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EDITORIAL

The green path to a clean future

T

he recent mega trends that have significantly shaped the plastics industry indicate that the demand patterns have been distinctly region-specific across the globe. These trends have been accompanied by tremendous progress in the development of new materials and products, thereby driving the formulations. Apart from the high volatility in raw material prices and the availability of some products, greenfield capacity additions for resins and finished plastic products have been the other recent industry trends amid significant shifts in technology for resin transformation. As the Asia-Pacific region, particularly India and China, emerges stronger to boost the petrochemical industry in the mid- to long-term horizon, the next phase of growth will give shape to a wider range of new-age plastics, novel end-use applications and, last but not the least, further emphasise on clean processes in line with green legislations. In particular, the plastics and polymers industry in India is all set to leverage the benefits of a fast-growing domestic market, a low-cost skilled workforce, a strong R&D pool and world-class engineering capabilities in order to attain prominence on the global map. In addition, there will be more applications of lightweight technology to save material and energy as well as the use of plastics processing technologies that benefit the environment by virtue of safer materials and processes. With rising concerns about global climate change and depleting natural resources, the growing significance of Green Business Practices (GBPs) cannot be overemphasised. In fact, GBPs seem far more pertinent to present business success as compared with merely complying with good manufacturing practices. To elaborate, it is imperative for the plastics and polymers industry to continuously strive to optimise energy usage in operations, increase the share of recyclable products in its portfolio and expand its raw material base to include bio-feedstock.

Editorial Advisory Board A E Ladhabhoy Plastics Technologist

Dr Sushil K Verma Former Director General, CIPET

Dr Swapan K Dhara Regional Technical Head, Basell Polyolefins India Pvt Ltd

Mohan K Jain MD, Indoplast & Past President, AIPMA

As several green initiatives emerge on the horizon, we bring to you in association with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization–International Center for Advancement of Manufacturing and Technology a special section in this edition. Titled ‘Green Shoots’, it offers some of the latest technologies on the green phenomenon and the eco-friendly manufacturing philosophy. It will take you closer to several green practices, products and technologies that not only have a lower impact on the environment but are also safer for company personnel. Here’s to more eco-friendly, energy-saving and economical solutions to help Indian players gain a global business edge.

P P Kharas Chairman, Ecoplast

Raman M Patel Chairman, Industrial Products Mfg Co

Vijay Merchant

Manas R Bastia manas@network18publishing.com

President, Polycraft

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers

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CONTENT S

103 Special Focus

113

Plastics in electronics................................ 114 Advanced nanomaterials................................... 116

Efficient thermoforming......... 104

Thermoforming

Conducting polymers........................................118

Thermoforming technology.... 106

Interface:

The thermoforming edge....... 108 Interface:

Sunil Jain........................ 110 S C Dutta....................... 111

Insight & Outlook Plastics in Electronic/ Electrical Appliances

Roundtable.............................. 112 May 2012 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers

. Varun Kapoor.................................... 120 . Andreas Kuechler............................... 121 Hot runners............................................... 122 GRE technology...............................................124

43

Green Shoots

42 46 50 54 58 62 66 70 74 78 82 86 90 92 96 98 100

Event Report: Green Bible for Indian SMEs Injection moulding machine: In an energy-efficient avatar Injection stretch blow moulding: Going light Hot runners in injection moulds: Channelising savings Upcoming injection moulding technologies: Co-existing at its best Solar rotational moulding: Casting in the sun! Wood plastic composites: Working together as one Zero liquid discharge technology: Creating ripples Sugarcane-derived plastics: Sweet source of packaging material Recycling polystyrene: Producing eco-friendly blocks Waste plastics in cement concrete: Leading the way Delamination of laminated packaging: A cleaner disposal process 38 Waste plastics in cement kilns: Fuelling an energy-intensive industry Waste plastics in railway sleepers: A silent journey Zero pellet loss: Clean sweep! Constraint-based planning and scheduling: Energy consumption optimisation Use of rapid prototypes: Developing component plastics

126

Advanced gear lubrication: Get into top gear

In Conversation With

Praveen Sharma Managing Director, Hinds Plastic Machines Pvt Ltd

Energy Management - Case Study Event Report

132

134

Engineering Expo Hyderabad 2013: Invoking the ‘Andhrapreneurial spirit’ for industrial leap Engineering Expo Hyderabad 2013 - Panel Discussion: Is Hyderabad ready for the industrial leap?

REGU L AR SEC T ION S

Editorial.................................. 9 Tenders................................ 129 News, Views & Analysis....... 26 Event List........................... 130 Book Review....................... 135 Technology & Innovation..... 32 Products.............................. 136 Technology Transfer.............. 34 List of Products.................. 148 Projects................................ 128 List of Advertisers............... 151 Details on pg no. 130 Note: ` stands for Indian rupee, $ stands for US dollar and £ stands for UK pound, unless mentioned otherwise

41

Green Shoots

Manufacturing Turning A New Leaf 119

Highlights of Next Edition Special Focus: Masterbatches & Additives Insight & Outlook: Paints & Coatings Cover photo courtesy: Bayer MaterialScience

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers

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Business Insights •Technologies•Opportunities

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Views and opinions expressed in this magazine are not necessarily those of Network18 Media & Investments Ltd (Network18)*, its publisher and/or editors. We at Network18 do our best to verify the information published but do not take any responsibility for the absolute accuracy of the information. Network18 does not accept the responsibility for any investment or other decision taken by readers on the basis of information provided herein. Network18 does not take responsibility for returning unsolicited material sent without due postal stamps for return postage. No part of this magazine can be reproduced without the prior written permission of the publisher. Network18 reserves the right to use the information published herein in any manner whatsoever. Printed by Mohan Gajria and published by Lakshmi Narasimhan on behalf of Network18. Senior Editor: Manas R Bastia Printed at Infomedia 18 Ltd, Plot no.3, Sector 7, off Sion-Panvel Road, Nerul, Navi Mumbai 400 706, and published at Network18, ‘A’ Wing, Ruby House, J K Sawant Marg, Dadar (W), Mumbai - 400 028. Modern Plastics & Polymers is registered with the Registrar of Newspapers of India under No. MAHENG / 2008 / 25265. Network18 does not take any responsibility for loss or damage incurred or suffered by any subscriber of this magazine as a result of his/her accepting any invitation/offer published in this edition. *Ownership of this magazine stands transferred from Infomedia18 Ltd (Infomedia18) to Network18 Media & Investments Ltd (Network18) in pursuance of the scheme of arrangement between Network18 and Infomedia18 and their respective shareholders and creditors, as approved by the Hon’ble High Court of Delhi and the necessary approval of Ministry of Information and Broadcasting is being obtained.

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers

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MPP Tab-2 July_2013 Ad Name: Alok, Pg No. 15


MPP Tab-2 July_2013 Ad Name: HPMC, Pg No. 16


NEWS, VIEWS & ANALYSIS

ETAD board elects Indian MD as President for second consecutive term

Ecological and Toxicological Association of Dyes and Organic Pigments Manufacturers (ETAD), an international consortium of specialty chemical companies, has unanimously re-elected Ravi Kapoor, Managing Director of Vadodara-based Heubach Colour Pvt Ltd, as President of the organisation for the current financial year. The decision to re-elect Kapoor was unanimously taken by members of the ETAD board at the recently concluded General Assembly at Istanbul, Turkey. Addressing board members at the General Assembly Meeting, Kapoor, said, “ETAD has played a proactive role in creating awareness by organising seminars in the Indian state of Gujarat to sensitise dyes & pigments

industries on ecology & toxicology issues, chemical testing and sustainability & responsible care initiatives. ETAD has played an important role in the setting up of the Environmental Sustainability Committee, under the aegis of the Government of Gujarat. Further, the recently concluded Vibrant Gujarat 2013 Summit witnessed the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between ETAD and the State Government, wherein ETAD will work in close cooperation with the Government of Gujarat to promote sustainable practices in the dyes & pigments industry as well as assist in bringing technologies for waste treatment.” Speaking on ETAD’s global agenda for the current year, he said, “At the international level, ETAD is committed towards mobilising efforts to enforce

Injection Moulding & Blow Moulding International Conference 2013 to be held in Mumbai

Chemicals & Petrochemicals Manufacturers Association (CPMA) and ElitePlus++ Business Services will be organising the Injection Moulding & Blow Moulding International Conference 2013 on 25–26 July 2013 at The Lalit Intercontinental, Mumbai. The conference has been structured as a two-day programme. Day One is dedicated to injection moulding, while the focus of Day Two is on blow moulding/Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET). Elaborating on this conference, Core Committee Member, Kamal P Nanavaty, President – Strategic Development, Reliance Industries Ltd, said, “This conference is intended to foster synergies in this sector and is intended to initiate a trajectory in motion for geometric growth therein. We are forecasting an attendance of over 350 delegates.” Some of the renowned speakers at the event will include Ajay Shah, Head – Polymers, Reliance Industries Ltd; Mahendra Patel, President, Plastic Machinery Manufacturers Association of India; Tarmo Raudsepp, VP – Marketing Centre Moulding, Borouge Pvt Ltd; Anshu Bagai, MD, Tupperware; Vimal Kedia, MD, Manjushree Technopack Ltd; Vagish Dixit, MD, ALPLA India Pvt Ltd and B Arun, Senior Executive – VP, Reliance Industries Ltd. Domain-specific discussions, panel discussions & debates, longterm networking opportunities and best practices sharing will be the hallmark of this conference.

26

Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

Ravi Kapoor regulations on dyes & pigments companies across the globe for environment protection and sustainable development. On behalf of global dyes & pigments industry, ETAD has regular representation in countries’ policy making initiatives towards Environment, Health & Safety (EHS) regulations.” Avani Jain

Ferromatik Milacron India ships largest India-built Elektron 450 Ton to the US

Ferromatik Milacron India (FMI) has achieved yet another high point by successfully shipping its largest India-built Elektron 450 Ton, all-electric Injection Moulding Machine (IMM) to the US from its Ahmedabad facility. This IMM is the first and largest all-electric IMM built by any manufacturer in the country and is a landmark achievement in the Indian plastics machinery industry. This puts India and FMI on the high ground to further serve the Indian and global plastics injection moulding fraternity by providing large tonnage allelectric IMMs. Elektron is a product of Milacron’s years of innovation in all-electric injection moulding technology, developed by the global engineering team. It is manufactured to serve a full range of applications, viz medical, packaging, electrical & electronics, telecommunications etc. The salient features of the fast and reliable Elektron are energy efficiency, high productivity, outstanding

Elektron 450 Ton value, environment-friendly, ideal for clean room operations, parallel movements for optimal cycle times and minimal rejects with maximum repeatability. It is ideal for reliable production of high-precision parts. This green machine was launched by FMI last year during its Open House from 11 to 13 October 2012 at its manufacturing facility in Ahmedabad. Shirish Divgi, Managing Director, FMI, said, “We are very enthralled to ship the largest allelectric IMM - Elektron 450 Ton to the US, which helps us to serve on a larger base to the Indian as well as global injection moulding industry. It gives us a sense of fulfilment and opportunity to grow along with the Indian as well as global plastics industry.”


NEWS, VIEWS & ANALYSIS

ELPIE Engineers to launch energyefficient thermoforming machine

Headquartered in Rajkot, ELPIE Engineers Pvt Ltd will be launching its new series of thermoforming machines Form-eLP series - at 9th Plastivision India 2013. The model LPF 6535 2S with a forming area of 650 × 350 mm has servo controls. This energy-efficient machine with higher output is slated to break the monopoly in the market in this particular segment and promote healthy competition among suppliers. Specialised in building high-performance polypropylene non-woven single and multiple spunbond lines, composite lines and customised high-performance tools for sheet extruders and thermoforming

LANXESS inaugurates Asia’s most modern butyl rubber plant in Singapore

At an official ceremony attended by about 400 guests, LANXESS recently inaugurated its new butyl rubber plant in Jurong Island, Singapore. The specialty chemicals company has invested approximately € 400 million in the plant, which will have a capacity of 100,000 metric tonne. The plant will create about 160 highly qualified new jobs that will mainly be filled locally. The facility is the most modern of its kind in Asia and will produce premium halobutyl rubber and regular butyl rubber. The butyl rubber facility in Singapore went into operation in the first quarter of 2013. Commercial production will start in the third quarter of this year. The facility is expected to achieve full capacity in 2015. During the opening ceremony, Axel C Heitmann, LANXESS’ Chairman of the Board of Management, said, “This is the largest investment in the company’s history and underlines the importance of Asia as a location for our synthetic rubber business. We have clearly built this plant with the future of mobility in mind because we think and act long-term.” The butyl rubber business unit is part of LANXESS’ Performance Polymers segment, which recorded sales of € 5.2 billion in 2012. 28

Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

machines of repute, ELPIE Engineers Pvt Ltd looks forward to doing its bit for green manufacturing. Jaydeep Aghera, President, ELPIE Engineers Pvt Ltd, said, “Our new thermoforming machine with servo controls will help in achieving higher output which in turn will save power. Further, we are using standard bought outs which would reduce the start-up energy loss, which is crucial in plastics extrusion machinery.” At present, since the biggest cost for a manufacturer is labour after energy cost, the company has developed the technology of auto stacking of containers which reduces labour requirement drastically. This is an optional feature that the company would be offering customers. Sweta M Nair

