest secondary school library in the world. The stacks are visible from the open atrium making the layout of the library visible upon arrival inside. The central room is constructed of the dimensions of the golden section. The circle and square combinations present in the atrium relates back to the proportions fit by the Vitruvian man. Some have said that Kahn designed the building to reflect a ruin as the walls seem hallow and unattached. This enhances the monumentality of the building and its ability to stand the test of time.

INNOVATIONS: Kahn created a large empty volume to be filled with knowledge. Natural light is incorporated throughout the library for reading. Concrete transitions into wood elements that become study carrels, hand rails, and benches.

22 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1967-1972 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Intellectual Center for the Community General collection, Classrooms for Seminars, Work spaces, staff facilities STRUCTURE: reinforced concrete FACADE: masonry (brick) MATERIALS: brick, slate, teak, white oak, travertine, concrete, brick CIRCULATION: two stairwells at corners, open central atrium

BAC, Spring 2011

23


Martin Luther King Jr Memorial Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe DC Public Library Washington, DC Built 400,000 sq ft L $18 million

CONCEPTS: The MLK Jr. Memorial Library reflects the identity of a public institution of a past era. Its 7 floors (4 above ground, 3 below) contain a wide range of information sources and services catering to the young, old, blind, and def. Users seeking information about art, music, religion, history, children’s literature, education, government and other social and cultural topics will find an abundance of sources. The structure reflects Mies’ skin and bones architecture and highlights the transparencies both literally and metaphorically created by fenestration.

INNOVATIONS: The open central space is surrounded on all sides by book stacks, offices and other meeting rooms. At the time of completion, the library was outfitted with contemporary technology including book conveyor belts, pneumatic tubes, and dumbwaiters to increase circulation efficiency from floor to floor. Few fixed walls provide flexibility of space for the consideration of the evolution of the public library in the future.

24 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1972 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Modernism, proportion, rhythm, memorial Lobby, circulation desks, information desks, computer terminals, collections, children’s room, audio/visual, art gallery, meeting rooms STRUCTURE: Steel FACADE: Steel, brick, glass MATERIALS: Steel, brick, glass CIRCULATION: Elevators, stairs

BAC, Spring 2011

25


Boston Public Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Philip Johnson and Architects Design Group City of Boston Boston, Massachusetts, USA Built 550,000 sq.ft. XL USD 23 million

CONCEPTS: The original Boston Public Library building was constructed between 1888 and 1895 in a Renaissance revival style featuring a central outdoor courtyard. In reference to this precedent, Johnson composed a building of similar classical proportions but rendered in a post-modernist style. Instead of an outdoor courtyard (which is centrally located in the plan of the original), Glass organized the new addition around a central square atrium. An aerial view of the two buildings reveals Glass’ central, square skylights in contrast to the open square courtyard of the original. Other details, such as the abstracted arches on the façade of the addition, serve as over-scaled references to the original building. Johnson remarked, “In my design approach, second only to the clarity of circulation is the monumentality of the central space.”

INNOVATIONS: Includes 20,814,900 print items, but only 67 public computers. However, it introduced public (open) circulation stacks to the BPL system as a remedy to the out-dated system of closed inventory (traditionally, patrons could not browse the collections, but instead had to request volumes from the central circulation desk).

26 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1972 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM: STRUCTURE:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 massive, classically-derived (post?)modernism, referential, the square atrium, open stacks steel framing and truss system, reinforced concrete footings & floor slabs FACADE: Milford granite veneer on steel frame MATERIALS: stone CIRCULATION: grand stair at central atrium

BAC, Spring 2011

27


Staatsbibliothek Berlin ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Projektil Architekti S. R. O. and Helika City of Berlin Berlin, Germany Built 1,999,999 sq ft XL Unknown

CONCEPTS: “A Library in Two Houses” The building itself is massive for a library and has a very irregular footprint. There is no symmetry to this building at all, inside or out. Throughout the building there are elements that can only be described as sculptural. As one proceeds through the building I can only imagine that one would feel like they are a miniature moving through a large, orchestrated sculpture. The building (the library) is culturally symbolic in that it united two libraries after the fall of the Berlin Wall. It also houses a public library collection that has been in use since the 17th century. It is part of a larger complex called “Kulturforum”.

INNOVATIONS: I think the innovation in this library is its symbolic nature – the unity of post WW2 Germany. In a sense it is more of a cultural center than a library.

28 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1978 ICONICITY: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 AFFECTS: sprawling, expansive, organic, whimsy, sculptural, orchestrated PROGRAM: this library seems to have some of everything STRUCTURE: Steel/Concrete FACADE: various but primarily seems to be glass and metal panel MATERIALS: concrete, glass, metal panel, wood, skylights CIRCULATION: Circulation is organic and irregular. The overall form of the building is asymmetrical and somewhat whimsical, and circulation conforms to this.

BAC, Spring 2011

29


National and University Library of Kosovo ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Andrija Mutnjakoviç Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY; dissolved in 1992) Prishtina, Kosovo Built 54,100 sq.ft./16,500 sq.m. M Unknown

CONCEPTS: Described as both beautiful and absurd, this building has literally survived decades of armed conflict. Completed before the dissolution of the SFRY, the building is a physical reminder of complex cultural and political strife. Articulating the cultural intent of its original conception may be very different in reality today. For example, (depending on an individual’s political allegiances), it has been cited that the formal inspiration comes from a 16th century Ottoman Turk bathhouse or a prominent Serbian Orthodox monastery. However, the architect sought to combine the common cube and dome languages of Ottoman and Byzantine architecture as an “authentic national architectural expression”. Ethnic and religious biases are inherent in the interpretation of form. Politics aside, the building operates as a cluster of arithmetically distributed cubes topped by 99 discreet domes. The ornate metal-mesh façade is the most visible feature. Its ruggedness almost inspires an image of a modern ruin, making it easy to image the building sitting idle while the fabric of the city and culture around it was torn apart in a decade of war.

INNOVATIONS: Allegedly, many ethnic Albanian heritage documents were systematically destroyed during the 1990’s while government reforms denied ethnic Albanians access to the National Library (and others). It currently holds some 5,000 rare books and manuscripts dating back to the 16th century. There are several UNESCO programs in place to help restore libraries (The National Library in particular) in this former war-zone. The building has served as a shelter for refugees of Croatian and Bosnia and Herzegovina and as a military base of the Serbian Army during the conflict.

