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CONFERENCE PAPERS AND EXTENDED ABSTRACTS


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AM 7HH Q7 kyRy- i?2 /i#b2 +Hbb +QMbBbi2/ Q7 i2M bim/2MibX h?`22 MQM@T`Q}i +QKKmMBiv Q`;MBxiBQMb rQ`F2/ rBi? i?2 +Hbb 7Q` i?2B` /i#b2 /2p2HQTK2Mi T`QD2+ibX h?2 +Hbb +`2i2/ i?`22 /i#b2b 7Q` i?2b2 Q`;MBxiBQMb BM+Hm/BM;,  pQHmMi22` /i#b2 iQ ?2HT QM2 Q`;MBxiBQM #2ii2` KM;2 Bib pQHmMi22`b M/ b+?2/mH2 pQHmMi22`b 7Q` +iBpBiB2b-  pBbBiQ` /i#b2 iQ ?2HT QM2 Q`;MBxiBQM KM;2 pBbBiQ`bÇś BM7Q`KiBQM 7Q` [m`i2`Hv `2TQ`i- M/  +QHH2+iBQM /i#b2 iQ ?2HT QM2 b2H7@Q`;MBx2/ ;`QmT iQ `+?Bp2 M/ b?`2 mb27mH BM@ 7Q`KiBQM #Qmi i?2 +QHH2+iBQMX h?`22 bim/2Mi ;`QmTb r2`2 7Q`K2/ #v i?2 BMbi`m+iQ` ++Q`/BM; iQ i?2 bim/2MibÇś i2+?MB+H #+F;`QmM/;`QmT rQ`F M/ H2/2`b?BT ?BbiQ`v- b+?2/mH2 7Q` ;`QmT K22iBM;- M/ T`272`2M+2b QM i?2 /i#b2 T`QD2+ibX h?2 bim/2Mi ;`QmTb r2`2 `2[mB`2/ iQ 2M;;2 i?2 +QKKmMBiv T`i@ M2`b BM i?2 T`QD2+i M/ 7Qbi2` +iBp2 T`iB+BTiBQM Q7 i?2 +QKKmMBiv T`iM2`bX h?Bb rb KMB72bi2/ #v `2[mB`BM; i?2 bim/2Mib iQ +QHH2+i M/ /Q+mK2Mi i?2 +QKKmMBiv T`iM2`bÇś 722/#+F QM i?2 bim/2MibÇś +iBpBiB2b i /Bz2`2Mi bi;2bX h?2 bim/2Mib r2`2 HbQ `2[mB`2/ iQ r`Bi2 `2~2+iBp2 DQm`MHb #Qmi i?2B` H2`MBM; 2tT2`B2M+2b r?B+? BM@ +Hm/2/ MQi QMHv i?2B` `2~2+iBQMb QM i?2 /i#b2 +QM+2Tib M/ i?2 /i#b2 /2bB;M M/ BKTH2K2MiiBQM Bbbm2b- #mi HbQ i?2B` 722/#+Fb QM i?2 MQM@i2+?MB+H +?HH2M;2b i?2v `M BMiQ BM i?2 ;`QmT T`QD2+iX

Data Collection and Analysis HH i?2 i?`22 `2T`2b2MiiBp2b Q7 i?2 +QKKmMBiv ;`QmTb +?Qb2 iQ T`iB+BTi2 BM i?2 bim/vX h?2v r2`2 BMi2`pB2r2/ #Qmi i?2B` 2tT2`@ B2M+2b Q7 rQ`FBM; rBi? i?2 bim/2Mi ;`QmTbX 1B;?i bim/2Mib +?Qb2 iQ T`iB+BTi2 BM i?2 bim/vX 6Qm` Q7 i?2K +?Qb2 iQ #2 BMi2`pB2r2/ #Qmi i?2B` 2tT2`B2M+2b Q7 rQ`FBM; rBi?  `2H mb2` BM i?2 T`QD2+i M/ i?2B` 2tT2`B2M+2b Q7 rQ`FBM; rBi? i?2 Qi?2` bim/2Mib BM i?2 ;`QmTX h?`22 BMi2`pB2r22b r2`2 7`QK i?2 bK2 ;`QmTX h?2 BMi2`@ pB2rb r2`2 b2KB@ bi`m+im`2/X HH BMi2`pB2rb r2`2 +QM/m+i2/ +HQb2 iQ i?2 2M/ Q7 i?2 ;`QmT T`QD2+iX h?2v r2`2 +QM/m+i2/ BM  7+2@iQ@7+2 b2iiBM; M/ Hbi2/ #2ir22M k8 M/ 98 KBMmi2bX h?2 BMi2`pB2rb r2`2 `2+Q`/2/ M/ i`Mb+`B#2/X




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Findings h?2 BMi2`pB2r /i bm;;2bi i?i i?2 bim/2Mib MQi QMHv H2`M2/ #Qmi /i#b2 +QM+2Tib M/ /i#b2 i2+?MQHQ;v #mi HbQ TT`2@ +Bi2/ i?2 QTTQ`imMBiv Q7 rQ`FBM; rBi? `2H mb2`b M/ ;BM2/ 2tT2`@ B2M+2b Q7 ?Qr iQ iF2 i?2B` T2`bT2+iBp2b BMiQ ++QmMi M/ BMi2;`i2 i?2K BMiQ i?2 /i#b2 /2bB;MX PM2 ;`QmT rb bbB;M2/ iQ +`2i2 i?2 +QHH2+iBQM /i#b2X h?2 +QHH2+iBQM BM+Hm/2/ Tm#HBb?2/ `iB+H2b#QQFb- 2i+X i i?2 #2;BMMBM; Q7 i?2 T`QD2+i- i?2 bim/2Mib i?Qm;?i i?2v rQmH/ /2p2HQT  HB#``v +iHQ;m2 7Q` i?2 +QHH2+iBQM rBi? #B#@ HBQ;`T?B+ /i HBF2 mi?Q`b- Tm#HB+iBQM v2`- Tm#HBb?2`- 2i+X M BMi2`pB2r rBi? i?2 `2T`2b2MiiBp2 iQiHHv +?M;2/ i?2 ;`QmTǶb pB2rX PM2 K2K#2` `2~2+i2/ QM i?Bb M/ bB/- dzqQ`FBM; rBi?  +HB2Mi Bb `2HHv BMi2`2biBM;- M/ i?2 T`QD2+i i?i r2 ;Qi- i?2 +iHQ;mBM; Q7 `2bQm`+2bXXXr2 ?p2 iQ #2  HBiiH2 #Bi +`2iBp2 BM ?Qr r2 TT`Q+? i?2 T`QD2+i #2+mb2XXX?2 rMib Bi iQ #2 TH+2 r?2`2 T2QTH2 +M +QK2 M/ [mB+FHv }M/ `2bQm`+2b rBi?Qmi ?pBM; iQ ivT2 BM b2`+? rQ`/bXǴ h?2 +QKKmMBiv T`iM2`b HbQ TT`2+Bi2/ i?2 +iBp2 T`iB+BT@ iBQM T`Q+2bbX h?2v r2`2 TH2b2/ i?i i?2 bim/2Mib iQQF i?2 Q`;M@ BxiBQMǶb T2`bT2+iBp2 b2`BQmbHv BM i?2 /2bB;M T`Q+2bbX PM2 `2T`2b2Mi@ iBp2 bB/, dzh?2v /Q MQi +QK2 BM rBi? T`2+QM+2Bp2/ B/2b Q7 r?i b?QmH/ #2 /QM2- r?i M22/b iQ #2 /QM2X h?2v HBbi2M iQ r?i A ?p2 iQ bvXXX M/ A i?BMF i?iǶb i?2 `B;?i rv iQ /Q Bi- BiǶb MQi #2BM; `2+iBp2XXXAǶp2 b22M bQK2 T`Q72bbBQMH +QMbmHiMib i?i `2MǶi b r2HH T`2T`2/ M/ b i?Q`Qm;? b i?Bb ;`QmT Bb- bQ i?2vǶp2 #22M p2`v ;QQ/ǴX >2 7m`i?2` +QKK2Mi2/ i?i- dzXXX h?2v /Q +`2 #Qmi M Q`;MBxiBQM i?2vǶp2 ?/ MQ +QMM2+iBQM iQX h?iǶbXXXbQK2i?BM; i?i /QMǶi Hrvb ;2i rBi? i?2 +QMbmHiMi i?i HQQFb i Bi vQm FMQr- i?Bb Bb  #mbBM2bb T`QD2+i QM2 Qz i?2M AǶHH KQp2 QM iQ bQK2i?BM; 2Hb2XXXǴ PM2 `2T`2b2MiiBp2 rb ?TTBHv bm`T`Bb2/ r?2M ?2 7QmM/ ?2 rb 2KTQr2`2/ iQ Qz2` 722/#+F /m`BM; i?2 /2bB;M T`Q+2bbX _2~2+iBM; mTQM ?Bb dzH2`MBM; 2tT2`B2M+2Ǵ- ?2 bB/- dzA ?/MǶi `2HBx2/XXXi?i vQm /QMǶi Dmbi im`M bQK2i?BM; Qp2` iQ T2QTH2 M/ bv /Q BiX h?2vǶ`2


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Bibliography

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Introduction h?2 +QM+2Ti Q7 6`22/QK Q7 AM7Q`KiBQM U"HFBM kyy9- GK#H2 kyyk- aQHQp2 kyykV ?b #22M `Bb2/ iQ  7mM/K2MiH ;QQ/ i?i T2`K2i2b HH bT2+ib Q7 KQ/2`M /2KQ+`iB+ bQ+B2iB2bX h?2 ;QH Q7 i?Bb TT2` Bb iQ 2tTHQ`2 i?2 `QH2 Q7 i?Bb T`BM+BTH2 BM `2HiBQM iQ HQ+H mi?Q`BiB2b ii2KTib iQ BM+`2b2 +BiBx2M T`iB+BTiBQM pB BM+`2b2/ H2p2Hb Q7 bQ+BH K2/B mb;2X q2 `;m2 i?i bQ+BH K2/B TQHB+v rQ`F `Bb2b  +QM~B+i pBb@¨@pBb i?2 2bi#HBb?2/ MQ`Kb Q7 6`22/QK Q7 AM7Q`KiBQM M/ i?2 B/2QHQ;B+H mM/2`TBMMBM;b Q7 i?2 i2+?MQHQ;v BM mb2X Pm` MHvbBb #mBH/b QM  ar2/Bb? +b2 bim/v M/ BHHmbi`i2b i?2 +QM~B+i #2ir22M +BiBx2M@;Qp2`MK2Mi BMi2`+iBQM pB bQ+BH K2/B i2+?MQHQ;B2b M/ i?2 2bi#HBb?2/ MQ`Kb Q7 6`22/QK Q7 AM7Q`KiBQMX

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(R) "QHH+F2`- Em`i .X- Gr`2M+2- ai2p2- :BH2b- *X G22X URNN3VX *Bi2a22`, M miQMQKQmb q2# ;2Mi 7Q` miQKiB+ _2@ i`B2pH M/ A/2MiB}+iBQM Q7 AMi2`2biBM; Sm#HB+iBQMbX kM/ AM@ i2`MiBQMH *J *QM72`2M+2 QM miQMQKQmb ;2MibX RRe@ RkjX (k) :Hp2x- *`K2Mc JQv@M2;QM- 6ûHBt UkyydV dzTT`QtBK@ i2 S2`bQMH LK2@Ji+?BM; h?`Qm;? 6BMBi2@aii2 :`T?bǴX CaAah 83URjV,R@RdX (j) h?QKb :m`M2v- 1/rBM >Q`HBM;b  S2i2` pM /2M "2bb2H` UkyRRVX dzmi?Q` /BbK#B;miBQM mbBM; KmHiB@bT2+i bBKBH`@ Biv BM/B+iQ`bXǴ AM, S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 AaaA kyRR, .m`#M- aQmi? 7`B+X CmHv 9@d- kyRRX (9) EM;- AM@amc L- a2mM;@>QQMc G22- a2mM;rQQc CmM;- >M@ KBMc EBK- SvmM;c amM;- qQM@EvmM;c G22- CQM;@>v2QF UkyyNV dzPM +Q@mi?Q`b?BT 7Q` mi?Q` /BbK#B;miBQMǴX AM7Q`K@ iBQM S`Q+2bbBM; M/ JM;2K2Mi 98,39@NdX (8) Gr`2M+2- ai2p2c :BH2b- *X G22c "QHH+F2`- Em`i .X URNNNV dzmiQMQKQmb *BiiBQM Ji+?BM;ǴX S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 i?2 h?B`/ AMi2`MiBQMH *QM72`2M+2 QM miQMQKQmb ;2Mib- a2iiH2qb?BM;iQM- Jv R@8- *J S`2bb- L2r uQ`F- Lu- RNNNX (e) G2vJB+?2HX UkyyNVX ."GS Ĝ aQK2 G2bbQMb G2`M2/X S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 i?2 oG." 1M/QrK2Mi kUkVX ?iiT,ffrrrXpH/#XQ`;fTpH/#fkfpH/#yN@N3XT/7




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Bibliography

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General outline of the study h?2`2 Bb  ;`QrBM; #Q/v Q7 `2b2`+? i?i ++2Mimi2b i?2 BK@ TQ`iM+2 Q7 2KTHQvBM;  bQ+BHHv- +mHim`HHv- M/ HBM;mBbiB+HHv Q`B@ 2Mi2/ MHviB+ 7`K2rQ`F r?2M bim/vBM; BM7Q`KiBQM M/ FMQr@ H2/;2 U.m;mB/  "`QrM- kyyyc hHD 2i H- RNNNc >DКа`HM/  H@ #`2+?ib2M- RNN8c 6`Q?KMM- kyy9c >DКа`HM/- kyRRVX  rB/2 p`B@ 2iv Q7 +QMi2timHHv Q`B2Mi2/ TT`Q+?2b ?p2 #22M 2KTHQv2/ BM i?2 bim/v Q7 2[mHHv /Bp2`b2 bm#D2+i /QKBMb- BM+Hm/BM; b+?QH`Hv +QK@ KmMB+iBQM UED2HH#2`;- kyRyV- i?2 T`Q/m+iBQM Q7 b+B2MiB}+ FMQrH2/;2 UEMQ`` *2iBM- RNNNc "x2`KM- RN38V- T`Q72bbBQMH BM7Q`KiBQM b22FBM; UCQ?MMBbbQM  amM/BM- kyydV- M/ BM7Q`KiBQM `2i`B2pH U>DКа`HM/- kyykVX h?2`2 `2- ?Qr2p2`- 72r +QM+2TimH M/ 2KTB`@ B+H BM[mB`B2b BM GB#``v M/ AM7Q`KiBQM a+B2M+2 UGAaV i?i KMB@ 72bi bm+?  +QMi2timH +`2/Q BM i?2 bim/v Q7 i?2 `2HiBQMb?BT #2ir22M BM7Q`KiBQMH bT2+ib Q7 bQ+BH K2/B M/ i?2 +QM/BiBQMb Q7 /Q+m@ K2MiiBQM- `+?BpBM;- M/ +mHim`H ?2`Bi;2X h?2 ;QH Q7 i?2 T`2b2Mi bim/v Bb iQ +QMi`B#mi2 iQ +QMi2timHHv Q`B2Mi2/ bQ+BH K2/B `2b2`+? #v /Bb+mbbBM; ?Qr #HQ;b #Qmi i?`22@ /BK2MbBQMH pB`imH rQ`H/b- 7`QK  /Q+mK2Mi i?2Q`v T2`bT2+iBp2+M #2 +QM+2TimHBx2/ b /Q+mK2MiiBQM Q7 i?2 pB`imH rQ`H/b iQ r?B+? i?2v T2`iBMX h?2 /Q+mK2Mi i?2Q`2iB+H pB2r Q7 #HQ;b Bb 7m`i?2` MHvx2/ 7`QK  DQBMi GAa M/ TQbiKQ/2`M `+?BpH b+B2M+2 T2`bT2+iBp2- r?2`2 i?2 `+?BpH MQiBQM Q7 `2+Q`/ Bb mb2/ iQ 2tTHQ`2 pB`imH rQ`H/ #HQ;b b  TQi2MiBH BM7Q`KiBQM bQm`+2 BM `+?BpBM; 2zQ`ib /B`2+i2/ iQr`/b pB`imH rQ`H/bX




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A short introduction to document theory, the concept of record, and the theory of remediation .Q+mK2Mi i?2Q`v Ä&#x153; TBQM22`2/ #v PiH2i UR3e3@RN99V M/ "`B2i UR3N9@RN3NVc KQ/B}2/ M/ `2BMi`Q/m+2/ BMiQ GAa `2b2`+? #v b+?QH@ `b bm+? b 6`Q?KMM Ukyy9#V- 6`M+F2 Ukyy3V- M/ qBM/72H/ GmM/ UkyyN- kyRyV Ä&#x153; Bb  +QMi2timHHv +Q;MBxMi TT`Q+? i?i ++2Mim@ i2b i?2 Ki2`BH- M/ +QMb2[m2MiHv i?2 +QMi2timH M/ T`Q+2bbmHMim`2 Q7 i?2 /Q+mK2Mi UqBM/72H/ GmM/- kyyN- kyRyVX q?i b?QmH/ #2 +QMbB/2`2/  /Q+mK2Mi Bb  iQTB+ i?i ?b #22M /Bb+mbb2/ 2ti2Mb@ Bp2Hv BM #Qi? ?BbiQ`B+H M/ +QMi2KTQ``v +/2KB U+7X "m+FHM/RNNd- RNN3c 6`M+F2- kyy8c 6`Q?KMM- kyyNVX >Qr2p2`- bi`QM; `2b@ QMb iQ /2}M2 i?2 +QM+2Ti Q7 /Q+mK2Mi mbBM;  ?2m`BbiB+ TT`Q+? ?b #22M Tmi 7Q`r`/ #v- KQM; Qi?2`b- 6`M+F2 Ukyy8V M/ 6`Q?KMM UkyyNVX 6Q` i?2 Tm`TQb2 Q7 i?Bb bim/v- qBM72H/ GmM/Çśb /2}MBiBQM Q7 /Q+mK2Mib b ÇłMv `2bmHib Q7 ?mKM 2zQ`ib iQ i2HH- BMbi`m+i- /2KQM@ bi`i2- i2+? Q` T`Q/m+2  THv (XXX) #v mbBM; bQK2 K2Mb BM bQK2 rvbÇł rBHH #2 2KTHQv2/ UqBM72H/ GmM/- kyRy- TX d9jVX AM i?Bb pB2rBi Bb THmbB#H2 iQ +QM+2TimHBx2 #HQ;b b /Q+mK2MibX 6`QK  /Q+mK2Mi i?2Q`v T2`bT2+iBp2- #HQ;b `2 i?mb 2bb2MiBHHv +mHim`H- bQ+BH- M/ ?BbiQ`B+H +QMbi`m+ib i?i `2 b?T2/ #v i?2 bBimi2/ /Q+mK2Mi T`+iB+2b i?i +`2i2 i?2K U6`M+F2- kyy3c qBM/@ 72H/ GmM/- kyyN- kyRyVX *QmTH2/ rBi?  pB2r Q7 BM7Q`KiBQM b  7mM/K2MiHHv bQ+BH T?2MQK2MQM- K2/Bi2/ i?`Qm;? T2QTH2- `i2@ 7+ib- M/ i2+?MQHQ;B2b U6`M+F2- kyy3V- i?2 bim/v Q7 #HQ;b- 7`QK  /Q+mK2Mi i?2Q`v TQBMi Q7 pB2r- #2+QK2b  `2bQM#H2 rv Q7 BMp2bi@ B;iBM; ?Qr pB`imH rQ`H/ #HQ;b `2K2/Bi2 M/ `2T`2b2Mi i?2 pB`imH rQ`H/b i?i i?2v `2 #QmiX h?2 i?2Q`v Q7 `2K2/BiBQM rBHH #2 mb2/ b  bmTTH2K2Mi`v i?2Q`2iB+H iQQH iQ mM/2`biM/ M/ MHvx2 i?2


2QVRFLDOPHGLDDQGGRFXPHQWWKHRU\



`2HiBQM #2ir22M i?2 pB`imH rQ`H/ M/ #HQ;b #Qmi Bi- M/ ?Qr QM2 `2T`2b2Mib- `2K2/Bi2b- M/ `27Q`Kb- i?2 Qi?2` U"QHi2`  :`mbBMRNNNVX h?2 ii2KTi iQ mM/2`biM/ M/ 2tTHQ`2 i?2 bQ+BH Mim`2 Q7 /Q+@ mK2Mib Ĝ  +2Mi`H i2M2i Q7 /Q+mK2Mi i?2Q`v Ĝ `2bQMi2 rBi? i?2 MQiBQM Q7 `2+Q`/-  7mM/K2MiH +QM+2Ti BM `+?BpH b+B2M+2 b r2HH b QM2 Q7 i?2 KQbi #bB+ mMBib Q7 i?2 `+?Bp2X AM i`/BiBQMH `+?BpH i?Qm;?i- i?2 `2+Q`/ Bb  M2mi`H Q#D2+i i?i T`QpB/2b mi?2MiB+ BM@ 7Q`KiBQM #Qmi i?2 +QMi2ti Q7 Bib +`2iBQM Uh?QKbb2M- kyyRVX >Qr2p2`- TQbiKQ/2`M `+?BpH b+B2M+2 bb2`ib i?i i?2 `2+Q`/ Bb bQ+BHHv +QMbi`m+i2/ M/- 7m`i?2`KQ`2- ++2Mimi2b i?2 M22/ iQ /2@ p2HQT M2r `+?BpH 7`K2rQ`Fb M/ T`+iB+2b QM i?2 #bBb Q7 i?Bb pB2rTQBMi U*QQF- kyyRc h`+2- kyykVX

Case study – methods and materials h?2 /Q+mK2Mi@+2Mi2`2/ i?2Q`2iB+H 7`K2rQ`F /2b+`B#2/ #Qp2 rb QT2`iBQMHBx2/ BM  +b2 bim/v Q7 ?Qr i?2 HM/b+T2 Hi2`M@ iBQMb Q7 i?2 Q`B;BMH +QMiBM2Mib Q7 qQ`H/ Q7 q`+`7iǶb ;K2 rQ`H/ Ĝ #`Qm;?i #Qmi #v i?2 `2H2b2 Q7 i?2 2tTMbBQM T+F *i+HvbK BM .2+2K#2` kyRR Ĝ r2`2 `2T`2b2Mi2/ BM 9y qQ`H/ Q7 q`+`7i #HQ;bX >Qr r2`2 i?2 /`biB+ +?M;2b iQ i?2 7KBHB` bm``QmM/BM;b Q7 i?2 ;K2 rQ`H/- ?Bi?2`iQ mM+?M;2/ bBM+2 i?2 `2H2b2 Q7 qQ`H/ Q7 q`@ +`7i BM kyy9- `2T`2b2Mi2/ BM i?2 #HQ;b\ q?B+? `2T`2b2MiiBQMb Q7 i?2 HM/b+T2 K2iKQ`T?QbBb r2`2 7`2[m2Mi BM i?2 qQ`H/ Q7 q`@ +`7i #HQ;QbT?2`2- M/ r?B+? r2`2 mM+QKKQM\ >Qr r2`2 i?2 `2T@ `2b2MiiBQMb BMi2``2Hi2/\ h?2 +b2 bim/v rb ;mB/2/ #v i?2 7QHHQrBM; `2b2`+? [m2biBQMb, UBV r?i `2 i?2 +?`+i2`BbiB+b Q7 M/ p`BiBQMb BM i?2 `2K2/BiBQM M/ `2T`2b2MiiBQM Q7 i?2 pB`imH rQ`H/ qQ`H/ Q7 q`+`7i BM i?2 bim/B2/ qQ`H/ Q7 q`+`7i@`2Hi2/ #HQ;b\ UBBV >Qr /Q2b `2b2`+?@ #b2/ FMQrH2/;2 Q7 i?2 `2K2/BiBQM M/ `2T`2b2MiiBQM Q7 qQ`H/ Q7 q`+`7i BM i?2 bim/B2/ #HQ;b BM7Q`K  rQ`FBM; TT`Q+? iQ ?Qr pB`imH rQ`H/b +QmH/ #2 `+?Bp2/\ h?2 qQ`H/ Q7 q`+`7i #HQ;b i?i 7Q`K i?2 2KTB`B+H #bBb Q7 i?2 T`2b2Mi +b2 bim/v r2`2 7QmM/ mbBM; i?2 #HQ; b2`+? 2M;BM2b h2+?MQ`iB M/ "HQ;TmHb2- M/ i?2 #HQ;`QHHb Q7 i?2 #HQ;b B/2MiB}2/




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i?Bb rvX HH Q7 i?2 #HQ;b r2`2 r`Bii2M BM 1M;HBb? M/ +iBp2 i i?2 iBK2 Q7 /i +QHH2+iBQMX _2H2pMi #HQ; TQbib r2`2 B/2MiB}2/ mbBM; i?2 #HQ;bÇś #mBHi@BM b2`+? iQQHb M/ 7QHFbQMQKB+ i;b- M/ b2@ H2+i2/ 7Q` MHvbBb mbBM; Tm`TQbBp2 bKTHBM; UqBH/2Kmi?- kyyNVX h?2 /i rb MHvx2/ mbBM; +Q@rQ`/ MHvbBb-  +QMi2Mi MHvbBb@ K2i?Q/ /2bB;M2/ iQ K2bm`2 i?2 7`2[m2M+v M/ +Q@Q++m``2M+2 Q7 HBM;mBbiB+ mMBib UrQ`/b- TB`b Q7 rQ`/b- T?`b2bV BM  #Q/v Q7 i2ti U*Qm`iBH- RNN9c *HHQM- 2i HX- RN3jc >2- RNNNVX JmHiB/BK2MbBQMH b+HBM; UJ.aV rb mb2/ iQ pBbmHBx2 i?2 BMi2``2HiBQMb #2ir22M i?2 BM/2t2/ i2`Kb BM  irQ@/BK2MbBQMH M2irQ`F KTb bmBi#H2 7Q` [mH@ BiiBp2 BMi2`T`2iiBQM U>QHK#2`;- 2i HX- kyyNVX h?2 MHvbBb rb T2`7Q`K2/ mbBM; "B#1t+2H- M BM7QK2i`B+ +QKTmi2` bQ7ir`2 iQQH r`Bii2M 2bT2+BHHv 7Q` i?Bb Tm`TQb2 US2`bbQM- kyyeVX *Q@rQ`/ M@ HvbBb rb +?Qb2M b i?2 K2i?Q/ Q7 /i MHvbBb #2+mb2 Bi HHQrb 7Q` 2{+B2Mi B/2MiB}+iBQM- [mMiB}+iBQM- M/ BMi2`HBMF;2 Q7 i?2 /QKBMMi KQ/2b Q7 HBM;mBbiB+ 2tT`2bbBQMb Ä&#x153; `2T`2b2MiiBQMb Ä&#x153; BM  H`;2 b2i Q7 i2tib- b r2HH b M 2bBHv ++2bbB#H2 rv iQ bvMi?2bBx2 M/ T`2b2Mi i?2b2 `2bmHib BM  ;`T?B+H `2T`2b2MiiBQM r2HH@bmBi2/ 7Q` [mHBiiBp2 MHvbBbX

Findings and contributions h?2 T`2b2Mi BM[mB`v- +QMbBbiBM; Q7  +b2 bim/v M/  }`bi ii2KTi iQ 2bi#HBb?  /Q+mK2Mi i?2Q`v@+2Mi2`2/ MHviB+H 7`K2rQ`F 7Q` bQ+BH K2/B `2b2`+?- vB2H/b #Qi? +QM+2TimH +QMi`B#miBQMb M/ 2K@ TB`B+H }M/BM;bX *QM+2TimHHv- i?2 bim/v +QMi`B#mi2b iQ i?2 /Bb+mb@ bBQM Q7 ?Qr pB`imH rQ`H/ #HQ;b Ä&#x153; 2KTHQvBM; /Q+mK2Mi i?2Q`v M/  TQbiKQ/2`M `+?BpH b+B2M+2 pB2r Q7 i?2 +QM+2Ti Q7 `2+Q`/b Ä&#x153; +M #2 +QM+2TimHBx2/ b /Q+mK2MiiBQM Q7 i?2 pB`imH rQ`H/b iQ r?B+? i?2v T2`iBMX 6m`i?2`KQ`2- i?2 bim/v bi`2bb2b i?2 BKTQ`iM+2 Q7 7mim`2 `2b2`+? i?i +QMiBMm2b iQ 2tTHQ`2 ?Qr BM7Q`KiBQMH /BK2MbBQMb Q7 bQ+BH K2/B `2Hi2 iQ [m2biBQMb Q7 /Q+mK2MiiBQM- `+?BpBM;- M/ +mHim`H ?2`Bi;2X //BiBQMHHv- Bi rQmH/ #2 Q7 ;`2i BMi2`2bi iQ BM@ p2biB;i2 ?Qr #bi`+i- `2b2`+?@#b2/- BMbB;?ib Q7 i?Bb FBM/ +M #2 QT2`iBQMHBx2/ BM Q`/2` iQ /2p2HQT iQQHb M/ 7`K2rQ`Fb iQ #2 mb2/ BM i?2 `+?BpBM; Q7 pB`imH rQ`H/bX