Prasad Group focusses on expanding global dealership network

Ahmedabad-based Prasad Group, known for producing world-class plastics processing machines, is now increasingly focussing on expanding its global dealership network due to the rising competition in the market. Rajiv Trivedi, Vice President – Marketing, Prasad Group, said, “In order to expand our current business, we are expanding our dealership network. We would like to invoke dealership enquiries from regions in East Africa, West Africa, Middle East and SAARC countries. There are ample of opportunities in these countries as the per capita consumption of plastics is very low. We intend to supply all types of machines we manufacture through this dealership network.” To expand its reach beyond the Indian subcontinent, the company is looking forward to establishing a firmer footprint in the global terrain. When talking about striking up a dealership network, Trivedi added, “We would be interested to have on board dealers who possess the awareness of local market demand and the competitors’ position and activities. The dealer should have ample product knowledge and rich experience in the plastics industry, and should be sound and stable in its strategising plans.” Avani Jain

Monachem develops nano-based solutions for the plastics industry

Monachem Additives Pvt Ltd has developed Nanoadd® nano-based solutions for the plastics industry. This would be launched during the 9th Plastivision India 2013 exhibition that will be held in Mumbai. Shamik Shah, Vice President – Sales & Marketing, Monachem Additives Pvt Ltd, said, “The key features of this product are highly platy morphology, leading to higher aspect ratio; unique combination of polar and apolar functionalities, leading to affinity with a wide range of macromolecules; mean particle size of 0.095–0.130 μm for different grades; specific surface area of 80–120 m2/gm and customised surface treatment for different applications.” The advantages include reinforcement of polyolefin compounds, leading to higher stiffness and strength with better impact strength lightweight compounds; lightweight and better aesthetics and improvement in thermal, barrier and fire-retardant properties. Nanoadd will also help in reinforcement of polyamide compounds, leading to higher stiffness and strength with retention of impact strength; better performance in humid environment due to lower moisture absorption; easier injection moulding; lower adhesion to mould surface and replacement of glass-filled compounds. Shah said, “When it comes to usage, then in the automotive sector, this product could be helpful for downgauging, improving tensile, flexural impact strength and lowering the weight of the component. In packaging, its usage can lead to improvement of barrier properties, clarity and mechanical properties. In the wire & cable industry, it can help in the improvement of fire-retardant properties.” Avani Jain


NEWS, VIEWS & ANALYSIS

Oil India Ltd (OIL) to acquire 49 per cent equity in Assam Petrochemicals Ltd

In a strategic move, Oil India Ltd (OIL) is set to acquire 49 per cent equity in Assam Petrochemicals Ltd (APL), credited to be the first company in India to manufacture petrochemicals using natural gas as feedstock. A deal with the Assam Government, which holds majority stake in the company through Assam Industrial Development Corporation Ltd (AIDC), is likely by October. The Assam Government currently holds 88.2 per cent stake in AIDC, while domestic institutions and others hold the remaining stake. The Union Government-controlled OIL would bring in the muchneeded equity infusion of about ` 230 crore in the company. It will also partly fund a ` 1,030-crore investment in building a new petrochemical plant at Namrup in Assam. OIL already has stakes in Brahmaputra Cracker and Petrochemicals Ltd (BCPL), a joint venture with GAIL India, the Assam Government and Numaligarh Refinery Ltd.

Windsor machines acquires Italy’s Italtech

India’s largest plastics processing machinery maker, Windsor Machines has acquired a majority stake in Italian injection moulding machine maker Italtech. Windsor’s Dutch subsidiary Wintech BV will own 80 per cent of Italtech, with the remainder owned by Geoplast, an Italian plastics processor and Italtech’s sister company. The deal will give Windsor a foothold in the automotive sector. It will also help the company grow the size and range of its offerings. 30

Clariant launches new brand for polymer additives solutions

Clariant, a world leader in specialty chemicals, recently launched AddWorks™, its new brand for polymer additives solutions, consisting of AddWorks, applicationoriented solutions specifically designed by segments of the plastics industry, and AddWorks LXR, a new range of polymer additives designed to provide particular effects in a wide variety of applications. AddWorks is developed by matching the needs of companies’ engineering technologies for polymerisation, polymer producers, compounders and even converters. It addresses customer requirements in a comprehensive but specific way. AddWorks’ tailored formulations bring a fundamental change in providing multiple benefits such as improved productivity, stability and durability of converted parts or protection of manufactured articles during the process, delivering features that are precious to Clariant’s customers. Ernesto Dongiovanni, Head – Marketing, Polymer Additives, Clariant, commented, “AddWorks is all about making it simple for customers. We want to provide a solution that works and fits our customers’ needs in order to contribute to their success.” Italtech makes large-tonnage twoplaten machines with 800–8,000 tonne clamping force. Thus, Windsor would now be able to offer a complete range of products ranging from 50 to 8,000 tonne. T S Rajan, Chief Operating Officer, Windsor Machines Ltd, said, “With most of the global auto giants entering into the Indian market, this acquisition would give Windsor a platform to gain a strong foothold in this segment. This acquisition will also give Windsor a base in Europe and will help in expanding our exports in the European market.”

Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

Shini launches new range of energy-saving dryers

Energy-saving dryer Shini Plastics Technologies India Pvt Ltd recently unveiled its new range of energy-saving compact dryer SCD-ES. The dryer combines dehumidifying, drying and conveying, all into one unit. It employs an advanced honeycomb rotor as adsorbent and achieves dry air with stable low dew-point temperature. Unlike the traditional cylinder or disctype molecular sieve, the honeycomb rotor does not age and produce particles, which can be blown to the material tank and cause contamination. The drying hopper is designed with a down-blowing structure with which the hot air is evenly dispersed from bottom up and helps quickly dry the material. These are suitable for processing engineering plastics with high hygroscopicity, eg polyamide, polycarbonate, polybutylene terephthalate and polyethylene terephthalate. Features of this new range include Settable dew-point temperature: The dew-point temperature can be set according to raw material needs. This reduces the power consumption by up to 10 per cent and prevents the raw material from overdrying, which may result in reduced performance of the final product. Programmable variable drying capacity function: The drying capacity can be pre-programmed for different raw materials and fed into the machine by selecting the raw material and the dosage per hour, saving up to 40 per cent energy. Return-air heat exchangers: The heat exchangers on the intake air line of both dryer and dehumidifier pre-heats the inlet air, recycling the heat and results in energy savings of up to 20 per cent. Thus, the whole unit results in overall savings of up to 70 per cent.


TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION

Australian research transforms green polymer landscape

Biomolecular engineers at the University of Sydney, Australia, have created CO 2-based Polypropylene Carbonate (PPC) polymers that they claim will transform the biodegradable polymer industry. The solvent-free technology at the heart of the process will have a broad range of uses from recyclable shopping bags to medical implants. The project’s aim is to minimise reliance on fossil fuels and address the current problems with commercial production of sustainable bioplastic PPC starch, not just in Australia but globally. The synthetic polymer can be used as an alternative for a range of biomedical applications such as musculoskeletal tissue engineering and drug delivery. The biomimetic product could be used to treat bone diseases such as osteoporosis and musculoskeletal injuries.

Cotton peel ply from Attwater

UK-based laminates maker Attwater has found a new use for peel ply to facilitate easier bonding with phenolic cotton laminates. This innovation has been created in Attwater’s in-house product laboratory, and it extends an existing product category of peel ply on epoxy glass to include phenolic-based laminates. The cotton top layer is peeled off to reveal a rough surface that produces better adhesive bonding than a glossy as-pressed surface. By having a peel ply layer, the rough surface can be exposed immediately prior to applying the adhesive, reducing the potential for surface contamination. In addition, the customer can have a rough surface only when required. Unlike a machined rough surface, there is no dust produced and the wastage is less. It has wide-ranging implications across many industries and makes the engineering process cleaner and more efficient for companies currently buying material that has been prepared using traditional methods. The use of a peel ply layer is more economical and technically advantageous, and it is also better for the environment. 32

Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

BASF shows hollow but hefty PA

BASF has expanded its assortment of Polyamide (PA) grades that have been optimised for the use of Water Injection Technology (WIT) in injection moulding. The new WIT grades are Ultramid A3HG6 WIT Balance and Ultramid A3WG7 WIT. Thanks to WIT, hollow plastic parts – fluidcarrying lines that require a very good inner surface – can be produced by injection moulding. These two materials are now available in commercial quantities. Because of its improved hydrolysis resistance, the PA Ultramid A3HG6 WIT Balance is suited for components that carry coolant or that come into contact with water. At the same time, the content of PA 6.10 in this material makes it resistant to stress cracking by calcium chloride, so the new material meets the more stringent requirements for resisting damage from road salt containing the compound. Ultramid A3WG7 WIT is a PA grade reinforced with 35 per cent glass fibre. It is intended for tubes that carry oil (eg a car engine’s dipstick tube) or for other components that have to meet high demands in terms of oil resistance, stiffness and dimensional stability. Both new materials are particularly suited to WIT processing. Ultramid A3HG6 WIT is particularly suited to WIT applications such as cooling water pipes because it is hydrolysis-resistant.

Innovative film for glasses-free 3D

Singapore’s Temasek Polytechnic and IMRE have developed a nanoengineered screen protector for smartphones and tablet computers that turn ordinary screens into 3D displays and can be viewed with the naked eye. The film is produced using rollto-toll nanoimprint technology. An Ultraviolet (UV)-curable resin is dispensed onto a Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) film substrate. This composite film is then passed between a roller mould and pressure rollers before being cured by a UV lamp and taken of the mould by a demoulding roller. This process creates thousands of tiny lenses in an area the size of a smartphone screen with a thickness of less than 0.1 mm. The filter is essentially a piece of plastic film with about half a million perfectly shaped lenses engineered onto its surface using IMRE’s proprietary nanoprinting technology. The EyeFly 3D system creates minimal distortion, with 2D picture quality akin to that of a smartphone with an ordinary protective film covering. EyeFly 3D, a glasses-free 3D accessory, displays content in both landscape and portrait modes.


TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION

Vencorex launches bio-based aliphatic isocyanate polymer

France-based Vencorex has launched a new, partially bio-based, solvent-free a l i p h a t i c isocyanate polymer, Tolonate X Flo 100. The new pol ymer provides low viscosity in formulations and properties that make it ideal for polyurethane and polyurea materials. It exhibits extremely low viscosity at 100 per cent solids, enhancing flow and levelling properties. It is also suitable for use in low Volatile Organic Compound (VOC), solvent-free coatings in the automotive industry as well as for use in polyurea coatings. Made of 25 per cent renewable material, Tolonate X Flo 100 has a unique structure based on hexamethylene diissocyanate. The company claims the material is particularly designed to produce solvent-free polyurethane and polyurea materials and/or to reduce VOC emissions of polyurethane formulations. It can be used in a variety of polyurethane and polyurea materials as a crosslinker, a reactive diluent in two pack (2K) system or as a building block for resin and polymer design.

Bayer PC material protects firefighters

KZPT, the Poland-based manufacturer of safety equipment for firefighters, is using the transparent and heat-resistant PC grade Apec FR 1892 from Bayer MaterialScience to make the visors for

New Perspex Impressions

Lucite International has added Perspex Impressions to the Perspex portfolio of acrylic materials. The textured acrylic has been developed to meet the emerging trend for greater depth and texture in materials. It is claimed that the material has been created to appeal to designers, architects, brands, retailers and shop fitters seeking a material with a unique look and feel. The Perspex Impressions ‘Linear’ design is embedded with a contemporary pattern of long, irregular vertical lines, interwoven at right angles with horizontal lines. The company claims that the material is hard wearing enough to withstand a busy retail environment and that the pattern cannot be rubbed or scratched off or delaminated. The Perspex Impressions Linear range has a choice of nine colours – post-box red, verdant green, exuberant purple, graphite grey, chocolate brown, deep black, clear, opal/white and glass-look.

its fire helmets. Apec FR 1892 includes a Flame Retardant (FR) and has good heat resistance. It satisfies European standard EN 443:2008, which specifies requirements for the protective function of fire helmets, stipulating that the visor must keep flames, heat and sparks away from the wearer’s face. Apec is shatter resistant and thermally stable, important prerequisites for use in protective helmets. The firefighter’s face is thus provided with the best possible protection against flying debris.

Wittmann Battenfeld introduces MacroPower E Hybrid press

Wittmann Battenfeld introduces a new MacroPower E Hybrid press. The large-tonnage, two-platen MacroPower E Hybrid combines an all-electric injection unit with servohydraulic drive for the clamping and nozzle movements. The hydraulic pump is an electrically adjustable axial piston pump with a variable displacement volume. It responds to the demand of the clamping unit, as the delivery is controlled by the motor speed and the pivoting angle of the hydraulic pump. In this way, the optimal relationship between the pump’s efficiency and the motor speed gets calculated for every operating point, thus saving energy. The machine boasts injection speeds of up to 450 mm/sec.

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers

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TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

Technology Offered As part of our endeavour to spread the technology culture, this section provides a means to promote and facilitate exchange of select technologies. We strive to bring together suppliers of such technologies with suitable users for negotiations and industrial collaboration. Biodegradable polymers

A company offers biopolymer nanoparticle technology based on cost-effective biodegradable & biocompatible polyolefins, copolymer of ethylene & vinyl acetate and thermoplastic starch blend nanocomposites. These nanocomposites have improved mechanical properties with zero moisture content.