30 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1982 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM: STRUCTURE: FACADE: MATERIALS: CIRCULATION:

BAC, Spring 2011

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 99 domes, cube and dome, cage, culture, nationalism library steel trusses, glass, steel mesh, concrete reinforced concrete ornamental, large-mesh metal grid/sunscreen stairs

31


Très Grande Bibliotheque ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

OMA, Partner in charge: Rem Koolhaas Maitre d’ouvrage delegue, Etablissement Public, Secretariat d’Etat aux Grands Travaux Paris, France Competition entry- Unbuilt 250,000m2 XL NA-Competition

CONCEPTS: The library is imagined as a solid block of information, a dense repository for the past, from which voids are carved to create public spaces – absence floating in memory. The Library is interpreted as a solid block of information, a repository of all forms of memory - books, laser disks, microfiche, computers and databases. In this block, the major public spaces are defined as absences of building, voids carved out of the information solid. Floating in memory, they are multiple embryos, each with its own technological placenta.

INNOVATIONS: The scheme is based on technological scenarios developed with inventors, systems analysts, writers and electronics companies. They all anticipate the utopia of fully integrated information systems to materialize before the opening of the building: books, films, music, computers will be read on the same magic tablets. The future will not spell the end of the book but a period of new equalities.

32 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1927-1935 ICONICITY: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 AFFECTS: pods, void, spiriling PROGRAM: sound and moving image library/cinematheque, recent acquisitions library (books, films, videos), reference library, catalogue library, scientific research library STRUCTURE: steel column grid, mechanical stack on one side of structure FACADE: concrete, glass MATERIALS: concrete, glass, steel CIRCULATION: spirialing ramps

BAC, Spring 2011

33


Jussieu Libraries ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Rem Koolhaas Ministere de l`Education Nationale et de la Culture, Academie de Paris Paris, France competition, 1st place. 8,000 sq.ft./ 743 sq.m M $ Unknown

CONCEPTS: Building as an “urban consolidation”, where the activities of the surrounding campus are compacted into an interiorized environment. By reinterpreting infrastructural elements that typically form the structure of a city such as streets, squares and buildings as spatial components of the library, Koolhaas envisioned the building as a formal analogy of the adjacent context. In addition, this formalization of a “city as building” is supplemented by the incorporation of urban programs such as parks, cafes and shops in order to simulate an atmosphere of “metropolitan congestion”. With all programs linked to an interior boulevard, a spiraling “promenade architecturale” is formed enabling a smooth transition from the exterior street life into the interior of the library. Serving as a piece of infrastructure in its most literal sense the boulevard seamlessly connects all programmatic elements into an interiorized urban landscape. The reader accordingly becomes a flâneur simultaneously seduced by the miscellaneous selection of books as well as by the possibility of social intercourse and visual stimulation. INNOVATIONS: In the award winning scheme for two libraries at Jussieu, a technical university in Paris, OMA radically recofigures the typical library layout. Rather than stacking one level on top of another, floor planes are manipulated to connect; thus forming a single trajectory much like an interior boulevard that winds its way through the entire building.

34 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1992-1993 ICONICITY: AFFECTS:

PROGRAM: STRUCTURE:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Interlocking planes, open Foor plan, continuity, void as poche, voyerism, verticality, continuity. Humanities library, science and research library, student facilities. The program of the library is expanded to become an artifcially constructed “urban event space�.

Regular structural grid, certain grid elements are tilt and bent. Large scale ramps, large columns,several stair cores. Continuity between the ground and the roof - 35% of the surface in this building is not horizontal. Floors rised to touch the floors of the level above.

FACADE: Glass shingle facade MATERIALS: Steel column grid and concrete slabs. CIRCULATION: A manipulation of a static spatial structure and a dynamic movement

vectorization (ramps) to create a continuous flow and a ever changing vista along the circulation path within the building.

BAC, Spring 2011

35


Bibliothéque Nationale de France ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Dominique Perrault Francois Mitterand Paris, France Built Unknown sq.ft./ sq.m XL $ 254 Million Euro

CONCEPTS: A main goal of Perrault’s was to create a reading environment that is human in scale and is a tranquil refuge from the harsh city outside. It was to accomplish this on a massive scale, to accommodate the massive number of visitors and users of the library. Rather than views of the city around, the reading space looks out onto a woodland garden. It was also a main concern to address the modernization of information that is access to more modern forms of information. Even at the beginning of the process (early 1990’s), the computer is indicated as an important new component to libraries. The building was to exist as a landmark for the East Seine area. The four towers outline a void, which attempts to create a public square akin to the number of other large public squares that exist along the Seine in Paris.

INNOVATIONS: System to transport text from different sections of the library.

36 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1989-1995 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Symmetry, Latticing, Verticality, Rectilinearity . research and public reading room, auditorium, conference rooms, administration, cafĂŠ, gift shop, administration and loads of storage. STRUCTURE: Reinforced concrete FACADE: Tinted, mullion-less glazing, additionally, woven metal screen MATERIALS: Ipe, tinted glazing, Aluminum/steel, woven metal tapestry, wood panels, aluminum, concrete CIRCULATION: progressive, separate, and hierarchical. There are two main accesses on the plaza level that leed to the interior of the library. There are several more private employee accesses as well. The main entrance gets you into the entry space at either side. To get to the reading rooms and research areas, one must pass through a secure entrance and descend and enormous subterranean volume.

BAC, Spring 2011

37


Ryotaro Shiba Museum Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Tadao Ando Architect & Associates City of Himeji Higashiosaka, Osaka, Japan Built 10,860 sq.ft./ 1,008 sq.m S $ million

CONCEPTS: The museum is dedicated to the great Japanese author Shiba Ryotaro.

INNOVATIONS: All surfaces of the 36 foot tall walls are covered with bookshelves, holding 20,000 books accumulated by the author. The eaves height of teh building encompassing the enormous void is approximately 25 feet. The space created by this void symbolizes the enormous energy spent on creative activities during the author’s life.

38 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1989-1996 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM: STRUCTURE: FACADE: MATERIALS: CIRCULATION:

BAC, Spring 2011

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Transparency, Lightness, opacity Shiba Ryotaro’s Former house, and new museum Concentric arcs 7m entrance with long corridor lined with facade mullions concrete, stone, glass, wood

39


TU Delft Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Mecanoo ING Real Estate / Delft University of Technology Delft, The Netherlands Built 161,500 sq ft L Unknown

CONCEPTS: The TU Delft Library represents advanced, contemporary design without sacrificing the traditions of the library context. It strives to be the gateway to the digital highway through information accessibility. While at the heart of the university, it accommodates 3,000 students a day with 1,000 workstations. The lawn covered roof is supported at one corner which represents a sheet of paper as if held up at the end creating a void beneath, in this case, housing the library.

INNOVATIONS: The indoor environment is critical to the library purpose. In the case of the TU Delft Library, daylight, comfortable furniture and pleasant task lighting enable concentration for users. High performance materials and methods support the indoor experience.