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Ethnography and convergence h?2 }`bi iBK2 A ++2bb2/ Kv `2b2`+? }2H/ A bT2M/  +QmTH2 Q7 ?Qm`b QM Kv HBpBM; `QQK bQ7 `2/BM; i?`Qm;? i?2 HQ;@`+?Bp2 QM i?2 HB#``vÇśb 6+2#QQF T;2X h?2 r22Fb i?i 7QHHQr2/ A K/2 Bi Kv /BHv ?#Bi iQ +?2+F M/ `2bTQM/ iQ i?2 HB#``vÇśb hrBii2` 722/b- i?2B`


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From co-location to co-presence A 7QmM/ Kv bi`i2;v BM `2+2Mi TT`Q+?2b ++2MimiBM; ÇłM2i@ rQ`FbÇ´- Çł~QrbÇ´ Q` Çłbi`2Kb Q7 T`+iB+2bÇ´ b Q#D2+ib Q7 2i?MQ;`T?B+ bim/v U+X7X JQH  Gr RNN9- .2 G2i  JQH kyyy- "2mHB2m kyRyVX LQi 2[miBM; }2H/ rBi? T?vbB+H TH+2 T2`KBii2/ K2 iQ bim/v T`+@ iBb2b M/ 2M;;2 rBi? BM7Q`KMib BM KmHiBTH2 b2iiBM;b- MQi ;BpBM; T`BQ`Biv iQ Mv QM2 b2iiBM; BM T`iB+mH`X .2bB;MBM; Kv bim/v BM i?Bb rv im`M2/ Qmi iQ #2 #Qi? T`272`#H2 M/ M2+2bb`v iQ ;2i +HQb2 iQ i?2 2p2`v/v rQ`F@`2Hi2/ T`+iB+2b A BK2/ iQ bim/vX h?mb- 7Q`  bim/v Q7  HB#``v Q7 +QMp2`;BM; bT+2b- i?BMFBM; +Q@T`2b2M+2 `i?2` i?M +Q@HQ+iBQM T`Qp2/ iQ #2 M BKTQ`iMi KQp2X "2mHB2m UkyRyTX 989V /2b+`B#2b i?2 2TBbi2KB+ bi`i2;v b 7QHHQrb, *Q@T`2b2M+2 /2+2Mi`HBx2b i?2 MQiBQM Q7 bT+2 rBi?Qmi 2t+Hm/BM; BiX Ai QT2Mb mT i?2 TQbbB#BHBiv i?i +Q@T`2b2M+2 KB;?i #2 2bi#HBb?2/ i?`Qm;?  p`B2iv Q7 KQ/2b- T?vbB+H +Q@HQ+iBQM #2BM; QM2 KQM; Qi?2`bX LQi QMHv /Q2b Bi 2M#H2 i?2 `2b2`+?2` iQ iF2 K2/Bi2/ b2i@




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iBM;b p2`v b2`BQmbHv UBMbQ7` b i?2v `2 K2Mb Q` `2bQm`+2 7Q` #2BM; +Q@T`2b2MiV- #mi Bi HbQ /Q2b MQi 2t+Hm/2 7+2@iQ 7+2 bBimiBQMbX *Q@ T`2b2M+2 b  bi`iBM; TQBMi 2M#H2b  KQ`2 bvKK2i`B+H i`2iK2Mi Q7 7Q`Kb Q7 BMi2`+iBQMX .2THQvBM; i?2 2TBbi2KB+ bi`i2;v Q7 +Q@T`2b2M+2 M/ 7Q+mb QM Çłbi`2Kb Q7 T`+iB+2bÇ´ `i?2` i?M  bBM;H2 T?vbB+H TH+2- HHQr2/ K2 iQ +HQb2Hv 7QHHQr i?2 +iBQMb Q7 BM7Q`KMib i?`Qm;? /Bz2`2Mi b2iiBM;b M/ TH+2bX JQ`2Qp2`- i?Bb 2M?M+2/ i?2 TQbbB#BHBiv Q7 mM@ /2`biM/BM; i?2 +QMM2+iBQM #2ir22M i?2 HB#``v 2MpB`QMK2Mi M/ Qi?2` b2iiBM;b- i?mb 2bi#HBb?BM; i?2 HBMFb iQ KQ`2 rB/2Hv /BbT2`b2/ K2/B T`+iBb2b b A bm;;2bi2/ #Qp2X AM i?Bb rv +Q@T`2b2M+2 /`rb i?2 ii2MiBQM iQ r?i +M #2 b22M b BMi2`b2+iBM; rQ`H/b T`2b2Mi BM HB#``B2b +QMbiBimi2/ #v +QMp2`;BM; bT+2bX

Concluding remarks MHvbBM; M/ +QKT`2?2M/BM; +QMb2[m2M+2b Q7 i?2 kXy@im`M BM Tm#HB+ HB#``B2b mbBM; 2i?MQ;`T?v T`QpB/2b Aa rBi? MQp2H TQbbB#BH@ BiB2b Q7 ;BMBM; Q`B;BMH BMbB;?ib BMiQ i?Bb b?B7i BM HB#``v /2p2HQT@ K2MiX TTHvBM; `2+2Mi bi`i2;B2b- bm+? b i?2 MQiBQM Q7 +Q@T`2b2M+2?p2 i?2 TQbbB#BHBiv Q7 7m`i?2` 2M`B+?BM; i?2b2 BMbB;?ibX 6Q+mbBM; QM Çłbi`2Kb Q7 T`+iB+2bÇ´- b r2HH b 7QHHQrBM; i?2 rQ`F Q7 BM7Q`K@ Mib i?`Qm;? /Bz2`2Mi bT+2b- T`QpB/2b i?2 7QmM/iBQM 7Q`  #2ii2` mM/2`biM/BM; Q7 i?2 M2r bFBHHb `2[mB`2/ #v HB#``BMb r?2M i?2B` rQ`FTH+2 Bb MQi `2bi`B+i2/ iQ  T?vbB+H TH+2 #mi /BbT2`b2/ BM KMv +QMp2`;BM; bT+2bX


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(R) "2mHB2m- MM2 UkyRyVX _2b2`+? LQi2, 6`QK +Q@HQ+iBQM iQ +Q@T`2b2M+2, a?B7ib BM i?2 mb2 Q7 2i?MQ;`T?v 7Q` i?2 bim/v Q7 FMQrH2/;2X aQ+BH aim/B2b Q7 a+B2M+2- oQHX 9y- MQX j- TTX 98j@9dyX (k) "2mHB2m- MM2 Ukyy9VX J2/BiBM; 1i?MQ;`T?v, P#D2+iBpBiv M/ i?2 JFBM; Q7 1i?MQ;`T?B2b Q7 i?2 AMi2`M2iX aQ+BH 1TB@ bi2KQHQ;vX oQHX R3- MQX k@j- TTX RjN@RejX (j) .2 G2i- J`BMM2 M/ JQH- MM2K`B2 UkyyyVX h?2 wBK#@ #r2 "mb? SmKT, J2+?MB+b Q7  6HmB/ h2+?MQHQ;vX aQ+BH aim/B2b Q7 a+B2M+2X oQHX jy- LQX k- TTX kk8@kejX (9) >KK2`bH2v- J`ivM  iFBMbQM- SmH UkyydVX 1i?MQ;`T?v (1H2+i`QMB+ `2bQm`+2), T`BM+BTH2b BM T`+iB+2X j`/ 2/X GQM/QM, _QmiH2/;2X (8) C2MFBMb- >2M`v Ukyy3VX *QMp2`;2M+2 +mHim`2, r?2`2 QH/ M/ M2r K2/B +QHHB/2X (L2r 2/X) L2r uQ`F, L2r uQ`F lMBp2`bBiv S`2bbX (e) ED2HH#2`;- a` UkyRyVX 6Q`bF`#HQ;;`, p2i2MbFTHB; FQK@ KmMBFiBQM Q+? FmMbFTbT`Q/mFiBQM B #HQ;;Qb7 `2M- AMbiBim@ iBQM2M 7ƺ` FmHim`p2i2MbFT2`- GmM/b mMBp2`bBi2i- .BbbX GmM/, GmM/b mMBp2`bBi2i- kyRy- GmM/- kyRyX (d) J`+mb- :2Q`;2 1X URNN3VX 1i?MQ;`T?v i?`Qm;? i?B+F M/ i?BMX S`BM+2iQM- LXCX, S`BM+2iQM lMBp2`bBiv S`2bb




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(3) JQH- MM2K`B2 M/ Gr- CQ?M URNN9VX _2;BQMb- L2irQ`Fb M/ 6HmB/b, M2KB M/ aQ+BH hQTQHQ;vX aQ+BH aim/B2b Q7 a+B2M+2X oQHX k9- LQX 9- TTX e9R@edRX (N) Jm`+?BbQM- CmHBM JX UkyRyVX 1i?MQ;`T?v 2bb2MiBHb (1H2+@ i`QMB+ `2bQm`+2), /2bB;MBM;- +QM/m+iBM;- M/ T`2b2MiBM; vQm` `2b2`+?X >Q#QF2M, CQ?M qBH2v  aQMb- AM+X (Ry) amM/BM- PHQ7 M/ 6`M+F2- >2H2M UkyyNV 6Q`Ki ;MQbiB+b Q` 6Q`Ki "2HB2p2`b\ >Qr bim/2Mib BM ?B;? b+?QQH mb2 ;2M`2 iQ bb2bb +`2/B#BHBivX S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 i?2 K2`B+M aQ+B2iv 7Q` AM7Q`KiBQM a+B2M+2 M/ h2+?MQHQ;vX oQHX 9e- LQX R- TTX R@dX (RR) amM/BM- PHQ7 M/ 6`M+F2- >2H2M UkyyN#VX AM b2`+? Q7 +`2/B#BHBiv, SmTBHbǶ BM7Q`KiBQM T`+iB+2b BM H2`M@ BM; 2MpB`QMK2MibX AM7Q`KiBQM _2b2`+? R9U9V TT2` 9R3X ++2bb2/, ?iiT,ffAM7Q`KiBQM_XM2ifB`fR99fTT2`9R3X?iKH UkyRy@y8@yeVX


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Framework h?2 TT2` BKb iQ +QMi`B#mi2 i?2 2KTB`B+H HBi2`im`2 QM GB#@ ``v kXy /2p2HQTK2Mi U*b2v  apbiBMmF kyye- >QHK#2`; 2i HX kyyN- kyyN#V #v MHvxBM; i?2 7mM+iBQMHBiB2b M/ mb2b Q7  M2r /B;BiH Tm#HB+ HB#``v b2`pB+2X :2Q@2M+Q/BM; Q7 HB#``v b2`pB+2b ?b #22M T`2pBQmbHv bim/B2/ 2X;X #v *2`pQM2 Ukyy3V M/ SQr2HH 2i HX UkyRyVX h?2 7`K2rQ`F TTHB2/ QM i?2 2K2`;BM; Tii2`M Q7 BM7Q`K@




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Methods and materials h?2 `2b2`+? TTHB2b +QMi2Mi MHvbBb UL2m2M/Q`7 kyykV-  +Q/2 BMbT2+iBQM K2i?Q/ U:MbbH2 kyRyV M/ r2#QK2i`B+ K2i?Q/b Uh?2H@ rHH kyyNVX h?2 bQm`+2 +Q/2 M/ KT /i Ud9 KTbV 7Q` +Q/2 `2pB2r M/ +QMi2Mi MHvbBb r2`2 ;i?2`2/ 7`QK i?2 r2# bBi2 BM J`+? M/ m;mbi kyRRX .i 7Q` HQM;Bim/BMH BM@HBMFBM; MHvbBb rb ;i?2`2/ mbBM; #Qi? HBMF/QKBM b2`+? +QKKM/ QM :QQ;H2Ƕb /i#b2 M/ a2`+? h2KTQ GBMF MHvbBb hQQHR QM #BKQMi?Hv #bBb #2ir22M LQp2K#2` kyRy M/ m;mbi kyRRX h?`22 i`Mb+`B#2/ BM@ i2`pB2rb rBi? T`QD2+i T2`bQMM2H M/ T`QD2+i /Q+mK2MiiBQM r2`2 ;i?2`2/ M/ MHvx2/ iQ /2}M2 i?2 Q`B;BMH mb2b i?2 b2`pB+2 rb /2bB;M2/ 7Q`X

Results Technologies applied in the service :2Q;`T?B+H 2M+Q/BM; Q7 /B;BiH +QMi2Mi Bb M AMi2`M2i i2+?MQ@ HQ;v ;BMBM; TQTmH`Biv HbQ KQM; Tm#HB+ HB#``B2bX USQr2HH 2i HX kyRyVX oB`imHBTQHFmX} Bb M AMi2`M2i Kb?@mT b2`pB+2 miBHBxBM; :QQ;H2 JTb THi7Q`K- i?2 `2Hi2/ SAk M/ EJG +Q/2j BMiQ M2r Q` 2tBbiBM; /B;BiH +QMi2MibX h?2 ;2Q@2M+Q/BM; iQQHb HHQr mb2`b iQ HBMF ;2Q;`T?B+H HQ+iBQMb M/ `Qmi2 /2b+`BTiBQMb BMiQ M AMi2`M2i b2`pB+2- `2bmHiBM; HQ+iBQM@r`2 /B;BiH +QHH2+iBQMb KBMiBM2/ #v i?2 HB#``v bizX h?2 b2`pB+2 Bb #mBHi QM M QT2M bQm`+2 +QMi2Mi KM;2K2Mi bvbi2K U*JaV CQQKH BMbiHHiBQM- HHQrBM; i?2 ;2M@ 2`iBQM Q7 /vMKB+ r2# T;2b M/ p`BQmb bQ+BH K2/B 7mM+iBQMHBi@ B2bX L2r +QMi2Mi +M #2 BM+Hm/2/ BMiQ b2`pB+2 rBi?Qmi T`Q;`KKBM;

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Functionalities and uses of information h?2 b2`pB+2 ?b #22M 7mM/2/ #v i?2 1a6 @T`QD2+i Çłh?2 SH+2b M/ *QMi2Mib Q7 AM7Q`KiBQM aQ+B2ivÇ´ M/ /2p2HQT2/ #v i?2 >Â K22M@ HBMM HB#``vÇśb T`QD2+i T2`bQMM2H /m`BM; kyRyX Hi?Qm;? i?2 +QMi2Mi Q7 i?2 b2`pB+2 rb Q`B;BMHHv 7Q+mb2/ QM BM7Q`KBM; i?2 HB#``v mb2`b #Qmi +mHim`H 2p2Mib M/ bB;MB}+Mi ?BbiQ`B+H HQ+iBQMb `QmM/ i?2 iQrM- i?2 KT i?2K2b `2 MQi HBKBi2/ iQ BM+Hm/2 +mHim`H 2p2Mib M/ bBi2b QMHvX AMbi2/- 7i2` i?2 HmM+? Q7 i?2 b2`pB+2- Qi?2` +iBpBiB2b ?p2 2K2`;2/ iQ #2 BM+Hm/2/ iQ i?2 b2`pB+2X

The uses and the users of the service h?2 HQ+H m/B2M+2b ?p2 /QTi2/ i?2 b2`pB+2X 6Q` BMbiM+2-  KT #Qmi HQ+H +`Qbb@+QmMi`v bFBBM; `Qmi2b ?b #22M pB2r2/ 7Q` Qp2` Ryyyyy iBK2b #v J`+? di?- kyRRX .Bb+mbbBQMb `2Hi2/ iQ i?2 KQbi TQTmH` KTb ?p2 2K2`;2/X h?2 T`QTQ`iBQM Q7 mb2`@;2M2`i2/ +QMi2Mi Bb ;`QrBM;X q?BH2  ?H7 Q7 i?2 BM+Hm/2/ KTb Uk8V r2`2 mi?Q`2/ Q` Q`/2`2/ #v i?2 T`QD2+i biz /m`BM; kyRy- i?2 Qi?2` ?H7  Uk8V Q7 KTb `2 MQr

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cultural events and significant historical locations around the town, the map themes are not limited to include cultural events and sites only. Instead, after the launch of the service, other activities have emerged to be included to the service.  ,6620(  The service provides currently7 74 entitled maps and/or routes featuring information about various sites, services and activities in Hämeenlinna town and the surrounding region. Information provided in the service ranges over the following themes: history (11), adventure (2), nature and environment (15), art (10), literature (7), events (1), public services (21) sports and recreational activities (7). The amount of maps has increases 246 % from 30 to 74 maps in eight months, app. one new map being published every week.

F igure 1. A mount of maps in Virtuaalipolku.fi

3.3. T he#v uses and the users of the *m``2MiHvservice 9yWe Q7 i?2K `2 ;2M2`i2/ 2ti2`MH +QMi`B#miQ`bX d BM/BpB/mHb b i?2 KDQ`Biv eyW Q7 `2T`2b2Mib Q`;MBxiBQMb bm+? b KmMB+BTH mi?Q`BiB2bbQ+B2iH bbQ+BiBQMb Q`  }`KX KDQ`Biv The local audiences have adopted the service. Forh?2 instance, a Q7 map i?2 +QMi2Mi +`2i2/ #v i?2 HB#``v biz Bb #b2/ QM QMHBM2 `iB+H2b about local cross-country skiing routes has been viewed for 3 THi7Q`KH`2/v QM  > K2@qBFB r?2`2b i?2 +QMi2Mi ;2M2`i2/ over 100000 times by March 7th, 2011. Discussions related to the #vmost i?2 2ti2`MH mi?Q`b 2Bi?2` Q7 i?2B` QrM BM/BpB/mH +`2iBQMpopular maps haveBbemerged. The proportion of user-generated is growing. While a Q` T`QpB/2/ #v i?2 Q`;MBxiBQMb i?2vcontent `2T`2b2MiX half of the included maps (25) were authored or ordered by the project staff during 2010, the other half a (25) of maps are now Conclusions generated by external contributors. Currently, 40%8 of them are h?2 +QK#BMiBQM Q7 AMi2`M2i BM pB`imHB@ individuals as the majority 60%9i2+?MQHQ;B2b of representsTTHB2/ organizations such TQHFmX} Kv #2 authorities, +QM+2Bp2/ bsocietal M BMMQpiBp2 bQHmiBQM i?2 +QMi2ti as municipal associations or aBM firm. The of the content created T`QpB/2b by the library staff isM/ based on Q7 majority Tm#HB+ HB#``B2bX h?2 THi7Q`K #Qi? mb27mH pHm#H2 online articles already on BM?#BiMib a Hä me-Wiki BM7Q`KiBQM M/ 7mM+iBQMHBiB2b 7Q` i?2 HQ+H M/ pBbBiQ`b 10 platform, whereas the`2;BQMX contentlb2` generated by the external authorsi?2 Q7 > K22MHBMM +Biv M/ 722/#+F ?2HTb BM+`2bBM; is either of their own individual creation, or provided the [mHBiv Q7 i?2 Tm#HB+ b2`pB+2X .BzmbBQM Q7 pB`imHBTQHFmX}Ƕbbyi2+?MQ@ organizations they represent. HQ;v +QK#BMiBQM M/ +`Qbb@ b2+iQ`BH b2`pB+2 KQ/2H iQ Qi?2` KmMB@ +BTHBiB2b M/ Tm#HB+ HB#``B2b rBi?BM 7Q`2b22#H2 7mim`2 Bb HBF2Hv iQ 4.

C O N C L USI O NS

combination of T`QD2+i Internet technologies applied in Q7 RyThe BM/BpB/mH mi?Q`b 2t+Hm/BM; M/ HB#``v bizX Q7 Ry BM/BpB/mH mi?Q`b 2t+Hm/BM; T`QD2+i M/as HB#``v bizX virtuaalipolku.fi may be conceived an innovative solution in 3 > K2qBFB Bb  KQ/B}2/ rBFB THi7Q`K 7Q` mb2`@;2M2`i2/ `iB+H2b #Qmi i?2 +mHim`2 the context of public libraries. The platform provides both useful M/ ?BbiQ`v Q7 > K2 _2;BQMX e9 de

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Bibliography

(R) *b2v- JX M/ GX apbiBMmF UkyyeVX GB#``v kXy, b2`pB+2 7Q` i?2 M2ti@;2M2`iBQM HB#``vX GB#``v CQm`MH- oQHX RjR Abbm2 R9- 9yX (k) *2`pQM2 6X Ukyy3VX h?BMFBM; QmibB/2 i?2 HB#``v #Qt, +QM@ bB/2`iBQMb BM +QMi2timHBxBM; /B;BiH `2TQbBiQ`B2b 7Q` i?2 HQ+H 2MpB`QMK2MiX P*G* avbi2Kb M/ a2`pB+2b- kyy3 oQHX k9- Abbm2 jX (j) :MbbH2- CX UkyRyVX  :mB/2 iQ *Q/2 AMbT2+iBQMbX h?2 :MbbH2 :`QmTX _2i`B2p2/ 62#`m`v R8i?- kyRRX l_G, ?iiT,ffrrrX;MbbH2X+QKfBMbT2+iBQMbXT/7X (9) >QHK#2`;- EXc >mpBH- AXc E`QM[pBbi@"2`;- JXc LBpFQbFB- PX  qB/ûM@qmHz- :X UkyyNVX "B#HBQi2F kXy, .2Hi;`FmHim` B 6ƺ` M/`BM; UEB`DbiQ kXy, Jmmiimp PbHHBbimKBb2M EmHi@ imm`BV >2HbBMFBX "hCX (8) >QHK#2`;- EXc >mpBH- AXc E`QM[pBbi@"2`;- JX  :X qB/ûM@ qmHz UkyyN#VX q?i Bb GB#``v kXy\ CQm`MH Q7 .Q+mK2Mi@ iBQM- e8U9V, ee3@e3RX (e) AM;r2`b2M URNNNV *Q;MBiBp2 BM7Q`KiBQM `2i`B2pHǴ BM qBHHB@ Kb JX 1X U1/XV MMmH _2pB2r Q7 AM7Q`KiBQM b+B2M+2 M/ h2+?MQHQ;v- oQHX j9X AM7Q`KiBQM hQ/v- J2/7Q`/- LCX TTX jj@9NX (d) EQ`i2HBM2M- hX M/ aX _Q?FBKBM2M UkyRyVX q2#@#b2/ T`@ iB+BTiQ`v `2;BQMH K2KQ`v #mBH/BM; THi7Q`K, *b2 > K2@




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Introduction 6QHFbQMQKB2b M/ bQ+BH i;;BM; bvbi2Kb ?p2 #22M T`QTQb2/ b  TQbbB#H2 bQHmiBQM iQ +QmMi2` i?2 K`;BMHBbBM; i2M/2M+B2b Q7 H`;2 mMBp2`bH +HbbB}+iBQM bvbi2Kb (Ry)X h?2 BK Q7 Qm` T`2b2MiiBQM Bb iQ /Bb+mbb i?2 BKTHB+iBQMb Q7 +`BiB+H i?2Q`v M/ i?2 +QM+2Ti Q7 BMi2`b2+iBQMHBiv iQ i?2 BMi2`T`2iiBQM M/ mb2 Q7 i; +Hmbi2`b b `2T`2b2MiiBQMb Q7 pB2rTQBMibX AM bTBi2 Q7 i?2 r2Hi? Q7 2KTB`B+H `2b2`+? QM 7QHFbQMQKB2b M/ +Hmbi2`BM; Q7 i;b iQ;2i?2` rBi? 2t@ KTH2b Q7 +`BiB+H T2`bT2+iBp2b 7Q+mbbBM; QM K`;BMHBbiBQM BM i?2 +QMi2ti Q7 7QHFbQMQKB2b U2X;X (R)V- MQ +QKT`2?2MbBp2 +`BiB+H T@ T`Q+? iQ i; +Hmbi2`b ?b #22M T`2b2Mi2/X

Method Pm` `;mK2Mi Q7 i?2 T`+iB+#BHBiv Q7 BMi2`b2+iBQMHBiv b  7`K2@ rQ`F Q7 mM/2`biM/BM; i?2 Mim`2 Q7 i; +Hmbi2`b Bb #b2/ QM i?2 `2pB2r Q7 2`HB2` HBi2`im`2 iQ;2i?2` rBi?  ;`QmM/2/ i?2Q`v #b2/ 2KTB`B+H MHvbBb Q7  b2i Q7 6HB+F` i;b bBKBH` iQ i?Qb2 mb2/ #v >mpBH (e)X MHvb2/ i;b r2`2 #b2/ QM  HBbi Q7 +QKKQM 2bi?2iB+ /D2+iBp2b +QHH2+i2/ BM M 2`HB2` 2KTB`B+H bim/v Q7 C+Q#b2M 2i HX (d)X h?2 i;b M/ i; +Hmbi2`b r2`2 `2i`B2p2/ 7`QK 6HB+F` mbBM; i?2 #bB+ b2`+? 7mM+iBQM M/ #mBHi@BM +Hmbi2`BM; 7mM+iBQMHBivX  iQiH RRk +Hmbi2`b r2`2 MHvb2/ mbBM; +HQb2 `2/BM; M/ pBbmH +QMi2Mi MHvbBbX h?2 pHB/Biv Q7 i?2 +QM+HmbBQMb r2`2 i2bi2/ mbBM;  b2`B2b Q7 / ?Q+ i2bib #b2/ QM i?2 MHvbBb Q7 i?2 +Hmbi2`BM; Q7 MiBQMH




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THE USE OF BLOGS IN LIS ONLINE COURSES $ &DVH6WXG\ 'LDQH1HDODQG/X;LDR 8QLYHUVLW\RI:HVWHUQ2QWDULR &DQDGD

Introduction "HQ;b `2  KDQ` THv2` Q7 i?2 q2# kXy rp2X h?2v `2 dz2bv@iQ@ mT/i2 r2# bBi2 +?`+i2`Bx2/ #v /i2/ 2Mi`B2b /BbTHv2/ BM `2p2`b2 +?`QMQHQ;B+H Q`/2`Ǵ Uai27M+- kyye- TX kjyV- 2M#HBM; T2QTH2 iQ [mB+FHv b?`2 rBi? i?2B` 7KBHB2b- 7`B2M/b- Q` 2p2M i?2 2MiB`2 r2# TQTmHiBQM i?2B` i?Qm;?ib- `2~2+iBQMb- M/ 2KQiBQMb QMHBM2X h?2b2 +?`+i2`BbiB+b ?p2 ;BM2/ #HQ;b TQTmH`Biv BM 2/m+iBQMH b2iiBM;b U.BpBiBMB- >m;HQFF2M-  JQ`F2M- kyy8c :HQ;Qz- kyydc >m+F- kyydc GBM 2i HX- kyyeVX S`2pBQmb bim/B2b ?p2 +FMQrH2/;2/ i?i #HQ;b 7mM+iBQM b `2~2+iBp2 /2pB+2b M/ BMi2`+iBp2 /2pB+2b rBi? `2bT2+i iQ i?2B` T2/;Q;B+H #2M2}ib U.2M;  um2M- kyyNVX 6Q` 2tKTH2"`2b+B M/ JBHH2` UkyyeV b 62`/B; M/ h`KK2HH Ukyy9V ?p2 7QmM/ i?i 2/m+iBQMH #HQ;;BM; T`QpB/2b bim/2Mib QTTQ`imMBiB2b iQ 2M;;2 BM `2~2+iBp2 i?BMFBM; T`Q+2bb M/ 2tT`2bb i?2Kb2Hp2b- r?B+? +QmH/ ?2HT `2HB2p2 2KQiBQMH bi`2bbX aiBH2` M/ S?BHH2Q UkyyjV 7QmM/ i?i r`BiBM; 2/m+iBQMH #HQ;b 2M+Qm`;2/ i?2 bim/2Mib iQ i?BMF /22T2` M/ `2~2+i QM KQ`2 Bbbm2bX _2+Q;MBxBM; #HQ;b b BMi2`+iBp2 /2pB+2b62`/B; UkyydV 7QmM/ #HQ;b iQ #2  b?`2/ bT+2 7Q` +QHH#Q`iBp2 M/ +QQT2`iBp2 H2`MBM;X _2b2`+?2`b 7QmM/ i?i #HQ;b zQ`/2/ bQ+BH `2~2+iBQM M/ ?2HT2/ +QMM2+i QMHBM2 H2`M2`b #v 2M#HBM; i?2K iQ 2tT`2bb i?2B` 722HBM;b- bQ+BHBx2- M/ bmTTQ`i 2+? Qi?2` BM H2`MBM; +iBpBiB2b U.B+F2v- kyy9c 6`K2`- kyy9VX




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Social Software and Libraries aQ+BH aQ7ir`2 M/ GB#``B2b UaaGV Bb  TQTmH` i2+?MQHQ;v 2H2+i@ Bp2 +Qm`b2 BM  Jbi2` Q7 GB#``v M/ AM7Q`KiBQM a+B2M+2 UJGAaV T`Q;`K i  KDQ` *M/BM mMBp2`bBivX hQ /i2- i?2 +Qm`b2 ?b QMHv #22M Qz2`2/ QMHBM2X h?2 JGAa T`Q;`K Bb  T`Q72bbBQMH T`Q@ ;`K r?B+? ;2M2`HHv 2MiBHb i?`22 i2`Kb Q7 +Qm`b2rQ`F rBi?  +Q@QT QTiBQMX aQK2 bim/2Mib `2 rQ`FBM; T`Q72bbBQMHb BM i?2 }2H/X AM rBMi2` kyRR- i?2 aaG BMbi`m+iQ` mb2/ 1/KQ/Q U?iiT,ffrrrX2/KQ/QX+QKV b QM2 Q7 i?2 THi7Q`Kb 7Q` i?2 +Qm`b2X .2bB;M2/ 7Q` 2/m+iBQMH Tm`TQb2b- 1/KQ/Q Bb  KB+`Q#HQ;;BM; bBi2 r?B+? 2M#H2b bim/2Mib M/ BMbi`m+iQ`b iQ b2M/ MQi2b- HBMFb- }H2b- H2`ib- bbB;MK2Mib- M/ 2p2Mib iQ 2+? Qi?2`X qBi? M BMi2`7+2 p2`v bBKBH` iQ 6+2#QQF1/KQ/Q 2b2b i?2 bim/2Mib 7`QK H2`MBM;  M2r BM7Q`KiBQM bvbi2K