Areas of application

Packaging materials, disposable non-wovens, hygiene products, consumer goods, agricultural & horticultural tools and medical instruments

Forms of transfer

Technology licensing

Conversion of batch-poly plant to C P plant

A company from China is interested in providing consultancy services for the modification of batch-poly plant to C P plant such as polyester plant, polyester chip or direct spinning.

Areas of application

Chemical fibres and plastics

Forms of transfer Turnkey

New and rebuilt screw and barrels for all-plastic extruders

An India-based company is manufacturing screw and barrels for all-plastic extruders and is efficiently rebuilding worn out screws. It is making an energy-efficient washing and drying plant for all-plastic waste. It employs the most cost-effective and efficient washing and drying units for plastic scrap.

Areas of application

Plastics manufacturing and plastic waste recycling units 34

Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

Forms of transfer

Forms of transfer

Pilot plants for small-scale production

Rotational moulding of plastics

Equipment supply and turnkey

A Chinese company is interested in offering small capacity technology for a wide variety of plants such as polyester plant, polyester chip or direct spinning.

Areas of application

Chemical fibres and plastics

Forms of transfer Turnkey

Plastic lightguide fibres

A Chinese R&D institute offers to supply the technology of plastic lightguide fibres and handicraft articles made from it. Plastic lightguide fibres are cylindrical fibres with core-clad structure made of two highly transparent polymers, the advantages of which are excellent light transmission, good toughness, lightweight and easy to process and use.

Areas of application

Photoelectric switches, photosensitive elements, linear accommodation networks, short-distance optical communications and medical & dental devices

Forms of transfer

Technology licensing and equipment supply

Polyester chip plant

A company from China offers polyester production plant, polycondensation plant, polymerisation line, hot-melt adhesive plant (500–5,000 TPA), polyester chip plant (2,000–1,50,000 TPA) and film-grade polyester plant (2,000–1,50,000 TPA).

Areas of application

Polymerisation and fibre lines

Technology licensing and turnkey An India-based company, a leading manufacturer of rotational moulding machines, offers plant and machinery for manufacture of water storage tanks and other hollow plastic parts. Rotational moulding is low-cost technology to manufacture large-sized plastic items. It can be used to manufacture water storage tanks of capacity 500–30,000 litre.

Areas of application

Water storage tanks, material handling trolleys, pallets, containers, chemical storage tanks etc

Forms of transfer

Supply of equipment

Waste plastics conversion

A company offers plant technology for converting non-recyclable waste plastics into industrial fuel, which is more sustainable as compared to conventional industrial fuels such as furnace oil or light diesel oil. The company supplies technology to serious clients, who would like to get their waste plastics tested at a demo plant. The plant can be customised for specific requirements. Municipal bodies, industries involved in generation of non-recyclable plastic scrap, plastic scrap dealers who have access to non-recyclable cheap plastic scrap and entrepreneurs are encouraged.

Areas of application

Plastics scrap recycling for industrial fuel generation

Forms of transfer

Consultancy, joint venture, technology licensing, turnkey


TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

Technology Requested Disposal and recycling of plastic waste

Plastic recycling technologies

A Polish company seeks the technology for dry processing of all kinds of plastic wastes or a magnetic processing method in the electrostatic field. The technology should allow sorting of all kinds of plastic materials, hay-silage foils, PET, HDPE, PVC etc by excluding dangerous waste.

A Sri Lankan company is seeking latest plastic recycling technologies for automatic sorting, washing, metal detection, granulation process system, washing plants, crushers, extruders etc.

Plastics industry, waste recycling, waste management

Others

Forms of transfer

Polyacetal resins

Others

A Gulf-based organisation wants to promote projects in the chemicals and petrochemicals sectors in the countries of Gulf Cooperation Council. It is looking for technology suppliers for the manufacture of polyacetal resins.

Areas of application

Laboratory-scale non-woven and monofilament plant An Indian company is looking for a laboratory-scale, non-woven and monofilament plant in a single station.

Areas of application Plastics recycling

Forms of transfer

Areas of application

Areas of application Plastics and polymers industry

Forms of transfer Others

Recycled plastic-making technology A Vietnam-based company requires technology for recycling plastics. Diameter of recycled plastic granules is 120–200 mm. Production capacity is 150–300 kg/hr. The technology is to be used for manufacturing plastic products in an eco-friendly manner, with a lowered cost by allowing optimum use of waste.

Areas of application

Raw materials for making plastic products

Forms of transfer Others

Chemicals/petrochemicals industry

Utilisation of natural rubber in asphalt

Others

Feasibility study, know-how, equipment, turnkey plant, joint venture

PET polyester polyols

Recycled PET polyester polyols plant

An Indian trading-based company is planning a small-scale project for PET polyester polyols manufacturing. The company will procure recycled PET flakes locally, and it already has available land of 28,000 sq ft for manufacturing.

A Poland-based company specialising in recycled PET polyester polyols manufacturing is looking for an alternative proposal of design and engineering of a bigger (approximately 25 kilo tonne per annum) production plant. It plans to start with delivering proper, quality recycled PET flakes in big bags. Therefore, the company requires a complete package offer for this service.

A Pakistan-based company requires know-how on utilisation of natural rubber in modified asphalt covering. It requires standards and specifications guiding the use of natural rubber in modified asphalt, appropriate proportion of natural rubber in mixture, handling of the operation, additives needed and details on improvement in asphalt properties by using natural rubber.

Areas of application Plastics

Forms of transfer

Areas of application Polyols

Forms of transfer Others

Forms of transfer

Areas of application Rubber industry

Forms of transfer Others

Information courtesy: Dr Krishnan S Raghavan, In-Charge, Technology Transfer Services Group, Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology (APCTT) of United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP), APCTT Building, C-2, Qutab Institutional Area, New Delhi 110 016, Tel: 011-3097 3758 (Direct), 011-3097 3710 (Board), Fax: 011 - 2685 6274, Email: srinivasaraghavan@un.org, Website: www.apctt.org For more information on technology offers and requests, please log on to www.technology4sme.net and register with your contact details. This is a free of cost platform provided by APCTT for facilitating interaction between buyers and seekers of technologies across the globe. After submitting technology offer or request to this website, you are requested to wait for at least two weeks for receiving a response from a prospective buyer/seeker through this website, before contacting APCTT for further assistance.

Share and Solicit Technology

The mission of Modern Plastics & Polymers is to spread the technology culture. Here is an opportunity to be a part of this endeavour by sending your technology on offer or technology requirements. If you belong to any of these two categories, you are invited to furnish the techno-commercial details for publication. The write-up needs to be as per the format of this section with information about the particular technology offered or requested, its areas of application and forms of transfer. Contact: Modern Plastics and Polymers Network18 Media & Investments Ltd, ‘A’ Wing, Ruby House, J K Sawant Marg, Dadar (W), Mumbai 400 028. Tel: 022-3003 4671 • Fax: 022-3003 4499 • Email: spedit@network18publishing.com

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Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013


IN CONVERSATION WITH: Praveen Sharma

“INDIAN

INJECTION MOULDERS HAVE THE UNIQUE

ADVANTAGE OF OFFERING QUALITY AT ATTRACTIVE

PRICES”

...avers Praveen Sharma, Managing Director, Hinds Plastic Machines Pvt Ltd. In an interaction with Anwesh Koley, he explains why India is poised to be a global player in the injection moulding industry and the key concerns that need to be addressed by processors. How is the injection moulding industry shaping up in India?

The injection moulding industry in India is gearing up to embrace international standards with a definite cost advantage. It is important for Indian machinery manufacturers to have the latest and advanced equipment with features such as energy-efficient servo motors at an affordable price. The industry must strive towards providing customers the latest technology with superior features that are reliable and low on machine maintenance. Few such machines are closed loop machines, which ensure 38

Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

repeatability with minimum rejection and energy saving up to 40–60 per cent depending on the moulding parameters, hence giving a higher production rate at lower cost. The key challenges faced by the injection moulding industry are to compete globally, to upgrade technology and to offer excellent quality and cost-effective solutions with higher production rate.

Being in this industry for more than a decade, what is your outlook towards the sector?

The injection moulding industry is

quite positive overall, but the current demand for injection moulding machines varies according to the different sectors that use injection moulded parts. In the automobile sector, the demand has decreased in the last three to four months as the overall economic growth has shown signs of slowing down. However, if we consider the field of commodity plastics and packaging, then the demand is quite high. In this sector, the demand is regularly increasing and has shown a good scope for injection moulding machines. The market is very competitive, and therefore, every player


Praveen Sharma

is conscious about the existing price and quality.

What are the key reasons for the growth of the injection moulding industry?

The injection moulding industry in India has grown at a high rate in the last few decades. Most sectors use plastics or things related to plastics, and today, plastics play a major role in everyone’s life, whether it is household items, an engineering item or automobile parts. As compared to other developed countries, in India, there is a large scope of growth for the injection moulding industry. At present, the per capita usage of plastics is about 5–6 kg, whereas the per capita usage of plastics is about 14–15 kg in developed countries. Therefore, this industry has much potential to grow further. However, the competition is also increasing with time, which reduces the profit margin of companies operating in this domain. Various Research & Development (R&D) initiatives in sectors such as agriculture have also bolstered the growth of injection moulding. Drip irrigation systems and various other new tools used in farming have opened new channels and avenues for injection moulding. In India, there is still a large segment of industries that use manual or hand-operated machines or semiautomatic machines. However, most manufacturers have now gone into the conversion mode towards more modern automatic programmable logic controlled machines.

What are the latest innovations witnessed by the industry?

If we talk about the developments in this sector, manufacturers had started this journey from hand moulding or semi-automatic machines and moved to all-electric machines. A lot of developments have been witnessed by this sector whether it is in the field of polymers, moulds, injection moulding machines, auxiliary equipment or plant automation. Major developments in

this or any other sector are focussed on saving energy and optimising costs. The latest developments are in biopolymers and green plastics, which are environment-friendly. Following similar grounds, machine manufacturers are also making machines that reduce wastage, have lower noise levels and are highly energy efficient and environment-friendly. D ue to advancements in polymer science and developments in engineering plastics, most parts are converted from aluminium to plastic, which results in lower cost and lightweighting with more durability of the parts. These components play a major role in the automobile sector and help in improving fuel efficiency and reducing cost.

What is the extent of automation applied and the energy-efficient standards in the industry?

Speed and accuracy dominate the list of requirements in the plastics processing sector. Manufacturers have to be well aware of the latest technology around the world in order to offer customised solutions to customers. Today, we lay more emphasis on energy-efficient, maintenance-free, high responsive machines. The current genre of injection moulding machines comes with a servo motor-driven pump in place of a normal induction motor and saves 20–60 per cent energy depending on the cycle time and other conditions. In addition, because of the availability of advanced hydraulics and energy-efficient solutions, the hydraulic clamping machine, which has low maintenance and long life, is more adopted as compared to the toggle-type clamping machine. In the field of injection moulding machines, automation plays a major role to increase production and to ensure accurate moulding. Without automation, manufacturing energy-efficient machines would not be possible. The current crop of injection moulding machines is highly energy efficient, being equipped with hydraulic pumps driven

by servo motors – permanent magnet motors – which save energy up to 40–60 per cent depending on the moulding parameters.

What are the challenges faced by the injection moulding industry?

The main challenge faced by injection moulding machines manufacturers in India is to compete with international brands and Chinese machine manufacturers. Most materials used in making the machine, except for raw materials, are imported, whether it is the servo system, programmable logic controller or advance hydraulics or robotics. After payment of customs and duties, the parts become more expensive, which affects the overall pricing of machines and tools. These are eventually unable to compete in the international market. Furthermore, there is no provision by the government to promote small and medium scale entrepreneurs. There are no definite schemes to provide infrastructure or for the procurement of raw materials at subsidised rates. These make it difficult for small and emerging businesses to survive in the market.

What are the key advantages enjoyed by Indian injection moulders?