40 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1995 - 1997 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Quiet, comfortable, high performance Underground book archive, reading rooms, university publisher, offices, exhibit space, study spaces, binder, bookstore STRUCTURE: Glass, steel FACADE: High performance glazing (curtain wall) MATERIALS: Glass, steel CIRCULATION: Elevators and stairs

BAC, Spring 2011

41


Eberswalde Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Herzog & de Meuron Eberswalde, Germany Built 9,999 sq ft S $113.2 million

CONCEPTS: The building is a rectangular box with three floors. The most prominent characteristic of the building is that the entire exterior skin is wrapped in bands of printed images. At entrance height the images are representative of man and technology, the middle images represent the concepts of love, mortality, and intellect, and the uppermost images represent historic events, technology, and knowledge. The images are printed on bands of concrete panels using a serigraphic process and screened onto the bands of window glass. Inside, the organizational layout is a simple open plan. General circulation is dictated by the furnishings, mostly tables and book stacks. Entrance is centrally located on ground floor. Vertical circulation is created by two stair/elevator shafts, one on either end of the building.

INNOVATIONS: The architect(s) use of images printed on the exterior is a very literal and visual method of architectural communication

42 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1997-1999 ICONICITY: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 AFFECTS: visual, media, cubic, geometric PROGRAM: Three floors all are mostly open plan with book stacks and reading tables STRUCTURE: Concrete FACADE: Glass and concrete panels – the concrete panels are printed/etched with images and the glass ribbon windows have screened images MATERIALS: Glass & Concrete CIRCULATION: Open plan. General circulation is dictated by the furnishings.

BAC, Spring 2011

43


Peckham Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Alsop and Stormer Southwark Council London, UK Built 2,200 sq m. L 5.6 million pounds

CONCEPTS: Peckham Library is intended to be a dynamic, creative centre which will encourage area residents, most of whom belong to ethnic minorities, to get closer to culture.Peckham is a building that combines strong form, vivid color and a sense of wit within a design that meets the serious purpose of providing a building that really enriches local community life. The word LIBRARY in large bold letters on the roof signals the function of this building but it is much more than a conventional library. The building has a striking physical presence and has provided a dynamic center for creative and learning activities within the local community. The site of the library is part of a larger scheme to the regenertion of Peckham.

INNOVATIONS: Redefining the role of the library on the basis of the needs of the local community. no A/C, uses shading, natural ventilation and passive cooling effects to produce considerable reductions in operating costs.

44 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1999 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 community, urban renewal, vivid colors, pods, elevated media centre, a children’s area, Afro-Caribbean literature, computer systems and a media laboratory STRUCTURE: steel trusses, glass, steel mesh, concrete FACADE: pre-patinated copper, glass MATERIALS: pre-patinated copper, glass , steel columns CIRCULATION: elevator and stair core to 4th floor library

BAC, Spring 2011

45


Mediatheque de Venissieux ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Dominique Perrault Ville de Venissieux Venissieux, France Built 41,000 sq ft M Unknown

CONCEPTS: The architect wanted to eliminate hierarchy within the library. They felt as though all the programmatic elements should be brought together in one space, thus there is very little interior partitioning. Virtually all boundaries and distinction between programmatic elements is accomplished with furnishings. From the exterior, the skin and general appearance is toned down and neutral. It is not trying to make any bold statements but expresses humility. The architecture does not try to overshadow the library. The building is meant to be experienced from within.

INNOVATIONS: The architect tried to eliminate hierarchy. He felt as though all the program elements should be treated equally and thus brought them all together in essentially one space.

46 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


2006-2009 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM: STRUCTURE: FACADE: MATERIALS: CIRCULATION:

BAC, Spring 2011

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Uniform, outward, industrial, breathing, light Stacks, interior courtyard, reading rooms, offices, lecture rooms Concrete & Steel Glass curtainwall Glass, concrete, steel, some interior wood finishes Major circulation is around the periphery. The plan is open with most circulation being dictated by furnishings.

47


Sendai Mediatheque ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Toyo Ito Sendai City Sendai City, Miyagi Pref., Japan Built 233,000 sq ft L $158.29 million

CONCEPTS: The Sendai Mediatheque is a social center for art and film serving the people with a facility for the free exchange of information through various media channels. Seven stories are supported by thirteen occupiable “tubes” rising from the basement to the roof composed of tubular steel lattice truss structures at various points on the interior of the building. Floors contain no fixed walls. The access to sources and implied spaces promotes the access to “barrier-free information.” The interior of each of the seven floors is designed by a different designer. On the ground floor are the administrative offices. The second and third floors contain the library. The fourth and fifth floors hold the gallery space. The sixth floor is the multimedia library. The seventh floor holds a studio and theater. Flexibility of information service for the people is a primary concept including the delivery of such information and network potential for all people including the impaired as well as people of different languages and cultures.

INNOVATIONS: Providing users of all abilities, backgrounds, cultures and education is of critical importance. Open structural design provides for information “nodes” which allows for flexibility in providing the latest knowledge and technology through several channels including books, audio/visual, speakers, etc. An inquiry station at almost every floor provides easy access to assistance.

48 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


2000 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Flexibility, barrier free, plate, tube, skin, viscosity, wall free, joint free Art gallery, library, visual image media center, service center for people with visual or hearing disabilities, cafe STRUCTURE: 13 steel ribbed shafts (tubular columns) lattice structures carrying 15.75 inch ribbed steel (honeycomb slabs) floor plates. FACADE: Double-skin glass/steel curtain wall MATERIALS: steel, glass CIRCULATION: Elevators and stairs encapsulated by tube truss column system

BAC, Spring 2011

49


Biblioteca Central de Brabante ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

MVRDV Province of Noord Brabant, The Netherlands Province of Noord Brabant, The Netherlands Unbuilt-Competition 99,999 sq ft M NA

CONCEPTS: The main concept is to create a centralized location for information exchange. Supporting concepts include accessibility to this information through research, physical books, digital information and the exchange of information through “coincidental� interaction. Space will be provided to house existing physical collections. A personal computer can expedite the distribution of information. However, the central library will provide both completeness and specialization, which is a shortfall of smaller, decentralized local libraries.

INNOVATIONS: The size of the facility accommodates a larger collaborative collection that can compete with other larger libraries in Europe. Typically, the smaller, local libraries cannot accommodate the same amount of resources as other larger, more regional libraries. The circular floor plates allow for an arrangement with easy access to information. The distribution system will allow for management of digital information.

50 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


2002 ICONICITY: AFFECTS:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Coincidental exchange of information; stimulating experience; immediate accessibility, refined distribution system PROGRAM: conference, book storage, night study, exhibition hall, cafĂŠ, stacks STRUCTURE: pre-stressed concrete FACADE: Glass/Steel MATERIALS: Glass CIRCULATION: 17 kilometer ramp from bottom to top

BAC, Spring 2011

51


Utrecht University Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Wiel Arets Utrecht University Utrecht, Netherlands Built 300,000 sq.ft./ 27,870 sq.m L $ 62

CONCEPTS: While the exterior is basically a cube, the interior uses book “depots” to divide interior spaces into zones, connected by stairs and ramps. The architect envisioned a place of personal learning, but also spaces for groups to gather and work together. The patterned glazing allows maximum natural light into the reading/working rooms, with the idea that the only stimulus is provided by the building itself.