7KH8VHRI%ORJVLQ/,6 2QOLQH&RXUVHV 



Figure 1. A Screenshot of the Social Software and Libraries Classâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Edmodo Site There were 39 students enrolled. The studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; learning progress and learning outcomes were evaluated through three aspects: class participation, individual assignments, and group

BMassignments. i?2 +HbbX R b?Qrb M MQMvKBx2/ b+`22Mb?Qi i?2 +HbbÇś As a6B;m`2 form of class participation, the students were required to post a Q7 minimum of 1/KQ/Q bBi2Xentries throughout the term using WordPress. Although not required, the 10 personal blog h?2`2 r2`2 jN bim/2Mib 2M`QHH2/X h?2Students bim/2MibÇś H2`MBM; T`Q;`2bb students were encouraged to post microblogs to Edmodo. completed two individual M/ H2`MBM; Qmi+QK2b r2`2 2pHmi2/ i?`Qm;? i?`22 bT2+ib, assignments as well as one group assignment: the final project. Each group consisted of four+Hbb or T`iB+BTiBQMBM/BpB/mH bbB;MK2MibM/ ;`QmT bbB;MK2MibX b five students, and there were eight groups in total.  7Q`K Q7 +Hbb T`iB+BTiBQM- i?2 bim/2Mib r2`2 `2[mB`2/ iQ TQbi  KBMBKmK Q7 Ry T2`bQMH #HQ; 2Mi`B2b i?`Qm;?Qmi i?2 i2`K mbBM; qQ`/S`2bbX Hi?Qm;? MQi `2[mB`2/- i?2 bim/2Mib r2`2 2M+Qm`;2/ iQ TQbi KB+`Q#HQ;b iQ 1/KQ/QX aim/2Mib +QKTH2i2/ irQ BM/BpB/mH bbB;MK2Mib b r2HH b QM2 ;`QmT bbB;MK2Mi, i?2 }MH T`QD2+iX  1+? ;`QmT +QMbBbi2/ Q7 7Qm` Q` }p2 bim/2Mib- M/ i?2`2 r2`2 2B;?i ;`QmTb BM iQiHX




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Data Collection and Data Analysis h?2 `2b2`+? [m2biBQM i?i r2 Q`B;BMHHv bQm;?i iQ Mbr2` BM i?Bb +b2 bim/v Bb ?Qr /Q #HQ;;BM; M/ KB+`Q#HQ;;BM; BKT+i GAa bim@ /2MibÇś H2`MBM; 2tT2`B2M+2b BM M QMHBM2 +Qm`b2\ q2 /KBMBbi2`2/  bm`p2v i i?2 2M/ Q7 i?2 i2`K BM T`BH kyRR iQ mM/2`biM/ i?2 T`@ iB+BTiBM; bim/2MibÇś H2`MBM; M/ +QHH#Q`iBQM 2tT2`B2M+2b BM i?Bb QMHBM2 +Qm`b2- M/ i?2B` T2`+2Bp2/ mb2 Q7 r2#HQ;b M/ KB+`Q#HQ;bX q2 THMM2/ iQ +QHH2+i i?2 bim/2MibÇś KB+`Q#HQ;b M/ r2#HQ;b M/ MHvx2 i?2 mb;2 Tii2`Mb- 2X;X- i?2 ivT2b Q7 KB+`Q#HQ;b UHBMFb- M@ MQmM+2K2Mib- `2THB2b- 2i+XV- i?2 Tm`TQb2b Q7 r2#HQ;b U`2~2+iBQM QM +Qm`b2 Ki2`BHb- /Bb+mbbBQM QM ;`QmT T`QD2+i- 2i+XV- M/ biiBbiB+b #Qmi KB+`Q#HQ;;BM; M/ #HQ;;BM; Ui?2 MmK#2` Q7 KB+`Q#HQ;b M/ r2#HQ;b T2` r22F- i?2 KtBKmKfKBMBKmK MmK#2` Q7 KB+`Q#HQ;b M/ ;`QmT TQbib- 2i+XV q2 THMM2/ iQ BM+Hm/2 #Qi? BM/BpB/mH M/ ;`QmT H2p2H MHvbBb 7Q` mM/2`biM/BM; i?2 2z2+ib Q7 #HQ;;BM; M/ KB+`Q#HQ;;BM; QM BM/BpB/mHbÇś H2`MBM; 2tT2`B2M+2b M/ i?2 ;`QmT +iBpBiB2bX q2 `2+2Bp2/ 2i?B+b TT`QpH 7Q` i?2 bim/v- M/ rBi2/ 7Q` i?2 +Hbb iQ 2M/ iQ +QHH2+i /iX lM7Q`imMi2Hv- /m2 iQ  HQr bm`p2v `2bTQMb2 `i2 UM4RkV M/  bKHH MmK#2` Q7 bim/2Mib r?Q +QMb2Mi2/ iQ i?2 mb2 Q7 i?2B` KB+`Q#@ HQ;b M/ #HQ;b BM i?Bb bim/v UM48V- r2 r2`2 MQi #H2 iQ +QM/m+i i?2 bim/v b Q`B;BMHHv THMM2/X >Qr2p2`- r2 7QmM/ i?i i?2 #HQ;b Q7 i?2 }p2 bim/2Mib r?Q +QMb2Mi2/ iQ i?2 mb2 Q7 i?2B` #HQ;b T`2b2Mi2/ M QTTQ`imMBiv 7Q` mbBM; SQii2`Çśb URNNeV /Bb+Qm`b2 MHviB+ TT`Q+? iQ mM/2`biM/ ?Qr i?2b2 bim/2Mib 2tT2`B2M+2/ i?2 +Qm`b2 i?`Qm;? i?2 /Bb+Qm`b2 T`2b2Mi2/ BM i?2B` #HQ;bX h?Bb TT`Q+? iQ #HQ; M@ HvbBb ?b #22M mb2/ bm++2bb7mHHv BM i?2 Tbi #v QM2 Q7 i?2 mi?Q`b UL2H  J+E2MxB2- kyRRVX "Qi? mi?Q`b `2/ i?2 T`iB+BTMibÇś #HQ;b b2p2`H iBK2b iQ ;2i T`2HBKBM`v mM/2`biM/BM; Q7 i?2 +QMi2Mi M/ i?2 `QH2 Q7 #HQ;b BM i?2 +Qm`b2X PM2 mi?Q` +QKTH2i2/ i?2 MHvbBb BM b2p2`H Bi2`iBp2


7KH8VHRI%ORJVLQ/,6 2QOLQH&RXUVHV



bi;2bX AM F22TBM; rBi? SQii2`Çśb TT`Q+? iQ /Bb+Qm`b2 MHvbBb- b?2 TT`Q+?2/ i?2 #HQ;b b +QMbi`m+i2/ rBi?BM  +QKKmMBiv Q7 H2`M2`b r?Q r2`2 2M;;2/ BM Tm#HB+Hv b?`BM; i?2B` +QHH2+iBp2 2/m+iBQMH 2tT2`B2M+2bX a?2 HQQF2/ 7Q` HM;m;2 i?i rQmH/- BM 2z2+i- /2b+`B#2 i?2B` +QKKmMBiv@b?`2/ H2`MBM; DQm`M2vb rBi? bQ+BH K2/B i2+?MQHQ@ ;B2b M/ i?2B` TTHB+iBQMb BM HB#``v b2iiBM;bX b  `2bmHi Q7 i?Bb MHvbBb- b?2 7QmM/ i?2 7QHHQrBM; BMi2`T`2iiBp2 `2T2`iQB`2b, R .2}MBiBp2 ;`Qri? Q++m``2/ BM i?2 bim/2MibÇś mM/2`biM/BM; Q7 bQ+BH K2/B i?`Qm;?Qmi i?2 i2`KX k Sbi 2tT2`B2M+2 BM~m2M+2/ bim/2MibÇś 2tT2`B2M+2b rBi? +Hbb +iBpBiB2bX j ZmbB@Tm#HB+ BM7Q`KH b?`BM; Q7 T2`bQMH H2`MBM; 2tT2`B2M+2b H2/ iQ  b2Mb2 Q7 +QKKmMBiv KQM; i?2 bim/2MibX

Conclusion q2 ?p2 #22M BMp2biB;iBM; ?Qr bim/2Mib mb2 #HQ;;BM; BM +``v@ BM; Qmi H2`MBM; +iBpBiB2b Q7 M QMHBM2 GAa +Qm`b2, aQ+BH aQ7ir`2 M/ GB#``B2bX Ai b22Kb i?i #HQ;;BM; Bb  pHm#H2 iQQH 7Q` bim@ /2Mib iQ `2~2+i QM i?2B` 2tT2`B2M+2b M/ 7Q` BMbi`m+iQ`b iQ i`+F bim/2MibÇś /2p2HQTK2Mi i?`Qm;?Qmi i?2 i2`KX h?2 }M/BM;b Q7 i?Bb bim/v +QMi`B#mi2 iQ i?2 `2b2`+? 2zQ`i Q7 2tTHQ`BM; #2bi i2+?BM; T`+iB+2b #Qmi BMi2;`iBM; q2# kXy i2+?MQHQ;B2b BM QMHBM2 +Hbb2bX 6mim`2 `2b2`+? rBHH BM+Q`TQ`i2 //BiBQMH [mHBiiBp2 MHvbBb Q7 i?2b2 bim/2MibÇś #HQ;b M/ KB+`Q#HQ;bX aBM+2 i?2 BMbi`m+iQ` rBHH #2 i2+?BM; i?Bb +Qm`b2 ;BM BM 7HH kyRR M/ rBMi2` kyRk mbBM; bBKBH` QMHBM2 KQ/HBiB2b- //BiBQMH /i +QHH2+iBQM rBHH HbQ #2 TQbbB#H2X


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(R) "QmH/BM- XaX- >QHK2b- 1X_X-  6Q`i2M#2``v- JXGX UkyyeVX dz"HQ;;BM;Ǵ #Qmi +Qm`b2 +QM+2Tib, lbBM; i2+?MQHQ;v 7Q` `2~2+iBp2 DQm`MHBM; BM  +QKKmMB+iBQMb +HbbX K2`B+M CQm`MH Q7 S?`K+2miB+H 1/m+iBQM- dyU9V- R@3X (k) "`2b+B- qX6XCX-  JBHH2`- JXhX UkyyeVX q?iǶb Bi rQ`i?\ h?2 T2`+2Bp2/ #2M2}ib Q7 BMbi`m+iBQMH #HQ;;BM;X 1H2+i`QMB+ CQm`MH 7Q` i?2 AMi2;`iBQM Q7 h2+?MQHQ;v BM 1/m+iBQM- 899Ĝ8kX (j) "`QrMbi2BM- 1X-  EH2BM- _X UkyyeVX "HQ;b, TTHB+iBQMb BM b+B2M+2 2/m+iBQMX CQm`MH Q7 *QHH2;2 a+B2M+2 h2+?BM; j8UeVR3ĜkkX (9) .2M;- GX-  um2M- X>XEX UkyyNVX "HQ;b BM ?B;?2` 2/m+iBQM, AKTH2K2MiiBQM M/ Bbbm2bX h2+?h`2M/b- 8jUjV- N8ĜN3X (8) .B+F2v- JX.X Ukyy9VX h?2 BKT+i Q7 r2#@HQ;b U#HQ;bV QM bim/2Mi T2`+2TiBQMb Q7 BbQHiBQM M/ HB2MiBQM BM  r2#@ #b2/ /BbiM+2@H2`MBM; 2MpB`QMK2MiX PT2M G2`MBM;- RNUjVkdNĜkNRX (e) .BpBiBMB- JX- >m;HQFF2M- PX-  JQ`F2M- 1X JX Ukyy8VX "HQ; iQ bmTTQ`i H2`MBM; BM i?2 }2H/, G2bbQMb H2`M2/ 7`QK  }b+QX AM S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 i?2 6B7i? A111 AMi2`MiBQMH *QM72`2M+2 QM /pM+2/ G2`MBM; h2+?MQHQ;B2b UA*GhǶy8V UTTX kRN@kkRVX GQb HKBiQb- *, A111 S`2bbX




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A COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT USERSIMILARITY MEASURES AS BASIS FOR RESEARCH AND SCIENTIFIC COOPERATION 7DPDUD+HFN +HLQULFK+HLQH8QLYHUVLW\ *HUPDQ\

Introduction L2r r2#@i2+?MQHQ;B2b +M 7+BHBii2 b+B2MiB}+ M/ #mbBM2bb rQ`F M/ `2b2`+? BM KMv rvbX h?2 +`BiB+H bT2+i Bb r?B+? bi`m+im`2b M/ K2i?Q/b `2 iQ #2 mb2/ iQ 2HB+Bi i?2 #2bi Qmi Q7 i?2 2tBbi@ 2Mi `2bQm`+2b\ h?2 BM7Q`KiBQM@Qp2`HQ/ Bb T`2b2Mi BM HH@/v HB72 M/ b+B2M+2bX _2+QKK2M/2` bvbi2Kb i`v iQ bQHp2 i?Bb T`Q#H2K M/ ?p2 MQi QMHv 2bi#HBb?2/ BM 2@+QKK2`+2- #mi HbQ BM i?2 +QHH#Q`@ iBp2 r2#- bm+? b QM aQ+BH@"QQFK`FBM; THi7Q`Kb (>2+FfS2i2`b Ry)X AM i?Bb TT2`- r2 MHvx2  /i#b2 Q7 `2+Q`/b 7QmM/ QM "B#@ bQMQKv- *Bi2lGBF2 M/ *QMMQi2 Ĝ i?`22 aQ+BH@"QQFK`FBM; avb@ i2Kb 7Q` b+B2MiB}+ `272`2M+2b Ĝ M/ 2tTHQ`2/ i?2 i`BT`iBi2 +QMM2+@ iBQM Q7 mb2`b- /Q+mK2Mib M/ i;b #v i?`22 K2bm`2K2Mi K2i?Q/bX q2 +QM+2Mi`i2/ QM irQ `2b2`+? [m2biBQMb +QM+2`MBM; i?2 `2+QK@ K2M/iBQM Q7 bBKBH` mb2`b, RV `2 i?2`2 /Bz2`2M+2b r?2M r2 TTHv /Bz2`2Mi +Q2{+B2Mib U.B+2- *QbBMmb- C++`/@aM2i?V\- M/ kV `2 i?2`2 /Bz2`2M+2b r?2M r2 TTHv b?`2/ /Q+mK2Mib Q` b?`2/ i;b\

Related work .Bz2`2Mi H;Q`Bi?Kb ?p2 #22M /2p2HQT2/ M/ MHvx2/ iQ ;2i i?2 #2bi T2`7Q`KM+2 7Q` `2+QKK2M/iBQMX q2 +M /2+B/2 #2ir22M i?`22 K2i?Q/b, +QMi2Mi@#b2/ M/ +QHH#Q`iBp2 }Hi2`BM; `2+QK@




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Methods AM i?Bb TT2` r2 mb2 i?2 .B+2- *QbBMmb M/ C++`/@aM2i? +Q27@ }+B2Mi iQ K2bm`2 i?2 bBKBH`Biv #2ir22M mb2`b Q7 i?2 a"a "B#@ bQMQKv- *Bi2lGBF2 M/ *QMMQi2 M/ MHvx2 i?2 /Bz2`2Mi `MFBM; `2bmHib +QM+2`MBM; i?2 mb2`bǶ BM7Q`KiBQM M22/bX ++Q`/BM; iQ (oM 1+FfqHiKM y3)  bBKBH`Biv K2bm`2 Ui?2v mb2/ Bi 7Q` +Q+BiiBQMbV b?QmH/ 7mH}HH irQ +QM/BiBQMb, R h?2 bBKBH`Biv #2ir22M irQ mb2`b b?QmH/ #2 KtBKH B7 i?2 dzT`Q}H2b /Bz2` #v i KQbi  KmHiBTHB+iBp2 +QMbiMiǴ UTXRe89VX k h?2`2 b?QmH/ #2 MQ bBKBH`Biv B7 i?2 mi?Q`b ?p2 MQi?BM; BM +QKKQM- BX2X Mv +Q+BiiBQMb M/ BM Qm` +b2 Mv #QQFK`Fb Q` i;bX HH i?`22 +Q2{+B2Mib biBb7v i?2b2 +QM/BiBQMbX AMbi2/ S2`bQMǶb +Q`@ `2HiBQM +Q2{+B2Mi /Q2bMǶi biBb7v i?2 +QM/BiBQMb M/ b?Qrb bQK2 r2FM2bb2b Ub22 2X;X oM 1+FfqHiKM y3V- r?B+? rb HbQ /Bb@ +mbb2/ #27Q`2 #v (?H;`2MfC`p2MBM;f_Qmbb2m yj)X AM i?2B` TT2` i?2v b?Qr2/- KQM; Qi?2` i?BM;b- i?i i?2 S2`bQM +Q``2HiBQM mb2/ 7Q` +Q@+BiiBQM MHvbBb ?b b?Q`i+QKBM;b r?2M 2tTM/BM; i?2 /i


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rBi? H2bb i?2M irQ #QQFK`Fb- r2 ?p2 e-9jy mb2`@TB`b r?Q b?`2 i H2bi QM2 #QQFK`FX

Results Differences between Coefficients MHvxBM; Qm` i?`22 +Q2{+B2Mib r2 7QmM/ +Q``2HiBQM #2ir22M mb2` bBKBH`Biv #b2/ QM `2bQm`+2b M/ mb2` bBKBH`Biv #b2/ QM i;b, AM #Qi? b+2M`BQb .B+2 M/ C++`/@aM2i? ;p2 bBKBH` `2bmHib Ä&#x153; i?2 Hii2` b?QrBM; KBMQ` bBKBH`Biv pHm2 Ä&#x153; +mb2 i?2 K2bm`2 `2 [mBi2 bBKBH` Ub22 (1;;?2 Ry)VX AM +QMi`bi *QbBMmb ;p2 /Bz2`2Mi `MFBM; `2bmHib, Ai +M #2 bB/- i?i *QbBMmb /BbiBM;mBb?2b #2ir22M i?2 HHQ+iBQM Q7 i?2 `2bQm`+2b M/ i;b #2ir22M  mb2`@TB` (>K2`b 2i HX 3N)X h?2 [m2biBQM Bb MQr r?B+? `MFBM; Q7 bBKBH` mb2`b b2`p2b #2bi 7Q` i?2 i2bi@mb2`bÇś M22/b\ A7 i?2 i2bi@mb2` Bb b2`+?BM; 7Q` M2r `2bQm`+2b- ?2 KB;?i HBF2  bBKBH` mb2` r?Q ?b #QQFK`F2/ KMv `2bQm`+2bX AM i#H2 R mb2` Çł/+?2MÇ´- r?Q ?b kR9 #QQFK`Fb- rQmH/ #2 `2+QK@ K2M/2/ mb2` Çł+Q`iBxÇ´ QM `MF Ry rBi?  .B+2 bBKBH`Biv Q7 yXyR38X lbBM; *QbBMmb i?2 bBKBH`Biv Bb yXyNed- rBi? r?B+? Çł+Q`iBxÇ´ rQmH/ #2 QM `MF i?`22 U.B+2V Q` `MF 7Qm` U*QbBMmbVX "mi 7Q` Çł/+?2MÇ´ i?2 irQ #QQFK`Fb Q7 Çł+Q`iBxÇ´ TQbbB#Hv rQmH/MÇśi Km+? ?2HT ?BK 7Q` 7m`i?2` `2b2`+?- +QMi``v i?2 kR9 `iB+H2b Q7 Çł/+?2MÇ´ KB;?i #2  ;QQ/ HB#``v 7Q` Çł+Q`iBxÇ´X A7 Çł/+?2MÇ´ rQmH/ ?p2 H2bb i?M kR9 #QQFK`Fb- ?2 rQmH/ #2 KQ`2 bBKBH` iQ Çł+Q`iBxÇ´X *QM+2`MBM; i?2 `2b2`+? bT2+i 7Q` Çł+Q`iBxÇ´ i?Bb rQmH/ #2  b?Q`i+QKBM; 7Q` ?BKX

Differences between tag- and resource-based similarities MHvxBM; i?2 mb2` bBKBH`Biv #b2/ QM i;b- i?2 +Q2{+B2Mib T`QpB/2 bBKBH` `2bmHibX h?2 BMi2`2biBM; kR9 ee /+?2M FFBKb yXy8dR yXyedj bT2+i Bb i?2 /Bz2`2Mi `MFBM; #2ir22M bBKBH` mb2`b #b2/ QM i;b QM i?2 QM2 ?M/ M/ QM `2bQm`+2b kR9 ke /+?2M F2/KQM/ yXy8 yXy3y9 QM i?2 Qi?2` ?M/X




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(R) 1HHBbQM- LB+QH2X- hQK- *iHBMX M/ >M+Q+F- C2z`2vX ǴS`Q@ }H2 b S`QKBb2,  Sbv+?QHQ;B+H *QMi`+i 6`K2rQ`F 7Q` lM@ /2`biM/BM; a2H7@ȞɢS`2b2MiiBQM BM PMHBM2 .iBM; S`Q}H2bǴ S@ T2` T`2b2Mi2/ i i?2 MMmH K22iBM; Q7 i?2 L* N8i? MMmH *QMp2MiBQM- *?B+;Q >BHiQM  hQr2`b- *?B+;Q- AG- LQp RRkyyNX kyRR@Ȟɢ yj@ȞɢRy (k) Ƙ 6BQ`2- XhXc hvHQ`- GXaXc sBQK2M; w?QM;c J2M/2HbQ?M:XXc *?2b?B`2- *X kyRyX q?QǶb _B;?i M/ q?Q q`Bi2b, S2QTH2- S`Q}H2b- *QMi+ib- M/ _2THB2b BM PMHBM2 .iBM;X >rBB AMi2`MiBQMH *QM72`2M+2 QM avbi2K a+B2M+2b- CMm@ `v 8@Ȟɢ3- kyRy- >QMQHmHm- >AX (j) >M+Q+F- CX- M/ hQK- *X- SmiiBM; uQm` "2bi 6+2 6Q`r`/, h?2 ++m`+v Q7 PMHBM2 .iBM; S?QiQ;`T?bX CQm`MH Q7 *QK@ KmMB+iBQMX 8NUkV, jed@Ȟɢj3eX (9) >Bib+?- :m2Mi2` CX- >Q`i+bm- HB M/ `B2Hv- .Mq?i JF2b uQm *HB+F\ Ji2 S`272`2M+2b M/ Ji+?@ BM; Pmi+QK2b BM PMHBM2 .iBM; U62#`m`v kyyeVX JAh aHQM _2b2`+? ST2` LQX 9eyj@ȞɢyeX pBH#H2 i aa_L, ?iiT,ffbb`MX+QKf#bi`+i43N899k (8) amii2`- CX- hBTT2ii- _X-  JQ`;M S?BHBT- aX- kyRyX h?2 aQ@ +BH .2KQ;`T?v Q7 AMi2`M2i .iBM; BM i?2 lMBi2/ aii2bX aQ@ +BH a+B2M+2 Zm`i2`HvX NRUkV, 889@Ȟɢ8d8X (e) ai2T?m`2- _X- "QQM- aX- J+EBMMQM- aX-  .2p2m- oX- kyyNX AMi2`M2i AMBiBi2/ _2HiBQMb?BTb, bbQ+BiBQMb "2ir22M ;2




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On this background, the outlined integrative interface comprises all affordances for how the user in the center of the model can take active part and interact across social, physical, and digital information spaces in the library Âą important in a participatory library setting. In other words, the presented approach suggests thinking affordances, design, usability, user participation, and behavioural traces across all contact surfaces between users and information resources Âą and not only such features in digital %HKDYLRXUDO7UDFHVDQG,QGLUHFW8VHUWR8VHU0HGLDWLRQ interfaces.



F igure 1. ,QWHJUDWLYH PXOWLPRGDO LQWHUIDFH PRGHO > @ 8VHU LQ FHQWHU ZLWKLQ ÂľVRFLRcognitive-HPERGLHGÂś FRQWH[W EURNHQ OLQH FLUFOH  LQWHUDFWV GRXEOH DUURZV  ZLWK KXPDQ (hum.), physical (phys.) and digital (dig.) information resources. Between resources are mediation flows (single arrows). See more details and explanations in [1].

3. A F F O R D A N C ES F O R USE R-T O-USE R M E D I AT I O N+QMi2MiI N T H E M/ WHO L E 2bv I N F OBbR Bi M A7Q` TIO N iQ }M/ b?`BM; BM7Q`KiBQMH ?Qr mb2`b E H AV I O U+QMi2Mi R L I F E BM C YHHC LT`ib E M/ H2`M B7`QK bm+? Q7 i?2 HB#``vÇśb BMi2;`iBp2 BMi2`7+2 b KQ/2HH2/ BM 6B;X R\ In the participatory library outlined above, different affordances for user-toAM GB#``v M/ AM7Q`KiBQM a+B2M+2 UGAaV- ?mKM BM7Q`KiBQM user mediation are essential: How well do library interfaces allow users to #2?pBQm` ?b #22M b Çłi?2 iQiHBiv Q7 ?mKM #2?pBQ` BM leave behavioural traces/2}M2/ by creating, storing and sharing informational `2HiBQM +?MM2Hb Q7 BM7Q`KiBQMBM+Hm/BM; content, iQ andbQm`+2b how easy M/ is it for users to find and learn from such content in#Qi? all +i@ parts RIWKHOLEUDU\ÂśVLQWHJUDWLYHLQWHUIDFHDVPRGHOOHGLQ)LJ" Bp2 M/ TbbBp2 BM7Q`KiBQM b22FBM;- M/ BM7Q`KiBQM mb2Ç´ (jy)X h?2 7`K2rQ`F QmiHBM2/ BM i?Bb TT2` mM7QH/b i?2 pB2r QM ?mKM BM7Q`K@ iBQM #2?pBQm` #v /BpB/BM; Bi BMiQ }p2 KBM 7+2ib Ä&#x153; F2v 7+2ib BM GAa `2b2`+? Ä&#x153; /2HBM; rBi? ?Qr ?mKMb +`2i2- biQ`2- b?`2- }M/ M/ H2`M r?2M ?M/HBM; /Bz2`2Mi FBM/b Q7 BM7Q`KiBQMH +QMi2Mi+7X 6B;X kX h?2 MQiBQM Q7 ÇśBM7Q`KiBQM mb2Çś BM qBHbQMÇśb /2}MBiBQM #Qp2 Bb i?mb 2tTM/2/ BMiQ KQ`2 7+2ib BM Q`/2` iQ +QKT`Bb2 m;K2Mi2/ 7@ 7Q`/M+2b 7Q` mb2`bÇś BM7Q`KiBQM #2?pBQm` BM  T`iB+BTiQ`v HB#``v b2iiBM;X h?2 `2bmHiBM; ÇśbiB+F KMÇś BM 6B;X k `2T`2b2Mib i?2 mb2` BM 6B;X Rc  mb2` r?Q +M ?M/H2 BM7Q`KiBQM BM /Bz2`2Mi rvb BM /Bz2`2Mi bBimiBQMbX h?2 Q`/2` Q7 i?2 }p2 7+2ib b?QmH/ MQi #2 mM/2`biQQ/ bi`B+iHv HBM2`Hv- b /Bz2`2Mi ivT2b Q7 BM7Q`KiBQM #2?pBQm` +M Q++m` BM /Bz2`2Mi Q`/2` BM /Bz2`2Mi BM7Q`KiBQMH T`Q+2bb2bX


expanded into more facets in order to comprise augmented affordances for XVHUVÂśLQIRUPDWLRQEHKDYiour in a participatory library setting. 7KH UHVXOWLQJ ÂľVWLFN PDQÂś LQ )LJ  UHSUHVHQWV WKH XVHU LQ )LJ  D XVHU who can handle information in different ways in different situations. The order of the five facets should not be understood strictly linearly, as different types of information behaviour can occur in different order,6620( in different   informational processes.

F igure 2. 6LPSOLILHGÂľOLIHF\FOHÂś model of human information behaviour.

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In Fig. 3 below, more verbs related to human information behaviour have been added to the five facets. The dots indicate that even more verbs of course are possible. Some verbs may also overlap different facets in the model.

F igure 3. Extended ÂľOLIHF\FOHÂś model of human information behaviour. Participatory libraries provide affordances for users to participate actively in all five facets.