Indian injection moulders have the unique advantage of offering quality at attractive prices. Indian moulders also have a substantial cost advantage over their Chinese counterparts. While Chinese manufacturers lay stress on sales, we also offer high-quality services that form the backbone of long-term commitments. While the availability of skilled labour remains an area of concern, India boasts of one of the most economic workforce in the world. This has attracted numerous global players to the country and with steady influx of capital. We can expect great quality, great price and a healthy business environment in the future. Email: anwesh.koley@network18publishing.com

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers

39


Green Shoots

Event Report:

Green Bible for Indian SMEs ..............................................................................................................................42

Injection moulding machine:

Recycling polystyrene:

Injection stretch blow moulding:

Waste plastics in cement concrete:

In an energy-efficient avatar ................................ 46 Going light............................................................ 50

Hot runners in injection moulds:

Channelising savings ............................................ 54

Upcoming injection moulding technologies:

Co-existing at its best............................................58

Solar rotational moulding:

Casting in the sun! ............................................... 62

Wood plastic composites:

Working together as one ...................................... 66

Zero liquid discharge technology:

Creating ripples......................................................70

Sugarcane-derived plastics:

Sweet source of packaging material ......................74

Producing eco-friendly blocks .............................. 78 Leading the way ................................................... 82

Delamination of laminated packaging:

A cleaner disposal process .................................... 86

Waste plastics in cement kilns:

Fuelling an energy-intensive industry .................. 90

Waste plastics in railway sleepers:

A silent journey..................................................... 92

Zero pellet loss:

Clean sweep! ......................................................... 96

Constraint-based planning and scheduling:

Energy consumption optimisation ....................... 98

Use of rapid prototypes:

Developing component plastics .......................... 100

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers

41


e l b i B Green While opting for eco-friendly technologies has been gathering momentum lately, the ground reality concerning green continues to remain grim. Amid the loud green talk, there are a few companies who are actually practicing rather than just proclaiming their environment-friendly manufacturing techniques. As a step towards encouraging sustainable development and promoting the cause of green manufacturing among Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in India, UNIDO ICAMT and Network 18 Publishing joined hands to present ‘GreenShoots – Manufacturing Turning A New Leaf’. Launched at The Lalit, New Delhi, on May 2, 2013, ‘GreenShoots – Manufacturing Turning A New Leaf’ is a compendium of techniques, technologies and case studies of green practices that manufacturers in machine tools, plastics and foundry have innovated and imbibed. A report… 42

Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

s E M S n a for Indi

Ayumi Fujino, UNIDO Representative in India & Regional Director for South Asia; Arun Maira, Member, Planning Commission, Government of India and Jamshyd N Godrej, Chairman & MD, Godrej & Boyce Manufacturing Company Ltd at the launch of ‘GreenShoots – Manufacturing Turning A New Leaf’

Arindam Ghosh

T

he growing concerns about depleting energy resources and incessant warnings of global warming are compelling companies to shift to eco-friendly manufacturing techniques. Although its successful implementation is evident in the manufacturing practices of multinational

companies, there are some Indian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) that have implemented these techniques and are reaping their competitive benefits. In an attempt to make this knowledge widespread and accessible, a compendium titled ‘GreenShoots – Manufacturing Turning A New Leaf,’ has been compiled by United Nations Industrial Development Organization -


Green Shoots

Arun Maira, flanked by Ayumi Fujino (left) and Jamshyd N Godrej (right), shares his opinions with the audience (extreme right)

International Center for Advancement of Manufacturing Technolog y (UNIDO ICAMT) and published by Network 18 Publishing. Featuring 42 case studies from the machine tools, plastics and foundry sectors, the compendium was unveiled by Arun Maira, Member, Planning Commission, Government of India; Ayumi Fujino, UNIDO Representative in India & Regional Director for South Asia and Jamshyd N Godrej, Chairman & MD, Godrej & Boyce Manufacturing Company Ltd. Speaking at the occasion, Fujino said, “The main motivation towards creating such a compendium is to facilitate information and technology exchange between companies. In GreenShoots, the accompanying case studies with each of the discussed ‘green’ technologies ensure that companies realise that these measures are indeed implementable.”

Enlightening panel discussion To further shed light on the importance of green manufacturing, the unveiling ceremony for the compendium was soon followed by a panel discussion, which was moderated by Godrej. At the panel discussion, Godrej expressed, “The major challenges for industries of all sizes have been growth and sustainability. I believe that innovation, together with sustainability, is becoming a cornerstone for many companies, especially for SMEs. Products that are developed nowadays are being examined from the perspective of being recyclable and reusable.” Substantiating his thoughts on the

Ayumi Fujino (left) and Jamshyd N Godrej (right) write an inspirational message on the green compendium

importance of green, Godrej highlighted that the US alone can save $ 40 billion every year in energy and other resource costs, if they adopt green buildings. Further elaborating on the subject, Maira said that SMEs have been the leaders in innovation. They have offered many successful recycled products, which have been made using recycled materials. “The rate of innovation and usage of materials is so rapid that we will need to have a paradigm shift in our manufacturing capacity. We have to define sustainability. Once we do this, our carbon footprint will be reduced and we will become smarter consumers. In my opinion, going green will be profitable for any business. To support the growth of China and India for the next 30 years, we will need another earth. We have to

promote a sustainable world instead of mere growth,” he averred. Giving a perspective of the initiatives taken by UNIDO, Fujino said, “We are trying to look into the challenges (related to finance, technology, infrastructure, etc) that SMEs have to face in terms of being sustainable so that we can help them move forward. We are jointly working with many SMEs and industry associations along with the government to devise a framework, where a kind of specific sector-oriented approach for technologies can be developed, supported, promoted and then applied.” In the closing remarks of the session, Jamshyd highlighted that the industry should be proactive in adopting green practices; they should see green ‘as a benefit and not as a threat’. Going forward, he July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers

43


Green Shoots

As a step towards encouraging sustainable development and promoting the cause of green manufacturing among SMEs in India, UNIDO ICAMT and Network 18 Publishing joined hands to present ‘GreenShoots – Manufacturing Turning A New Leaf’

pointed out that going green should not be driven by government subsidies. “The moment it is made mandatory, sectors will opt for green technologies only because of the policy support which is available and not because of the benefits they will bring to their manufacturing establishments,” he cautioned.

The green competitive edge According to Mahendra Singh Dhakad, Programme Director, UNIDO ICAMT, “Opting for green technologies will offer SMEs a competitive edge in the business world. It is time that we consider ‘green’ beyond a marketing ploy; adopting green practices can be the next big thing for companies today.” He also pointed out that there are a lot of existing myths in the industry towards the adoption of green technologies. For instance, there is a general perception in the manufacturing fraternity that eco-friendly technologies and materials are expensive, it will incur a huge cost to shift from the conventional method of production processes to their green forms etc. “This compendium aims to guide SMEs on the ways and means to reduce their operation costs by making simple and inexpensive improvements in their respective manufacturing facilities,” Dhakad informed. Dhakad added that the compendium incorporates energy-efficient production techniques, ways to reduce emissions & use of hazardous materials and environment44

Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

friendly waste disposal solutions & practices, among other eco-friendly recycling related techniques. Additionally, UNIDO ICAMT has undertaken energy audit programmes under its project for various industrial belts. They are taking several initiatives across various industrial sectors to promote eco-friendly manufacturing practices and reduce the consumption of resources. Agreeing with his views, Shailesh Sheth, Corporate Strategy Advisor & Senior National Consultant, UNIDO, stated, “It is a pleasure for me to discover that in a small industry like machine tools, tremendous work is being done towards creating awareness for green manufacturing or environment-friendly manufacturing.” Highlighting the growth of the Indian machine tool sector, he proudly referred to the country’s machine tool industry developing the heaviest and the largest parts of the Tokamak, as reported by one of the popular media agencies. Tokamak is the machine behind the biggest scientific collaboration on the planet, to produce unlimited supplies of cheap, clean, safe and commercial viable energy from atomic fusion. Commenting on the magnitude of the project, Sheth explained, “Tokamak will weigh 23,000 tonne – the weight of about three Eiffel Towers – with a plasma volume of 840 cubic metre. This is a unique opportunity for the country to show that fusion can be a credible

and sustainable alternate energy source for human civilisation, especially for countries like India and China. With the background of depleting fossil fuel reserves and rising carbon dioxide emission concerns, I think this project can be the lifeline of the industry. It is high time we inject green in our DNA rather than wear it on our sleeves.” Wrapping up the event, Deepak Ballani, National Programme Officer, UNIDO ICAMT, said that there is indeed a market for green technologies. He urged the industry to take up various measures towards implementing ecofriendly manufacturing technologies. Besides, he asked the industry to follow success stories and achievements that have been made on this front. This will allow them to follow and undertake measures in terms of creating a positive impact on the environment and also allow for sustainable development. Referring to the compendium, he said it will play a key role in guiding SMEs from other industries to move in the same direction so that they can benefit by using these mechanisms.

Green is just the beginning Greening the manufacturing ecosystem is all about integrating economic development along with protecting the environment. As part of the continuing efforts to further promote the cause of green manufacturing techniques, the Eco-Entrepreneurs Awards 2014 will be organised next year. The event aims at recognising the eco-friendly efforts taken by entrepreneurs and their companies for implementing green manufacturing practices. Given that the legislation pertaining to conserving the environment takes effect gradually, especially in developing nations, companies look to incorporate innovative practices to transform into ‘green’ establishments. Being true partners of the industry, together with Network 18 Publishing, UNIDO ICAMT is aiming to plant a seed of thought and action among the manufacturing value chain to grow green! Email: arindam.ghosh@network18publishing.com


GREEN SHOOT S: Injection moulding machine

IN AN ENERGY-EFFICIENT

AVATAR When 30 per cent of all plastic products are produced by using the injection moulding process, it is evident that energy-saving practices need to enter this segment. What if these new practices achieve energy efficiency by also improving repeatability, reducing noise and wear & tear and lowering oil temperature?

I

njection moulding is a manufacturing process for producing parts from thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic materials. Material is fed into a heated barrel, mixed and forced into a mould cavity where it cools and hardens to the configuration of the cavity. After a product is designed, usually by an industrial designer or an engineer, moulds are made by a mould maker (or tool maker) from metal, usually either steel or aluminium, and precision-machined to form the features of the desired part. Injection moulding is widely used for manufacturing a variety of parts, from the smallest component to entire body panels of cars. Injection Moulding Machines (IMMs) are classified primarily by the type of driving system used – hydraulic, mechanical, electric or hybrid. In the average IMM, up to 70 per cent of electricity is consumed by peripheral machinery. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; therefore, it is important to identify where the unused energy goes during the moulding process. Typically, this energy goes into three places: 1. Heating the machine’s hydraulic oil 2. Noise 3. Wear and tear on the machine’s hydraulic system The heating of hydraulic oil explains the need for a cooling tower, ie electricity is first used to heat the oil and subsequently used to cool that oil down. A significant amount of hydraulic oil that is pumped and pressurised to run the machine is not used, but dumped back into the tank through a relief valve. The valve, equivalent to a mechanical brake, converts energy into heat. Sources of excess energy consumption are as follows: - Fixed frequency power supplied by the electrical utilities - Operation of synchronous motors used to drive the hydraulic pumps in almost all IMMs If machines always operated at full capacity (clamp open, close, injection and screw charge at 100 per cent with no cooling time), there would not be a problem. However, machines rarely work at full capacity. This leaves an opportunity to save electricity if there is a way to pump the oil needed by the machine. This was difficult in the past, but with the introduction of the AC inverter drives, a remedy to conserve energy can be incorporated during moulding plastics.

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Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013


Injection moulding machine

In an average IMM, up to 70 per cent electricity is consumed by peripheral machinery.

Hair combs and buttons were one of the first products manufactured by a relatively simple injection moulding machine.

VFD and system controller eliminate the wastage of hydraulic oil and energy associated with it.

Possible solution – Energy conservation Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)/AC Inverter Drive Recognising the wasted energy and control difficulties created by conventional motors, the electronics industry invented the AC inverter drive or VFD. The VFD controls frequency of AC electrical power and, in turn, can control the speed of a synchronous motor. This motor can be slowed down, thus increasing the efficiency of a moulding machine. To eliminate wastage of hydraulic oil and energy, two major components, namely, a system controller and an AC inverter drive or VFD are required in the moulding machine. The basic principle behind implementing a VFD and system controller is to eliminate not only wastage of hydraulic oil but also energy associated with it. This is done by simply not pumping the oil if it is not required.

Environmental benefits

l Usage of VFDs and servo

drives in IMMs can result in significant energy savings l VFDs and servo drives can be retrofit on conventional machines, making it easy for manufacturers to implement this energy-saving technology

Advantages of implementing a VFD:

screw

hold

injection

lock clamp

ejector

80.0

ejector fwd

100.0

cooling

120.0

clamp open

Energy savings Better repeatability A quieter machine Lower oil temperature Less demand on cooling tower Less wear and tear on the machine

Power (kw)

l l l l l l

speed = speed control

60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0

0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0

Elapsed time (sec)

Difference between the power consumption of a moulding machine with (magenta) and without (blue) a frequency controller

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers

47


Injection moulding machine

Role of AC motor controllers in energy efficiency A Sinusoidal Motor Efficiency Controller (SinuMEC) is a new category of AC motor controllers that uses the right voltage to improve efficiency of variable load motors running at constant speeds. Built around patented technology, the SinuMEC provides a pure sinusoidal voltage wave form when the motor starts and during normal operation. SinuMEC continuously monitors the power consumption of the motor and reduces the voltage when the motor load decreases, thus enabling improved motor performance and energy efficiency.

Signals from the machine’s controller (relay or solid state)

Fixed frequency AC power, typically 50 or 60 Hz

Drive system controller

A SinuMEC installed in a 100 hp injection machine achieves a reduction of 16 per cent in kWh, 42 per cent in network losses, 38 per cent in reactive power, an increase in machine lifetime, as well as increases reliability and reduces costly downtime. A Servo-Drive Pump Motor uses a precisely controlled servo motor to drive the hydraulic pump. Rather than maintaining line pressure, diverting excessive flow and adjusting servo valves, the flow from the pump is directly sent to the rotary or linear actuator performing the machine function. Because the pump is precisely controlled, the speeds

AC power at 12–60 Hz depending on the machine’s requirements

Application

Drive

Power Electronics Systems Pump motor turns at rate proportional to machine’s requirements

Schematic – VFD

of actions, such as injection and screw rotation, are controlled directly by the servo motor. Pressure limits are easily controlled by limiting the torque of the motor. Because no unnecessary flow is generated, the efficiency of such machines is about as high as a hydraulic machine. In many cases, these machines consume only 30 per cent of the energy consumed by fixed drive pump motors. Servo drives can be used to operate the injection screw, as precision control is often required for the injection step. Significant energy savings are realised by replacing hydraulics with electric drive systems on IMMs.