INNOVATIONS: The library is actively pursuing a policy plan for the next few years, in order to keep it in line with the university’s evolution. This includes a direct mission statement detailing their goal of keeping information accessible, including electronically and in audio/visual materials. This will help them remain as a central research, education, and cultural facility for the university and entire region of Utrecht.

52 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


2004 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM: STRUCTURE: FACADE: MATERIALS: CIRCULATION:

BAC, Spring 2011

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Absorption, illumination, floating, stimulation A reception area, book stacks, auditorium, lounge, and workstations Black painted concrete with a patterned glass facade partially double-glazed faรงade with silk-screened patterns concrete, rubber, glass a series of stairs and slopes that connect floating informational zones

53


Seattle Central Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

OMA / LMN Seattle Public Library Seattle, Washington Built 412,000 sq.ft./ 38,300 sq.m L $169.2 million

CONCEPTS: Program elements are clustered in boxes that are stacked and separated by “other” program spaces. The shelving is located around the exterior which spirals up a ramp. The ramp arrangement allows the cataloged subjects to melt into a fluid continuation through the library.

INNOVATIONS: The bookshelves which are located in the spiral can accommodate twice as many volumes without having to add more shelving. Library statistics are shown as public art which combines public interest and awareness of Library activity.

54 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


1999-2004 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Captures five floating boxes like a butterfly net Cafeteria, Bookshop, exhibition space, 500 seat auditorium, botanical garden. STRUCTURE: steel FACADE: steel, concrete, glass MATERIALS: steel, concrete, glass, botanical plants CIRCULATION: Series of suspended walkways through stacked bookshelves elevated off the main level.

BAC, Spring 2011

55


Jaume Fuster Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Josep Llinas Carmona Barcelona Town Hall Barcelona, Spain Built 54,000 sq.ft./ 5,016 sq.m M $84.5 million

CONCEPTS: Understand the importance, as backdrop to the site of the library, is the facade, the sum of large-size rear facades of buildings with access from the Avenida República Argentina. Collect the radical change in the use and understanding of this part of town, have a direct connection “green corridor” (limited Avenue between Military Hospital c / Bolivar) to the plaza Lesseps.

INNOVATIONS:

56 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


2001-2005 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Fluidity, spacial ambiguity Principal library spaces, auditorium, archive, cafe, media room, gallery, reception, two levels of reading spaces. STRUCTURE: Unknown FACADE: Wave-like canopy that shades the west and south facades. Wood & Glass MATERIALS: American Maple, Firerated chipboard, jatoba, wood veneer CIRCULATION: Fluid space with centrail stair to connect four levels

BAC, Spring 2011

57


The Information, Communication and Media Center (ICMC) at Brandenburg Technical University in Cottbus ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Herzog & de Meuron Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus, Germany Built 82,128 sq.ft./ 7,629 sq.m M $44 million

CONCEPTS: The ICMC supports over 5,000 students from throughout Europe at one of the main technical universities in Germany. The clover-like shape of the exterior means there is no traditional “front” or “back” of the building, making it more approachable to students. The interior features organic shapes divided into different research and work areas depending on the surrounding floor function. The open concept not only encourages group collaboration, but will hopefully allow the building to seamlessly transition into different uses over time. The main accessible stacks, arranged by floor, form the core of the building, with restricted physical stacks also underground.

INNOVATIONS: It features an integration model that combines a traditional library with physical stacks and a technologically advanced multimedia center, computer center, and an administrative data processing center that work under the same staff management and budget, reducing overall costs for the university. The rounded shape and informational arrangement on the interior are meant to facilitate evolution of the university and library needs. It also features bright colors to designate spaces and promote integrated learning.

58 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


2005 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Amoeba-like, translucent, clover-leaf, solitary, glass library, multimedia center, computer center, and an administrative data processing area STRUCTURE: 105’ of reinforced concrete with a patterned curtain wall FACADE: double glazed glass curtain wall facade MATERIALS: steel, concrete, glass with the interior covered in bright colors CIRCULATION: main spiral staircase extending from the first to the sixth floor

BAC, Spring 2011

59


Biblioteca Municipal de Viana do Castelo ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Alvaro Siza Viana do Castelo, Portugal Viana Do Castelo, Portugal Built 33,10 sq ftm M $6,131,700

CONCEPTS: The primary concept is to be able to continuously view the river from the street and the surrounding areas. By elevating the main mass, the view is uninterrupted and the horizontality of the structure refers to the context of the site. The raised volume includes two floors with an exterior dimension of 150’x150’ with a 65’x65’ void in the center. The staff areas, event areas and main reading areas are on the first floor with collections and private reading rooms on the second.

INNOVATIONS: The main innovation of the library is the raised volume which rests partially on the first level and partially on two large L-shaped supports. Daylighting, views and simple circulation patterns provide a comfortable, accessible atmosphere for information accessibility.

60 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


2002 - 2006 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM: STRUCTURE:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Elevated volume, continuous view, intimate space Atrium space, collections, reading rooms, library events area Steel framing (truss), reinforced concrete walls, concrete composite slabs FACADE: Cast concrete panel, glass MATERIALS: concrete, glass / wood CIRCULATION: Ramps and stairs

BAC, Spring 2011

61


Parque Biblioteca España Santo Domingo Savio ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Giancarlo Mazzanti Arquitectos Alcaldía de Medellín Medellín, Colombia Built 11,500 sq.ft./3,505 sq.m. S USD 5.3 million

CONCEPTS: This project is part of an urban-scale master plan to build iconic cultural institutions in neighborhoods isolated by drug-violence and poverty, intending to inject equal social and economic opportunities into the disadvantaged areas. On this hillside site, the architects chose to express the program as building-landscape; program elements are rendered as “rocks” jutting out from a platform that serves as a public plaza and extension of the landscape. In this case, the building(s) are discrete forms and provide inhabitable geographies countering the notion of landscape as backdrop. Despite the iconic/ formal nature of the design itself, the library is better known for its social contributions to the notorious neighborhood. It has be praised for transforming the reputation of the neighborhood while providing public spaces and opportunities where before there had been none.

INNOVATIONS: Perhaps the primary innovation of this building is social, suggesting that architecture can, in some instances, operate to perform transformative social functions. Perhaps this is a credit more to the master plan (to construct cultural institutions where they are rarely proposed) than the actual building. However, this build works on two levels: as iconic formal metaphor and social instigator.