Traditionally, libraries have mainly provided affordances for users to participate actively in the two facets find and learn in the information AM 6B;X life j #2HQriQ ?mKM library, BM7Q`KiBQM behaviour cycle KQ`2 model.p2`#b In a `2Hi2/ truly participatory there #2@ are ?pBQm` ?p2 #22M i?2 }p2actively 7+2ibXinh?2 /Qib BM/B+i2 i?i ÂľDIIRUGDQFHVÂś for //2/ users to iQ participate all five main behavioural 2p2M p2`#b Q7 +Qm`b2 TQbbB#H2X aQK2 p2`#b Kvfind HbQ Qp2`HT facetsKQ`2 in the model. That is,`2 besides the traditional facets and learn, users should alsoBM bei?2 ableKQ/2HX to create, store and share informational content as /Bz2`2Mi 7+2ib part of the integrative library e.g. in online catalogues, h`/BiBQMHHvHB#``B2b ?p2interface, KBMHv T`QpB/2/ zQ`/M+2b 7Q` wikis, mb2`b EORJVRULQWKHOLEUDU\ÂśVSK\VLFDOVHWWLQJV iQ T`iB+BTi2 +iBp2Hv BM i?2 irQ 7+2ib }M/ M/ H2`M BM i?2 BM7Q`K@ In #2?pBQm` other words,HB72 participatory approaches like Library 2.0 provide more iBQM +v+H2 KQ/2HX AM  i`mHv T`iB+BTiQ`v HB#``vaffordances for user-to-user mediation both with regard to leaving i?2`2 `2 ÇśzQ`/M+2b kXyÇś 7Q` mb2`b iQ T`iB+BTi2 +iBp2Hv BM HH }p2 behavioural traces (create, store, share) and to following such traces (find, learn).

4.

D I R E C T A N D I N D I R E C T USE R-T O-USE R M E D I AT I O N A N D SO C I A L N AV I G AT I O N

As already indicated in the introduction, user-to-user mediation and social navigation are closely connected; user-to-user mediation thus provides communicative cues including behavioural traces that may guide social


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ÂľWUDFHOHDYHUÂś For example, a user may discover behavioural traces in the shape of books left behind after use on a table by other users in a physical library (cf. Fig. 4a). This indirect user-to-XVHU PHGLDWLRQ PD\ QRWEH LQWHQGHGE\WKHÂľWUDFH OHDYHUVÂś EXW LV SHUFHLYHG E\ WKH ÂľWUDFH ILQGHUÂś LQ KLV RU KHU LQGLUHFW VRFLDO  ,6620(  navigation. T able 1. Typology for direct and indirect user-to-user mediation and social navigation.

direct, synchronous, user-to-user mediation and social navigation ! in physical spaces Â&#x192; intended; e.g. face-to-face conversation Â&#x192; unintended; e.g. overhearing conversation ! in digital spaces Â&#x192; intended; e.g. chat Â&#x192; unintended; e.g. overhearing chat in virtual worlds (e.g. Second Life) indirect, asynchronous, user-to-user mediation and social navigation ! in physical spaces Â&#x192; intended; e.g. messages on notice boards, physical tags Â&#x192; unintended; e.g. dog-eared pages, left-behind books ! in digital spaces Â&#x192; intended; e.g. links, tags, ratings, comments Â&#x192; unintended; e.g. recommender systems

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user-recommended books (Fig. 4c). The same library also provided tabs with smileys and ratings (µ*LJJOH¶, µ6RE¶, µ6KRFN¶, µ<DZQ¶, etc.) for users to attach to books they liked or disliked (Fig. 4d). This is an example of an affordance for indirect and intended user-to-user mediation and social navigation in the physical library with obvious parallels to tagging and rating in library online catalogues [e.g. 3, 9, 18] or on social web sites like %HKDYLRXUDO7UDFHVDQG,QGLUHFW8VHUWR8VHU0HGLDWLRQ  LibraryThing.com.

F igure 4a. Indirect, unintended user-to-user mediation in physical library: left-behind materials

F igure 4b. Indirect, unintended user-to-user mediation in physical library: newly returned books

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Augmented affordances for user-to- user mediation in the participatory library JQ#BH2- T2`pbBp2- K#B2Mi- M/ HQ+iBQM@#b2/ i2+?MQHQ;B2b +QM@ M2+i T?vbB+H M/ /B;BiH BM7Q`KiBQM bT+2bX 6Q` 2tKTH2- #v KQ@ #BH2 T?QM2b #H2 Q7 /BbTHvBM; BM7Q`KiBQM 7`QK T?vbB+H Q#D2+ib 2M`B+?2/ rBi? _6A. +?BTb- k. #`+Q/2b- 2i+X (2X;X 9- R8- k8- kN)X h?2b2 i2+?MQHQ;B2b T`QpB/2 M2r zQ`/M+2b 7Q` BM/B`2+i mb2`@iQ@mb2`


Behavioural Traces and Indirect User-to-User Mediation in the Participatory Library 

F igure 4c. Indirect, intended user-to-user mediation in physical library: reader-to-readerrecommended books

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F igure 4d. Indirect, intended user-to-user PHGLDWLRQLQSK\VLFDOOLEUDU\ÂľRSLQLRQÂśWDEV attached by users to books

5. A U GbQ+BH M E NMpB;iBQM T E D A F F#v O RH2pBM; D A N CM/ ES }M/BM; F O R USE R-T#2@ OK2/BiBQM M/ /B;BiH USE R M E D I AT I O N I N T H E PA R T I C IPAT O R Y ?pBQm`H i`+2b BM T?vbB+H bT+2bX LIBRAR Y 7Q+mb2/ QM i`Mb72``BM; r2# b2`pB+2b HBF2 aQ 7`- HB#``B2b ?p2 b2`+?BM;- `2b2`piBQM- `272`2M+2 b2`pB+2- 2i+X- iQ KQ#BH2 THi7Q`Kb Mobile, ambient, and location-based connect (2X;X 8- 3)Xpervasive, h?2b2 TT`Q+?2b ?p2 i?mb KBMHvtechnologies #22M +QM+2`M2/ physical and digital information spaces. For example, by mobile phones rBi? i?2 irQ 7+2ib }M/ M/ H2`M BM i?2 BM7Q`KiBQM #2?pBQm` HB72able of displaying physical objectskXy enriched RFID #2 chips, +v+H2 KQ/2H BM information 6B;X kX AM from T?vbB+H GB#``v b2iiBM;with Bi rQmH/ 2D barcodes, etc. [e.g. 4, 15, 25, 29]. These technologies provide BMi2`2biBM; b r2HH iQ H2i mb2`b +`2i2- biQ`2- M/ b?`2 BM7Q`KiBQMnew affordances for indirect user-to-user#vmediation and social rBi? KQ#BH2 T?QM2b7Q` 2tKTH2mbBM; KQ#BH2 T?QM2bnavigation iQ i`+F by leaving finding digital`2pB2rbbehavioural physical spaces. M/ b?Qrand i;b`iBM;bM/traces Qi?2`in#2?pBQm`H i`+2b- /B@ So far, libraries have focused on transferring web services like searching, ;BiHHv ii+?2/ #v Qi?2` mb2`b iQ T?vbB+H BM7Q`KiBQM `2bQm`+2b BM reservation, reference service, etc., to mobile platforms [e.g. 5, 8]. These i?2 T?vbB+H HB#``vX aBKBH` zQ`/M+2b 7Q` m;K2MiBM; T?vbB+H approaches have thus mainly been concerned with the two facets find and bT+2b /B;BiH- BM7Q`KiBQMH ÇśHv2`bÇś `2 H`2/v T`QpB/2/ b learn rBi? in the information behaviour life cycle model in Fig. 2. In a physical TTHB+iBQMb bK`iT?QM2b +QKTMB2b HBF2toGv`X+QKX Library 2.0 7Q` setting it would be #v interesting as well let users create, store, m;K2MiBM; T?vbB+H 2MpB`QMK2Mib rBi? +QKKmMB+iBp2 /2pB+2b and share information with mobile phones, for example, by using mobile +M HbQ #2 BM i?2 b?T2 Q7 bQ@+HH2/ K#B2Mi BMi2`7+2b (2X;X RR- R9phones to track and show tags, ratings, reviews, and other behavioural traces, k8-digitally kN)X lbBM; pBbmH Qi?2` information b2MbQ`v KQ/2b 7Q` `2T@ attached by +m2bother bQmM/users toM/ physical resources in the `2b2MiBM; #2?pBQm`H Tii2`Mb #v mb2`b iQ Qi?2` spaces mb2`b BMwith physical ;;`2;i2/ library. Similar affordances for augmenting physical  HB#``v #2  K2Mb iQ biBKmHi2 mb2`@iQ@mb2` K2/BiBQM M/ IRU digLWDO +QmH/ LQIRUPDWLRQDO ÂľOD\HUVÂś DUH DOUHDG\ SURYLGHG DV DSSOLFDWLRQV smartphones by companies like Layar.com.


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Theoretical background *QKTmi2`@K2/Bi2/ 2MpB`QMK2Mib U*J1V BM ;2M2`H M/ i?2 AM@ i2`M2i BM T`iB+mH` HHQr mb2`b iQ +`2i2 M/ /2p2HQT pB`imH B/2M@ iBiB2b M/ bT+2b i?i Q++mTv M2Bi?2` bT+2 MQ` iBK2 UST+?`BbbBkyykVX J+E2MM M/ "`;? UkyyyV T`QTQb2/ 7Qm` /QKBMb BM r?B+? bQ+BH BMi2`+iBQM pB  *J1 /Bz2`b 7`QK Qi?2` +QMp2MiBQMH K2/B, `2HiBp2 MQMvKBiv- ii2MmiBQM Q7 T?vbB+H /BbiM+2- `2/m+2/ BK@ TQ`iM+2 Q7 T?vbB+H TT2`M+2 M/ ;`2i2` +QMi`QH Qp2` i?2 iBK2 M/ T+2 Q7 BMi2`+iBQMbX P7 T`iB+mH` `2H2pM+2 iQ i?2 T`2b2Mi bim/v `2 i?2 MQiBQM Q7 MQMvKBiv M/ i?2 +QMi`QH i?i *J1b bm+? b #HQ;b HHQr BM/BpB/mHb Qp2` i?2B` BMi2`+iBQMb rBi? Qi?2`bX +@ +Q`/BM; iQ amH2` Ukyy9V- MQMvKBiv Bb i?2 +QM+2HK2Mi Q7 B/2MiBiv i?i #2+QK2b TQbbB#H2 r?2M T2QTH2 ?p2 i?2 QTTQ`imMBiv iQ b2T@ `i2 i?2B` +iBQMb QMHBM2 7`QK i?2B` BM@T2`bQM HB72 bivH2 M/ B/2M@ iBivc i?2v 722H H2bb pmHM2`#H2 #Qmi b2H7@/Bb+HQbBM; #2+mb2 r?i2p2` i?2v bv Q` /Q +MMQi #2 /B`2+iHv HBMF2/ iQ i?2 `2bi Q7 i?2B` HBp2bX a2H7 /Bb+HQbm`2 Bb i?2 dz+i Q7 `2p2HBM; T2`bQMH BM7Q`KiBQM iQ Qi?@ 2`b U`+?2`- RN3y- TXR3jVX h?Bb T`QT2MbBiv M BM/BpB/mH ?b 7Q` `2p2HBM; T2`bQMH BM7Q`KiBQM `2Hi2b iQ i?2 +QMi2Mi Q7 i?2 b2H7@ T`2b2MiiBQM i?2v +?QQb2 iQ /BbTHv UC2Mb2M *?m  :BHHv- kyyjVX h?Bb bim/v BMp2biB;i2b b2H7@T`2b2MiiBQM M/ b2H7@/Bb+HQbm`2 BM T2`@ bQMH #HQ;b 7mM+iBQMBM; b pB`imH T2`bQMH bT+2bX




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Methods h?Bb bim/v 2tKBM2b i?2 7QHHQrBM; [m2biBQMb `2;`/BM; i?2 +`2@ iBQM Q7  pB`imH T`2b2M+2 BM #HQ;b, R >Qr /Q #HQ;;2`b b2H7@T`2b2Mi BM i?2B` #HQ;b M/ r?i `QH2 /Q2b i?Bb T2`bQMH bT+2 ?p2 BM i?2 #HQ;;2`bÇś HB72\ k hQ r?i 2ti2Mi i?2 T2`+2TiBQM Q7  #HQ; b  Ç´T2`bQMH bT+2Ç´ HHQrb #HQ;;2`b iQ /Bb+HQb2 T2`bQMH BM7Q`KiBQM\ j q?i FBM/ Q7 T2`bQMH BM7Q`KiBQM Bb BM+Hm/2/ BM i?2 #HQ;;2`bÇś b2H7@/Bb+HQbm`2\ 9 hQ r?i 2ti2Mi #HQ;;2`b FMQr i?2B` `2/2`b M/ ?Qr i?2 `2/@ 2`bÇś +QKK2Mib BM~m2M+2 i?2 #HQ;;2`bÇś b2H7@T`2b2MiiBQM M/ b2H7@/Bb+HQbm`2\ h?2 bim/v rb +QM/m+i2/ 7Q` QM2 KQMi? U.2+2K#2` R8 iQ CMm@ `v R8- kyRRV mbBM; M QMHBM2 bm`p2vX h?2 #HQ;b BM i?2 bKTH2 r2`2 b2H2+i2/ 7`QK i?2 ÇśT2`bQMH #HQ;bÇś +i2;Q`v BM irQ Ab`2HB #HQ; /B`2+i@ Q`B2b M/ Bi +QMbBbi2/ Q7 `2;mH`Hv KBMiBM2/ T2`bQMH #HQ;b r`Bii2M BM >2#`2rX h?2 +QMi2Mi Q7 2+? #HQ; rb 2tKBM2/ iQ p2`B7v i?i Bi


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Findings h?2 rv #HQ;;2`b T`2b2Mi i?2Kb2Hp2b BM i?2B` #HQ;b M/ i?2 Mim`2 Q7 i?2 BM7Q`KiBQM i?2v +?QQb2 iQ /Bb+HQb2 `2 +2Mi`H Bbbm2b BM mM/2`@ biM/BM; i?2 +`2iBQM Q7  pB`imH T`2b2M+2 QM +v#2`bT+2X 6BM/BM;b b?Qr i?i i?2 KDQ`Biv Q7 #HQ;;2`b i?i T`iB+BTi2/ BM i?Bb bim/v +`2i2/ M MQMvKQmb pB`imH T`2b2M+2c i?2v KBMiBM2/ bQK2 FBM/ Q7 MQMvKBiv #v B/2MiB7vBM; i?2Kb2Hp2b mbBM;  p`BMi Q7 i?2B` `2H MK2 UR3XjW M 4R8V Q`  Tb2m/QMvK UeRW M 4 8yVc QMHv kyXdW Q7 i?2 #HQ;;2`b /BbTHv2/  T2`bQMH T?QiQX h?Bb i2M/2M+v 7Q` b2H7@ T`2b2MiiBQM /Q2b MQi +QM+m`b rBi? }M/BM;b 7`QK Qi?2` bim/B2b BM r?B+? i?2 KDQ`Biv Q7 #HQ;;2`b B/2MiB}2/ i?2Kb2Hp2b #v i?2B` `2H




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MK2b M/ TQbi2/  T2`bQMH T?QiQ;`T? Q7 i?2Kb2Hp2b BM i?2B` #HQ; U"`QMbi2BM- BM T`2bbc :m/;MQ 2i H- kyy3c oB2;b- kyy8VX h?2 T2`+2TiBQM #HQ;;2`b ?p2 Q7 i?2B` #HQ; b M 2M+HQb2/ M/ T`Qi2+i2/ bT+2 +QmH/ T`iHv 2tTHBM r?v i?2 KDQ`Biv Q7 `2bTQM/@ 2Mib /Bb+HQb2/ T2`bQMH BM7Q`KiBQMX 6BM/BM;b b?Qr i?i 39XRW Q7 `2bTQM/2Mib 7`2[m2MiHv /Bb+HQb2 T2`bQMH BM7Q`KiBQM BM i?2B` #HQ;bX :m/;MQ 2i H Ukyy3V 2tTHBM i?i r?2M BM/BpB/mHb T2`+2Bp2 i?2K@ b2Hp2b iQ #2 MQMvKQmb- Bi Kv +?M;2 i?2 rv BM r?B+? BM/BpB/m@ Hb +QKKmMB+i2 QM i?2 r2# #2+mb2 i?2v 2tT2`B2M+2  b2Mb2 Q7 /2T2`bQMHBxiBQMX h?mb- r?BH2 #HQ;;BM;- BM/BpB/mHb Kv /Bb+HQb2 BM7Q`KiBQM i?i Bb KQ`2 `2p2HBM; i?M i?2v `2HBx2X h?Bb bb2`iBQM Bb bmTTQ`i2/ #v }M/BM;b BM i?Bb bim/v #2+mb2 r?2M bF2/ #Qmi i?2 FBM/ Q7 BM7Q`KiBQM i?2v /Bb+HQb2 BM i?2B` #HQ;b- d8W Q7 `2bTQM/2Mib `2TQ`i2/ i?i i?2v i2M/2/ iQ 2tTQb2 i?2B` Ǵb2MbBiBp2 bB/2Ǵ- 88W bB/ i?2v 7`2[m2MiHv `2p2H 2K#``bbBM; BM7Q`KiBQM #Qmi i?2Kb2Hp2b M/ 8NXdW ii2bi2/ i?i i?2v iF2 /QrM i?2B` /272Mb2b r?2M #HQ;@ ;BM;X h?2 i2timH /2b+`BTiBQM `2bTQM/2Mib ;p2 Q7 i?2 `QH2 i?2B` #HQ;b ?p2 BM i?2B` T2`bQMH HB72 +QM}`Kb i?2 MQiBQM i?i i?2v T2`@ +2Bp2 Bi b  T2`bQMH bT+2X 6BM/BM;b 7`QK i?2 +QMi2Mi MHvbBb `2p2H2/ i?i `2bTQM/2Mib /2b+`B#2 i?2B` #HQ;b b, URV  TH+2 iQ 2t@ T`2bb i?2Kb2Hp2b 7`22Hv M/ M QmiH2i 7Q` 722HBM;b M/ 2KQiBQMbc UkV  iQQH i?i ?2HTb i?2K b?`2 BM7Q`KiBQM M/ +QMM2+i rBi? T2QTH2 rBi? r?QK i?2v ?p2 bQK2i?BM; BM +QKKQMc UjV  TH+2 iQ F22T `2+Q`/ Q7 i?2B` HBp2bX a+?BMQ 2i H Ukyy9V +HBK i?i i?2 #HQ;;2`Ƕb T`BK`v m/B2M+2 Bb i?2 #HQ;;2` ?BKb2H7 #2+mb2 #HQ;;BM; Bb Q7i2M mb2/ b M QmiH2i 7Q` i?Qm;?i M/ 722HBM;bX 6BM/BM;b Q7 i?Bb bim/v bmTTQ`i i?Bb bii2K2MiedXRW Q7 `2bTQM/2Mib bB/ i?i Bi rb MQi BKTQ`iMi 7Q` i?2K iQ ;2i iQ FMQr i?2B` `2/2`b M/ 8kX9W `2TQ`i2/ i?i i?2v /Q MQi i?BMF #Qmi i?2B` `2/2`b r?2M #HQ;;BM;X :m/;MQ 2i H Ukyy3V bb2`ib i?i #HQ;;2`b ?p2 ?2B;?i2M2/ T`Bpi2 b2H7@r`2M2bb r?i #`BM;b i?2K iQ #2 7Q+mb2/ QM i?2B` BMi2`MH bii2b i?mb HBKBiBM; i?2 `2bQm`+2b i?i +M #2 /2pQi2/ iQ Qi?2`bX h?Bb bm;;2bib i?i #HQ;;2`b KB;?i /Bb+HQb2 BM7Q`KiBQM rBi? H2bb `2;`/ iQ ?Qr Qi?2`b T2`+2Bp2 BiX Pi?2` bim/B2b UL`/B 2i HX- kyy9c ST+?B`BbbB  _m#BMkyyyc qHF2`- kyyyV T`QpB/2  /Bz2`2Mi 2tTHMiBQM #v biiBM; i?i bQ+BH MQ`Kb T`2pBHBM; QM i?2 AMi2`M2i HHQr #HQ;;2`b iQ 2tT`2bb


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Bibliography

(R) `+?2`- CXGX URN3yVX a2H7@.Bb+HQbm`2X AM .X q2;M2` d _X oH@ HM+?2` U2/bVX h?2 a2H7 BM aQ+BH Sbv+?QHQ;vX GQM/QM, Pt7Q`/ lMBp2`bBiv X (k) "`;?- CXX- J+E2MM- EXuX  6BibBKQMb :XJX UkyykVX *M vQm b22 i?2 `2H K2\ +iBpiBQM M/ 2tT`2bbBQM Q7 i?2 Ǵh`m2 a2H7Ǵ QM i?2 AMi2`M2iX CQm`MH Q7 aQ+BH Bbbm2b- 83URV- jj@93X (j) "`QMbi2BM- CX JQiBpiBQM 7Q` #HQ;;BM; BM i?2 GiBM K2`B+M #HQ;QbT?2`2,  mb2b M/ ;`iB}+iBQMb TT`Q+?X AM hX .m@ KQp U2/XV- "HQ;;BM; BM i?2 :HQ#H aQ+B2ivX >2`b?2v- S, AM@ 7Q`KiBQM a+B2M+2 _272`2M+2X UAM T`2bbV (9) :mK#`2+?iJX Ukyy9JvVX "HQ;b b dzT`Q@ i2+i2/ bT+2XǴ S`2b2Mi2/ i i?2 qQ`Fb?QT QM i?2 q2#HQ;;BM; 1+Qbvbi2K, ;;`2;iBQMM@ HvbBb M/ .vMKB+bL2r uQ`FX _2i`B2p2/ 7`QK ?iiT,ffrrrX#HQ;TmHb2X+QKfTT2`bfrrrkyy9;mK#`2+?iXT/7 (8) >2``BM;- aX *X- a+?2B/i- GX X- "QMmb- aX-  q`B;?i- 1X Ukyy9VX "`B/;BM; i?2 ;T,  :2M`2 MHvbBb Q7 r2#HQ;bX S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 i?2 jdi? MMmH >rBB AMi2`MiBQMH *QM72`2M+2 QM avbi2K a+B2M+2b U>A*aaǶy9VX _2i`B2p2/ 7`QK ?iiT,ff/QBXB222+QKTmi2`bQ+B2ivXQ`;fRyXRRyNf>A*aaXkyy9XRke8kdR (e) C2Mb2M a+?m- >X  :BHHv- JX *X UkyyjV q2 `2 r?i q2 SQbi\ a2H7@S`2b2MiiBQM BM S2`bQMH q2# aT+2X CQm`MH Q7 *QMbmK2` _2b2`+?- jy- j38@9y9X




,6620( 

(d) GB- .X UkyydVX q?v /Q vQm #HQ;,  mb2b@M/@;`iB}+iBQMb BM[mB`v BMiQ #HQ;;2`bǶ KQiBpiBQMbX ST2` T`2b2Mi2/ i i?2 MMmH K22iBM; Q7 i?2 AMi2`MiBQMH *QKKmMB+iBQM bbQ@ +BiBQMX h"- aM 6`M+Bb+Q- * PMHBM2X _2i`B2p2/ 7`QK ?iiT,ffrrrXHH+/2KB+X+QKfK2ifTRdR9Ny BM/2tX?iKH

(3) JBHH2`- *X _X-  a?2T?2`/- .X Ukyy9VX "HQ;;BM; b bQ@ +BH +iBQM,  ;2M`2 MHvbBb Q7 i?2 r2#HQ;X AM GX :m`F- aX MiQMBD2pB+- GX CQ?MbQM- *X _iHBz-  CX _2vKM U1/bXV- AMiQ i?2 "HQ;QbT?2`2X _2i`B2p2/ 7`QK ?iiT,ff#HQ;XHB#XmKMX2/mf#HQ;QbT?2`2f#HQ;;BM; b bQ+BH +iBQM  ;2M`2  b Q7 i?2 r2#HQ;X?iKH (N) LQrbQM- aX-  P#2`HM/2`- CX UkyyeVX h?2 B/2MiBiv Q7 #HQ;;2`b, PT2MM2bb M/ ;2M/2` BM T2`bQMH r2#HQ;bX ST2` T`2b2Mi2/ i i?2 rQ`Fb?QT *QKTmiiBQMH TT`Q+?2b iQ MHvbBM; q2#HQ;b- aiM7Q`/ lMBp2`bBivX _2i`B2p2/ 7`QK ?iiT,ffrrrXB+bXK[X2/mXmfbMQrbQMfTT2`bfaayeyjLQrbQMaXT/7 (Ry) ST+?`BbbB- wX UkyykVX h?2 T`2b2MiiBQM Q7 b2H7 BM pB`imH HB72, +?`+i2`BbiB+b Q7 T2`bQMH ?QK2 T;2bX CQm`MHBbK M/ Kbb +QKKmMB+iBQM- dNUjV- e9j@eeyX (RR) ST+?`BbbB- wX Ukyy9- JvVX h?2 #HQ;;2` `2pQHmiBQM\ m/B@ 2M+2b b K2/B T`Q/m+2`bX ST2` T`2b2Mi2/ i i?2 MMmH +QMp2MiBQM Q7 i?2 AMi2`MiBQMH *QKKmMB+iBQM bbQ+BiBQML2r P`H2Mb- GX (Rk) ZBM- >X  a+Qii *X _X UkyydVX MQMBKBiv M/ b2H7@ /Bb+HQbm`2 QM r2#HQ;bX CQm`MH Q7 *QKTmi2`@J2/Bi2/ *QKKmMB+iBQM- RkU9V- `iB+H2 R9X _2i`B2p2/ 7`QK ?iiT,ffD+K+XBM/BMX2/mfpQHRkfBbbm29f[BMX?iKH (Rj) a+?BMQ- .X CX- L`/B- "X X- :mK#`2+?i- JX-  ar`ixGXXUkyy9VX "HQ;;BM; #v i?2 `2bi Q7 mbX X AM 1ti2M/2/ #bi`+ib Q7 i?2 kyy9 +QM72`2M+2 QM >mKM 7+iQ`b M/ +QKTmiBM; bvb@ i2Kb Ukyy9V- TTX RR9j@RR9eX (R9) amH2`- CX Ukyy9VX h?2 PMHBM2 .BbBM?B#BiBQM 1z2+iX *v#2`Sbv@ +?QHQ;v M/ "2?pBQ` dUjV- jkR@jkeX


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LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN CONTENT MANAGEMENT ,QGH[LQJDQGWLWOLQJLQPXOWLOLQJXDODQGPXOWLFXOWXUDO EORJRVSKHUH 6XVDQQD1\N\UL 8QLYHUVLW\RI7XUNX )LQODQG

Introduction h?2 }MH TT2` `2TQ`ib T`i Q7 i?2 `2bmHib Q7 M QM@;QBM; bim/vr?B+? iQTB+ Bb HBM;mBbiB+ M/ +mHim`H /Bz2`2M+2b BM KmHiBHBM;mH M/ KmHiB+mHim`H #HQ;QbT?2`2X h?2 T`2HBKBM`v `2bmHib rBi? i?2 6BMMBb? HM;m;2 Ki2`BH +H2`Hv b?Qr ?Qr i?2 B/2 Q7 BM/2tBM; /Bp2`;2b T`iHv 7mM/K2MiHHv #2ir22M BM7Q`KiBQM T`Q72bbBQMHb M/ #HQ;@ r`Bi2`bX AM i?2 #bi`+i i?2 i?2Q`2iB+H #+F;`QmM/ b r2HH b KQiBpiBQMb 7Q` i?2 bim/v M/ bQK2 ;2M2`H pB2rTQBMib `2 /Bb+mbb2/X

Background and significance hQ +QMp2v K2MBM; r2 M22/ iQ +QKKmMB+i2- mb2 HM;m;2- M/ i?Bb Bb MQi Hrvb M 2bv ibF BM  ;HQ#HHv mMBi2/ v2i HBM;mBbiB+HHv M/ +mHim`HHv b2T`i2/ rQ`H/X GB#``B2b M/ iQQHb 7Q` BM7Q`KiBQM /Q+mK2MiiBQM M/ `2i`B2pH `2 MQi QMHv HBpBM;  M2r `2MBbbM+2#mi HbQ 2M+QmMi2`BM; M2r T`Q#H2KbX >Qr iQ T`QpB/2 `2H2pMi BM@ 7Q`KiBQM BM iQ/vǶb ;HQ#H HB72\ q?i `2 i?2 Q#bi+H2b\ >Qr /Q r2 7+2 i?2K\ AM i?2 qQ`H/ qB/2 q2# UqqqV BM7Q`KiBQM Bb +QKKQMHv Tm#@ HBb?2/ #v Qi?2` i?M T`Q72bbBQMHb QM FMQrH2/;2 KM;2K2Mi- M/