Power Electronics Systems introduced the SinuMEC AC Controller, which utilises patented transformation technology, using a specially designed power transformer, electromechanical contactors and a sophisticated controller. The unique architecture enables pure sinusoidal voltage control, while the use of simple components makes the apparatus reliable.

Conclusion Studies have proved that a VFD retrofit can save 20–50 per cent of the power draw of most IMM hydraulic pump motors. Expanding its industrial scope, this technology can also be applied on other hydraulic systems such as die-casting, stamping or other processes. Perhaps lowering the price tag on this technology would lead to even wider adoption among various industry verticals. Solution providers Ferromatik Milacron India (FMI); Bosch Rexroth India Ltd

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Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013


GREEN GREEN SHOOT SHOOTS: S: Injection Injection stretch stretch blow blow moulding moulding

GOING

LIGHT How does one produce high-quality plastic containers by maintaining energy and material savings at the same time? Giving a fresh perspective to this paradox is Injection Stretch Blow Moulding (ISBM) technology.

Stretch blow moulding process

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Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013


Injection stretch blow moulding

After implementing the ISBM technology, Sidel’s NoBottle technology makes PET bottles that weigh a mere 9.9 g. In the US, the number of blow moulded plastic containers for the soft drink industry went from zero pieces in 1977 to 10 billion pieces in 1999.

T

he main application of ISBM is the production of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles used commonly for water, juices and other products. This process is used for extremely high volume (multi-million)

When Enviroclear barrier coating technology is applied to a 500 ml PET or PP bottle, it provides an oxygen barrier of 0.001 cc/pkg/day (42 x’s uncoated PET) and 0.0025 cc/pkg/day (25 x’s uncoated PET).

runs of items such as wide-mouth peanut butter jars, narrow-mouth water bottles, liquor bottles etc. In a bid to promote sustainability through eco design, PET manufacturers are looking to incorporate lightweighting technology in their manufacturing methods to save on raw

material consumption and energy, not only during the production process but also during subsequent transportation of PET bottles. ISBM being an expensive process, small improvements also imply significant cost reduction during production.

ISBM is divided into the following stages: 1. Injection: Molten polymer flows into the injection cavity via the hot runner block to produce the desired shape of the preform with a mandrel (the core pin). After a set time, the injection moulds and core pins part, and the preform is held in a neck carrier that is rotated 90°. 2. Stretching and blowing: Stretch blow moulding is similar to injection blow moulding. When conditioned to the correct temperature, the preform is ready for stretching and blowing to reach the desired shape. When the preform is within the blow mould area, the moulds close. A stretch rod is introduced to stretch the preform longitudinally. Using two levels of air pressure, the preform is blown circumferentially. This method produces a biaxial molecular orientation. The specific molecular orientation provides higher mechanical strength, rigidity and transparency of the material. 3. Discharge: After a set time for cooling, the moulds open and the preform is removed via drop chutes or robotics. In practice, these stages are carried out concurrently using a revolving carousel of moulds.

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers

51


Injection stretch blow moulding

Environmental benefits

Manufacturers all over the world are looking at ways of implementing eco design. Lightweight technology helps not only conserve raw material but also energy. This technology implies energy savings on the machines that handle several tonne of bottles per day and on the distribution networks.

Applications Sidel NoBottle technology

A standard 500 ml PET bottle weighs approximately 16 g. The world leader in lightweight PET bottles, Sidel has introduced the NoBottle technology where each PET bottle weighs a mere 9.9 g, ie a weight reduction to the tune of 25–40 per cent. Given that in 2007, about 26.5 million bottles of still water were produced, Sidel has estimated that the NoBottle technology has been instrumental in a potential saving of 160,000 tonne of plastic world wide apart from large energy savings. In fact, 40 per cent savings in container weight translate into energy savings for machines that handle several tonne of bottles everyday and for distribution networks that ship packages to their points of sale. Apart from implementing the ISBM technology, Sidel successfully reduced the weight of the PET bottle by introducing greater flexibility of PET. This means that the bottle does not require added ribs for strength. Sidel’s Flex technology takes

advantage of PET shape memory, ie the ability of PET to bounce back to its original shape after being squeezed or compressed during shipping.

Companies working on lightweight PET bottles in India

Jauss Polymers Ltd – production of PET bottles on Nissei machines Pearlpet – manufacturers of PET bottles Technopet Machineries – producers of ISBM machines

Enviroclear barrier coating technology

In addition to developing lightweight PET containers, manufacturers are looking at ways of extending product shelf life through the application of coatings. Enviroclear barrier coating technology was developed by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa, to extend product shelf life by significantly reducing the penetration of oxygen

and the loss of carbon dioxide through plastic packages. When applied to a 500 ml PET or polypropylene bottle, the Enviroc lear barr ier coating technology provides an oxygen barrier of 0.001 cc/pkg/day (42 x’s uncoated PET) and 0.0025 cc/pkg/day (25 x’s uncoated PET), respectively. When applied to a PET 12 ounce carbonated soft drink bottle, the barrier improvement factor is 6.4 times for carbon dioxide retention compared with a standard PET bottle. Combined with Container Corporation of Canada’s Enviroclear technology, which can produce a two-stage injection stretch blow mould, clarified polypropylene bottles and wide-mouth jars are as clear as glass and make a viable, economical alternative for hot fill barrier packaging. As the chemistry is benign, the resin identific ation number designation on the bottom of the bottle does not change.

Conclusion The scrapless process in ISBM signifies that there is no flash to trim and no requirement to regrind. The high-quality injection moulded neck finish allows for biaxial orientation for strength and clarity. This technology is particularly suited for lower volume production applications that suit Indian processors’ requirements.

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GREEN SHOOT S: Hot runners in injection moulds

CHANNELISING

SAVINGS

In spite of being around for more than 40 years, processors know very little about the key business advantages of hot runner systems. Lower processing cost, reduction in cycle time, improved moulding system efficiency and balanced melt flow are the merits of this system. By elaborating on this trail of thought, if achieving energy efficiency is your main agenda, then read on to grasp functionalities of this arrangement.

A

runner is the channel through which resin enters the gates of the mould cavity. By connecting the gate and the sprue channel, a runner conveys the plastic from the barrel of the injection moulding machine to the part. For this system, delivering the melt to the cavities and balancing the filling of multiple cavities and multi-gate cavities are some of its main functions. Reduction in scrap, easy ejection and maximising efficiency in energy consumption are attributes that are closely related to runner systems. With substantial control extended towards filling/packing/cycle time, there are two main types of injection moulds, namely cold and hot runner systems.

Types of cold runner moulds 1. A two plate cold runner mould consists of a simple type of mould with one parting plane that is split into two halves. The runner system must be located on this parting plane; thus, a part can only be gated on its perimeter. 2. A three plate cold runner mould has two parting planes situated behind the cavity plate. The second parting plane, between the cavity plate and top clamp plate, provides for a runner to travel under the mould cavity to any position relative to the part cavity.

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Hot runners in injection moulds

Runnerless moulds are more advantageous than cold runner systems as they eliminate waste plastics completely. In 1963, Mold-Masters was the first company to exclusively manufacture hot runners.

Use of a cold runner system results in additional energy consumption as excess plastic separated from the moulded component is reprocessed completely.

Types of runnerless moulds Insulated runner moulds

These have oversized passages formed in the mould plate. The passages are of sufficient size, such that under conditions of operation, the insulated effect of the plastic (frozen on the runner wall), combined with the heat applied with each shot, maintains an open, molten flow path. The insulated runner system should be designed such that, while the runner volume does not exceed the cavity volume, all of the molten material in the runner is injected into the cavity during each shot. This helps prevent excessive buildup of the insulating skin and minimises any drop in melt temperature. Compared to a cold runner system, an insulated runner system provides advantages such as reduction in material shear, faster cycle times, elimination of runner scrap, decreased tool wear, improved part finish, less sensitivity to the requirements for balanced runners and shorter cycle times.

Hot runner moulds

Hot runners are more commonly used compared to insulated runners. These fall into two categories – internally and externally heated. Hot runners retain the advantages of the insulated runner system over the conventional cold runner system and eliminate a number of disadvantages. However, its complex mould design, manufacture operation and maintenance requirement are evident hindrances. Its higher costs and thermal expansion of various components also need to be taken into account. These disadvantages are a result of the need to install a heated manifold, balance heat generated by the manifold and the minimisation of polymer hang-ups. It is often cost effective to produce large volumes with hot runner moulds, in spite of high investments. These systems are used for a wide range of applications.

Cold runner systems In a cold runner mould, the runner is cooled and ejected with the part. In every cycle, a part and a runner are produced. The cold runner mould is a simple and less expensive alternative to hot runner systems. The specialised temperature controllers keep the injection mould components at the design temperature in order to keep the mould material flowing. In addition to their ease of set up and use and less maintenance requirement, achieving colour changes are easy in cold runner systems.

Hot runner systems Hot runners, also called runnerless moulds, differ from cold runner moulds by extending the injection moulding machine’s melt chamber and acting as an extension of the machine nozzle. A portion or all of the polymer melt is at the same temperature and viscosity as the polymer in the barrel of the IMM.

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Hot runners in injection moulds

Environmental benefits Runnerless moulds are more advantageous than cold runner systems. They eliminate waste plastics completely, thus saving raw material. In a cold runner system, this excess plastic is separated from the moulded component to be reprocessed completely, ie it is ground and then used in the injection moulding process for the fabrication of a new component. This results in additional energy consumption.

Applications

Disadvantages of cold runner systems Plastic waste is generated Runners are either disposed of or reground and reprocessed with the original material, adding a step in the manufacturing process

Runnerless moulds are not popular in India owing to their complex mechanism and high costs. However, there are several manufacturers of hot runner systems abroad. These help in producing a range of items from bottle caps to car body parts to mobile telephone components. Hot runner systems can be customised to the specific need of the component manufacturer such that savings in raw material and energy are easily achievable.

Regrind will increase variation in the injection moulding process and could decrease the plastic’s mechanical properties

Conclusion Before incorporating any of these systems, it is important that the processor specifies the mould for a thermoplastic moulding application. By putting forward the cost and part quality advantages, runnerless moulds do come with many options in order to obtain all the moulding efficiencies and part quality benefits. The addition of consistency and more flexibility for moulding automation works

Solution providers Synventive, MA, USA; Beaumont Technologies, PA, USA; DuPont Plastics

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GREEN GREEN SHOOT SHOOTS: S: Upcoming Upcoming injection injection moulding moulding technologies technologies

Co-existing at its

BEST Designers of parts for injection moulding have historically been constrained by the need to maintain relatively constant and thin sections in finished products. Co-injection moulding, a method for improving physical properties and reducing raw material consumption, is achieved by injecting two dissimilar materials simultaneously through concentric nozzles. Read on to know more on how this technology is helping processors leverage recycled plastics without compromising on quality.

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Upcoming injection moulding technologies

In co-injection moulding, a low cost core can be used for cost savings.

Improved aesthetic qualities can be achieved by using co-injection moulding.

Co-injection technology allows processors to use the maximum amount of recycled material in products without compromising on quality.

M

aintaining constant and thin sections in finished products continues to be a challenge for designers since thick wall sections require a long cooling time and have a tendency to develop sink marks. In such a situation, with co-injection moulding, the designer of the part has the opportunity to design parts with an outer skin made of a material with the desired visual or physical properties and to inject an internal core with a material that is less expensive, stronger or lighter.

Gas Assisted Injection Moulding (GAIM) The process features a unit that introduces nitrogen gas into a mould cavity after it has been filled with plastic. The compressed nitrogen displaces a portion of the molten plastic when injected into the cavity. The result is hollow parts that are light and relatively inexpensive to make. Designers can use gas assist moulding to create thin-walled parts. Such parts can be moulded with low clamp tonnage, which reduces not only tooling cost and required injection moulding machine size but also raw material consumption. The gas assist technique is ideal for adding thick, hollowed-

out sections to otherwise thin-walled parts. The process improves upon polymer fill and packing techniques and boosts melt-flow length. A designer can create larger, more complex parts with fewer injection gates than conventional moulding, while minimising costs incurred with complicated hot runner systems. In addition, the sections that are cored out cool rapidly, reducing overall cycle time.

Water Assisted Injection Moulding (WAIM) WAIM is one of the latest and most promising developments in ‘assisted’ injection moulding. As in the established GAIM process, WAIM technology uses a fluid under pressure to core out a hollow plastic part in the mould. Because of similarities between the two processes, both provide several of the same benefits – lower material costs, lower tool cost and more part consolidation and less finishing than with unassisted injection moulding or metals. The advantage that WAIM has over GAIM technology is that the water can directly cool the inside of the part. The thermal conductivity of water is 40 times greater than that of gas, and the heat capacity of water is four times greater than that of gas.