62 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


2007 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM: STRUCTURE: FACADE: MATERIALS: CIRCULATION:

BAC, Spring 2011

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 operative geography, building-landscape, “rocks” and platform library, training room, auditorium, admin (in 3 unique volumes) reinforced concrete columns w/2-way slab floor system (core structure) exterior – brick on steel frame; interior – suspended gypsum board stone, gypsum wall board with interior finishes elevators, escalators, enclosed stair towers

63


Biblioteca National de Brasilia ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Oscar Niemeyer Brazil Eixo Monumental, next to the Cathedral of Brasília Built 150,700 sq.ft./ 14,000sq.m L $ Unknown

CONCEPTS: Maryna’s text goes here

INNOVATIONS: Maryna’s text goes here

Print - Maps

http://www.bing.com/maps/print.aspx?mkt=en-us&z=18&s=a&cp=-15.7...

Bing Maps My Notes

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64 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index2/3/2011 10:03 PM


2006-2007 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM: STRUCTURE: FACADE: MATERIALS: CIRCULATION:

BAC, Spring 2011

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 reading and study rooms, auditorium and a collection of over 300,000 items

65


Tama Art University Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Toyo Ito Tama Art University Tokyo, Japan Built 62,000 sq.ft./ 5,700 sq.m M $ Unknown

CONCEPTS: The main concept of this building was to create a space that would promote students and professor the opportunity for collaboration. There are many soaces specifically geared for social interaction. The structural system is deformed grid of thin concrete arches. Pushing and pulling at the grid created spaces of a size necessary to the programmatic function. The ground level slopes with the site. An initial idea was to create a ground level that would become part of the pedestrian traffic that exists on campus. Ito and his designers wanted to encourage students to walk through the building.

INNOVATIONS:

66 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


2004-2007 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Fragility, Weightlessness, Openness stacks, circulation, reading space, social gathering, and media space (individual) STRUCTURE: Steel plate arches encased with concrete FACADE: arched glazing, concrete, Aluminum window profile, and Steel post MATERIALS: Concrete, painted steel, glazing CIRCULATION: The Circulation is fluid and overlapping. The main upward circulation is a curvilinear stairway that avoids touching the walls; thus, perpetuating the idea of openness.

BAC, Spring 2011

67


Jose Vasconcelos Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Alberto Kalach City of Mexico City Mexico City, Mexico Built 409,000 sq.ft./ 38,000 sq.m L $98 million

CONCEPTS: Alberto Kalach conceptualized the library as being an “arc of knowledge”. The main programmatic emphasis was placed on flexibility of spaces and technology media. In addition to the stacks, reading areas and computer terminals the library also includes a botanical garden which acts as an acoustic barrier from the traffic noise outside. Inside the library also has a cafeteria, a bookshop, and temporary exhibits. The library is referred to as a “megalibrary” and was considered politically controversial. The library was named after Jose Vasconcelos who was a former philosopher and presidential candidate. The building was the largest investment made during the Vicente Fox administration in Mexico.

INNOVATIONS: Innovations incorporated into this library include the botanical gardens which act as acoustical barriers for the library. The steel structure which supports the suspended stacks had to be re-evaluated after construction and caused the library to close for 22 months to fix construction defects. The stacks are suspended from steel supports and fluctuate in and out created an open atrium in the form of an arc in the center.

68 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


2007 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mega-Library, Arc for Learning Cafeteria, Bookshop, exhibition space, 500 seat auditorium, botanical garden. STRUCTURE: steel FACADE: steel, concrete, glass MATERIALS: steel, concrete, glass, botanical plants CIRCULATION: Series of suspended walkways through stacked bookshelves elevated off the main level.

BAC, Spring 2011

69


Bibliothek Luckenwalde ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

FF Architekten & Martina Wronna City of Luckenwalde Luckenwalde, Brandenburg, Germany Built 10,225 sq.ft./950 sq.m S $5.1 million

CONCEPTS: The towns old train station was transformed into the library. The children’s wing was added to the existing building. The slanted modern addition represents the opportunity for advancement and development in the town. The addition also represents the potential of the youth as it houses the young adult and children material. Luckenwalde struggles as many small East German towns of high employment and many empty buildings. This renovation was designed to bring activity back to the town center.

INNOVATIONS: TECU gold shingles cover the façade of the addition creating a homogeneous gold skin. Windows are designed as a continuation of the cladding. The bearing construction is concealed by gold panels and glass sheets. The gold reflects inside with internal gold colored metal mesh.

70 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


2008 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM: STRUCTURE: FACADE: MATERIALS: CIRCULATION:

BAC, Spring 2011

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 golden modern sculpture children and Youth Library Annex, Audio/Visual Media steel copper aluminum alloy shingles copper shingles, steel corridors join old train station building with new annex

71


National Technical Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Projektil Architekti S. R. O. and Helika Státní Technická Knihovna, Ministerstvo Školství, Mládeže a Telovýchovy Dejvice, Prague, Czech Republic Built 169,000 sq.ft./51,434 sq.m L 113.2 million

CONCEPTS: According to the architects’ statement, the building aims to provide a public space for collaboration. Essentially a multi-story, rounded square, the building opens at all four sides to the surrounding campus. At the center of the building is the “internal square” which is a six story atrium and represents a community oriented public plaza. In fact, the first two floors are programmed for complementary services not specific to any library function, such as a conference center, a campus cafeteria, an exhibition hall, and a twenty four hour study hall. The book stacks are located between the third and sixth floors which also have several areas dedicated to group meetings and socializing. In contrast to the unadorned curtain wall system on the exterior, the interior finishes employ bright painted color and large format graphic design in contrast to exposed concrete to convey a youthful graphic motif which the architects call a “technological schoolbook”.

INNOVATIONS: Remaining consistent with the spirit of technology for a “technical” library, the architects chose a simple but effective envelope system to provide energy reductions in construction and operation. This strategy also combines the socially oriented atrium with passive cooling effects to provide programmatic and interior environment benefits.

72 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


2006-2009 ICONICITY: AFFECTS:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 “the technological schoolbook”, “internal square”, public space, constellations PROGRAM: conference, book storage, night study, exhibition hall, café, stacks STRUCTURE: pre-stressed concrete FACADE: double layer glass curtain wall system (contains operable sun shades) MATERIALS: glass, concrete, painted floor finishes CIRCULATION: elevator cores, stairs at central atrium

BAC, Spring 2011

73


Kortrijk Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

REX Architecture City of Kortrijk, Belgium Kortrijk, Belgium Unbuilt 223,900 sq.ft./21,800 sq.m L $41.9 million

CONCEPTS: According to the architects’ statement, the building aims to provide a public space for collaboration. Essentially a multi-story, rounded square, the building opens at all four sides to the surrounding campus. At the center of the building is the “internal square” which is a six story atrium and represents a community oriented public plaza. In fact, the first two floors are programmed for complementary services not specific to any library function, such as a conference center, a campus cafeteria, an exhibition hall, and a twenty four hour study hall. The book stacks are located between the third and sixth floors which also have several areas dedicated to group meetings and socializing. In contrast to the unadorned curtain wall system on the exterior, the interior finishes employ bright painted color and large format graphic design in contrast to exposed concrete to convey a youthful graphic motif which the architects call a “technological schoolbook”.