,6620( 

i?2 +QMi2Mi Bb BM Bib +?`+i2` KQbiHv bQ +HH2/ bQ+BH K2/B M/ /Bbb2KBMi2/ #v Qi?2`b i?M i`/BiBQMH Tm#HBb?BM; +?MM2HbX i i?2 bK2 iBK2 i?2 #Q`/2` #2ir22M r`Bi2`b M/ MQM@r`Bi2`b- M/ }+@ iBQM M/ MQM@}+iBQM ?b #2+QK2 #Hm``2/X AM i?2 BM7Q`KiBQM b+B2M+2 GB#``v kXy 2` Bb /Bb+mbb2/ UqB/ûM@qmHz  HX kyy3- 39kVX h?2 bi`iBM; TQBMi 7Q` i?2 /2}MBiBQM Q7 ǵ#HQ;bǶ UHbQ FMQrM b r2#HQ;bV Bb Q7i2M 7Q`K BMbi2/ Q7 +QMi2Mi Ub22 2X;X "HQQ/ kyyyc :BHHKQ` kyy9c PDH kyy8VX AM i?Bb bim/v i?2 2KT?bBb Bb bT2+B}+HHv QM bm#D2+iBp2 M/ i2ti@7Q`K /B`v@ivT2 #HQ;b- r?B+? `2 7m`i?2` ?2`2 `272``2/ iQ b #HQ;bX b  i2ti ivT2 i?2 Ki2`BH `2T`2b2Mib r2# T`Qb2- r?B+? Bb +`2iBp2- /BHQ;B+H M/ Q`H HBF2 #mi bivHBx2/ r`BiBM; BM r2#HQ;b- +?ib M/ /Bb+mbbBQM 7Q`mKb Ub22 i?2 i2`KǶb Q`B;BM BM LB2KB@SvMii `B kyydVX 1M;HBb?- 6BMMBb? M/ _mbbBM #2HQM; iQ /Bz2`2Mi HM;m;2 ;`QmTb#mi KQ`2 BKTQ`iMi /Bz2`2M+2 Bb i?i 6BMMBb? Bb +mHim`HHv p2`v 6BMMBb? M/ _mbbBM p2`v _mbbBM- r?2`2b 1M;HBb? Bb ;HQ#HHv p2`v +QKKQM HBM;m 7`M+- BX2X mb2/ BM +QKKmMB+iBQM #2ir22M T2`bQMb MQi b?`BM;  KQi?2` iQM;m2X h`/BiBQMHHv HM;m;2 U+7X "Ƀ?H2` RNe8V M/ i2tib U+7X _2Bbb RNddV `2 +QMbB/2`2/ iQ b2`p2 i?`22 #bB+ 7mM+iBQMb Ĝ iQ `2T`2b2Mi2tT`2bb M/ TT2HX h?2 7mM+iBQMb `2 #QmM/ iQ +QKKmMB+iBQMX AM BM7Q`KiBp2 7mM+iBQM UiQ `2T`2b2MiV HM;m;2 Bb mb2/ iQ `272` iQ i?2 `2HBiv- M/ i?2 iQTB+ Bb BM i?2 7Q`2;`QmM/ Q7 i?2 +QKKmMB+iBp2 BMi2MiBQMX AM T`+iB+2 Bi Bb BMpQHp2/ BM 2p2`v K2bb;2X 6Q` 2tKTH2 2M+v+HQT2/Bb M/ H2+im`2b `2T`2b2Mi BM7Q`KiBp2 i2ti ivT2X AM 2t@ T`2bbBp2 7mM+iBQM UiQ 2tT`2bbV i?2 2KT?bBb Bb QM i?2 b2M/2` Q7 i?2 K2bb;2- b Bb +b2 BM 2tT`2bbBp2 i2ti ivT2b HBF2 BM TQ2Kb M/ BM /`K THvbX AM pQ+iBp2 7mM+iBQM UiQ TT2HV i?2 2KT?bBb Bb QM i?2 `2+2Bp2`X 6Q` 2tKTH2 +QKK2`+BHb M/ 2H2+iBQM bT22+?2b `2T`2b@ 2Mi pQ+iBp2 i2ti ivT2X L2p2`i?2H2bb- BM T`+iB+2 i2tib Q7i2M BM+Hm/2 +?`+i2`BbiB+b Q7 b2p2`H i2ti ivT2b- M/ 7Q` BMbiM+2- K2KQB`b `2 +HQb2 iQ 2tT`2bbBp2 i2ti ivT2- #mi BM i?2B` Mim`2 HbQ BM7Q`KiBp2X Uo2?Kb@G2?iQ RNNN- dR@djV CFQ#bQM URN3RV /BbiBM;mBb?2b bBt 7mM+@ iBQMb Q7 HM;m;2- r?B+? `2 `272`2MiBH- 2KQiBp2- +QMiBp2- T?iB+TQ2iB+ M/ K2iHBM;mHX AM ?Bb QTBMBQM i?2 7mM+iBQMb BKT+i BM T`@ HH2H `2bmHiBM; QM i?2 bBKmHiM2Qmb 2tBbi2M+2 Q7 /Bz2`2Mi 7mM+iBQMb BM /Bz2`2Mi bBimiBQMb M/ HM;m;2 mb2 KMM2`bX UA#B/- kk@kdV


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h?2 CFQ#bQMǶb KQ/2H ?b #22M 2bT2+BHHv TQTmH` BM i?2 bim/v Q7 `2+2TiBQM Q7 +mHim`H T`Q/m+ib- M/ Bi ?b #22M mb2/ b  7`K2rQ`F b r2HH b  iQQH 7Q` MHvbBbX Ai iF2b BMiQ +QMbB/2`iBQM /Bz2`2Mi FBM/b Q7 +QMi2tib- Bb KmHiB7mM+iBQMH UBi Bb MQi M2+2bb`v iQ `2/m+2 /Bb+Qm`b2 BMiQ QM2 7mM+iBQM i  iBK2V M/ rBi? i?2 ?2HT Q7 Bi i?2 +QKKmMB+iBp2 +iBQM Q` `2bmHi Q7 M +iBQM +M #2 MHvx2/ BM /2iBHX UEQpH kyy8V q2 +M bbmK2 r2# T`Qb2 iQ BM+Hm/2 KBMHv ii`B#mi2b Q7 2tT`2bbBp2 M/ BM7Q`KiBp2 i2ti ivT2b- #mi Bib BM/2tBM; Kv #2 HbQ +HQb2bi pQ+iBp2 Q` 2KQiBp2- M/ i?mb MQi T`BK`BHv iQ Tbb QM BM7Q`KiBp2 +QMi2Mi K2iHBM;mHHvX AM i?Bb bim/v i?2 7Q+mb Bb QM 2KT?bBb Q7 /Bz2`2Mi U/QKBMMi M/ b2+QM/`vV 7mM+iBQMb M/ QM i?2B` i2MbBQM U+7X EQpH kyy8VX AM i?2 bim/v BM/2tBM; U/Q+mK2MiiBQMV Bb mM/2`biQQ/ BM +Q?2`@ 2M+2 rBi? i?2 biM/`/b Q7 i?2 }2H/ UAaP 8Nej@RN38- kV b i?2 dz+i Q7 /2b+`B#BM; Q` B/2MiB7vBM;  /Q+mK2Mi BM i2`Kb Q7 Bib bm#D2+i +QM@ i2MiǴX AM i?Bb bim/v /Bz2`2Mi /Bb+Qm`b2b Q7 BM7Q`KiBQM biQ`;2 `2 2t@ THQ`2/X i  ;2M2`H H2p2H /Bb+Qm`b2 +M #2 /2}M2/ iQ `272` iQ HM@ ;m;2 mb2 BM bQ+BH +QMi2ti US HHB kyyj- kkVX Ai Bb HbQ MQi2rQ`i?v iQ `2HBx2- i?i Hi?Qm;? /Bb+Qm`b2 Bb  bm#biMiBp2- Bi K2Mb HbQ /QBM; bQK2i?BM; M/ +iBp2 T`Q+2bb2bX AM i?2 +2Mi2` Q7 i?2 MHvbBb Bb i?mb ?mKM +iBQMX UG2?iQM2M RNN9c SQii2`  q2i?2`2HH RNNyc S HHB kyyjVX b  `2b2`+? K2i?Q/ Bb mb2/ /Bb+Qm`b2 MHvbBb- r?B+? Bb +QMi2ti@ #QmM/ bim/v Q7 ?mKM +iBpBiv U6B`+HQm;? RNNkc PHbbQM kyy9- kVX Ai Bb MQi `2bQM#H2 iQ +?`+i2`Bx2 /Bb+Qm`b2 MHvbBb b  /BbiBM+i `2@ b2`+? K2i?Q/- #mi KQ`2 b  HQQb2 i?2Q`2iB+H 7`K2rQ`F USQii2`  q2i?2`2HH RNNyc amQMBM2M RNNk- Rk8V- BM r?B+? /Bz2`2Mi 2KT?bBx2b BM 7Q+mb M/ K2i?Q/QHQ;B+H TTHB+iBQMb `2 HHQr2/ UCQFBM2M  HX RNNj- Rd@R3VX .Bb+Qm`b2 MHviB+H K2i?Q/b ?p2 #22M b+`+2 BM i?2 }2H/ Q7 HB#``BMb?BT M/ BM7Q`KiBQM b+B2M+2 `2b2`+?- Hi?Qm;? i?2 BMi2`2bi ?b #22M ;`QrBM; U>2/2K`F- >2/KM  amM/BM kyy8RdVX h?2 bi`iBM; TQBMib Q7 /Bb+Qm`b2 MHvbBb ?p2 #22M /Bb+mbb2/ BM b2p2`H `iB+H2b- #mi Bi ?b b2H/QK #22M mb2/ b  K2i?Q/ 7Q` 2KTB`B+H bim/B2b UhHD RNN3- R3VX >Qr2p2`- /Bb+Qm`b2 MHvbBb Bb  Mim`H +?QB+2- r?2M r2 i?BMF Q7 i?2 F2v 2H2K2Mi BM Qm` }2H/ Ĝ BM7Q`KiBQMX hHD URNNd- dyc RNNN- 9eyV /2b+`B#2b BM7Q`KiBQM


written in Russia and Finland even samples written in mother tongue and English are selected. The  total sample is in all fifty blogs, from which ten most recent updates are collected. The ,6620(  analyzed material covers thus 500 text samples. Country

1. language

2. language

Finland Russia United states

Finnish â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 10 samples Russian â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 10 samples English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 10 samples

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 10 samples English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 10 samples

in all (50) 20 20 10

Table 1: The research material (blogs) by country and language

The material collection bases on theoretical sampling (see Seale 1998, 329; Strauss and Corbin 1990, 176-179) and its criteria are diary-like content, provision of indexing terms1 for b #2BM; +QM+2`M2/ rBi?ofr?i T2QTH2 /Qand rBi? HM;m;2 ofM/ r?i the readers, similar search features the used platform, the background the author, and HM;m;2 the publication country and language. /Q2b iQ T2QTH2X

AM i?Bb bim/v #HQ;b `2 MHvx2/ b +mHim`H T`Q/m+ib- bBM+2 HM@

This study focuses on examination of the linguistic methods, which are used to describe ;m;2bofM/ i?2 and i?BMFBM; i?2v of `2~2+i KBMHv 7`QK the content the blogs, the functions the indexing. Thebi2K method used+mHim`H is discourse M22/b 7Q` 2tT`2bbBQM amQDM2M aHi2` GM;m;2 analysis. Indexing is reflected toUb22 the functions and RNNjc text-types found RNN3VX in the actual blog texts. When cultural the comparison are Finland, Russia and United Bb analyzing MQi biiB+ Ub22differences 2X;X o`MiQH RNNycpairs Bi+?BbQM RNNRc qB2`x#B+F States, and in their linguistic aspects Finnish, Russian and English (as American RNNdc G2?iQM2M kyyyc EiM kyy9V M/ i?2`27Q`2 HbQ i?2B`English /Q+m@and lingua franca) are explored.

K2MiiBQM UBM/2tBM;V Bb iB2/ rBi? iBK2 M/ i?2 bm``QmM/BM; +mHim`2 kyRyVX are: The ULvFv`B research questions

â&#x20AC;˘Aims, What kinds of functions and the indexing and titles of blog texts reflect? What kinds of material methods motives are found in the documentation of subjective blog writings? bim/v MHvb2b rvb ?Qr #HQ;;2`b T`QpB/2 i2t@ â&#x20AC;˘ h?Bb Are there differences in style/Bz2`2Mi and function of blog indexing and titling? â&#x20AC;˘imH AreiQQHb there 7Q` clearBM7Q`KiBQM documentation`2i`B2pH discourses M/ between specific countries versus languages 2M#H2b }M/BM; BM7Q`KiBQM versus certain background of the authors? â&#x20AC;&#x201C; What kind of customs exists in the `2 Finnish 7`QK i?2B` #HQ;bX h?2 7Qm` HM;m;2 M/ +mHim`2 TB`b MHvx2/ versus American versus Russian versus international material?

K2`B+M 1M;HBb?- 1M;HBb? b HBM;m 7`M+- _mbbBM M/ 6BMMBb?X PM #HQ;b r`Bii2M BM _mbbB 6BMHM/ 2p2M bKTH2b r`Bii2M BM Indexing is reflected to the content of the M/ blog texts, titles and search possibilities. The focus KQi?2` iQM;m2 M/ 1M;HBb? `2 b2H2+i2/X h?2 iQiH bKTH2 Bb BM HH is on functions and styles. For example the geographical place of writing or reference is interesting also from the perspective of KQbi information seeking, and it `2 can be expressed in many }7iv #HQ;b7`QK r?B+? i2M `2+2Mi mT/i2b +QHH2+i2/X h?2 different ways (cf. Lindgren 2005). MHvx2/ Ki2`BH +Qp2`b i?mb 8yy i2ti bKTH2bX h?2 Ki2`BH +QHH2+iBQM #b2b QM i?2Q`2iB+H bKTHBM; Ub22 a2H2 3 Results RNN3- jkNc ai`mbb M/ *Q`#BM RNNy- Rde@RdNV M/ Bib +`Bi2`B `2 Despite of their universality and growingQ7 popularity blogs as a Rform social media are still /B`v@HBF2 +QMi2Mi- T`QpBbBQM BM/2tBM; i2`Kb 7Q` of i?2 `2/2`bbBK@ littleBH` studied (see Kjellberg 2010). The linguistic and cultural of social mediaQ7 i?2 b2`+? 72im`2b Q7 i?2 mb2/ THi7Q`K- M/ aspect i?2 #+F;`QmM/ information seeking, described in the research plan, represents a unique approach. The topic mi?Q`- M/ i?2 Tm#HB+iBQM +QmMi`v M/ HM;m;2X of the research concerns directly the most challenging tasks within information science today, which is to achieve a better understanding of the fundamentals of human information behaviour, and the ways in which it changes over time (see Bawden & Robinson 2008, 9). R .Bz2`2Mi

#HQ;@THi7Q`K T`QpB/2`b mb2 /Bz2`2Mi FBM/b Q7 i2`KbX 6Q` 2tKTH2- BM qQ`/@ T`2bb i?2 i2`K Ç´i;bÇ´ Bb mb2/ 7Q` i?2 F2vrQ`/b r?B+? /2b+`B#2 i?2 +QMi2Mi- r?2`2b BM "HQ;;2` i?2v `2 `272``2/ iQ rBi? i?2 i2`K Ç´imMMBbi22iÇ´X 1 Different blog-platform providers use different kinds of terms. For example, in Wordpress the term â&#x20AC;?tagsâ&#x20AC;? is used for the keywords which describe the content, whereas in Blogger they are referred to with the term â&#x20AC;?tunnisteetâ&#x20AC;?.

3


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Results .2bTBi2 Q7 i?2B` mMBp2`bHBiv M/ ;`QrBM; TQTmH`Biv #HQ;b b  7Q`K Q7 bQ+BH K2/B `2 biBHH HBiiH2 bim/B2/ Ub22 ED2HH#2`; kyRyVX h?2 HBM;mBbiB+ M/ +mHim`H bT2+i Q7 bQ+BH K2/B BM7Q`KiBQM b22FBM;/2b+`B#2/ BM i?2 `2b2`+? THM- `2T`2b2Mib  mMB[m2 TT`Q+?X h?2 iQTB+ Q7 i?2 `2b2`+? +QM+2`Mb /B`2+iHv i?2 KQbi +?HH2M;BM; ibFb rBi?BM BM7Q`KiBQM b+B2M+2 iQ/v- r?B+? Bb iQ +?B2p2  #2ii2` mM@ /2`biM/BM; Q7 i?2 7mM/K2MiHb Q7 ?mKM BM7Q`KiBQM #2?pBQm`M/ i?2 rvb BM r?B+? Bi +?M;2b Qp2` iBK2 Ub22 "r/2M  _Q#BMbQM kyy3- NVX




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(R) Bi+?BbQM- C2M RNNR URN39V, GM;m;2 *?M;2, S`Q;`2bb Q` .2+v\ kM/ 2/X amzQHF, 6QMiM ST2`#+FbX k83 TX (k) "r/2M  _Q#BMbQM kyy3, dzh?2 /`F bB/2 Q7 BM7Q`K@ iBQM, Qp2`HQ/- MtB2iv M/ Qi?2` T`/Qt2b M/ Ti?QHQ;B2bXǴ CQm`MH Q7 AM7Q`KiBQM a+B2M+2- oQHX j8- LQX k- R3y@RNR UkyyNV

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TEACHING SOCIAL MEDIA IN LIS $ EULGJLQJDSSURDFK 0RQLFD/DVVLDQG+DQQD0DXULQ6|GHUKROP 8QLYHUVLW\RI%RUnV 6ZHGHQ

Introduction S2QTH2 mb2 bQ+BH K2/B BM KMv bBimiBQMb M/ +QMi2tib Q7 i?2B` 2p2`v/v HB72X h?2b2 BMi2`+iBQMb M/ `2Mb 2MiBH 2MQ`KQmb KQmMib Q7 BM7Q`KiBQM M/ ?p2 HbQ +?M;2/ i?2 rvb KMv T2QTH2 BMi2`+i M/ +QKKmMB+i2X a+BH/QM2- _QiQHQ M/ aMv/2` UkyRRV B/2MiB}2/ i?2K2b 7Q` r?B+? bQ+BH K2/B ?b ?/ H`;2 BKT+i M/ ?Qr i?2b2 `2 `2H2pMi 7Q` +m``B+mHb M/ ;QHb Q7 Ba+?QQHb M/ BM7Q`KiBQM b+B@ 2M+2 /2T`iK2Mib, dzbQ+BH K2/B +QKKmMBiB2b- QrM2`b?BT- T`Bp+v M/ ;Qp2`MM+2 Q7 mb2`@;2M2`i2/ +QMi2Mi QM bQ+BH M2irQ`Fb- M/ ?Qr bQ+BH K2/B Kv BKT+i 2/m+iBQM M/ H2`MBM; i HH ;2bǴ Ua+BH/QM2- _QiQHQ  aMv/2`- kyRR- TX 8R9VX h?2 +QM+2Ti bQ+BH K2/B Bb 2HmbBp2- M/ /2}MBiBQMb /2T2M/ QM i?2 +QMi2ti r?2`2 Bi Bb TTHB2/- +QKKQMHv rBi?  7Q+mb QM i2+?MQHQ;v Q` K`F2iBM;X aQ+BH K2/B +Qm`b2b `2 Q7i2M Qz2`2/ #v +QKK2`+BH 2/m+iBQM +QKTMB2bX h?2 KDQ`Biv Q7 i?2b2 `2 T`+iB+HHv Q`B2Mi2/ M/ 7Q+mb QM i?2 mb2 Q7 bQ+BH K2/B 7`QK  +QKK2`+BH T2`bT2+iBp2b BM #mbBM2bb /pMi;2b- M/ K`F2iBM;- Q` QM bT2+B}+ i2+?MQHQ@ ;B+H iQQHb M/ `2MbX *Qm`b2b im;?i BM +/2KB+ /Bb+BTHBM2b ?p2 T`2pBQmbHv ?/ bBKBH` M``Qr 7Q+BX ar2/Bb? mMBp2`bBiB2b +m``2MiHv Qz2` bQ+BH K2/B +Qm`b2b BM /Bb+BTHBM2b bm+? b K2/B bim/B2bc 2/m@ +iBQMc M/ BM7Q`KiB+bX b /2KQMbi`i2/ #v a+BH/QM2- _QiQHQ M/ aMv/2` UkyRRV- KMv bT2+ib Q7 bQ+BH K2/B `2 +HQb2Hv +QMM2+i2/ iQ `2b H`2/v bim/@ B2/ rBi?BM KMv GAa +m``B+mHbX 6m`i?2`KQ`2- GAa Bb r2HH 2[mBTT2/




,6620( 

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Course example: Social media and social interaction hQ BHHmbi`i2 Qm` TT`Q+?- r2 T`2b2Mi M 2tKTH2 7`QK  +Qm`b2 Qz2`2/ #v i?2 ar2/Bb? a+?QQH Q7 GB#``v M/ AM7Q`KiBQM a+B2M+2, aQ+BH K2/B M/ bQ+BH BMi2`+iBQM- dX8 1*ha- iQ bim/2Mib QM i?2 mM/2`;`/mi2 M/ Kbi2`Ƕb H2p2Hb BM i?2 GAa T`Q;`KK2b M/ i?2 r2# +QMi2Mi KM;2` T`Q;`KK2X Ai rb /2p2HQT2/ rBi? i?2 BM@ i2MiBQM iQ T`QpB/2  ;2M2`H - Qp2`HH T2`bT2+iBp2 QM bQ+BH K2/BX Pi?2` +Qm`b2b ;Bp2M i i?2 /2T`iK2Mi 7Q+mb QM bT2+B}+ bQ+BH K2@ /B iQQHb M/ `2Mb- BM+Hm/BM; h?2 i?2Q`v M/ T`+iB+2 Q7 #HQ;bc 6BH2b?`BM; M/ AMi2`M2i TQHBiB+bc M/ S`Q;`KKBM; 7Q` /vMKB+bBMi2`+iBpBiv M/ BMi2;`iBQMX h?2 H2`MBM; Qmi+QK2b Q7 i?2 +Qm`b2 mb2/ BM Qm` 2tKTH2 `2, i?i i?2 bim/2Mib rBHH ?p2 i?2 +QKT2i2M+2 iQ /2b+`B#2 M/ /Bb+mbb mb2 Q7 bQ+BH K2/B- bQ+BH BMi2`+iBQM M/ `2Mb r?2`2 bQ+BH BMi2`@ +iBQM +M Q++m`c M/ iQ bvMi?2bBx2 +2Mi`H i?2Q`B2b M/ +QM+2Tib +QM+2`MBM; bQ+BH BMi2`+iBQM M/ pB`imH +QKKmMBiB2bX q2 #2HB2p2 i?i Bi Bb M2+2bb`v iQ ;Q #2vQM/ i2+?MB+H TTHB+iBQMb M/ bQHm@ iBQMb M/ i?2 +QKK2`+BH K`F2iBM; T2`bT2+iBp2 iQ mM/2`biM/- M/ i?mb #2 #H2 iQ mb2- bQ+BH K2/B BM  K2MBM;7mH rv BM GAa `2Hi2/ T`Q72bbBQMbX h?Bb +QMM2+ib iQ MQi?2` +?HH2M;2 BM i2+?BM; bQ+BH K2/B r?B+? Bb `2Hi2/ iQ #HM+BM; 2H2K2Mib BM i?2 +Qm`b2 `2Hi2/ iQ 2Bi?2` i?2Q`v Q` T`+iB+2X h?Bb +?HH2M;2 Bb M2Bi?2` M2r iQ GAaMQ` mMB[m2 7Q` bQ+BH K2/B, Qi?2` +m``2Mi GAa 2tKTH2b BM+Hm/2 b@ T2+ib Q7 FMQrH2/;2 Q`;MBxiBQMc /B;BiH HB#``v /2p2HQTK2Mic M/ +QMi2Mi KM;2K2MiX 6BM/BM; M TT`QT`Bi2 #HM+2 /2T2M/b QM 7+iQ`b bm+? b HQ+H T`+iB+2b BM i?2 +m``B+mH M/ i?2 H2p2H Q7 i?2 +Qm`b2X


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Theoretical grounding - three themes h?2 HBi2`im`2 mb2/ BM i?2 +Qm`b2 2tKTH2 ?p2 #22M Q`;MBx2/ BMiQ i?`22 i?2K2b, i?2Q`2iB+H TQBMib Q7 /2T`im`2c KQiBpiBQMb 7Q` T`iB+BTiBQMc M/ +QMi2tib M/ TTHB+iBQMbX h?2 HBi2`im`2 #2HQM;b iQ  p`B2iv Q7 BMi2`/Bb+BTHBM`v `2b2`+? }2H/b- bm+? b +QKTmi2`@ bmTTQ`i2/ +QQT2`iBp2 rQ`F- +QKTmi2` K2/Bi2/ +QKKmMB+iBQMBM7Q`KiBQM b+B2M+2- M/ Tbv+?QHQ;vX  ;mB/2 iQ TT`Q+?BM; i?2 HBi2`im`2 Bb T`QpB/2/ iQ i?2 bim/2Mib- b i?2 #mHF Q7 i?2 HBi2`i@ m`2 Bb `2b2`+? TT2`b- r?BHbi i?2 +Qm`b2 Bb ;Bp2M iQ mM/2`;`/mi2 bim/2MibX  M //BiBQMH 2z2+i Q7 i?Bb Bb i?i i?2 bim/2Mib `2 BMi`Q/m+2/ iQ b+B2MiB}+ r`BiBM; M/ K2i?Q/QHQ;v 2`Hv BM i?2B` 2/m@ +iBQMX

Theoretical points of departure h?2Q`2iB+H T2`bT2+iBp2b QM bQ+BH K2/B M/ `2Hi2/ iQTB+b KF2 i?2 TQBMi Q7 /2T`im`2 7Q` i?2 +Qm`b2X AM i?2 BMBiBH T`i Q7 i?2 +Qm`b2- /2}MBiBQMb Q7 bQ+BH K2/B bm+? b bQ+BH M2irQ`F bBi2b UaLaV`2 BMi`Q/m+2/ M/ /Bb+mbb2/ Uai2BM2H/- 1HHBbQM  GKT2- kyy3VX h?Bb T`i Q7 i?2 +Qm`b2 HbQ +Qp2`b +QM+2Tib M/ TTHB+iBQMb Q7 BM@ 7Q`KiBQM b?`BM; M/ +iBp2 T`iB+BTiBQM BM b2p2`H +QMi2tib bm+? b b+B2MiB}+ +QHH#Q`iBQM M/ QT2M bQm`+2 bQ7ir`2 /2p2HQTK2MiX U1HHBb- PH/`B/;2  ob+QM+2HQb- kyy9c GbbB  aQMM2MrH/- kyRyc L2H2- *``QHH  _QbbQM- kyy9VX

Motivations for participation A/2MiB7vBM; M/ BKTH2K2MiBM; i?2 `B;?i KQiBpiBQMb 7Q` T`iB+BT@ iBQM Bb +`m+BH 7Q` i?2 bm++2bb M/ HQM;2pBiv Q7  p2Mim`2 Q7 BM+`2b@ BM; BMi2`+iBQM mbBM; bQ+BH K2/BX h?2 #Q/v Q7 HBi2`im`2 BM i?Bb i?2K2 `2T`2b2Mib  #`Q/ iF2 QM BM7Q`KiBQM b?`BM; M/ +iBp2 T`iB+BTiBQMX L`/B M/ +QHH2;m2b Ukyy9V T`2b2Mi i?2 `2bmHib Q7 M BMi2`pB2r bim/v #Qmi i?2 KQiBpiBQMb Q7 #HQ;;2`bX LQMM2+F2S`22+2 M/ M/`2rb Ukyy9V ?p2 bim/B2/ r?i TQbi2`b M/ Hm`F2`b i?BMF Q7 2+? Qi?2`bÇś `QH2b BM  pB`imH +QKKmMBivX GbbB M/ aQMM@ 2MrH/Çśb UkyRyV ?p2 bvMi?2bBx2/ T`2pBQmb `2b2`+?- `2bmHiBM; BM 




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itQMQKv Q7 7+iQ`b i?i Kv z2+i i?2 /2bB;M- /QTiBQM M/ mb2 Q7  q2# #b2/ bvbi2K 7Q` BM7Q`KiBQM b?`BM; M/ +QHH#Q`iBQMX

Contexts and applications h?2 KDQ`Biv Q7 +Qm`b2 HBi2`im`2 7HHb BMiQ i?Bb i?2K2 M/ BM@ +Hm/2b TT2`b BM r?B+? b2p2`H +QMi2tib M/ TTHB+iBQMb +QK2 BMiQ THv U#Qv/  1HHBbQM- kyydV- b r2HH b TT2`b 7Q+mbBM; QM bT2+B}+ +QMi2tib M/ TTHB+iBQMbX 1tKTH2b Q7 i?2b2 `2, M QMHBM2 T`2;@ MM+v M/ KQi?2`BM; ;`QmT UG2v- kyydVc qQ`H/ Q7 q`+`7i UL`/B  >``Bb- kyyeVc  }MM+BH /Bb+mbbBQM #Q`/ U>2``KMM- kyydVc 6+2#QQF U1HHBbQM- GKT2  ai2BM2H/- kyyNVc M/ bQ+BH i;;BM; M2irQ`Fb U.BM; 2i HX- kyyNVX

Practical applications - course assignments h?2 +Qm`b2 bbB;MK2Mib ?p2 #22M /2bB;M2/ iQ #`B/;2 i?2 i?2@ Q`2iB+H 7Q+mb Q7 i?2 HBi2`im`2 M/ bQ+BH K2/B iQQHbX AM i?2 }`bi bbB;MK2Mi r2 bF2/ i?2 bim/2Mib iQ +QMi`B#mi2 iQ  M2r +QHH#Q`i@ Bp2 BMBiBiBp2 #Qmi bQ+BH K2/B- MK2Hv i?2 rBFB aQ+BK2/BT2/BX 1+? bim/2Mi +QMi`B#mi2/ irQ rBFB TQbib #Qmi +2Mi`H i?2Q`B2b+QM+2Tib- T?2MQK2M Q` iQQHb `2Hi2/ iQ i?2 +Qm`b2X am#b2[m2MiHv i?2v r2`2 bF2/ iQ // iQ- KQ/B7v- M/ KF2 +QMM2+iBQMb #2ir22M i?2 Qi?2` bim/2MibǶ +QMi`B#miBQMbX h?2 b2+QM/ bbB;MK2Mi rb iQ MHvx2 +iBpBiB2b M/ BMi2`+iBQM BM AMi2`M2i 7Q`mKb Q7 i?2 bim@ /2MibǶ QrM +?QQbBM;- M/ iQ +QMM2+i i?2B` Q#b2`piBQMb iQ i?2Q`B2b M/ +QM+2Tib rBi?BM i?2 i?2K2b #Qp2- bm+? b T`iB+BTiBQM- `QH2bbiimb- M/ T`Bp+vX h?2 }MH bbB;MK2Mi rb iQ /2p2HQT  bQ+BH K2/B bi`i2;v 7Q`  r2# bBi2 mbBM; i?2B` FMQrH2/;2 Q7 KQiBpiBQMb 7Q` +iBp2 T`iB+BTiBQM M/ BM7Q`KiBQM b?`BM;X

Principal contributions qBi? Qm` 2tKTH2 r2 ?p2 /2KQMbi`i2/ M TT`Q+? iQ i2+?@ BM; bQ+BH K2/B BM GAa i?i #`B/;2b i?2 ;Tb #2ir22M i?2Q`v M/ T`+iB+2- M/- 7m`i?2`KQ`2 BMi`Q/m+2b  T2`bT2+iBp2 +QM+2`MBM; bQ@ +BH BMi2`+iBQM iQ i?2 +m``2Mi i2+?MQHQ;v M/ K`F2iBM; 7Q+mb2/ i2+?BM; TT`Q+?2bX q2 ?p2 HbQ B/2MiB}2/  #Q/v Q7 `2b2`+?