Say YES to co-injection moulding Lower cost parts ��������������������������������������������������������� þ Higher strength core �������������������������������������������������� þ Reduced cooling time for lower temperature core �� þ Improved aesthetic qualities ������������������������������������� þ Combined property characteristics ��������������������������� þ July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers

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Upcoming injection moulding technologies

Co-injection is the process of injecting two separate materials into the same mould that allows one polymer to be encapsulated by another, one forming the skin, the other forming the core. The multilayer plywood effect maintains product integrity and performance while allowing for the maximum recycled material content in the industry. This technology can be categorised as follows:

Machine-based co-injection moulding The co-injection process requires two injection/processing units. The units generally inject material through a manifold located at the end of the injection barrels. The manifold ports the two melt streams into a centrally located nozzle. The machine controls the injection units to achieve a skin-core-

skin flow sequence through the manifold into the mould. Last skin flow is needed to clear the short nozzle section of core material and to seal the gate area with skin. This arrangement can be used on single or multiple cavities, conventional cold runner mould.

Mould-based co-injection moulding This same process can be achieved on a hot runner mould by utilising a hot runner system. This system, sometimes identified as ‘Mouldbased co-injection’, still utilises two injection units. The two melt streams are directed into the mould via separate channels. These two channels remain separate until they reach the gate area of the part. At this point, they flow through a nozzle arrangement similar to the normal co-injection manifold.

Benefits of co-injection moulding l l l l l l l l l

Foamed core for reduced weight and noise transmission Combined property characteristics Glass-filled cores for improved physical properties Low-cost core for cost savings High-gloss skin material over structural core material for combination of aesthetic and structural properties Post-consumer recycled material in core Environment friendly Industrial recycled material in core Reground painted parts recycled into core

Application In 2007, Cascade Cart Solutions introduced the EcoCart™ to address the growing demand from the solid waste and recycling industry for products containing recycled content. The challenge was how to incorporate a high amount of recycled content into their containers, which are subjected to weekly pick-ups by automated garbage trucks, without compromising their long-term durability. The solution was to use an innovative injection moulding process – co-injection – to layer recycled material (post-consumer resin) in between two layers of virgin plastic. Utilising co-injection technology, Cascade Cart Solutions is able to manufacture an eco-friendly waste and recycling collection cart that contains up to 50 per cent recycled content and carries a third part certification. With the EcoCart™, recycling has come full circle. By making the carts with recycled content, Cascade helps put back what is thrown out, increasing landfill diversion and enabling cities to promote sustainability.

Conclusion Co-injection technology will allow processors to use the maximum amount of recycled material in a product without compromising on quality. The multi-layer effect will maintain product integrity and performance. The potential of this technology will also give a much needed impetus to the domestic recycled plastics segment.

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GREEN GREEN SHOOT SHOOTS: S: Solar Solar rotational rotational moulding moulding

CASTING IN THE

SUN!

Solar Rotational Moulding (SRM) is the latest in ‘greening’ plastics manufacturing. Unlike conventional rotomoulding that requires electricity or natural gas, SRM relies on free and widely available energy – solar energy. Besides, it does not need bulky equipment and is a more eco-friendly process than conventional methods of rotational moulding.

A

plastics processing technology for creating imaginative and conventional product lines beckons Indian plastics processors. Rotomoulding (RM), also called rotocasting, spin casting and rotation moulding, produces hollow forms with a constant wall thickness. Polymer powder is tumbled around inside the mould to produce virtually stress-free parts. A heated hollow mould is filled with a charge or shot weight of material. It is then slowly rotated (usually two perpendicular axes) causing the softened material to disperse and stick to the walls of the mould. In order to maintain even thickness throughout the part, the mould continues to rotate at all times during the heating phase, and to avoid sagging or deformation, even during the cooling phase. (1) Unload - load station

Mould (open)

Moulded part Two-direction rotation of mould

Counterweight Indexing unit (2) Heating station (3) Cooling station

Mould (closed)

Water spray

Rotomoulding process 62

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Solar rotational moulding

Typical system costs

SRM: Varies from $ 50k to $ 150k RM: Varies from $ 300k to $ 1M+ One of the first applications of rotomoulding was in the manufacture of doll heads.

Return on investment

Energy cost of finished product

SRM: 15% RM: 9%

SRM: 0% RM: 10–30%

SRM vs RM In India, although this technique is majorly used while manufacturing water tanks, many companies in road safety, toy manufacturing and automotive parts systems are applying it. The concern, however, remains on the technique’s massive appetite for energy. Rotomoulding requires continuous supply of electricity that compels the need for an alternative source of energy. The ideal solution for this task would be to utilise the freely available energy; thus, the exploration of finding greener alternatives begins.

Solar Rotational Moulding 299%

Flat or sloped unimproved terrain

Internal rate Site of return requirements

185%

No

No – one time investment in heliostat

60’ x 60’ & up

Grid-tie needed

Sensitivity to energy costs

System size

Yes – cost & profitability directly linked to energy costs

Varies, 45’ x 45’ to much larger

Industrial Yes – gas building with and electric concrete pad

Rotational Moulding

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Solar rotational moulding

SRM has numerous advantages over conventional rotational moulding

l Easy-to-install equipment l Machinery is less bulky than conventional rotomoulding machinery l Does not rely on electricity from a grid and is therefore apt for areas with irregular supply of electricity l Installation and maintenance are simple

Environmental benefits of SRM

Mostly relies on the heat from the sun Zero emissions Dependence on power from oil is limited Eliminates the use of fossil fuels Heliostats can be made to be highly efficient (up to 75 per cent) l Enables rotational moulding of oil-based polymers l l l l l

Say YES to SRM þ Quick set-up? �������������� þ Compact system ��������� þ Zero emissions ������������

Solar empowerment SRM, also known as solar thermal moulding, uses concentrated solar thermal energy from a heliostat array of sun-tracking mirrors for heat. This heat beam, which replaces energy inputs from fossil fuel sources, can be refocussed depending on the target. This allows for simplification of the moulding hardware and large savings on the total equipment cost compared to the traditional process. Heliostats are computer-controlled mirrors that keep the energy from the sun focussed on a target as the sun moves across the sky. The heat from the sun directly heats the mould and melts the plastic. Because the process uses heat directly in the moulding process, the system is highly efficient – 75 per cent efficient as compared to typical photovoltaic efficiency of 15 per cent or less. There is no need to convert light into electricity or transport energy

via expensive transmission lines. A 1 sq m heliostat can deliver approximately 1,000 watt of energy to a target. Multiple heliostats combine to form a powerful heat source, which can be moved from target to target. The heat source can also be used for many applications in sustainable manufacturing or residential day lighting or facility heating. The ability to move the heat source allows for a simplified machine design and much lower purchase costs. Although a typical SRM system costs anywhere between $ 50,000 and $ 150,000, the return on investment is also high at 15 per cent. No grid-tie is needed, and the one-time investment is only for the purchase of the heliostat array. In addition, the compact system can be set up quickly at a site with flat or sloped unimproved terrain. The energy cost of the finished product is virtually nil.

Conclusion Harvesting freely available sunlight accompanied by low-cost hardware is the main benefit of this technology. The need of doing away with a building may seem far-fetched at this point, but SRM could pave the way of putting barren land to good use. Solution provider LightManufacturing LLC, USA

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GREEN SHOOT S: Wood plastic composites

WORKING

TOGETHER

ONE! AS

Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs) are produced by thoroughly mixing ground wood particles and heated thermoplastic resin. Although relatively new in comparison to the long history of natural lumber as a building material, WPCs can be used for railings, fences, landscaping timbers, cladding and siding, park benches, moulding and trim, window and door frames and indoor furniture.

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Wood plastic composites

In comparison with wood, WPC has the ability to be moulded to meet almost any desired shape.

Features of WPCs l Do not corrode l Highly resistant to rot, decay and marine borer attack l Good workability and can be shaped using conventional woodworking tools l Often considered a sustainable material because they can be made using recycled plastics and the waste products of the wood industry Although these materials continue the lifespan of used and discarded materials and have their own considerable half life, the polymers and adhesives added make WPC difficult to recycle again after use. They can, however, be recycled easily in a new WPC similar to concrete.

WPC can be bent and fixed to form strong arching curves.

WPCs are manufactured in a variety of colours but are widely available in greys and earth tones.

Advantage of WPC over wood Resistant to rot and does not need to be painted

W

PCs are composite materials made of wood fibre/flour and plastics. In addition to wood fibre and plastic, WPCs can contain other ligno-cellulosic and/ or inorganic filler materials. WPCs are a subset of a larger category of materials called natural fibre plastic composites, which may contain no cellulose-based fibre fillers such as pulp fibres, peanut hulls, bamboo, straw etc. The most common method of production is to extrude the material into the desired shape, although injection moulding is also used. WPCs may be produced from either virgin or recycled thermoplastics including high-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, polystyrene

and polylactic acid. Polyethylene-based WPCs are, by far, the most common. Additives such as colourants, coupling agents, ultraviolet stabilisers, blowing agents, foaming agents and lubricants help tailor the end product to the target area of application. Extruded WPCs are formed into both solid and hollow profiles. Various injection moulded parts are also produced, from automotive door panels to cell phone covers. In some manufacturing facilities, the constituents are combined and processed in a pelletising extruder, which produces pellets of the new material. The pellets are then re-melted and formed into the final shape. Other manufacturers complete the finished part in a single step of mixing and extrusion.

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Wood plastic composites

Applications Dollplast Group of Companies

Dollplast has over three decades of experience in producing plastics processing and recycling machinery. The company has been exporting recycling machinery across the globe. Recently, it has developed a WPC called Plastwud. Plastwud contains wood, plastic waste and additives.

Features of Plastwud

Good stiffness and impact resistance Good dimensional stability Good chemical resistance and thermal properties Excellent resistance to rot Resistant to borer, moisture and warping Manufactured using plastic waste that would be dumped in landfills or incinerated l Is recyclable l Has a long lifecycle l l l l l l

Similar to wood, Plastwud has been processed to make furniture through sawing, drilling and gluing. It can, therefore, be used outdoors for garden benches and outdoor furniture and decking. Plastwud is made from plastic waste. One way in which waste plastics can be obtained is through processing material in the Dollplast Paper Plastic Separator.

Arboform liquid wood

Scientists from Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology, Germany, have developed a substance

called Arboform – basically, liquid wood – that could replace plastic.

Features of Arboform

l Derived from wood pulp-based lignin, which is an abundant renewable resource, non-toxic and biodegradable l Can be mixed with other materials to create a strong, non-toxic alternative to petroleum-based plastics l Not made from felling of trees l Manufactured from the waste products of the paper industry l Eco-friendly alternative to plastics l Can be manufactured on a mass scale as well as moulded into any shape or form l Can be remoulded, reshaped and recycled on heating or cooling it several times l Disposed of in the same manner as wood either through incineration or decomposition When compared with wood and plastics, Arboform has better thermal and mechanical properties than wood and plastic put together. Without splitting at right angles when subjected to strain, this biodegradable thermoplastic engineering material is of superior quality and strength. Arboform can meet the technological demands, replacing the indomitable market giant plastic. It does not require any elaborate process to change its chemical composition before disposal and can be discarded like wood.

Conclusion Due to the incorporation of recycled plastics and waste products of the wood industry, the popularity of WPCs is growing. Being highly resistant to rot and decay, WPCs have good workability and can be shaped using conventional woodworking tools. WPCs can also be recycled easily in a new wood-plastic composite, much like concrete. An essential advantage over wood is the ability of the material to be moulded to meet almost any desired shape.

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GREEN SHOOT S: Zero liquid discharge technology

Creating Could you imagine a process where virtually every litre of wastewater is recycled and reused completely? Such a process would effortlessly allow manufacturing companies to comply with wastewater disposal regulations. Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) is a process that completely eliminates liquid discharge from a system and recycles wastewater, which can be pumped back into the system.

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Zero liquid discharge technology

Why explore ZLD? It complies with ever-tightening wastewater disposal regulations.

Although developed in the West, ZLD technology is being adopted widely in drought-stricken regions and pollution-sensitive environments.

The process ZLD technology includes pre-treatment and evaporation of the industrial effluent until the dissolved solids precipitate as crystals.

Suitability ZLD technology is particularly appropriate in water-short areas.

A

well-designed ZLD system minimises the volume of wastewater that requires treatment, processes wastewater in an economically feasible manner and produces a clean stream suitable for reuse elsewhere in the facility. In simple words, ZLD is something that every company aspires to accomplish. The ZLD system removes dissolved solids from wastewater and returns distilled water to the process (source). Reverse osmosis (membrane filtration) may be used to concentrate a portion of the waste stream and return the clean permeate to the process. In this case, a much smaller volume (the reject) will require evaporation, thus enhancing performance and reducing power consumption. In many cases, falling film evaporation is used to further concentrate the brine prior to crystallisation. Falling film evaporation is an energy-efficient method of evaporation, typically to concentrate the water up to the initial crystallisation point. The resultant brine then enters a forced-

circulation crystalliser, where the water concentrates beyond the solubility of the contaminants and crystals are formed. The crystal-laden brine is dewatered in a filter press or centrifuged, and the filtrate or centrate (‘mother liquor’) is returned to the crystalliser. The collected condensate from the membranes, falling film evaporator and forced-circulation crystalliser is returned to the process, eliminating the discharge of liquids. If any organics are present, condensate polishing may be required for final cleanup prior to reuse. ZLD technology includes pre-treatment and evaporation of the industrial effluent until the dissolved solids precipitate as crystals. These crystals are removed and dewatered. The water vapour from evaporation is condensed and returned to the process. This process may utilise all or some of the engineering modules including pre-treatment, membrane filtration, evaporation, crystallisation and solids recovery. Each module can be executed in parallel to expedite the design and implementation process.