INNOVATIONS: Remaining consistent with the spirit of technology for a “technical” library, the architects chose a simple but effective envelope system to provide energy reductions in construction and operation. This strategy also combines the socially oriented atrium with passive cooling effects to provide programmatic and interior environment benefits.

74 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


2009 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM: STRUCTURE: FACADE: MATERIALS: CIRCULATION:

BAC, Spring 2011

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Library of the Future central library, life-long learning center, music center steel steel & glass steel, glass, concrete wrapping ribbong of rooms and corridors (spiral)

75


The Bibliothèque Multimédia à Vocation Régionale (BMVR) ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Office for Metropolitan Architecture (OMA) Communauté d’agglomération Caen La Mer Caen, France Unbuilt 41,700 sq.ft./12,700 sq.m M USD 69.5 million, estimated

CONCEPTS: The principal concept of the library is that of the decussate cross, or “X”. Two intersecting blocks compose a five-level “X” with each of the four wings housing a particular academic discipline. The fours wings hold collections dedicated to humanities, literature, arts, and scientific material respectively. A shared reading-room is situated at the center of the cross and functions to promote an interface between the disciplines (i.e., library patrons). OMA oriented the two linear blocks to frame views of physical landmarks within the local urban environment. Large glazed apertures on each wing of the façade provide these framed views while exposing much of the interior activity to street-level sightlines.ok”.

INNOVATIONS: BMVR is OMA’s first cultural building to be built in France. It is currently in the schematic design phase, but is designed to engage not only the programmatic needs of a public library but also an external park, waterfront plaza, and pedestrian program elements.

76 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


2010-2015 (estimated) ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM: STRUCTURE: FACADE: MATERIALS: CIRCULATION:

BAC, Spring 2011

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 decussate cross, “X”, wings and historical landmarks, transparency reading rooms, interaction space, auditorium, café, youth library TBD (currently in schematic design phase) fully glazed façade with aluminium accent panels glass escalators, intersecting reading rooms (open plan)

77


Urban Library of the Future and Centre for New Media ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

UNSTudio CVBA Waalse Krook Gent, Belgium Competition entry- Unbuilt 19,498.6 m2 L Competition- Unbuilt

CONCEPTS: To create a dynamic, flexible and open knowledge environment, whilst simultaneously strengthening the character of the location with the introduction of a building with a distinct architectural identity. With an open landscape, spaciousness, extensive views, alternative circulation routes, several meeting areas and a public plaza, the design for the library affords a renewal of its urban context.

INNOVATIONS: Sustainability is the guiding factor in the design, based on the conviction that not only must the environmental and user-friendly design of the Urban Library of the Future be able to evolve along with new media, but it must also offer the possibility for future change of use.

78 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


2010 ICONICITY: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 AFFECTS: sustainable, green roof, future library, new media, spiriling, fluid PROGRAM: youth library, restaurant, reading rooms, stacks, culture and new media collections, green roof terraces STRUCTURE: concrete columns and mechanical stacks run vertically thorough the structure FACADE: glass, concrete, bands of concrete wrap around the levels MATERIALS: glass, concrete, wood CIRCULATION: spiraling ramps around central void

BAC, Spring 2011

79


Middle East Centre Library ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

Zaha Hadid St. Anthony’s College, University of Oxford Oxford, England Unbuilt, Construction Scheduled 2011 12,916 sq.ft./ 1,200 sq.m S $Unknown (private donation)

CONCEPTS: The new building consists of a suspended shell that leads to an open area which is connected to the older building through a central set of stairs. The design uses topography, levels, and plateaus to separate research areas physically, in a way the architect hopes will encourage different styles of communication and learning. Metaphorically, this is meant to serve as a link between the university and the surrounding community.

INNOVATIONS: The style of architecture is a direct departure from the Victorian nature of the surrounding neighborhood. The suspended shell and glass enclosure would be remarkable anywhere, but certainly stands out in rural England. The use of concave and convex glass highlights access points and denotes public and private areas in a way the architect hopes will draw people in.

80 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


2011 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM: STRUCTURE: FACADE:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 suspension, concave/convex, access point, “softbridge” reading room, library, storage, and lecture hall Reinforced concrete concrete shell on most sides with a main glass façade showing the reading plateau MATERIALS: concrete, glass CIRCULATION: The new addition serves as a suspended plateau to the older library, connecting the two structures through a centrally located stairway

BAC, Spring 2011

81


The Czech National Library Building Extension ARCHITECT: Future Systems CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

The Czech National Library Prague, Czech Republic competition entry, construction to be completed in 2011. 430,556 sq.ft./ 39,999 sq.m L $ Unknown

CONCEPTS: The architecture of the proposed building is a three dimensional object shaped to minimize the volume and to extend the views over the surrounding tree level. Its unique form and curvature is a reference to baroque buildings in Prague.

INNOVATIONS: The estimated volume of 10 million books stored underground are distributed by an Automated Storage and Retrieval System and reach the reader in less than 5 minutes.

82 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


2007-2011

ICONICITY: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 AFFECTS: PROGRAM: library, viewing platform, cafe,reading room, first level “street�, park inside the building, automated book storage, 10 million books. STRUCTURE: The structure is designed as a skeleton of steel columns with an internal grid of 12 by 9 meters which supports forged steel beams and slabs of concrete. The skin envelope is hung, supported by a ring-shaped beam located at Level 7. FACADE: The skin is covered with champagne coloured anodised aluminium tiles fading from dark at the bottom to light at the top. MATERIALS: Building is placed on a white unpolished marble platform, with mirror finished stainless steel wings lifted up the perimeter edges to reflect the building from different angles CIRCULATION:

BAC, Spring 2011

83


National Library in Astana ARCHITECT: CLIENT: LOCATION: STATUS: SIZE: SCALE: BUDGET:

BIG Architects Kazakhstan presidential office collaborators: arup agu Astana, Kazakstan Under Construction 450,000 sq.ft./42,000 sq.m L $ Unknown

CONCEPTS: This project is extremely grand in scale. The building is composed of an exterior skin and an interior structure. The exterior skin acts as a space shaper for interior as well as exterior public spaces. The library aims to function as an institution for intellectual, as well as, cultural pursuits. It also stands as a symbol for sovereign Kazakhstan. Symbolic forms, such as the circle representing the Great Library of Alexandria, the arch (arc de Triomphe), and the rotunda are all present in the volumetric mobius strip. Its (original) siting evokes ideas of urbanity and nature.