7HDFKLQJVRFLDOPHGLDLQ/,6



7`QK /Bz2`2Mi `2b2`+? }2H/b i?i +QMi`B#mi2 iQ  #`Q/ i?2Q`2iB+H mM/2`biM/BM; Q7 bQ+BH K2/B +QM+2Tib Q7 BKTQ`iM+2 7Q` GAa M/ Qi?2` }2H/bX Pm` bim/2Mib ?p2 H2`M2/ iQ /2p2HQT bi`i2;B2b 7Q` BMi`Q/m+BM; M/ /2p2HQTBM; BMi2`+iBpBiv QM i?2 q2#- mbBM; i?2B` FMQrH2/;2 Q7 KQiBpiBQMb 7Q` b?`BM; BM7Q`KiBQM M/ +iBp2 T`iB+BTiBQM BM bQ+BH K2/BX 6m`i?2`KQ`2- i?2 bim/2Mib ?p2 mb2/ i?2 +2Mi`H +QM@ +2Tib M/ i?2Q`B2b BM MHvxBM; bT2+B}+ `2Mb 7Q` bQ+BH BMi2`+iBQM M/ +QMi`B#mi2/ iQ  rBFB QM bQ+BH K2/BX


Bibliography

(R) #Qv/- /X KX-  1HHBbQM- LX "X UkyydVX aQ+BH M2irQ`F bBi2b, .2}MBiBQM- ?BbiQ`v- M/ b+?QH`b?BTX CQm`MH Q7 *QKTmi2`@ J2/Bi2/ *QKKmMB+iBQM- RjURVX (k) .BM;- uX- 1X EX C+Q#- 2i HX UkyyNVX S2`bT2+iBp2b QM bQ+BH i;;BM;X CQm`MH Q7 i?2 K2`B+M aQ+B2iv 7Q` AM7Q`KiBQM a+B@ 2M+2 M/ h2+?MQHQ;v- eyURkV- TTX kj33@k9yRX (j) 1HHBb- .X- PH/`B/;2- _X-  ob+QM+2HQb- X Ukyy9VX *QKKmMBiv M/ pB`imH +QKKmMBivX AM "X *`QMBM U1/XV- MMmH `2pB2r Q7 BM7Q`KiBQM b+B2M+2 M/ i2+?MQHQ;v- j3- TTX R98@R3eX AM7Q`K@ iBQMhQ/vX (9) 1HHBbQM- LX- GKT2- *X-  ai2BM2H/- *X UkyyNVX aQ+BH L2irQ`F aBi2b M/ aQ+B2iv, *m``2Mi h`2M/b M/ 6mim`2 SQbbB#BHBiB2bX AMi2`+iBQMb J;xBM2 ReURVX (8) >2``KMM- X UkyydVX S2QTH2 ;2i 2KQiBQMH #Qmi i?2B` KQM2v, S2`7Q`KBM; Kb+mHBMBiv BM  }MM+BH /Bb+mb@ bBQM #Q`/X CQm`MH Q7 *QKTmi2`@J2/Bi2/ *QKKmMB+iBQMRkUkVX (e) GbbB- JX  aQMM2MrH/- .X UkyRyVX A/2MiB7vBM; 7+iQ`b i?i Kv BKT+i i?2 /QTiBQM M/ mb2 Q7  bQ+BH b+B2M+2 +QHH#Q`@ iQ`v,  bvMi?2bBb Q7 T`2pBQmb `2b2`+?X AM7Q`KiBQM _2b2`+?R8UjVX (d) G2v- "X UkyydVX oBp2 H2b `Qb2b5, h?2 `+?Bi2+im`2 Q7 +QKKBi@ K2Mi BM M QMHBM2 T`2;MM+v M/ KQi?2`BM; ;`QmTX CQm`MH Q7 *QKTmi2`@J2/Bi2/ *QKKmMB+iBQM- RkU9VX




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(3) L`/B- "X-  >``Bb- CX UkyyeVX amTTQ`iBM; bQ+BH THv, ai`M;2`b M/ 7`B2M/b, *QHH#Q`iBp2 THv BM qQ`H/ Q7 q`@ +`7iX AM S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 i?2 kyye kyi? MMBp2`b`v +QM72`2M+2 QM +QKTmi2` bmTTQ`i2/ +QQT2`iBp2 rQ`F- *a*qǶyeX "MH#2`i- *M/, *J S`2bb- TTX R9N@R83 (N) L`/B- "QMMB2 X- a+?BMQ- .BM2 CX- :mK#`2+?i- JB+?2HH2  ar`ix- GmF2 Ukyy9VX q?v r2 #HQ;X *QKKmMB+iBQMb Q7 i?2 *J- 9dURkV- TTX 9R@9eX (Ry) L2H2- .X *X- *``QHH- CX JX-  _QbbQM- JX "X Ukyy9VX 1pH@ miBM; +QKTmi2`@bmTTQ`i2/ +QQT2`iBp2 rQ`F, JQ/2Hb M/ 7`K2rQ`FbX AM S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 i?2 kyy9 *J +QM72`2M+2 QM *QKTmi2` bmTTQ`i2/ +QQT2`iBp2 rQ`F- *a*qǶy9X *?B+;QAHHBMQBb- la, *J S`2bb- TTX RRk@RkRX (RR) LQMM2+F2- "X- S`22+2- CX- M/`2rb- .X Ukyy9V q?i Hm`F@ 2`b M/ TQbi2`b i?BMF Q7 2+? Qi?2`- AMi2`M2i M/ i?2 .B;BiH 1+QMQKvX h`+F Q7 i?2 h?B`iv@a2p2Mi? >rBB AMi2`MiBQMH *QM72`2M+2 QM avbi2K a+B2M+2b U>A*aa@jdVX (Rk) a+BH/QM2- JX CX- _QiQHQ- X CX  aMv/2`- CX UkyRRVX aQ+BH K2/B 7mim`2b, r?v Ba+?QQHb b?QmH/ +`2X AM S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 i?2 kyRR B*QM72`2M+2 UB*QM72`2M+2 ǶRRVX *J- L2r uQ`F- Lula- TTX 8R9@8kRX (Rj) ai2BM2H/- *X- 1HHBbQM- LX  GKT2- *X Ukyy3VX aQ+BH +TBiHb2H7@2bi22K- M/ mb2 Q7 QMHBM2 bQ+BH M2irQ`F bBi2b,  HQM;Bim/@ BMH MHvbBbX CQm`MH Q7 TTHB2/ .2p2HQTK2MiH Sbv+?QHQ;vkNUeV- TTX 9j9@998X


II

DOCTORAL FORUM


INFORMATION-RELATED ACTIVITIES IN A SOCIAL MEDIA AND PUBLIC LIBRARY CONTEXT 0DULD.URQTYLVW%HUJ cER$NDGHPL8QLYHUVLW\ )LQODQG

Introduction h?2 BK Q7 i?Bb TT2` Bb iQ T`2b2Mi M QM;QBM; `2b2`+? T`QD2+i +QM+2`MBM; bQ+BH K2/B M/ Tm#HB+ HB#``B2bX h?2b2 irQ +QMbiBimi2 M BMi2`2biBM; BM7Q`KiBQM@`B+? +QMi2tiX h?2 `2HiBQMb?BT #2ir22M bQ+BH K2/B M/ Tm#HB+ HB#``B2b UHbQ +HH2/ GB#``v kXyV +M #2 b22M b  +QK#BMiBQM Q7 i?2 7QHHQrBM; #mBH/BM; #HQ+Fb, i2+?MQHQ;v M/ iQQHb- q2# kXy- bQ+BH bT2+ib- mb2`b- T`iB+BTiBQM- HB#``B2b M/ HB#``v b2`pB+2b- M/ BMi2`+iBpBiv U>QHK#2`; 2i HX- kyyNVX aQ+BH K2/B Bb Q7i2M +i2;Q`Bx2/ b  iQQH 7Q` +QKKmMB+iBQM M/ 2Mi2`@ iBMK2Mi- #mi /Bz2`2Mi BM7Q`KiBQM +iBpBiB2b `2 HbQ M BM?2`2Mi T`i Q7 bQ+BH K2/BX aQ+BH K2/B iQQHb ?p2 z2+i2/ i?2 2tTMbBQM Q7 BM7Q`KiBQM- i?2 `i2 Q7 2tTMbBQM M/ i?2 ;i?2`BM; Q7 ?mKM BM7Q`KiBQM UHH`/- kyyNVX h?2`27Q`2- `2b2`+? BMi2`2bi BMiQ i?2 BM7Q`KiBQM #2?pBQ` M/ T`+iB+2b Bb 2bb2MiBHX 6Bb?2`  CmHB2M UkyyN- TX j9kV bT2+B}+HHv K2MiBQMb q2# kXy b  bQm`+2 Q7 pbi Ki2`BH 7Q` BM7Q`KiBQM #2?pBQ` `2b2`+?X apQHBM2M UkyRRV HbQ BM/B+i2b i?i i?2`2 Bb  M22/ 7Q` KQ`2 `2b2`+? BM bQ+BH K2/B M/ Bib BKTHB+iBQMb BM 2p2`v/v HB72 BM7Q`KiBQM b22FBM; M/ b?`BM;X AM7Q`KiBQM +iBpBiB2b HbQ +QMbiBimi2 M BKTQ`iMi T`i Q7 Tm#HB+ HB#``B2b- M/ QM2 Q7 i?2 KBM Tm`TQb2b Q7 HB#``B2b Bb iQ /Bbb2KBMi2 BM7Q`KiBQM M/ +mHim`2X qBHbQM Ukyy3V /Q2b- ?Qr2p2`- TQBMi Qmi i?2 H+F Q7 `2b2`+? BMiQ BM7Q`KiBQM #2?pBQ` BM i?2 Tm#HB+ HB#``v b2iiBM;X




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h?2 7Q+mb QM BM7Q`KiBQM@`2Hi2/ +iBpBiB2b BM  bQ+BH K2/B M/ Tm#HB+ HB#``v +QMi2ti KF2b i?2 i?2Q`2iB+H 7`K2rQ`F Q7 BM7Q`K@ iBQM T`+iB+2b  bmBi#H2 bi`iBM; TQBMiX apQHBM2M Ukyy3- TTX k@jV /2}M2b BM7Q`KiBQM T`+iB+2 b Çł b2i Q7 bQ+BHHv M/ +mHim`HHv 2b@ i#HBb?2/ rvb iQ B/2MiB7v- b22F- mb2- M/ b?`2 i?2 BM7Q`KiBQM pBH#H2 BM p`BQmb bQm`+2b bm+? b i2H2pBbBQM- M2rbTT2`b- M/ i?2 AMi2`M2iXÇ´X AM7Q`KiBQM T`+iB+2 bi`ib Qmi 7`QK  bQ+BH T2`bT2+i@ Bp2- r?2`2 BM7Q`KiBQM +iBpBiB2b BMBiBi2 7`QK BMi2`+iBQMb #2ir22M K2K#2`b BM +QKKmMBiB2b BMbi2/ Q7 i?2 KQiBpiBQMb Q7 M BM/BpB/mH mb2` UJ+E2MxB2- kyyjc apQHBM2M- kyydVX h?2 7QHHQrBM; +iBpBiB2b `2 2MiBH2/ BM BM7Q`KiBQM T`+iB+2b, b22FBM;- ++2bbBM;- +`2iBM;mbBM; M/ b?`BM; BM7Q`KiBQM UapQHBM2M- kyydc hmQKBM2M- hHD apQHBM2M- kyy8VX

Research questions and aim h?2 BK Bb iQ BMp2biB;i2 i?2 BMi2`7+2 #2ir22M mb2`b- HB#``v T`Q@ 72bbBQMHb M/ bQ+BH K2/BX h?2 7Q+mb HB2b T`iHv QM i?2 mb2`bÇś BM@ i2`2bi BM BMi2`+iBM; rBi? i?2 HB#``v i?`Qm;? bQ+BH K2/B M/ r?i FBM/ Q7 BM7Q`KiBQM +iBpBiB2b M/ T`+iB+2b +QK2 BMiQ [m2biBQMX h?2 7Q+mb Bb HbQ QM i?2 +?HH2M;2b M/ QTTQ`imMBiB2b HB#``v T`Q72bbBQM@ Hb 7+2 +QMbB/2`BM; bQ+BH K2/B BM i?2B` 2p2`v/v rQ`F, i?2 rv i?2v BMi2`+i rBi? mb2`b i?`Qm;? bQ+BH K2/B M/ iQ r?i 2ti2Mi i?2v i?BMF HB#``B2b b?QmH/ #2 BMpQHp2/ BM bQ+BH K2/BX aT2+B}+ `2@ b2`+? [m2biBQMb `2, RV q?i `2 i?2 2tT2+iiBQMb- BMi2MiBQMb M/ KQiBpiBQMb Q7 mb2`b +QM+2`MBM; HB#``v +iBpBiB2b M/ bQ+BH T`iB@ +BTiBQM QM i?2 q2#\ kV q?i FBM/ Q7 TQbbB#BHBiB2b- `2bQm`+2b M/ KQiBpiBQMb /Q HB#``v T`Q72bbBQMHb ?p2 BM /QTiBM;- /2p2HQTBM;KBMiBMBM; M/ bmTTQ`iBM; bQ+BH K2/B b2`pB+2b\ M/ jV q?i `2 i?2 BM?2`2Mi BM7Q`KiBQM +iBpBiB2b BM bQ+BH K2/B b2`pB+2b T`QpB/2/ #v Tm#HB+ HB#``B2b\

Methods and data gathering h?2 2KTB`B+H rQ`F Q7 i?Bb T`QD2+i Bb /BpB/2/ BMiQ irQ T?b2bX h?2 }`bi T?b2 Bb  bm`p2v bim/v KQM; HB#``v T`Q722bBQMHb M/ mb2`b M/ rb +``B2/ Qmi BM mimKM kyRyX h?2 ;QH rBi? i?Bb bim/v


,QIRUPDWLRQUHODWHGDFWLYLWLHVLQDVRFLDOPHGLDDQGSXEOLFOLEUDU\FRQWH[W 

rb iQ ;2i  #`Q/ Qp2`pB2r Q7 i?2 mb2 Q7 bQ+BH K2/B M/ HB#``B2b M/ QTBMBQMb #Qmi bQ+BH K2/B b2`pB+2b BM Tm#HB+ HB#``B2bX h?Bb bim/v +QMbBbib Q7 irQ [m2biBQMMB`2b- QM2 BK2/ iQr`/b mb2`b M/ i?2 Qi?2` iQr`/b HB#``v T`Q72bbBQMHbX h?2 mb2` [m2b@ iBQMMB`2 rb /Bbi`B#mi2/ i?`Qm;? MQMT`Q##BHBiv [mQi bKTHBM; i i?2 hm`Fm AMi2`MiBQMH "QQF 6B` M/ i i?2 hm`Fm *Biv JBM GB#``vX  iQiH Q7 d9R `2bTQMb2b r2`2 +QHH2+i2/X h?2 HB#``v T`Q@ 72bbBQMHb BM Tm#HB+ HB#``B2b BM i?2 `2 Q7 6BMHM/ S`QT2` `2+2Bp2/ BMpBiiBQMb iQ T`iB+BTi2 BM  r2# [m2biBQMMB`2X h?2 Mbr2`BM; `i2 rb jyX9W r?B+? b?QmH/ #2 +QMbB/2`2/ `2/BM; i?2 `2bmHibX h?2 b2+QM/ T?b2 Bb  +QMi2Mi MHvbBb Q7 6+2#QQF T;2b Q7 Tm#@ HB+ HB#``B2b BM 6BMHM/ S`QT2`X h?2 ;QH Bb iQ bim/v i?2 BM?2`2Mi BM7Q`KiBQM +iBpBiB2b Q#b2`p#H2 BM i?Bb b2iiBM;X h?Bb bim/v Bb biBHH BM T`Q;`2bb M/ Bib `2bmHib rBHH MQi #2 /Bb+mbb2/ BM i?Bb TT2`X

Preliminary results _2bmHib 7`QK i?2 mb2` bm`p2v b?Qr i?i r?2M Bi +QK2b iQ BM7Q`K@ iBQM +iBpBiB2b QM i?2 q2#- mb2`b ;2M2`HHv 2M;;2 BM i?2 7QHHQrBM;, b22FBM;- `2/BM;fpB2rBM;- +QKKmMB+iBM;- +`2iBM; M/ +QMi`B#mi@ BM;X h?2 KQbi +QKKQM Q7 i?2b2 }p2 +iBpBiB2b `2 i?2 i`/BiBQMH b22FBM;- `2/BM; M/ +QKKmMB+iBM;X h?2 +`2iBM; M/ +QMi`B#@ miBM; +iBpBiB2b i?i `2 Q7i2M bi`QM;Hv +QMM2+i2/ iQ i?2 MQiBQM Q7 bQ+BH K2/B `2 MQi b rB/2bT`2/ b i?2 i`/BiBQMH +iBpBiB2bX a22FBM; 2M;;2b mT iQ NjW Q7 i?2 mb2`b QM  7`2[m2Mi #bBb- r?BH2 +`2iBM; 2M;;2b jdW M/ +QMi`B#miBM; jyW Q7 i?2 mb2`bX Pp2` ?H7 Q7 i?2 mb2`b bmTTQ`i i?2 BKTH2K2MiiBQM Q7 bQ+BH K2/B b2`pB+2b BM Tm#HB+ HB#``B2bX h?2 `2bmHib /Q- ?Qr2p2`- BM/B+i2 i?i i?2 mb2`b /Q MQi M2+2bb`BHv b22 bQ+BH K2/B M/ Tm#HB+ HB#``B2b b T`ib Q7 i?2 bK2 +QMi2tiX lb2`b i2M/ iQ #b2 i?2B` QTBMBQMb QM i?2B` T`2pBQmb 2tT2`B2M+2b Q7 HB#``B2b M/ MQi M2+2bb`BHv QM i?2B` 2tT2`B2M+2 Q7 bQ+BH K2/BX h?2v /Q- 7Q` 2tKTH2- T`272` +QMi+iBM; i?2 biz 7+2@iQ@7+2 M/ b?Qr  `2HiBp2Hv HQr BMi2`2bi BM pB`imH `272`2M+2- Hi?Qm;? i?2v ;2M2`HHv 2MDQv i?2 +QKKmMB+iBQM TQbbB#@ BHBiB2b Q7 i?2 q2#X lb2`b HbQ 2tT2+i M/ }M/ i`/BiBQMH 72im`2b Q7 i?2 HB#``v +iHQ; bm+? b T`QKTiM2bb- `2HB#BHBiv M/ mb#BHBiv b KQ`2 BKTQ`iMi i?M TQbbB#BHBiB2b iQ BM~m2M+2 i?2 +QMi2Mi Q` i?i




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i?2 +iHQ; ?b KMv mb2`bX h?2 bQ+BH K2/B +iBpBiv i?i BMi2`2bib i?2 mb2`b i?2 KQbi ?b iQ /Q rBi? `2/BM; `2pB2rb r`Bii2M #v Qi?2` mb2`b M/ HB#``v biz- r?BH2 i?2 BMi2`2bi 7Q` +QMi`B#miBM; M/ 2bT2@ +BHHv +`2iBM; +iBpBiB2b Bb Km+? HQr2`X qQ`i?v Q7 MQi2 Bb i?i i?2 mb2`b BM i?2 bm`p2v biBHH Tmi i?2 KQbi r2B;?i QM MQMvKBiv M/ `2;@ mHiBQMbX HKQbi dyW Q7 i?2 mb2`b rMi iQ `2KBM MQMvKQmb r?2M r`BiBM; +QKK2Mib QM i?2 HB#``v r2# bBi2 M/ Qp2` 3yW +QMbB/2` Bi BKTQ`iMi i?i i?2 HB#``v ?p2 `mH2b 7Q` r?i i?2 mb2`b r`Bi2 QM i?2 HB#``v r2# bBi2X h?2 T`BK2 KQiBpiQ` 7Q` mb2`b iQ 2M;;2 BM HB#``v +iBpBiB2b QM i?2 q2# b22Kb iQ #2  b2Mb2 Q7 +QKKmMBiv rBi? i?2 HB#``vX h?2v `2 MQi +QM+2`M2/ rBi? ;2iiBM; Mv `2+Q;MBiBQM Q` `2r`/b 7Q` T`@ iB+BTiBM;X h?2 mb2`b i?i b?Qr i?2 KQbi BMi2MiBQMb M/ BMi2`2bi 7Q` iFBM; T`i BM bQ+BH K2/B +iBpBiB2b BM i?2 Tm#HB+ HB#``B2b `2 Ry@ Re v2` QH/b- 7`2[m2Mi HB#``v mb2`b M/ i?Qb2 r?Q ;2M2`HHv 2MDQv +`2iBM; +QMi2Mi QM i?2 q2#X _2bmHib 7`QK i?2 bm`p2v KQM; HB#``v T`Q72bbBQMHb b?Qr i?2v `2 T`BK`BHv KQiBpi2/ #v i?2 TQbbB#BHBiv Q7 /2p2HQTBM; i?2 HB#``v M/ Bib b2`pB+2bX h?2 pBH#H2 `2bQm`+2b 7Q` bQ+BH K2/B b2`pB+2b BM i?2 Tm#HB+ HB#``B2b `2 bm{+B2Mi +QMbB/2`BM; bFBHHb M/ }MM+BH K2Mb- i?2 #B; 2t+2TiBQM Bb iBK2X Ai Bb 2pB/2Mi i?i i?2 H+F Q7 iBK2 M/ biz `2 i?2 #B;;2bi T`Q#H2Kb +QM+2`MBM; i?2 BKTH2K2MiiBQM Q7 bQ+BH K2/B BM Tm#HB+ HB#``B2bX h?2 HB#``v T`Q72bbBQMHb biBHH b?Qr BMi2`2bi BM rQ`FBM; rBi? bQ+BH K2/B b2`pB+2bX h?2v- ?Qr2p2`- b?Qr KQ`2 BMi2`2bi BM r`BiBM; #HQ; TQbib i?M BM +iBpBiB2b i?i `2 KQ`2 2tTHB+Bi #Qmi BMi2`+iBQM rBi? mb2`b- bm+? b H2/BM; #QQF /Bb+mb@ bBQMb- ;BpBM; pB`imH `272`2M+2 Q` Qz2`BM; mb2`b i?2 #BHBiv iQ +QMM2+i rBi? i?2 HB#``v QM bQ+BH M2irQ`FBM; bBi2b bm+? b 6+2#QQFX

Conclusions h?2 bm`p2v `2bmHib BM/B+i2 i?i i?2`2 `2 KMv BM?2`2Mi TQb@ bB#BHBiB2b BM BKTH2K2MiBM; bQ+BH K2/B b2`pB+2b BM HB#``B2bX "Qi? mb2`b M/ HB#``v T`Q72bbBQMHb `2 7KBHB` rBi? bQ+BH K2/B b2`@ pB+2b Qp2`HHX h?2 HB#``v T`Q72bbBQMHb HbQ #2HB2p2 i?i bQ+BH K2/B b2`pB+2b +QmH/ QT2M i?2 /QQ` 7Q` M2r mb2`b M/ BKT`Qp2 i?2 HB#``v r2# b2`pB+2bX


,QIRUPDWLRQUHODWHGDFWLYLWLHVLQDVRFLDOPHGLDDQGSXEOLFOLEUDU\FRQWH[W 

AMi2`+iBpBiv b22Kb iQ #2 QM2 Q7 i?2 +Q`2 Bbbm2b BM i?2 +QMi2ti Q7 Tm#HB+ HB#``B2b M/ bQ+BH K2/BX GB#``v biz M/ mb2`b `2- BM QM2 rv Q` i?2 Qi?2`- T`2T`2/ iQ T`iB+BTi2 BM GB#``v kXy +iBpBiB2bX h?2 BMi2`+iBQM #2ir22M i?2b2 ;`QmTb Bb biBHH MQi ;Bp2MX GB#``v T`Q72bbBQMHb b22K iQ #2 KQbi BMi2`2bi2/ BM BM7Q`KBM; +iBpBiB2b M/ KQbi Q7 i?2 mb2`b `2 BMi2`2bi2/ BM F22TBM; mT i?2B` `QH2b b `2/2`b M/ b22F2`bX h?2 +?HH2M;2 7Q` HB#``B2b Bb iQ }M/ bQ+BH K2/B b2`@ pB+2b i?i `2 Q7 mb2 iQ HB#``v mb2`b M/ iQ +iBpi2 i?2 ;`QmT Q7 mb2`b r?Q `2 rBHHBM; iQ T`iB+BTi2X


Bibliography

(R) HH`/- aX UkyyNVX GB#``v KM;2`b M/ BM7Q`KiBQM BM qQ`H/ kXyX GB#``v JM;2K2Mi- jyURfkV- 8d@e3X (k) 6Bb?2`- EX 1X-  CmHB2M- >X UkyyNVX AM7Q`KiBQM #2?pBQ`X M@ MmH _2pB2r Q7 AM7Q`KiBQM a+B2M+2 M/ h2+?MQHQ;v- 9j- jRd@ j83X (j) >QHK#2`;- EX- >mpBH- AX- E`QM[pBbi@"2`;- JX-  qB/รปM@ qmHz- :X UkyyNVX q?i Bb GB#``v kXy\ CQm`MH Q7 .Q+m@ K2MiiBQM- e8U9V- ee3@e3RX (9) J+E2MxB2- SX CX UkyyjVX  KQ/2H Q7 BM7Q`KiBQM T`+iB+2b BM ++QmMib Q7 2p2`v/v@HB72 BM7Q`KiBQM b22FBM;X CQm`MH Q7 .Q+@ mK2MiiBQM- 8NURV- RN@9yX (8) apQHBM2M- _X UkyydVX AM7Q`KiBQM #2?pBQ` M/ BM7Q`KiBQM T`+iB+2, `2pB2rBM; i?2 วณmK#`2HH +QM+2Tibวด Q7 BM7Q`KiBQM@ b22FBM; bim/B2bX h?2 GB#``v Zm`i2`Hv- ddUkV- RyN@RjkX (e) apQHBM2M- _X Ukyy3VX 1p2`v/v BM7Q`KiBQM T`+iB+2bX  bQ@ +BH T?2MQK2MQHQ;B+H T2`bT2+iBp2X GM?K UJ/XV, a+`2+`Qr S`2bbX (d) apQHBM2M- _X UkyRRVX bFBM; M/ b?`BM; BM7Q`KiBQM BM i?2 #HQ;QbT?2`2, h?2 +b2 Q7 bHBKKBM; #HQ;bX GB#``v  AM7Q`K@ iBQM a+B2M+2 _2b2`+?- jj- dj@dNX (3) hmQKBM2M- EX- hHD- aX-  apQHBM2M- _X Ukyy8VX h?2 bQ+BH +QMbi`m+iBQMBbi pB2rTQBMi QM BM7Q`KiBQM T`+iB+2bX h?2Q`B2b




,6620( 

Q7 BM7Q`KiBQM #2?pBQ` Ujk3@jjjVX J2/7Q`/ ULCV, AM7Q`KiBQM hQ/v- AM+X (N) qBHbQM- hX .X Ukyy3VX h?2 BM7Q`KiBQM mb2`, Tbi- T`2b2Mi M/ 7mim`2X CQm`MH Q7 AM7Q`KiBQM a+B2M+2- j9U9V- 98d@9e9X