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Zero liquid discharge technology

Why ZLD? Interest in ZLD technology has grown in the industrial manufacturing sector over the past decade. Companies may begin to explore ZLD because of l Ever-tightening wastewater disposal regulations l Company mandated green initiatives l Public perception of industrial impact on the environment l Concern over the quality and quantity of water supply

Environmental benefits ZLD systems provide numerous economic and environmental advantages for plant managers. Water is recycled and reused, saving on the cost and treatment of raw water. Since all water is reclaimed, no effluent is discharged from the plant, avoiding the cost of environmental impact. The technology is particularly appropriate in water-short areas.

Application Chemplast Sanmar Ltd

Chemplast Sanmar Ltd has installed ZLD facilities at their Mettur plant at an initial investment of ` 27 crore. In fact, the Sanmar Group has installed ZLD facilities at their Cuddalore and Karaikal units at inception. All three units recycle and reuse effluents 100 per cent. The ZLD facility ensures that no treated effluent from the plant is discharged into the environment. In September 2009, Chemplast Sanmar became the first chemical manufacturer to achieve 100 per cent ZLD. Chemplast has been recognised for its contribution towards sustaining the environment by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). In December 2010, the company was awarded the 7th National Award for Excellence in Water Management by CII.

Conclusion ZLD is a process that is beneficial to the environment as well as municipal organisations. Through ZLD, precious monetary resources can be saved without any effluent or discharge. By employing some of the most advanced systems to treat, purify and recycle wastewater, ZLD’s economic and environmental advantages are translating into better returns for companies.

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GREEN SHOOT S: Sugarcane-derived plastics

Sweet OF SOURCE

PACKAGING MATERIAL

As environmental regulations become more stringent, manufacturers have begun to undertake dramatic measures to control the overall impact their products have on the environment. This is restricted to not only the product itself but also all the manufacturing processes associated with developing the product. Through lifecycle assessments, researchers have often found that the packaging of the product has a more severe ecological impact than the product itself. This has prompted several companies to look at ways of developing environment-friendly packaging. One such instance is sugarcane-derived packaging.

Cool 150 gm sugarcane + 250 ml water

Boil

Add HCI to adjust pH (4–4.5)

Cool

Add yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Incubate for 40 hr @ 50oC

99.6% conversion Polyethylene

Ethylene

12.29 g of ethanol obtained

Schematic illustration of conversion of molasses to polyethylene

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Sugarcane-derived plastics

PE derived from sugarcane has been found to emit up to 75 per cent less greenhouse gases during its life span in comparison to conventionally produced plastic packaging.

India is an agricultural nation; there is an abundance of feedstock available for the development and manufacture of biopolymers.

PE derived from sugarcane replaces about 30 per cent or more of the petroleum that would otherwise be used to manufacture generic plastics.

A

Sugarcane-derived polymers require less energy to

sugarcane-derived plastic is a significant development in sustainable packaging. It is made from renewable resources unlike conventional plastics that are made from non-renewable resources such as petroleum. Polyethylene (PE) derived from sugarcane has been assessed and has been found to emit up to 75 per cent less greenhouse gases during its life span in comparison to conventionally produced plastic packaging. The new material is made through an innovative process that transforms sugarcane

into high-density PE plastic, a type commonly used for product packaging. PE employs ethylene as a monomer, the polymerisation of which produces various grades based on density and branching. The fabrication of this polymer requires ethylene, which is, in turn, derived from ethanol. Ethanol can be manufactured by conventional sources such as fossil fuel, corn or cellulose. Synthetic ethanol comes from fossil raw materials, and bio-ethanol comes from contemporary materials such as biomass.

Given below is an outline of the process involved in producing ethanol from sugarcane.

Sugarcane

Ethanol

Ethylene

Polyethylene Polyethylene

Sugarcane to ethanol The process has the following steps: a. Fermentation b. Distillation c. Stripping d. Dehydration e. Ethylene f. Polymerisation

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Sugarcane-derived plastics

Applications

Challenges Braskem

As India is an agricultural nation, there is an abundance of feedstock available for the development and manufacture of biopolymers. Although opportunities exist, there are challenges that sustainable packaging is fraught with. For instance, a majority of Indian companies are yet to develop in-house technologies for manufacturing bioplastics. Companies operating in the Indian market import their raw materials from the EU. Due to this, bioplastics cannot be price-competitive, and hence, there is a need to develop technological expertise to produce biopolymers in India. Also, India does not have stringent government regulations on the consumption of petroleum-based raw materials for packaging. In fact, bio-based packagers do not receive any tax incentives from the government in this respect.

Braskem, a Brazilian plastics manufacturing company, was the first to come out with ‘green’-certified PE. Over the years, Braskem has been enlisted by companies around the world (eg, Ecover in Belgium) for developing environmentally sustainable product packaging. Braskem produces the ‘green’ PE from sugarcane harvested in an efficient manner. Instead of using the traditional practice of cutting the sugarcane by hand and burning off the residue, a mechanical harvesting system has been introduced. This system enables leftover leaves and stalks to be collected and used for energy generation.

Coca Cola and India Glycols

Coca Cola has been marketing the bio-based PlantBottle PET bottles since 2009. The company has been sourcing the raw material from the Brazilian sugar industry for its global PlantBottle projects. The ethanol syrup is converted into glycol in a refinery process by India Glycols, Kashipur, in India, and then distributed to PET manufacturers in countries where PlantBottle programmes are underway. India Glycols offers bio-based polyols derived from molasses via ethanol. The 30 per cent that the sugar-based glycol constitutes of the final material replaces the equivalent amount of monoethylene glycol, which has been used in PET material until now. The remaining 70 per cent of the material is terephthalic acid.

Advantages of sugarcane-derived polymers over petroleum-based polymers Recyclable and environment-friendly to manufacture Require less energy to process Result in few emissions Reduce dependence on crude oil and natural gas

Manufacturing process ASUO2

O2/N2/Ar Bio-Glycols

Molasses

Distillery

Bio-Ethanol ENA Liquor

Ethylene

Performance

Bio-Ethylene

Chemicals

Oxide Bio-EIDs

Food Grade CO2

Graphical representation of India Glycols’ business Conclusion

Solution providers

India industry (FMI); Bosch Rexrothrenewable India Ltd feedstock alternatives. With fluctuating oil prices and concerns about greenhouse gasFerromatik emissions,Milacron the plastics is exploring In recent years, sugarcane ethanol has emerged as an important substitute for petroleum in the production of plastics. Having the same physical and chemical properties as regular plastics, this bioplastic, if leveraged correctly, could be the game changer for this industry.

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Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013


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olystyrene or styrofoam is an excellent packaging material because of its insulating and protective properties. Unfortunately, after the product is delivered and opened, polystyrene becomes a waste

material. It is estimated that thousands of tonne of polystyrene are sent to landfills on an annual basis. Polystyrene is large and bulky with extremely low weight, and it is not hard to imagine the volumes of waste polystyrene could occupy in landfills.

-A'(BC(D;>;#D;<(<'=>?#KJ<F=>;B# Polystyrene recycling machines essentially melt polystyrene (styrofoam) to form a dense block of material. The densified blocks are Reduced by over 95 per cent of the original material Approximately 90 cm Ă&#x2014; 25 cm Ă&#x2014; 5 cm (from 2 cubic metre load of polystyrene) Sterile Easy to handle Can be stored indefinitely Turned into fuels (eg diesel) or products (eg garden furniture)

Several loads can be put through the machine over time until sufficient quantities have been produced for either sale or disposal. There is an emerging market for blocks for incineration, recycling and for the production of fuels. The latest polystyrene recycling machines are safe, simple and economical solutions to recycle polystyrene (styrofoam) waste to achieve large savings in transport and waste disposal costs. For instance, Styromelt is specially designed for applications where traditional hydraulic compaction is not economical and practical or where lingering odours and contaminants are present. The thermal compaction process can achieve a volumetric reduction in waste by up to 95 per cent to dramatically reduce waste storage and traffic.

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Machinery can be operated with few skills Machinery occupies a small footprint, ideally suited for retrofitting in supermarket or municipal areas The machine is weather proofed for outside use Process is virtually silent running

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GREEN SHOOT S: Waste plastics in cement concrete

LEADING THE

WAY

Continuous growth in population and the rapid advancement of developing countries have put enormous pressure on the planetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s natural resources. One area of immense concern is waste disposal. The unmitigated growth of non-decaying waste combined with increased consumerism makes it imperative for society, industries and governments to make end-of-life measures part of the product life cycle. One way of dealing with this is to mix waste plastics with cement concrete in the laying of roads.

A

lot of research and development in the area of recycling and disposal of plastics is currently being undertaken by not just industry but also government organisations. Waste plastics, it has been noted, have huge potential in construction and cement technology. With increase in vehicular volumes, the requirement of roads and pavements has also increased. This has, in turn, led to greater research in the area of road construction. Studies show that using plastic waste in cement concrete for pavements makes them less

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Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

susceptible to rutting, fatigue or thermal cracking and low stripping due to moisture. Waste plastics offer greater durability and have low processing costs. The process of incorporating waste plastic modifiers in concrete is fairly easy. Coarse aggregates are heated to about 800°C. The waste plastics in powder form are then thoroughly mixed with the coarse aggregate mixture. This mixture is then allowed to cool down for 3â&#x20AC;&#x201C;4 hours and subsequently mixed with the fine aggregates, water and cement to form concrete.


Waste plastics in cement concrete

Maintenance cost of plastic roads is almost nil.

Plastic roads have better binding properties.

Plastic roads have no seepage of water.

Polymer-bituminous-modified mix test performance

When tested, this modified mix showed improved properties. The performance of the plastic-bituminous mix was judged on the basis of tensile and rutting tests.

Indirect tensile test

Tensile testing, also known as tension testing, is a fundamental materials science test in which a sample is subjected to uniaxial tension until failure. The results from the test are commonly used to select a material for an application, for quality control and to predict how a material will react under other types of forces. Properties that are directly measured via a tensile test are ultimate tensile strength, maximum elongation and reduction in area. From these measurements, properties such as Youngâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s modulus, Poissonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ratio, yield strength and strain-hardening characteristics can also be determined.

10

8

6

4

2

0

Conventional mix Modified mix kg/sqcm

Rutting test

Wheel tracking is used to assess the resistance to rutting of asphalt materials under conditions that simulate the effect of traffic. A loaded wheel tracks a sample under specified conditions of speed and temperature while the development of the rut is monitored continuously during the test. The rut resistance can be quantified as the rate of rutting during the test or the rut depth at the conclusion of the test. There are no traces of stripping even after 20,000 cycles, and no pothole formation, rutting or ravelling have been observed after 5â&#x20AC;&#x201C;6 years after construction.

17554

20,000

15,000

10,000

8650

5,000

0

Conventional mix Modified mix Number of repetitions

What makes concrete?

Advantages of using waste plastics as concrete modifier Easily binds to coarse aggregates at medium temperature Does not require any change in road laying practice Material is available locally in the form of shredded plastic being treated as waste

Cement and water form a paste that coats the aggregate and sand in the mix. The paste hardens and binds the aggregates and sand together. In addition to the above components, concrete modifiers can be mixed for improving tensile and durability properties of the concrete. Modifiers are generally polymeric materials. Studies are being carried out to see how waste plastics as modifiers can further improve the properties of concrete.

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83


Waste plastics in cement concrete

Say YES to plastic roads

þ High tensile strength ������������ þ Better durability �������������������� þ Marshall stability value ��������

Each five-member family’s use of 5 g plastic bags a week across India would mean the use of 52,000 tonne of plastics every year. India spends about ` 35,000 crore every year on road construction and repair, and ` 100,000 crore a year only on maintenance. Roads lasting 2–3 times as long as conventional roads will result in savings to the tune of ` 33,000 crore a year in repairs, plus reduced vehicle wear and tear. In addition, 8 per cent by weight of plastic waste in bitumen is equal to a saving of 0.4 per cent of bitumen by weight in roads.

Environmental benefits The Indian construction segment is a large industry and continues to show an upward trend with the potential of using waste plastics too. Apart from addressing the mounting problems owing to disposal, other reasons to promote the reuse and recycling of plastics are 1. Reduced extraction of raw material 2. Reduced energy consumption due to transportation 3. Easy implementation and greater profits

Application The Bengaluru municipality has taken steps to incorporate waste plastics in the construction of roads. A new blower developed by KK Waste Management and under patent in Bengaluru introduces waste plastics uniformly into Hot-Mix plants. Polymer-modified bitumen has been in use for a long time. It has been approved in the Indian Roads Congress’ Special Publication 53 Guidelines, 1999. The best results are found to be with 8 per cent waste by weight in 80/100 grade bitumen. The result of using polymer-modified bitumen was reduced road cracking after 1 year on the Bengaluru-Mysore State Highway versus an unmodified road. Other roads that have been constructed using waste plastics are Shankar Mutt Road, K H Road, M G Road (towards Trinity Circle), J C Nagar Road and Millers’ Road in Bengaluru.

Conclusion The use of waste plastics in concrete is a simple process that requires no new machinery. Using plastic modifiers, the strength of concrete can be increased. Thus, the use of waste plastics can help reduce the quantity of concrete used during construction. This not only saves material but also fuel, energy and costs. The modified cement concrete mix also helps avoid energy-intensive processes, such as incineration, which may be required for plastics recycling.