INNOVATIONS: .

84 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


2012 ICONICITY: AFFECTS: PROGRAM: STRUCTURE: FACADE: MATERIALS: CIRCULATION:

BAC, Spring 2011

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Asymmetry, Bending, and Continuity Reading Rooms, Sci. Research Rooms, Administration, Stacks, Archive Circulation, Public Space, Archive Unknown Tubular Steel frame Steel Coiled loop

85


Affect keywords National Library in Astana University of California Central Library Biblioteca Municipal de Viana do Castelo Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library Biblioteca Nacional de Brasilia

uity

ntin

Rea

n

Viipuri Library

rloc

ia

Inte

ph

y

mp

rity

ra

Ra

University Library, Delft

Ci

og

Jussieu Library

vil

To p

Ra

Kortrijk Library

Bending

ping Step

Co

Parque Biblioteca España Santo Domingo Savio

ing

king

chin

g

g

tin

Materiali

Fl

oa

ty

a Tr

g

ns

Breathin

pa

sing

re

Cros

g

ity

lar

u eg

g

in

diac y

ng

History Faculty Library

Imm e

Lat

Très Grande Bibliothèque

tici

Ve rt

Bibliothèque Nationale (Rue de Richelieu)

lity

An gu la

O

ica

n pe

rit y

R

National and University Library of Kosovo

nt

min

Do

Bibliothèque Multimédia à Vocation Régionale

Ryotaro Shiba Museum Library Bibliothéque Nationale de France Biblioteca Central de Brabante Bibliotheque Ste Genevieve

86 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index

Jumping

Mediatheque de Venissieux


Staatsbibliothek Berlin The Czech National Library Building Extension National Technical Library The Information, Communication and Media Center at Brandenburg Technical University in Cottbus

Urban Library of the Future and Centre for New Media

Pre

cis ion So l i t ud Am e bi gu ity

hing

Seattle Central Library

Mes

Expansio n

Jaume Fuster Library

g

S

Tama Art University Library

kin

c ta

ng

ali

ir Sp

Sendai Mediatheque

ty

gili

Fra

ibility

Fl

Flex

Middle East Centre Library

ric

d

ui

ility Accessib

Dissymm

et

etry

eo

m

Brid

G

Re

fere

Ico

Pr

nci

nic

op

xt Te

or

ity

tio

Glasgow School of Art Library

ging

ng

Utrecht University Library

Boston Public Library Exeter Academy Library

ity

g

nin

Solid

Linearity

Lea

g in ur

lity

ing lor

Co

na

Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library Eberswalde Library Peckham Library Bibliothek Luckenwalde Stockholm Public Library

Jose Vasconcelos Library

87 BAC, Spring 2011


scale comparison_sorted by total floor area (gross square feet) 1. Arts School Library, UK | 3500 2. Jussieu Library, FR | 8000 3. Eberswalde Library, DE | 9999 4. Bibliothèque, Rue Richelieu, FR | 10000 5. Bibliothek Luckenwalde, DE | 10225

S

6. Ryotaro Shiba Museum Library, JP | 11000 7. Middle East Centre Library, UK | 13000 8. Bibliotheque Ste. Genevieve, FR | 19200 9. Peckham Library, UK | 24000 10. History Faculty Library, UK | 30000

11. Library, Viana Do Castelo, PT | 33100 12. Biblioteca Parque Espana, CO | 38000 13. Médiathèque de Vénissieux, FR | 41000 14. Jaume Fuster Library, ES | 54000 15. Tama Art University Library, JP | 62000

9

16

10

1

2

16. Cottbus University Library, DE | 82100 17. Exeter Library, US | 89000 18. Brabant Library, NL | 99999 19. Stockholm Public Library, SE | 99999 20. Beinecke Library, US | 125000

M

22 17

23 18

3 11

4 19 12

5

13

L

24

6

25 20

14 7

8

15

21

26


21. BMVR, FR | 137000 22. Biblioteca Nacional, BR | 150700 23. Viipuri Library, RU | 160000 24. Uni. Library, Delft, NL | 161500 25. National Library, KO | 178000

26. National Technical Library, CZ | 210000 27. Library for the Future, BE | 210000 28. Kortrijk Library, BE | 223900 29. Sendai Mediatheque, JP | 233000 30. Geisel Library, UCSD, US | 300000

27

31. University Library, Utrecht, NL | 300000 32. MLK Jr. Memorial Library, US | 400000 33. Jose Vasconcelos Library, MX | 409000 34. Seattle Public Library, US | 412000 35. Czech National Library, CZ | 431000

XL

36. National Library Astana, KZ | 450000 37. Boston Public Library, US | 550000 38. Staatsbibliothek Berlin, DE | 1999999 39. Très Grande Biblio., FR | 2700000 40. Bibliothèque Nationale, FR | 3500000

31

28

32

38 29 34

30

39 35

40

36

33

37


3500 gsf

(graph) scale comparison_ buildings sorted by smallest to largest floor areas

(diagram) floor area comparison_ smallest library compared to largest

GSF

1 2 3

x 1000

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

(table) floor area categories in gross square feet

26

S

27 28

3k-30k

29

M

L

30k-100k

XL

100k-600k

600k-3500k

30 31 32

(table) number of buildings grouped by size category

33

S

34 35

10

36

M 9

L

XL 18

37 3500000 gsf

38 39 40 0 gsf

500000

1000000

1500000

2000000

2500000

3000000

3500000

3


1843 ce

(graph) scale comparison_ buildings sorted by date from oldest to newest

(diagram) scale comparison_ oldest library compared to newest

8 4 1 19 23 20 10 30

1843

17

2012

32 37 38 25 39 2 40 6 24

40

(diagram) scale comparison_footprints aligned on center point

3 9 13 29 18 31 34 11 14 16 12 15 22 33 5 26 28 21 27

2010 ce

7 35 36 0 gsf

500000

1000000

1500000

2000000

2500000

3000000

3500000


capacity comparison_ buildings sorted by date from oldest to newest, circle represents collection items per square foot

1843

year built

104.1

items per square foot

2011

in progress

1.1

items per square foot

92 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


category comparison_ size groups, floor areas, and representative buildings

group

building, location

floor area

S

1. Arts School Library, UK 2. Jussieu Library, FR 3. Eberswalde Library, DE 4. Bibliothèque, Rue Richelieu, FR 5. Bibliothek Luckenwalde, DE 6. Ryotaro Shiba Museum Library, JP 7. Middle East Centre Library, UK 8. Bibliotheque Ste. Genevieve, FR 9. Peckham Library, UK 10. History Faculty Library, UK