USERS’ CULTURAL IDENTITIES, ROLES AND OPEN ACCESS IN SECOND LIFE $QQD.DLVD6M|OXQG 8QLYHUVLW\RI7XUNX )LQODQG

#bi`+i

AǶK S?.@bim/2Mi BM /B;BiH +mHim`2 i i?2 lMBp2`bBiv Q7 hm`FmX Jv /Q+iQ`H i?2bBb Bb 7Q+mbBM; QM i?2 BM/BpB/mH `QH2b M/ +mHim`H B/2MiBiv- BM i?2 a2+QM/ GB72 pB`imH rQ`H/ b M QT2`iBM; 2MpB`@ QMK2Mi b r2HH b PT2M ++2bb +iBpBiv BM i?2 pB`imH rQ`H/X Jv iBiH2 Bb dzlb2`Ƕb `QH2b M/ +mHim`H B/2MiBiB2b BM i?2 lMBp2`bBiv Q7 _Q+F+HBz2 BM a2+QM/ GB72XǴ

Background Jv `2b2`+? 7Q+mb2b QM mb2`bǶ +mHim`H B/2MiBiB2b- `QH2b M/ i?2 BKT+i PT2M ++2bb +iBpBiB2b BM a2+QM/ GB72 UaGVX lb2`b BM i?`22 /Bz2`2Mi i?2K2b `2 bim/B2/, 2/m+iBQM- 2Mi2`T`Bb2b M/ 2Mi2`iBM@ K2Mi Ui?2 i?`22 ǵ1bǶVX h?2b2 i?`22 ǵ1bǶ 7Q`K pbi MmK#2`b Q7 /B7@ 72`2Mi `2b M/ 2MpB`QMK2Mib BM pB`imH rQ`H/bX AM Kv `2b2`+?- 1/m+iBQM GB72 i?2 }`bi ǵ1Ƕ `2T`2b2MiiBp2b Q`B@ ;BMi2 7`QK _Q+F+HBz2 lMBp2`bBivX h?2 mMBp2`bBivǶb bT2+BH 72im`2 Bb i?i Bi Bb QT2M iQ HH M/ rQ`Fb QM i?2 AMi2`M2iX 6m`i?2`- Bi Bb  MQM@T`Q}i- MQM@++`2/Bi2/- BM7Q`KH bbQ+BiBQM Q7 BMbi`m+iQ`b 7`QK p`BQmb mMBp2`bBiB2b M/ +QHH2;2b `QmM/ i?2 rQ`H/X A +?Qb2 _Q+F+HBz2 lMBp2`bBiv b Kv `2b2`+? bm#D2+i bBM+2 Bi Bb QT2M iQ 2p2`vQM2 M/ ?b M 2t+2HH2Mi `2b2`+? HB#``v i?i QT2`i2b QM M QT2M ++2bb T`BM+BTH2X h?2 HB#``v Bb i?2 ?2`i Q7 mMBp2`bBiv r?2`2 QM2 +M }M/ `2b2`+? Ki2`BHb- iQQHb- /pB+2 M/ +QMi+ib iQ bim/v M/ +``v Qmi `2b2`+? Q` Dmbi Tbb i?2 iBK2X




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A ?/ i?2 B/2 iQ `2pB2r 2Mi2`T`Bb2 M/ #mbBM2bb HB72 Ub2+QM/ Çľ1ÇśV BM aG i LQFBÇśb BbHM/c ?Qr2p2`- i?Bb ?b #22M Tmi QM ?QH/ 7Q` i?2 T`2b2MiX Jv i?B`/ Çľ1Çś- 2Mi2`iBMK2Mi- +QK2b 7`QK i?2 "2`HBMRNkyÇśb T`Q@ D2+iX Ai Bb  TQTmH` `QH2@THvBM; ;K2 +`2i2/ #v i?2 .mi+? ?Bb@ iQ`BM CQ u`/H2v r?Q rMi2/ iQ `2+`2i2 i?2 iKQbT?2`2 Q7 "2`HBM BM i?i 2`X h?2`2 `2 bQK2 8yÄ&#x153; dy `2bB/2Mib M/ Ryy pBbBiQ`b BM "2`HBMX oB`imH rQ`H/b `2  T`i Q7 bQ+BH K2/B-  T`Q+2bb BM r?B+? BM/BpB/mHb M/ ;`QmTb +QMbi`m+i b?`2/ K2MBM;b BM +QMi2Mi- +QK@ KmMBiB2b M/ M2irQ`FBM;X h?2 T`QD2+i BMp2biB;i2b ?Qr pB`imH +QK@ KmMBiB2b z2+i2/ #v i?2 BM/BpB/mH mb2` `QH2b- +mHim`H B/2MiBiv M/ i?2 PT2M ++2bb T`BM+BTH2 `2 /QTi2/ BM i?2 +mbiQK2`- i2+?2` Q` bim/2Mi TQbBiBQMbX

Methods A 2tKBM2 ?Qr i?2 mb2` +QMbBbib Q7  bBM;H2 +mHim`H B/2MiBiv BM /Bz2`2Mi +QMi2tibc ?Qr i?2 QT2M ++2bb +iBpBiB2b z2+i i?2 +mHim`H B/2MiBiv 7Q`KiBQMc M/ ?Qr i?2 QT2M ++2bb +iBpBiv TT2`b BM /Bz2`2Mi `QH2bX Jv Ki2`BH Bb +QHH2+i2/ 7`QK BMi2`pB2rb- pB/2Qb M/ BK;2b 7`QK Kv `2b2`+? `2b BM a2+QM/ GB72X Hi?Qm;? a2+QM/ GB72 Bb HKQbi  +QTv Q7 Qm` `2H rQ`H/- Bi b?QmH/ #2 2tKBM2/ QM Bib QrM T`2KBb2bX *mHim`2b BM pB`imH rQ`H/b +QKT`Bb2 T2QTH2 @ M/ T2QTH2 `2  `2[mB`2K2Mi 7Q` i?2 +mHim`2 iQ 2tBbiX q?BH2 A mb2 i2ti +QMi2Mi MHvbBb b  bmTTQ`i K2i?Q/ BM Kv `2b2`+?- A BK iQ mb2 b2KBQiB+ [mHBiiBp2 pBbmH +QMi2Mi MHvbBb b Kv KBM `2b2`+? K2i?Q/X a2KBQiB+ pBbmH +QMi2Mi MHvbBb Bb b2H/QK mb2/ BM +mHim`H `2b2`+?- i H2bi BM 6BMHM/ M/ 1m`QT2c ?Qr2p2`- A BK iQ 2tTHQBi i?Bb K2i?Q/ BM Kv `2b2`+? #2+mb2 Q7 i?2 +H2` pBbmH BKTmHb2 BM pB`imH rQ`H/bX A K 2bT2+BHHv BMi2`2bi2/ BM BK;2b M/ KQpBM; TB+im`2bX AK;2 Ki2`BH M/ KmHiBTH2 B/2MiBiB2b ?p2 #2+QK2 KQ`2 BKTQ`iMi 7Q` AMi2`M2i `2b2`+?2`b bBM+2 T2QTH2 `2 iFBM; M/ Tm#HBb?BM; TB+im`2b QM AMi2`M2i KQ`2 i?M 2p2`X oBbmH Ki2`BH QM i?2 AMi2`M2i ?b #22M T`2pBQmbHv 2tKBM2/ HKQbi 2t+HmbBp2Hv b  i2+?MB+H 2tT`2b@ bBQMX


8VHUV FXOWXUDOLGHQWLWLHV UROHVDQGRSHQDFFHVVLQ6HFRQG/LIH



a2KBQiB+ pBbmH MHvbBb Bb MQi  M2r K2i?Q/X S?BHBT "2HH- h?2Q pM G22mr2M M/ _mKBFQ PvK ?p2 T`2b2Mi2/ Bib mb2 BM i?2 >M/#QQF Q7 oBbmH MHvbBb UkyyRVX "2HH /2b+`B#2b T`2+Bb2 ?vTQ@ i?2b2bc +H2`Hv /2}M2/ +QM+2Tib Q7 p`B#H2b M/ pHm2b `2 i?2 bBM2 [m MQM Q7 pBbmH MHvbBb U"2HH kyyRVX ++Q`/BM; iQ pM G22mr2M"`i?2bǶ b2KBQiB+b M/ B+QMQ;`T?v /2Hb rBi? i?2 bK2 #bB+ [m2b@ iBQMb #Qmi r?i M/ ?Qr iQ bm#KBi BK;2b- M/ r?i B/2b M/ pHm2b i?2 BK;2b +QMiBMX h?2 /Bz2`2M+2 #2ir22M #`i?2bBM b2@ KBQiB+b M/ B+QMQ;`T?v Bb i?i #`i?2bBM b2KBQiB+b QMHv 2tKBM2b i?2 BK;2 Bib2H7 M/ i?2 +mHim`H K2MBM;b Q7 i?2 +TBiH- r?2`2b B+QMQ;`T?v HbQ Tvb ii2MiBQM iQ i?2 BK;2 T`Q/m+iBQM- HB72 +QM@ i2ti M/ ?BbiQ`v UpM G22mr2M kyyRVX S`Q72bbQ` M/`2B EQȒB` 7`QK i?2 lMBp2`bBiv Q7 GDm#HDM bii2b i?i r2 +M HQQF M/ MHvb2 BK;2b BM KMv rvbX >2 HbQ KBM@ iBMb i?i r2 b?QmH/ MHvb2 i?2 +QMi2Mi Q7 /B;BiH BK;2b bQ i?i r2 mb2 b2KB@miQKiB+ T`Q+2/m`2b 7Q` mM/2`biM/BM; i?2 bB;MB}+@ M+2 Q7 BK;2 +QMi2Mi UEQȒB` kyy9V AK;2b `2 bTiBH Q` `2;BQMH M/ +QMbBbi Q7 BM/BpB/mH Q#D2+ibX lbBM; [mHBiiBp2 +QMi2Mi MHvbBb 7Q` BK;2b Kmbi iF2 BMiQ ++QmMi i?2 BK;2 Q#D2+ib- i?2 BKTQ`i@ M+2 Q7 `2HiBQMb?BTb iQ 2+? Qi?2`- b r2HH b i?2 iBK2 /BK2MbBQMX Jv `2b2`+? BKb iQ /2i2`KBM2 B7 Bi TQbbB#H2 iQ +`2i2  TB+im`2 #Qmi BM/BpB/mHbǶ KmHiB@B/2MiBiB2b M/ `QH2b BM pB`imH rQ`H/b #v mbBM; b2KBQiB+ [mHBiiBp2 pBbmH MHvbBbX a2KBQiB+ pBbmH MHvbBb Bb M BMi2`2biBM; rv iQ i`+2 ?Qr KmH@ iB7Q`K pB`imH rQ`H/ b2`pB+2b- b bQ+BH K2/B b2`pB+2b- z2+i mb2`bǶ B/2MiBiB2b M/ `QH2bX Hi?Qm;? pB`imH +?`+i2`b `2 +m``2MiHv M@ QMvKQmb- MQMvKBiv Bb #2;BMMBM; iQ /BbTT2` b r2 HBMF i?2K iQ Qi?2` bQ+BH K2/B b2`pB+2b HBF2 6+2#QQF- hrBii2` Q` .2HB+BQmbX AM i?Bb +b2- `2H T2QTH2 M/ i?2B` 7`B2M/b 7Q`K i?2 pB`imH +?`+@ i2` M/ i?2B` pB`imH 7`B2M/bX q?i ?TT2Mb r?2M i?2 `2H B/2MiBiv M/ pB`imH B/2MiBiv Bb +QMM2+i2/\ Jv bim/v BKb iQ /Bb+Qp2` ?Qr mb2`b +M KM;2 KmHiBTH2 B/2MiBiB2b M/ `QH2b BM pB`imH +mHim`2b mbBM; BK;2 MHvbBb b i?2 K2i?Q/X A TTHv i?2 +QMi2Mi MHvbBb /2b+`B#2/ #v S?BHBT "2HH M/ J`+mb "MFb iQ i?2 i2timH M/ pBbmH Ki2`BH U6m`i?2` `2b2`+? "2HH RNNdc JQ`T?v RNNdV pi`b b pBbmH 2K#Q/BK2Mib `2 KQbi BMi2`2biBM; M/ BKTQ`i@ Mi r?2M bim/vBM; B/2MiBiB2b- pBbmH HM/b- TH+2b M/ b+2M2bX AM




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Bibliography

(R) /H2`S2i2` kyykX "2vQM/ *mHim`H A/2M@ iBiv, _2~2+iBQMb QM JmHiB+mHim`HBbK?iiT,ffrrrXK2/Bi2X+QKf`iB+H2bf/H2`jX+7K (k) "MFb- J`+mb kyydX lbBM; oBbmH .i BM ZmHBiiBp2 _2@ b2`+?X GQM/QMX h?QmbM/ PFb *HB7Q`MBX aBM;TQ`2X AM/BX Aa"L Nd3@y@deRN@9NdN@9X a:1X (j) "MFb J`+mb M/ JQ`T?v >Qr`/ RNNdX _2i?BMFBM; oBbmH Mi?`QTQHQ;vX GQM/QMX L2r >p2MX Aa"L y jyy@yeeNR@yX uH2 mMBp2`bBiv T`2bbX (9) "2HH- S?BHBT kyyRX *QMi2Mi MHvbBb Q7 oBbmH AK;2bX >M/@ #QQF Q7 oBbmH MHvbBbX _2T`BMi2/ kyyjX Aa"L y deRN e9de k U?#FVX Aa"L y deRN e9de y UT#FVX a;2X GQM/QM kyyRX (8) "Q2HHbiQ`z- hQK kyy3X *QKBM; QM ;2 BM a2+QM/ GB72, M Mi?`QTQHQ;Bbi 2tTHQ`2b i?2 pB`imHHv ?mKMX S`BM+2iQM lMB@ p2`bBiv S`2bbX (e) C2MFBMb- _B+?`/ kyy3X aQ+BH A/2MiBivX j`/ 2/BiBQMX Aa"L y@9R8@99393@9 UbB/XV Aa"L y@9R8@ 9939N@k UMB/XV Aa"L Nd3@ y@9R8@99393@k UbB/XV Aa"L Nd3@y@9R8@9939N@N UMB/XV JBHiQM S`F- #BM;/QM- PtQMX _QmiH2/;2 kyy3X (d) >HH- aim`i kyyjX h?2Q`BxBM; .BbTQ`,  `2/2` kyyjX *mH@ im`H A/2MiBiv M/ .BbTQ`X

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The Danish digitalized cultural heritage and its users



Figure 1. User interaction with cultural heritage information embedded on the web.

4.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Whether, and how, the user finds the cultural heritage information depends on factors both on the system side (e.g. findability) and the user herself (e.g. information need, motivation, level of information literacy). mb2` ?b iQ }M/ ?2` rv QM deals i?2 r2# `2bQm`+2 +QMiBMBM; The Hrvb project research questions (RQ) withi?2 different aspects of the i?2 BM7Q`KiBQM Q#D2+ib Ub BHHmbi`i2/ BM 6B;m`2 R #2HQrVX research problem. RQ 1-4 are mainly descriptive in nature and leads to h?2 BM7Q`KiBQM `2bQm`+2b correlation questions in RQ5. ?p2 irQ H2p2Hb, Q#D2+i M/ `2bQm`+2X P#D2+ib `2 i?2 BM7Q`KiBQM- i?2 bBM;H2 TB+im`2b- pB/2Qb M/ i2tib +QMiBMBM; i?2 +mHim`H ?2`Bi;2X PMdo i?2 H2p2H i?2`2 `2 4.1 RQ1: What do the users in `2bQm`+2 the cultural MpB;iBQMH 7mM+iBQMb HBF2 BMi2`MH b2`+? M/ +i2;Q`B2b iQ;2i?2` heritage resource? rBi? ;2M2`H BM7Q`KiBQMX h?2 `2bQm`+2 H2p2H Bb 7QH/2/ `QmM/ i?2 +QHH2+iBQM Q7 Q#D2+ibM/itBbis possible Hv2` i?i ?b iQout #2specific T2M2i`i2/ From system log files to single searchiQ `2+? i?2 Q#D2+ibX h?Bb /BpBbBQM Bb BKTQ`iMi r?2M HQQFBM; QM b2`+? sessions and to follow a user through a session. It is often not possible to bi`i2;B2b M/ MpB;iBQMH rvb QM i?2 r2#X AM 6B;m`2 R i?2 BM@ track a user across different sessions â&#x20AC;&#x201C; this depends on the availability of 7Q`KiBQM UQ#D2+iV M/ BM7Q`KiBQM bvbi2K U`2bQm`+2V `2 logs. b?QrM sufficient IP-number and session-ID information in the specific Theb +B`+H2b rBi?BM i?2 Qmi2` r2# +B`+H2X log file data will, however, be sufficient to explore the moves and tactics, the two most basic levels of the four levels of interaction (Bates, 1990; Jansen, 2009). In addition, it is important to study both the navigation and the queries of the user (Mat-Hassan & Levene, 2005), as the two behaviors are two sides of the same coin. Several quantitative usage measures are relevant and interesting, e.g. bouncing rate, depth and length of visits and the number of object looked at (Nicholas et al., 2006).

3




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Research questions q?2i?2`- M/ ?Qr- i?2 mb2` }M/b i?2 +mHim`H ?2`Bi;2 BM7Q`K@ iBQM /2T2M/b QM 7+iQ`b #Qi? QM i?2 bvbi2K bB/2 U2X;X }M/#BHBivV M/ i?2 mb2` ?2`b2H7 U2X;X BM7Q`KiBQM M22/- KQiBpiBQM- H2p2H Q7 BM7Q`KiBQM HBi2`+vVX h?2 T`QD2+i `2b2`+? [m2biBQMb U_ZV /2Hb rBi? /Bz2`2Mi bT2+ib Q7 i?2 `2b2`+? T`Q#H2KX _Z R@9 `2 KBMHv /2b+`BTiBp2 BM Mim`2 M/ H2/b iQ +Q``2HiBQM [m2biBQMb BM _Z8X

RQ1: What do the users do in the cultural heritage resource? 6`QK bvbi2K HQ; }H2b Bi Bb TQbbB#H2 iQ bBM;H2 Qmi bT2+B}+ b2`+? b2bbBQMb M/ iQ 7QHHQr  mb2` i?`Qm;?  b2bbBQMX Ai Bb Q7i2M MQi TQbbB#H2 iQ i`+F  mb2` +`Qbb /Bz2`2Mi b2bbBQMb Ä&#x153; i?Bb /2T2M/b QM i?2 pBH#BHBiv Q7 bm{+B2Mi AS@MmK#2` M/ b2bbBQM@A. BM7Q`KiBQM BM i?2 bT2+B}+ HQ;bX h?2 HQ; }H2 /i rBHH- ?Qr2p2`- #2 bm{+B2Mi iQ 2tTHQ`2 i?2 KQp2b M/ i+iB+b- i?2 irQ KQbi #bB+ H2p2Hb Q7 i?2 7Qm` H2p2Hb Q7 BMi2`+iBQM U"i2b- RNNyc CMb2M- kyyNVX AM //BiBQM- Bi Bb BKTQ`iMi iQ bim/v #Qi? i?2 MpB;iBQM M/ i?2 [m2`B2b Q7 i?2 mb2` UJi@>bbM  G2p2M2- kyy8V- b i?2 irQ #2?pBQ`b `2 irQ bB/2b Q7 i?2 bK2 +QBMX a2p2`H [mMiBiiBp2 mb;2 K2bm`2b `2 `2H2pMi M/ BMi2`2biBM;- 2X;X #QmM+BM; `i2- /2Ti? M/ H2M;i? Q7 pBbBib M/ i?2 MmK#2` Q7 Q#D2+i HQQF2/ i ULB+?QHb 2i HX- kyyeVX

RQ2: How do users find the cultural heritage resource? lb2`b Kv `2+? i?2 +mHim`H ?2`Bi;2 `2bQm`+2b BM  MmK#2` Q7 /Bz2`2Mi rvbX PM i?2 r2# i?2`2 `2 i?`22 #bB+ 7Q`Kb Q7 MpB;iBQM UG2p2M2- kyRyV, R .B`2+i MpB;iBQMX k LpB;iBQM i?`Qm;? HBMFbX j LpB;iBQM mbBM;  a2`+? 1M;BM2X h?2 HQ; }H2b +QMiBM `272``BM; l_GÇśb BM+Hm/BM; b2`+? i2`Kb 7`QK i?2 `272``BM; b2`+? 2M;BM2X q?i FBM/ Q7 M22/ /Q i?2 b2`+? i2`Kb


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RQ3: How findable is the heritage resource and its objects? JQ`pBHH2 /2}M2b }M/#BHBiv BM K#B2Mi }M/#BHBiv b 7QHHQrb UJQ`@ pBHH2- kyy8V, X

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Ab i?2 `2bQm`+2fQ#D2+i +iHQ;m2/- 2X;X BM "B#HBQi2FX/FR \ Ab i?2 `2bQm`+2fQ#D2+i BM/2t2/ #v i?2 r2# b2`+? 2M;BM2b\ Ab i?2 Q#D2+i /QrMHQ/#H2\ .Q2b i?2 Q#D2+i ?p2  mMB[m2 l_G\ q?i K2/B ivT2 Bb i?2 Q#D2+i\ `2 i?2`2 Mv r2# kXy@7mM+iBQMb U2X;X b?`2@#miiQMbV BM `2H@ iBQM iQ i?2 Q#D2+i\ hQ r?i 2ti2Mi ?b i?2 Q#D2+i K2i/i\ >Qr ?B;? Bb i?2 :QQ;H2 S;2_MF@pHm2 Q7 i?2 Q#D2+i\ Ai rBHH #2 ii2KTi2/ iQ +H+mHi2  }M/#BHBiv b+Q`2 Qmi Q7 i?2 M@ br2`b BM i?2 T`QiQ+QHX A7 i?Bb Bb MQi 72bB#H2 i?2 `2bQm`+2b M/ Q#D2+ib rBHH #2 +HbbB}2/ BMiQ /Bz2`2Mi ;`QmTb /2T2M/BM; QM i?2 /2;`22 Q7 }M/#BHBivX AM //BiBQM- }M/#BHBiv KB;?i #2 b22M b  T`i Q7 i?2 }2H/ Q7 r2#QK2i`B+b U"Dƺ`M2#Q`M  AM;r2`b2M- kyy9c h?2HrHH- kyyNVX "mi }M/#BHBiv Bb KQ`2 i?M HBMF MHvbBbX _2+?#BHBiv i?`Qm;? HBMFb Bb QM2 BKTQ`iMi T`i Q7 }M/#BHBiv- #mi i?2`2 `2 Qi?2` 2[mH BKTQ`i@ Mi T`ib M/ i?2b2 KB;?i MQi #2 +HbbB}2/ b r2#QK2i`B+bX

RQ4: Who are the users and what are their thoughts on the cultural heritage resources? _2b2`+? [m2biBQM 9 Bb Mbr2`2/ T`BK`v rBi? q2# bm`p2vb- QM2 BM 2+? Q7 i?2 bim/B2/ `2bQm`+2bX h?2 BK Bb iQ ;i?2` /i iQ ;Q ;2i  #2ii2` TB+im`2 Q7 i?2 mb2`bX h?2 HQ; }H2b +QMiBM Dmbi #2?pBQ`H i`+2b Q7 i?2 mb2`b +iBQMb- MQi Mv /i #Qmi i?2 mb2`b Q` i?2B` M22/bX h?2 q2# bm`p2vb +QmH/ #2 +QMM2+i2/ iQ QM2 Q` b2p2`H TT`Q+?2b2X;X AM7Q`KiBQM ?Q`BxQM UaQMM2MrH/- qBH/2Kmi?- "-  >`KQM R ?iiT,ff#B#HBQi2FX/F

"B#HBQi2FX/F Bb  HB#``v +iHQ; +QMiBMBM; HH Tm#HB+Hv 7mM/2/ +QHH2+iBQMb BM .2MK`FX


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RQ5: Correlations between the results from RQ14 h?2 KBMHv /2b+`BTiBp2 _ZR@9 `2 Tmi BM `2HiBQM iQ QM2 MQi?2` BM _Z8X h?2 bim/B2/ +mHim`H ?2`Bi;2 `2bQm`+2b `2 Q7 /Bz2`2Mi ivT2b M/ 7`QK /Bz2`2Mi BMbiBimiBQMb- M/ +QMiBM /Bz2`2Mi FBM/b Q7 Q#D2+ib- 2X;X i2ti M/ pB/2QX h?i Bb #Qi?  bi`2M;i? M/  r2F@ M2bb- #mi ?QT27mHHv bQK2 Tii2`Mb rBHH 2K2`;2X SQbbB#H2 +Q``2HiBQMb KB;?i #2, Ab i?2`2  +QMM2+iBQM #2ir22M ?Qr mb2`b }M/ i?2 `2bQm`+2b M/ i?2 mb;2 Q7 i?2 `2bQm`+2b\ Ab i?2`2  +QMM2+iBQM #2ir22M i?2 mb;2 Q7 i?2 `2bQm`+2b M/ i?2 /2;`22 Q7 }M/#BHBiv Q7 i?2 `2bQm`+2b\ Ab i?2`2  +QMM2+iBQM #2ir22M ?Qr mb2`b }M/ i?2 `2bQm`+2b M/ i?2 /2;`22 Q7 }M/#BHBiv Q7 i?2 `2bQm`+2b\ `2 i?2`2 /Bz2`2M+2bfbBKBH`BiB2b BM i?2 b2`+? #2?pBQ` BM i?2 /Bz2`2Mi `2bQm`+2b\

Research design h?2 bim/v Bb [mMiBiiBp2 M/ BM i?2 Qp2`HTTBM; `2 #2ir22M b2p2`H `2b2`+? }2H/b, r2#QK2i`B+b- BM7Q`KiBQM b22FBM; M/ `2@ i`B2pH M/ r2# b2`+?X _2b2`+? [m2biBQM R M/ k rBHH #2 Mbr2`2/ rBi? MHvbBb Q7 HQ; }H2b 7`QK i?2 bim/B2/ ?2`Bi;2 `2bQm`+2bX h?2 HQ; MHvbBb rBHH #2 +QKTH2K2Mi2/ rBi? r2# bm`p2vb ii+?2/ iQ i?2 `2bQm`+2b b  rv iQ ;2i  #2ii2` TB+im`2 Q7 i?2 mb2`b U_Z9VX hQ Mbr2` `2b2`+? [m2biBQM j i?2 bim/B2/ `2bQm`+2b `2 2pHmi2/ rBi?  }M/#BHBiv b+?2K2 iQ ``Bp2 i +QKT`#H2 }M/#BHBiv b+Q`2bX




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The Danish digitalized cultural heritage and its users

Figure 2. Illustration of the interconnections between the project research questions. 4.5.2

Progress and status

h?2 b2imT 7Q`Kb  K2i?Q/QHQ;B+H i`BM;mHiBQMX h?2 HQ; M@ HvbBb-The i?2following r2# bm`p2vb M/heritage i?2 }M/#BHBiv MHvbBb `2 Tmi BM `2HiBQM cultural resources will be studied: iQ i?2 }p2 `2b2`+? [m2biBQMb b BHHmbi`i2/ BM 6B;m`2 k #2HQrX _Z8 x Art Index Denmark2 (Kunstindex Danmark)[m2biBQMb is a database a `2 i?2 HBM2b +QMM2+iBM; i?2 Qi?2` `2b2`+? BM covering i?2 +B`+H2bX large part of the holdings in the Danish Art Museums from The Heritage Agency of Denmark. The website also includes a dictionary of Danish artists and pictures of some works. 3 Progress x Bonazaand is a status Youtube-like service from Denmarkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Radio (DR) which contains popular videos from the archive of DR. h?2 7QHHQrBM; +mHim`H ?2`Bi;2 4`2bQm`+2b rBHH #2 bim/B2/, x Guaman Poma Inca Chronicle at the Royal Library is a widely used digitized book; maybe the most read online ebook in Denmark.