3500 8000 9999 10000 10225 11000 13000 19200 24000 30000

11. Library, Viana Do Castelo, PT 12. Biblioteca Parque Espana, CO 13. Médiathèque de Vénissieux, FR 14. Jaume Fuster Library, ES 15. Tama Art University Library, JP 16. Cottbus University Library, DE 17. Exeter Library, US 18. Brabant Library, NL 19. Stockholm Public Library, SE

33100 38000 41000 54000 62000 82100 89000 99999 99999

20. Beinecke Library, US 21. BMVR, FR 22. Biblioteca Nacional, BR 23. Viipuri Library, RU 24. Uni. Library, Delft, NL 25. National Library, KO 26. National Technical Library, CZ 27. Library for the Future, BE 28. Kortrijk Library, BE 29. Sendai Mediatheque, JP 30. Geisel Library, UCSD, US 31. University Library, Utrecht, NL 32. MLK Jr. Memorial Library, US 33. Jose Vasconcelos Library, MX 34. Seattle Public Library, US 35. Czech National Library, CZ 36. National Library Astana, KZ 37. Boston Public Library, US

125000 137000 150700 160000 161500 178000 210000 210000 223900 233000 300000 300000 400000 409000 412000 431000 450000 550000

38. Staatsbibliothek Berlin, DE 39. Très Grande Biblio., FR 40. Bibliothèque Nationale, FR

1999999 2700000 3500000

M

L

XL

93 BAC, Spring 2011

representative building/ average floor area for size group

representative building/ average floor area for all buildings

13892.4

66577.6

280061.1

773466.0

2733333.0


primary structural system

masonry

concrete

steel frame

truss

94 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index

secondary structure


library

structure form

Bibliotheque Ste. Genevieve Bibliothèque Nationale, Rue Richelieu Arts School Library, Glasgow

arch

Stockholm Public Library Viipuri (Vyborg) Library Beinecke Rare Books Library, Yale History Faculty Library Geisel Library, UCSD Phillips Exeter Library

dome

Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library Boston Public Library Staatsbibliothek Berlin National Library of Kosovo Très Grande Bibliotheque Jussieu Library Bibliothèque Nationale de France

divided space

Ryotaro Shiba Museum Library TU Delft Library Eberswalde Library Peckham Library Médiathèque de Vénissieux Sendai Mediatheque Brabant Library

clear span

University Library, Utrecht Seattle Public Library Jaume Fuster Library Cottbus University Library Municipal Library, Viana Do Castelo Biblioteca Parque Espana Biblioteca Nacional de Brasília

atrium

Tama Art University Library Jose Vasconcelos Library Bibliothek Luckenwalde National Technical Library Kortrijk Library Bibliothèque Multimédia à Vocation Régionale Urban Library of the Future and Centre for New Media Middle East Centre library at St Antony’s College Czech National Library Building Extension National Library in Astana

95 BAC, Spring 2011

cantilever


1 structural steel

concrete

stone

brick

metal panel

perforated panel

glazing

wood

synthetic

10

common

96 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index

Material Content 40 Precedent Studies. indicates exterior, and indicates interior for each material. When the symbol is colored, the material is either acting characteristically to an extreme, or a material is function to elicit a mood contrary to its nature. I.e., a material like stone acting to warm a space. Blue hue is cold, red hue is hot. The sky blue bars indicate the most frequently used materials: glass and concrete.


stucco

97 BAC, Spring 2011

gypsum board

gypsum board


1 structural steel

1

concrete

stone

brick

10

metal panel

perforated panel

1

glazing

wood

synthetic

10

common

98 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index

10


suspended gypsum board

99 BAC, Spring 2011


ORGANIC

A G G R E G AT E D

C I

R C U L A T

I

O ORDERED

N CENTRAL

P

FREE FORM L A N L A Y O U T LINEAR


CIRCULATION DESK

BOOKS

READING AREA

BOOK STACKS

C I R C U L A T

I

O

N

AROUND CENTRAL CORE


PAGE 2

Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library (Washington, USA) Geisel Library (San Diego, CA, USA) Exeter Library (Exter, NH, USA) Boston Public Library (Boston, MA, USA) Beinecke Rare Books Library, Yale University (Yale, CT)

Jose Vasconcelos Library (Mexico City, Mexico)

Biblioteca Parque Espana (Medellín, Colombia) Biblioteca Nacional de Brasília (Brasilia, Brazil)

102 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index


National Library in Astana, Kazakhstan

Ryotaro Shiba Museum Library (Osaka, Japan) Sendai Mediatheque (Sendai, Japan) Tama Art University Library (Tokyo, Japan)

BUILDING SIZE:

DATE:

> 200,000 SF

2000 - NOW

> 100,000 SF

1950 - 2000

< 100,000 SF

< 2000


University Library (Utrecht, Netherlands) Brabant Library (Brabant, The Netherlands) University Library (Delft, Netherlands) Urban Library of the Future and Centre for New Media (Gent, Belgium) Kortrijk Library (Kortrijk, Belgium)

Arts School Library (Glasgow, UK) History Faculty Library (Cambridge, UK) Middle East Centre Library at St Antony’s College (Oxford, UK) Peckham Library (London, UK)

Bibliothèque Multimédia à Vocation Régionale (Caen, France) Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris, France) Bibliothèque Nationale, Rue Richelieu (Paris, France) Bibliotheque Ste Genevieve (Paris, France) Jussieu Libraries (Paris, France) Très Grande Bibliotheque (Paris, France) Mediaheque de Venissieux (Venissieux, France)

Municipal Library (Viana Do Castelo, Portugal)

104 Informative Platform(s): The Library Index

Jaume Fuster Library (Barcelona, Spain)


Stockholm Public Library (Stockholm, Sweden) Viipuri Library (Vyborg, Russia)

Eberswalde Library (Eberswalde, Germany) Staatsbibliothek Berlin (Berlin, Germany) Luckenwalde (Luckenwalde, Germany) Cottbus University Library (Cottbus, Germany) National Technical Library (Prague, Czech Republic) The Czech National Library Building Extension (Prague, CzR)

National Library of Kosovo (Pristina, Kosovo)

BUILDING SIZE:

DATE:

> 200,000 SF

2000 - NOW

> 100,000 SF

1950 - 2000

< 100,000 SF

< 2000


Colophon informative platform(s): the new public library C2 advanced architecture studio Boston Architectural College, spring 2011 Instructor Evangelos Kotsioris Students Darice Cadriel Michael Hamilton Braden Hunter Maryna Medvinsky Evan Mullen Christine Reinders Matthew Schexnyder Laura Wolf 1st Edition Boston, February 2011

Copyright disclaimer All material, plans, diagrams, illustrations produced for this catalog are copyright of the authors and the Boston Architectural College. All original material, photos, plans, illustrations and texts and trademarks are copyright of their respective owners. This catalog was compiled for strictly educational reasons. It is not meant to be reproduced in any way without permission of the respective copyright owners.


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