2

https://www.kulturarv.dk/kid/ http://www.dr.dk/Bonanza/index.htm 4 http://www.kb.dk/permalink/2006/poma/info/en/frontpage.htm 3

7


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(R) "i2b- JX CX URNNyVX q?2`2 a?QmH/ i?2 S2`bQM aiQT M/ i?2 AM7Q`KiBQM a2`+? AMi2`7+2 ai`i\X AM7Q`KiBQM S`Q+2bbBM;  JM;2K2Mi- ke- 8d8@8NRX (k) "Dƺ`M2#Q`M- GX-  AM;r2`b2M- SX Ukyy9VX hQr`/  #bB+ 7`K2rQ`F 7Q` r2#QK2i`B+bX CQm`MH Q7 i?2 K2`B+M aQ+B2iv 7Q` AM7Q`KiBQM a+B2M+2 M/ h2+?MQHQ;v- 88UR9V- RkRe@RkkdX (j) "`Q/2`- X UkyykVX  itQMQKv Q7 r2# b2`+?X aA:A_ 6Q`mKjeUkV- j@RyX (9) "vbi`ƺK- EX-  C `p2HBM- EX URNN8VX hbF +QKTH2tBiv z2+ib BM7Q`KiBQM b22FBM; M/ mb2X AM7Q`KiBQM S`Q+2bbBM;  JM@ ;2K2Mi- jRUkV- RNR@kRjX (8) *2`i2m- JX /X URN39VX h?2 T`+iB+2 Q7 2p2`v/v HB72X "2`F2H2v*, lMBp2`bBiv Q7 *HB7Q`MB S`2bbX (e) 1M;2- 1X UkyyNVX h?2 `i Q7 a1PX a2#biQTQH- *, PǶ_2BHHv J2/BX (d) CMb2M- "X CX UkyyNVX h?2 K2i?Q/QHQ;v Q7 b2`+? HQ; MHvbBbX AM "X CX CMb2M- AX hFbB  X aTBMF U1/bXV- >M/#QQF Q7 `2b2`+? QM r2# HQ; MHvbBbX >2`b?2v- LuX A:A :HQ#HX (3) G2p2M2- JX UkyRyVX M BMi`Q/m+iBQM iQ b2`+? 2M;BM2b M/ r2# MpB;iBQMX >Q#QF2M- LXCX, CQ?M qBH2vX (N) Ji@>bbM- JX-  G2p2M2- JX Ukyy8VX bbQ+BiBM; b2`+? M/ MpB;iBQM #2?pBQ` i?`Qm;? HQ; MHvbBbX CQm`MH Q7 i?2




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K2`B+M aQ+B2iv 7Q` AM7Q`KiBQM a+B2M+2 M/ h2+?MQHQ;v8eUNV- NRj@Nj9X (Ry) JQ`pBHH2- SX Ukyy8VX K#B2Mi }M/#BHBivX a2#biQTQH- *, PǶ_2BHHvX (RR) LB+?QHb- .X- >mMiBM;iQM- SX- qBHHBKb- SX-  .Q#`QrQHbFB- hX UkyyeVX h?2 /B;BiH BM7Q`KiBQM +QMbmK2`X AM X aTBMF-  *X *QH2 U1/bXV- L2r /B`2+iBQMb BM ?mKM BM7Q`KiBQM #2?pBQ`X .Q`/`2+?i- aT`BM;2`X (Rk) apQHBM2M- _X Ukyy3VX 1p2`v/v BM7Q`KiBQM T`+iB+2b ,  bQ@ +BH T?2MQK2MQHQ;B+H T2`bT2+iBp2X GM?K- J/X, a+`2+`Qr S`2bbX (Rj) aQMM2MrH/- .X >X- qBH/2Kmi?- "X aX-  >`KQM- :X GX UkyyRVX  `2b2`+? K2i?Q/ iQ BMp2biB;i2 BM7Q`KiBQM b22F@ BM; mbBM; i?2 +QM+2Ti Q7 BM7Q`KiBQM ?Q`BxQMb, M 2tKTH2 7`QK  bim/v Q7 HQr2` bQ+BQ@2+QMQKB+ bim/2MibǶ BM7Q`KiBQM b22FBM; #2?pBQ`X h?2 L2r _2pB2r Q7 AM7Q`KiBQM "2?pBQ` _2b2`+?- k- e8@3eX (R9) ai2##BMb- _X X UkyydVX a2`BQmb H2Bbm`2 ,  T2`bT2+iBp2 7Q` Qm` iBK2X L2r "`mMbrB+F- LXCX, h`Mb+iBQM Sm#HBb?2`bX (R8) h?2HrHH- JX UkyyNVX AMi`Q/m+iBQM iQ r2#QK2i`B+b , ZmMi@ BiiBp2 r2# `2b2`+? 7Q` i?2 bQ+BH b+B2M+2bX aM _72H- *, JQ`;M  *HvTQQHX


SOCIAL MEDIA RESEARCH AT SWEDISH SCHOOL OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE 0DULD/LQGK (PPD)RUVJUHQDQG'DYLG*XQQDUVVRQ 8QLYHUVLW\RI%RUnV 6ZHGHQ

Introduction aQ+BH K2/B Bb QM2 Q7 b2p2`H ?B;?Hv T`BQ`BiBb2/ `2b2`+? i?2K2b i i?2 ar2/Bb? a+?QQH Q7 HB#``v M/ BM7Q`KiBQM b+B2M+2X Ai rb BMBiBi2/ BM .2+2K#2` kyyN M/ rb  v2` Hi2` r`/2/  8 KBH@ HBQM a1E `2b2`+? ;`Mi 7Q` i?2 T2`BQ/ kyRR@kyRj- 7mM/2/ #v "Q`´b lMBp2`bBivX aQ+BH K2/B Bb  #`Q/ M/ +?HH2M;BM; `2b2`+? `2 rBi? +iBpBiB2b QM;QBM; Q` #2BM; BMBiBi2/ BM KQbi /Bb+BTHBM2b rBi?BM i?2 bQ+BH b+B2M+2b M/ ?mKMBiB2bX h?2 bi`2M;i? Q7 GAa- M/ Qm` `2b2`+? i?2K2- Bb i?2 i`/BiBQM Q7 mM/2`biM/BM; BM7Q`KiBQM M/ BM7Q`KiBQM i2+?MQHQ;B2b #`Q/Hv M/ 7`QK  KmHiBim/2 Q7 T2`bT2+i@ Bp2bX Pm` `2b2`+? BKb i BMp2biB;iBM; i?2 +Q@T`Q/m+iBQM Q7 bQ+BH K2/B M/ bQ+BH `2HiBQMbX q?2`2 `2 bQ+B2iv- BMbiBimiBQMb- T`Q72b@ bBQMb M/ Q`;MBxiBQMb iFBM; bQ+BH K2/B- M/ r?2`2 /Q2b bQ+BH K2/B iF2 mb\ AM i?Bb #bi`+i vQm rBHH }M/  b?Q`i T`2b2MiiBQM Q7 i?`22 2K2`@ ;BM; /Q+iQ`H T`QD2+ib +QMM2+i2/ iQ i?2 bQ+BH K2/B `2b2`+? i i?2 /2T`iK2MiX

Emma Forsgren: Information related activities and social media in business organizations h?2 7Q+mb Q7 i?Bb /Bbb2`iiBQM `2b2`+? Bb QM T`Bpi2 b2+iQ` #mbB@ M2bb Q`;MBxiBQMb M/ i?2B` BMi2`+iBQM rBi? M2r bQ+BH K2/B bBi2b M/ b2`pB+2b b #Qi? BM7Q`KiBQM `2bQm`+2b M/ pB`imH rQ`FbT+2bX




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David Gunnarsson: Webometrics and visualization of Social Media data h?Bb T`QD2+i BKb iQ /2p2HQT K2i?Q/b 7Q` ;;`2;iBM;- MHvxBM; M/ pBbmHBxBM; bQ+BH K2/B /iX h?2 Qp2`HH Tm`TQb2 Bb iQ /2p2HQT M2r K2i?Q/b M/ iQ `2/2p2HQT 2tBbiBM; K2i?Q/b 7Q` MHvxBM; `2H rQ`H/ bQ+BH K2/B /iX h?2 KBM `2 Q7 BMi2`2bi 7Q` i?Bb T`QD2+i Bb ?Qr +QKKmMBiB2b- QTBMBQMb M/ b2MiBK2Mib /2p2HQT Q` +?M;2 Qp2` iBK2X h?2 T`Q#H2K HB2b BM }M/BM; bmBi#H2 M/ b+H#H2 K2i?Q/b 7Q` 2t@ i`+iBM; `2H2pMi /i 7`QK bQ+BH K2/B b r2HH b }M/BM; K2i?Q/b 7Q` pBbmHBxBM; i?2 /i BM M TT`QT`Bi2 rvX h?2 ;`T?b M/


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Maria Lindh: Cloud computing services in organisations ethical dimensions, implications for information management, information professionals h?2`2 ?p2 #22M bm;;2biBQMb i?i BKTH2K2MiiBQM Q7 +HQm/ +QK@ TmiBM; BM Q`;MBbiBQMb rBHH 7m`i?2` ;`2i +?M;2- #Qi? 7Q` i?2 i`@ /BiBQMH bQ7ir`2 +QKTMB2b b r2HH b 7Q` i?Qb2 rQ`FBM; i i`/B@ iBQMH Ah /2T`iK2Mib U"`Mii-  #`B27 ;mB/2 iQ +HQm/ +QKTmiBM;kyRyVX aQK2 HbQ BM/B+i2 i?i i?2`2 rBHH #2  b?B7i BM i?2 M22/ Q7 Ah +QKT2i2M+2 UC+FbQM- a?B7i iQ +HQm/ `2[mB`2b 7`2b? Ah bFBHHb*QKTmi2`rQ`H/ kyRR@y8@y8V- +?M;BM; 7`QK KQ`2 T`+iB+H Ah bFBHHb iQ bi`i2;B+ M/ /2p2HQTK2Mi bFBHHb +QM+2`MBM; Qp2`HH BM7Q`KiBQM KM;2K2Mi bi`i2;B2b BM Q`;MBbiBQMbX _2+2MiHv QM2 ar2/Bb? KmMB+BTHBiv /2+B/2/ iQ BKTH2K2Mi :QQ;H2 TTb- bBM+2 Bi rb 7`22 Q7 +?`;2 M/ Çłi?2 #2biÇ´X h?2v r2`2 T`Qm/ Q7 #2BM; i?2 }`bi KmMB+BTHBiv BM ar2/2M mbBM; i?Bb b2`pB+2 M/ ?/ b2`BQmbHv `2~2+i2/ QM 2p2`v T`Q#H2K BM mbBM; BiX h?Bb +b2 `Bb2/ +QM+2`Mb QM i?2 2i?B+b BM i?2B` 2zQ`ibX aim/B2b b?Qr i?i Tm#HB+ Q`;MBbiBQMb H`2/v mb2 +HQm/ +QKTmiBM; iQ  ;`2i 2ti2MiX PM2 v2` ;Q h?2 G2;H- 6BMM+BH M/ /KBMBbi`iBp2 a2`pB+2b ;2M+v BM ar2/2M K/2  bm`p2v- r?2`2 9yW UQmi Q7 jyy Mbr2`bV Q7 i?2 T`iB+BTiBM; Tm#HB+ Q`;MBbiBQMb bB/ i?2v H`2/v ?/ /QTi2/ +HQm/ +QKTmiBM;X Jv `2b2`+? BKb `2 iQ 2tKBM2 i?2 +?M;BM; `QH2 Q7 BM7Q`KiBQM T`Q72bbBQMHb r?2M BM7Q`KiBQM KM;2K2Mi +?M;2 /m2 iQ BKTH2@




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DEVELOPING PUBLIC LIBRARY SERVICES BY MEANS OF PROJECTS 1LQD+\QQl 8QLYHUVLW\RI7DPSHUH )LQODQG

Introduction .2p2HQTBM; Tm#HB+ HB#``v b2`pB+2b mbmHHv `2[mB`2 T`QD2+i@Q`;MBx2/ TT`Q+?X GB#``B2b +M #`Q/2M i?2B` 2tT2`iBb2 #v `2+`mBiBM; T`Q@ 72bbBQMHb QmibB/2 i?2 HB#``v }2H/ 7Q` i?2 M22/b Q7 i?2 /2p2HQTK2Mi T`QD2+ibX JmHiB@ T`Q72bbBQMH T`QD2+i ;`QmTb +M #2 `2;`/2/ b  M2r iQQH Q`  M2r T`+iB+2 7Q` /2p2HQTBM; HB#``v b2`pB+2bX

Research task h?2 `2b2`+? [m2biBQM Bb, Ǵ>Qr `2 i?2 6BMMBb? Tm#HB+ HB#``B2b /2p2HQTBM; i?2B` b2`pB+2b #v K2Mb Q7 T`QD2+ib\Ǵ h?2 Mbr2` Bb bQm;?i #v 2tKBMBM; /2p2HQTK2Mi +iBpBiB2b BM  MiBQMrB/2 T`QD2+i ǵGB#``v aT+2b M/ *QM+2Tib BM i?2 AM7Q`K@ iBQM aQ+B2ivǶ Ukyy3@kyRRV- r?B+? Bb  T`i Q7 1m`QT2M aQ+BH 6mM/ T`Q;`KK2X h?2`2 `2 i?`22 `2;BQMH HB#``B2b T`iB+BTiBM; BM i?2 T`QD2+i rBi? i?2B` QrM bm#T`QD2+ibX 1+? bm#T`QD2+i ?b b2p2`H bBKmHiM2Qmb /2p2HQTK2Mi i`;2ibX h?2 bim/v Bb 7Q+mbBM; QM 2+? T`QD2+i ;`QmT iQ 7QHHQr mT i?2 7Q`KiBQM Q7  bBM;H2 /2p2HQTK2Mi i`;2i M/ Bib /2p2HQTK2Mi T`Q+2bb2b b  i2KTQ`H M``iBp2X h?2 /2p2HQTK2Mi T`Q+2bb Bb 2tKBM2/ 7`QK i?2 T2`bT2+iBp2 Q7 i?2 T`QD2+i ;`QmTX h?2 T`2b2Mi bim/v BKb i /2b+`B#BM; i?2 /2p2HQTK2Mi +iBpBi@ B2b- BX2X r?i Bb `2HHv Q++m``BM; QM i?2 T`QD2+ibX h?2 bim/v HbQ 2tKBM2b r?i FBM/ Q7 +QHH#Q`iBQM i?2 T`QD2+i i2Kb `2 /QBM;




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Theoretical framework h?2 i?2Q`2iB+H 7`K2rQ`F Bb +QMbi`m+i2/ 7`QK b2T`i2 2H2K2Mib bBM+2 i?2`2 Bb MQ `2/v@K/2 KQ/2H iQ TTHvX ++Q`/BM; iQ "HQK@ [mBbi 2i HX UkyRyV- BMbm{+B2Mi ii2MiBQM ?b #22M TB/ iQ i?2 +iBp@ BiB2b Q7 i?2 /2p2HQT2`b rQ`FBM; BM T`QD2+ibc i?Bb ;T Bb KQbi 2pB/2Mi BM i?2 bim/v Q7 KmHiB@ T`Q72bbBQMH T`QD2+i ;`QmTbX JQ`2Qp2`- i?2 +QM+2Ti Q7 ǵ/2p2HQTK2Mi rQ`FǶ ?b #22M TQQ`Hv /2}M2/X *QKKQM iQ bm+? /2}MBiBQMb Bb i?i i?2 /2p2HQTK2Mi rQ`F Bb b22M b M i@ i2KTi iQ +?M;2 i?2 Q`;MBxiBQMǶb +iBpBiB2b Q` iQ BKT`Qp2 Bib rQ`F K2i?Q/bX h?2 /2}MBiBQM /B{+mHiB2b Kv #2 /m2 iQ i?2 7+i i?i i?2 i`;2i- b+QT2- Q`;MBxiBQM 7Q`K M/ i?2 #bBb 7Q` /2p2HQTK2Mi +iBpBiv Kv p`v bB;MB}+MiHv 7`QK QM2 Q`;MBxiBQM iQ MQi?2`X UhQBFFQ M/ _MiM2M- kyyNV .2p2HQTK2Mi rQ`F BM T`Bpi2 #mbBM2bb M/ Tm#HB+ /KBMBbi`@ iBQM Bb Q7i2M Q`;MBx2/ b T`QD2+ibX ǵS`QD2+iǶ Bb HbQ M K#B;mQmb +QM+2TiX AM i?2 i`/BiBQMH T`QD2+i KM;2K2Mi HBi2`im`2 T`QD2+ib `2 pB2r2/ b BM/2T2M/2Mi iQQHb 7Q` +?B2pBM; +?M;2- MQi b  bT2@ +B}+ Q`;MBxiBQMH 7Q`KX h?2 `2b2`+? Q7 i?2 T`QD2+i KM;2K2Mi i`/BiBQM ?b #22M /BpB/2/ BMiQ i`/BiBQMH bvbi2K@KQ/2H@#b2/ M/ bQ+BH b+B2M+2@#b2/ T`Q+2bb@Q`B2Mi2/ TT`Q+?X U"HQK[mBbi 2i HX kyRyV h?2 T`2b2Mi bim/v #mBH/b mTQM i?2 i?2Q`v Q7 i?2 i2KTQ``v Q`@ ;MBxiBQM i?2Q`vX GmM/BM M/ aƺ/2`?QHK URNN8V bm;;2bi 7Qm` +QM@ +2Tib i?i `2 `2Hi2/ iQ /Bz2`2Mi T?b2b Q7 i?2 HB72 +v+H2 Q7 i?2 i2KTQ``v Q`;MBxiBQM, +iBQM@ #b2/ 2Mi`2T`2M2m`BHBbK- 7`;@ K2MiiBQM Q7 +QKKBiK2Mi #mBH/BM;- THMM2/ BbQHiBQM M/ BMbiBim@ iBQMHBx2/ i2`KBMiBQMX h?2 T`QD2+i i2K Bb b22M b  i2KTQ``v Q`;MBxiBQM- r?B+? ?b /Bz2`2Mi 72im`2b 7`QK i?Qb2 Q7  T2`KM@ 2Mi Q`;MBxiBQMX +iBQM Bb  T`BK`v +QM+2Ti BM i?2 i?2Q`v Q7 i2KTQ``v Q`;MBxiBQMbX h?Bb i?2Q`v /Q2b MQi Tv Mv bT2+BH i@ i2MiBQM iQ BMi2`+iBQM rBi? Qi?2` Q`;MBxiBQMb /m`BM; i?2 T`QD2+iǶb HB72 +v+H2c ?2M+2 CQ?MbbQM- Gƺ7bi`ƺK M/ P?HbbQMǶb KQ/2H UkyydV 7Q` MHvbBM; i?2 `2HiBQMb?BT #2ir22M /2p2HQTK2Mi T`QD2+ib M/


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i?2B` T2`KM2Mi Q`;MBxiBQM Bb `2H2pMi BM i?Bb bim/vX AM T`iB+@ mH`- ++QmMi ?b #22M iF2M Q7 i?2 B/2MiB}+iBQM Q7 HQ+H bBimi2/ +iBQMb- #2+mb2 +iBQM- +iBpBiB2b M/ +iQ`b rBi?BM T`QD2+ib `2 MQi BM/2T2M/2Mi- #mi BM2ti`B+#Hv HBMF2/ BM 2TBbQ/2bX h?mb i?2`2 Bb i?2 M22/ iQ +QMi2timHBx2 i?2 T`QD2+i M/ mM/2`biM/ Bib b+QT2 U"HQK[mBbi 2i HX kyRyVX AM i?2Q`v@BM@mb2 TT`Q+?2b Bi Bb Mim`H iQ iHF #Qmi i?2 rvb M/ K2Mb Q7 +iBQMX .Bz2`2M+2b BM /2p2HQTK2Mi T`+iB+2b +M #2 /2b+`B#2/ #v Mbr2`BM; iQ i?2 [m2biBQMb r?Q- ?Qr- r?i M/ r?vX qBi? i?2b2 [m2biBQMb i?2 +iBpBiB2b Q7 i?2 /2p2HQTK2Mi +M #2 /2@ b+`B#2/- MHvb2/ M/ +QKT`2/X U_ b M2M- kyydV .2p2HQTK2Mi rQ`F +M #2 T`BK`BHv T2`+2Bp2/ b `2~2+iBp2 +iBpBiv- BM r?B+? +b2 i?2 /2p2HQTK2Mi T`Q+2bb T?b2b M/ ibFb +MMQi #2 /2i2`KBM2/ BM /pM+2X hQBFFQ M/ _MiM2M UkyyNV T`QTQb2 }p2 /2p2HQTK2Mi ibFb iQ #2 BM+Hm/2/ BM /2p2HQTK2Mi rQ`FX 6B`bi- /2p2HQTK2Mi H@ rvb `2[mB`2b DmbiB}+iBQM, r?i Bb /2p2HQT2/ M/ r?v\ a2+QM//2p2HQTK2Mi +iBpBiB2b ?p2 iQ #2 Q`;MBx2/X h?B`/- /2p2HQTK2Mi Bb +QM+`2i2 +iBQM M/ Bib MHvbBbX 6Qm`i?- 2pHmiBQM Bb HBMF2/ iQ /2p2HQTK2Mi rQ`FX 6BMHHv- i?2 /2p2HQTK2Mi HbQ BKb i i?2 /Bbb2KBMiBQM Q7 M2r b2`pB+2b M/ T`Q/m+ibX

Research methods: data collection h?Bb bim/v Bb +``B2/ Qmi b  +b2 bim/v rBi? +iBQM `2b2`+? T@ T`Q+? BM r?B+? i?2 M``iBp2 +?M;2 ++QmMiBM; UL*V M/ 2TBb@ Q/B+ BMi2`pB2rb `2 mb2/ b F2v `2b2`+? K2i?Q/bX L* Bb  K2i?Q/ 7Q` T`Q/m+BM; Q`;MBxiBQMH +?M;2 M``i@ Bp2bX h?2 BK Bb MQi QMHv iQ /2b+`B#2 i?2 T`Q;`2bb Q7 /2p2HQTK2Mi 2p2Mib #mi HbQ iQ ;Bp2 M ++QmMi Q7 ?Qr i?2 BM7Q`KMib 2tTHBM i?2B` QrM #2?pBQm` M/ KF2 Bi mM/2`biM/#H2X h?2 i?2Q`2iB+H #+F;`QmM/ Q7 L* Bb #b2/ QM bQ+BH Tbv+?QHQ;v M/ i?2Q`v Q7 bQ+BH +iBQM- +HH2/ 2i?Q;2Mv- /2p2HQT2/ #v >``û M/ a2+Q`/ M/ Hi2` 2bT2+BHHv #v >``ûX Ai BM+Hm/2b HbQ TT`Q+?2b 7`QK ?BbiQ`@ B+H `2b2`+?- KQpB2 b+`BTi M/ 2i?MQ;`T?vX UGBiBM2M- RNN3V AM 6BMHM/- L* ?b KBMHv #22M mb2/ BM /mHi 2/m+iBQM `2b2`+?X h?2 +2Mi`H +QM+2Tib Q7 L* `2 2TBbQ/2- ++QmMi M/ M2;QiB@ iBQMX q`BiBM; Q7 i?2 2TBbQ/B+ T`Q;`2bb M``iBp2 Bb i?2 }`bi bi2T




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Table 1). The data consist of nine interviews as follows: • Project group A (‘promoting media literature’): project manager and project worker • Project group B (‘virtual culture path’): project manager and two project workers • Project group C (‘media lounge’): project manager and three project 'HYHORSLQJSXEOLFOLEUDU\VHUYLFHVE\PHDQVRISURMHFWV  workers Table 1. An overview of the empirical data Phase Writing the episodic progress narrative Throughout the data collection process (spring 2009 – winter 2010)

Collecting of the accounts At the end of the data collection process (winter 2010) Negotiating about the change narrative with the interviewees

Type of data Official project meetings - field notes of researcher Project planning meetings - part of them recorded Follow-up meetings - recorded (a total of 8.5 h) Blogs of project groups Other materials – project plans, baseline surveys, memos of official project meetings, e-mail correspondence with the informants Nine individual episodic interviews with informants (a total of 34 h) - recorded and transcribed.

Development narratives of project groups to be read and commented for informants

(summer 2011)

5. DATA ANALYSIS rBi? i?2 BMi2`pB2r22b rBHH iF2 TH+2 BM bmKK2` kyRRX .2iBH2/ `2@ b2`+?The [m2biBQMb rBHH #2narratives /2`Bp2/ are 7`QK b2H2+i2/ i?2K2b 7i2` r`BiBM; episodic progress structured as follows: i?2 /2p2HQTK2Mi M``iBp2b Q7 4) 2+? T`QD2+i ;`QmTXand actions, quotes 1) date 2) place 3) what, who issues, ideas (events from the data) 5) type of data 6) episode (perceptions and thoughts of 7) themes and guiding questions of the study.

researcher’s from episode) For discussion

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Bibliography

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III

ADDENDUM


WRITING FOR WIKIPEDIA AS A LEARNING TASK IN THE SCHOOLS INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION (HUR6RUPXQHQDQG/HHQL/HKWL| 8QLYHUVLW\RI7DPSHUH )LQODQG

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Introduction AM i?Bb T`2b2MiiBQM- r2 `2TQ`i }M/BM;b Q7  TBHQi bim/v r?2`2 bim/2Mib Q7 M mTT2` b2+QM/`v b+?QQH r`Qi2 qBFBT2/B `iB+H2b b  ;`QmT bbB;MK2MiX Pm` BK rb iQ BMp2biB;i2 r?2i?2` M/ ?Qr r`BiBM; `iB+H2b 7Q` qBFBT2/B- #b2/ QM BM/2T2M/2MiHv 7QmM/ BM@ 7Q`KiBQM- b2`p2b i?2 ;QHb Q7 BM7Q`KiBQM HBi2`+v BMbi`m+iBQMX q2 HbQ rMi2/ iQ }M/ Qmi ?Qr M mi?2MiB+ H2`MBM; ibF- bm+? b r`BiBM; `iB+H2b iQ #2 Tm#HBb?2/ QM  Tm#HB+ 7Q`mK bm+? b qBFBT2@ /B- BM~m2M+2 bim/2MibǶ +QM+2TiBQM Q7 i?2B` H2`MBM; ibF- b r2HH b i?2B` TT`Q+? iQ BiX qBFBT2/B Bb #b2/ QM i?2 pQHmMi`v T`iB+BTiBQM Q7  H`;2 ;HQ#H +QKKmMBiv +QKKBii2/ iQ r`Bi2- `2r`Bi2 M/ mT/i2 Bib +QM@ i2MibX AM b+?QQH bbB;MK2Mib Bi ?b- ?Qr2p2`- #22M `2;`/2/ b M mM`2HB#H2 BM7Q`KiBQM bQm`+2 U2X;X- +?i2`KM kyy8- JQ``Bbb2ii2 kyy3V r?B+? bim/2Mib `2 /pBb2/ MQi iQ mb2X M Hi2`MiBp2 pB2r@ TQBMi Bb iQ `2;`/ qBFBT2/B b  Tm#HB+ rBFB r?2`2 bim/2Mib Kv T`iB+BTi2 BM +QHH#Q`iBp2 FMQrH2/;2 +QMbi`m+iBQMX AM BM7Q`K@ iBQM HBi2`+v UAGV BMbi`m+iBQM i?Bb K2Mb i?i i?2 7Q+mb Bb im`M2/ 7`QK BM7Q`KiBQM b22FBM; M/ +QMbmKTiBQM iQ r`BiBM; M/ `2bTQMb@ B#H2 mb2 Q7 BM7Q`KiBQM QM  Tm#HB+ 7Q`mKX qBFBT2/B ?b 2tTHB+Bi




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Research Questions R >Qr /Q bim/2MibǶ TT`Q+? M/ 2tT2`B2M+2 b+?QQH bbB;MK2Mib rBi? i?2 ;QH Q7 +QHH#Q`iBp2Hv T`Q/m+BM; i2tib iQ #2 Tm#@ HBb?2/ QM qBFBT2/B\ k >Qr /Q2b r`BiBM; i2tib 7Q` qBFBT2/B #b2/ QM BM/2T2M/2MiHv 7QmM/ BM7Q`KiBQM b2`p2 i?2 ;QHb Q7 BM7Q`KiBQM HBi2`+v BM@ bi`m+iBQM\ h?Bb bim/v rb +QM/m+i2/ b  TBHQi bim/vX AM //BiBQM iQ i?2 `2@ b2`+? [m2biBQMb- MQi?2` BKTQ`iMi ;QH Q7 i?2 bim/v rb iQ H2`M #Qmi i?2 T`Q+2bb BM Q`/2` iQ #2 #H2 iQ 7Q`KmHi2 KQ`2 7Q+mb2/ `2b2`+? [m2biBQMb 7Q` i?2 KBM bim/vX 6m`i?2`- r2 rMi2/ iQ i2bi ?Qr bmBi#H2 Qm` /i +QHH2+iBQM K2i?Q/b r2`2 BM  +Hbb`QQK 2M@ pB`QMK2MiX

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Summary of the findings Influence of Wikipedia h?2 bim/2Mib `2TQ`i2/ i?i i?2 T`QbT2+i Q7 Tm#HBb?BM; i?2B` `i@ B+H2b QM qBFBT2/B BM~m2M+2/ i?2B` rQ`F BM b2p2`H rvbX h?2v r2`2 +`27mH iQ K`F i?2B` +BiiBQMb BM  +Q``2+i KMM2`- M/ p2`B7v i?2 7+ib i?2v T`2b2Mi2/X PM2 ;`QmT /KBii2/ i?i B7 QMHv i?2 i2+?2` ?/ `2/ i?2 `iB+H2- i?2v rQmH/ MQi ?p2 #22M K`F2/ +BiiBQMb bQ +QMb+B2MiBQmbHvX hQ bb2bb `2HB#BHBiv bQK2 bim/2Mib +QKT`2/ BM7Q`KiBQM 7`QK /Bz2`2Mi bQm`+2bX q`BiBM; bivH2 rb BKTQ`iMi b i?2v T2`+2Bp2/ i?i MvQM2 +QmH/ `2/ i?2B` i2tib BM qBFBT2/BX h?2 HM;m;2 M22/2/ iQ #2 ~m2Mi- +Q``2+i- M/ bQmM/ `2HB#H2X h?2 MHvbBb Q7 `iB+H2b b2Mi2M+2@#v@b2Mi2M+2 `2p2H2/ i?i- Hi?Qm;? i?2 b?`2 Q7 +QTv@Tbi2/ b2Mi2M+2b 2t+22/2/ Ry T2`+2Mi BM irQ ;`QmTbi?2`2 rb MQ BM/B+iBQM Q7 +QTv@TbiBM; BM i?2 i2tib #v bBt Q7 i?2 2H2p2M ;`QmTbX

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IMPLICATIONS OF THE WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES FOR PUBLIC LIBRARIES INTENDING TO FACILITATE ALTERNATIVE PUBLIC DISCOURSE /HLI.DMEHUJ

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Information Science and Social Media ISSOME 2011  

Proceedings of the International Conference Information Science and Social Media ISSOME 2011, August 24-26, Åbo/Turku, Finland

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