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GREEN SHOOT S: Delamination of laminated packaging

A

CLEANER DISPOSAL PROCESS Laminated packaging is a widely used packaging material with applications in a range of food and non-food products. Laminates of plastic and aluminium are commonly used for applications such as pet food, drink pouches, toothpaste tubes and cosmetics. Till recently, there was no technology in place that could recycle laminated packaging, but that has now changed. A process that is technologically and environmentally sound is slowly shaping up.

L

aminate aluminium foil packaging with plastics has many applications. Such type of packaging can be used with plastic either on one side or on both sides for medicinal strips, toiletries and processed foods. However, the entire packaging process generates a high volume of refuse at almost every stage of production. The chief components of the refuse are thin foils of aluminium and plastics. These are non-recyclable. Incineration and landfilling are expensive methods of disposal. It has been estimated that the possible recovery of such type of packaging refuse in India would result in monetary savings to the tune of ` 63 million per year.

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Delamination of laminated packaging

Delamination technology can be easily carried out at ambient temperature.

Recovery of lamination packaging refuse could result in monetary savings to the tune of ` 63 million per year.

Recycling of laminated packaging The entire refuse can be in the form of sheets, strips, tubes or in an already shredded form. The first step of the recycling process of laminated packaging involves the shredding of the refuse in strips of equal width. These are then dipped into inorganic solvent, 50–70 per cent nitric acid at ambient temperature. The mass is allowed to stand in the acid for 4–7 hours, ie till delamination is complete. At ambient temperature and 50–70 per cent concentrated nitric acid, the binder adhesive from the lamination dissolves while neither aluminium nor plastics dissolve. The aluminium foil eventually gets fully separated from the plastic, and the constituents

remain in a floating/submerged condition depending on their individual specific gravities. The delaminated constituents are removed from the nitric acid and submerged in a series of baths. First is a fast bath of lime water, followed by one or more baths of water. This enables separation and sorting of the constituents. Fragments of separated plastics and aluminium foils are centrifuged to dryness before a total sun bath for complete dryness. The separated fragments of aluminium foil are now ready for producing aluminium ingots, while the plastic fragments are ready for producing recycled plastic granules.

Application Triplex Inventives

Triplex Inventives saw the potential of great economic and ecological benefit and developed a process whereby delamination of laminated packaging refuse through the use of acetone– water could separate the constituents of the waste matter effectively. The technology was the recipient of the Plasticon Award 2009 for Innovation in Recycling Technology. This manufacturing process was developed and patented by Ashutosh Mukhopadhyay of Triplex Inventives.

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Delamination of laminated packaging

Advantages of delamination technology Easily carried out at ambient temperature Overall production costs are low

Produces material that can be subsequently sold

for a profit

Utilises inorganic solvents to provide an

eco-friendly and effective waste treatment process

Disadvantages of delamination technology Difficult to implement on a large scale Costly, because it is a manual process

Conclusion With the growing preference for lightweight product packaging, the enhanced usage of laminated films compels the industry to find greener recycling solutions. After reviewing the technical, commercial and environmental performances of the delamination process, its suitability for the packaging industry can be evaluated.

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers

89


GREEN SHOOT S: Waste plastics in cement kilns

an

FUELLING ENERGY-INTENSIVE INDUSTRY

Extremely thin plastics are extremely difficult to recycle. This makes their disposal challenging as thin plastic bags can get carried to far-flung areas by wind, resulting in soil and water contamination. These thin plastics can be collected and used as fuel and supplementary raw material for cement kilns, which result in their disposal before they cause damage to the environment.

O

ne of the most-consumed material in society is cement. The disposal of plastic waste in cement kilns is not only recycling but also another form of end-of-life disposal and an alternative to landfilling. Used polymers such as used tyres and rubber wastes, dewatered and treated sewage pellets, hydrocarbon waste (eg oil), contaminated general waste, biomass and plastics can be used as secondary fuels in cement kilns.

Co-processing Co-processing is the use of waste as raw material or a source of energy or both to replace natural mineral resources and fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and gas (energy recovery) in industrial processes, mainly in energy-intensive industries such as cement, lime, steel, glass and power generation. Waste materials used for co-processing are referred to as alternative fuels and raw materials.

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Co-processing is a proven sustainable development concept that reduces: l Demands on natural resources l Pollution and landfill space l Environmental footprint The global industrial demand for energy is roughly 45 per cent of the total demand. Of the total global energy demand, the requirements of the energy-intensive industries are 27 per cent. Worldwide, wastes suitable for co-processing have an energy potential of 20 per cent of the fossil fuel energy. It is estimated that by 2030, the thermal substitution rate of waste could rise to nearly 30 per cent. In European countries, the available energy potential in waste currently represents nearly 40 per cent of this demand; this is expected to rise to almost 50 per cent by 2030. About 60 per cent of the waste that could be used for co-processing is biomass and is therefore carbon neutral.


Waste plastics in cement kilns

Co-processing reduces pollution and landfill space.

Co-processing reduces environmental footprint.

Co-processing reduces demands on natural resources.

Environmental benefits There are two environmental aspects being addressed through the usage of plastics in the cement industry. These are contribution towards the manufacturing of cement itself and the development of a waste management system for plastic waste. In terms of the cement manufacturing process, the use of alternative fuels and raw materials has the potential to reduce emissions to the environment relative to the use of conventional fossil fuels and conserves non-renewable resources. In terms of the waste management system, cement kilns offer a safe alternative to conventional disposal of waste in dedicated waste incinerators or in landfills, again resulting in overall benefits by reducing environmental burdens and the need for dedicated treatment capacity. Co-processing of plastic waste in cement kilns is suitable for the following reasons:

1. High-flame temperature (2,000째C) ensures complete destruction of harmful pollutants 2. Complete scrubbing of exhaust gas due to counter current flow of raw material, resulting in trapping of heavy metals, sulphur and other pollutants within clinker 3. High residence time >5 sec in oxygen-rich atmosphere ensures complete destruction of organic compounds found in any waste 4. Inclusion of ashes and residual metals from the wastes within the clinker crystal structure 5. Kiln lines equipped with ESP/bag filters ensures negligible particulate emission 6. Intense contact between solid and gas phases ensures condensation of volatiles, absorbs SO2 and neutralises acid gases 7. Destruction and removal efficiency of 99 per cent

Application

Evaluation of the co-processing feasibility of plastic waste conducted by ACC Norm

Measured stack emission during the trial Before CoAfter co-processing processing co-processing

Parameter

Units

Dioxin & Furan TOC HCl HF SO2 SPM CO NOx Mercury Metals (except Cd & Tl) Cd & Tl

ng TEQ/ Nm3 mgC/Nm3 mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3

0.1

0.004

0.0033

0.0029

20 50 4 200 50 100 400 0.05

5.5 ND ND 77 44.9 446 651 0.014

7.36 ND ND 27.75 48.6 780 600.5 0.046

6.01 ND ND 12 48.9 313 614 0.006

mg/Nm3

0.5

0.047

0.041

0.037

mg/Nm3

0.05

0.002

0.004

0.004

ACC Kymore Cement Works explored the option of co-processing plastic waste in 2008. Over the three-day trial period, several plastics were co-processed. Some of these were polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, nylon and polystyrene. ACC had carried out the prerequisite tests to determine co-processing feasibility. The results are illustrated in the graph alongside.

Conclusion Economic growth coupled with changing consumption and production patterns is resulting in rapid increase in generation of waste plastics. By putting in place regulations for cement makers to use wastes that can burn, such as plastic wastes and tyre chips, as alternative fuel in cement kilns will prove to be helpful. This can result in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and avoid creation of landfills.

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GREEN SHOOT S: Waste plastics in railway sleepers

A SILENT JOURNEY

A railway sleeper is a rectangular support for the rails in railway tracks. Sleepers transfer loads to the track ballast and subgrade, hold the rails upright and keep them spaced to the correct gauge. Railway sleepers were traditionally made of wood, but pre-stressed concrete is now widely used, especially in Europe and Asia. In the midst of burgeoning transport systems, an innovative application of waste plastics in railway sleepers is being explored.

A

s

of January 2008, the approximate market share in North America for traditional and wood sleepers was 91.5 per cent, the remainder being concrete, steel, azobĂŠ (red ironwood) and plastic composite. Although far less than wood or concrete, the advent of plastic composite sleepers has made noticeable changes. To address the issue of disposal of waste plastics, research is being conducted to promote the use of plastic waste in the construction of railway sleepers. Successful use of waste plastics in railway sleepers has the potential of l Increasing the life span of railway sleepers by preventing cracking l Reducing noise through damping l.Addressing end-of-life options for waste plastics Polymeric composites can be formed into articles of construction to replace similar articles made of wood and concrete.

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Waste plastics in railway sleepers

Composite sleepers are resistant to insect and moisture damage.

Equipment used to install wood and concrete sleepers can be used to install composite sleepers as well.

Composites comprise

l Polymer component of polyolefins – preferably obtained as waste or recycled waste l Rubbery polymeric component – preferably obtained from disposed tyres l Reinforcing filler component comprising mica – mica preferably of the expanded variety to allow for a reduction in density over similar composites containing traditional mica Evaporation of volatile compounds initially contained within the different components, primarily the rubbery polymeric component, allows for the production of articles of construction having a foamed inner core, in which the foamed cell structure has not been achieved through the use of traditional CO2-generating foam agents.

Composite sleepers are electrically non-conductive.

Composite sleepers are resistant to chemical damage.

Composition of the composite Polymer component

Polymer component is 40–70 per cent polymeric composite – waste or recycled polyolefins; the polyolefins are selected from the group consisting of high-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene, propylene homopolymer, propylene-ethylene copolymer and combinations of these polymers. The polymer component further comprises a stryrenic polymer component.

Rubbery polymeric component

Crumbed tyre fragments and 4–40 per cent of the polymeric composite

Reinforcing filler component Wooden railway sleeper versus composite railway sleeper

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Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

Expanded mica and glass fibre and 6–50 per cent of the polymeric composite


Waste plastics in railway sleepers

Environmental benefits

Advantages of using composite railway sleepers Greater strength Better thermal coefficient of expansion Completely recyclable material Use of waste resources

Longer life span than conventional wood sleepers Waste plastics used in the composite material help in damping vibrations

Applications TieTek Inc

TieTek Inc, a subsidiary of North American Technology Group Inc, initiated the development of composite railway sleepers in 1993. The railway sleepers were tested at Transportation Technology Center Inc, a subsidiary of the American Association of Railroads in Pueblo, Colorado, and obtained the approval after seeking a load of greater than 400 gross million tonne in use on different tracks.

Patil Group of Industries

In India, this technology has been implemented by the Patil Group of Industries. They have supplied over 11 million composite railway sleepers to Indian Railways and other industrial giants. In fact, they have been instrumental in the completion of the 760-km-long Mumbai-Goa Konkan Railway project by supplying more than 9 lakh composite railway sleepers within 24 months. Conclusion Other than being environmentally responsible, composite sleepers are superior in performance and provide significant value to customers. By using these sleepers, railroads can augment the profitability of operations by minimising maintenance costs, reducing downtime and improving performance. Proven to be viable replacements for traditional wood sleepers, this ingenious application of waste plastics is also doing its bit for the environment.

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GREEN SHOOT S: Zero pellet loss

Over the past few years, researchers have reported deaths and noted poorer health of more marine life. One of the reasons behind the decline in the health of marine life lies in careless disposal of plastic products such as bags, bottles, caps etc. Since minimising the danger of plastic dust escaping into the environment during machining is easily said than done, Operation Clean Sweep (OCS) is a new technique that is helping processors counter attack this issue.

Clean SWEEP! P

lastic litter caused by accidents and spills during manufacturing and careless disposal has entered streams and other water bodies. When these pellets are ingested by wildlife, they are not digested and result in malnutrition and starvation of animals. To minimise the damage, which has resulted in polluting the natural heritage coupled with threatening the existence of animal life, a solution is being fine-tuned.

Operation Clean Sweep (OCS)

To curb pollution of the environment due to plastics, plastics associations of developed countries such as the US, the UK and Canada have initiated the OCS programme. This initiative has been in practice in the developed world

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for about 12 years. In the US, it has been undertaken by the Society of Plastics Industry (SPI) and the American Chemistry Council (ACC) to promote sustainability of plastics through cleaner disposal methods. The Canadian Plastics Industry Association (CPIA) and the British Plastics Federation (BPF) have also developed detailed guidelines and manuals for plastics manufacturers to help them implement zero pellet loss. Through OCS, plastics manufacturers are educated on the benefits of upgrading their production sites and machinery as well as training their personnel in the concept of zero pellet loss. The aim of OCS is to contain, reclaim and properly dispose of plastic resins.


Zero pellet loss

To minimise plastic litter, the pelletising machine must have sharp blades.

Discarded or lost fishing gear is one of the biggest contributors to marine litter.

OCS can be implemented by using proper containment procedures during transportation.

The zero pellet loss initiative helps manufacturers adhere to environmental regulations while minimising wastage and subsequent costs.

OCS can be implemented through a few basic measures: l Introducing slopes and berms that will collect plastic pellets l Keeping vacuums and brooms handy for personnel to sweep up any wastes l Providing screens and meshes over drains l Installing valves on site l Using proper containment procedures while transportation l Attaching collection containers on machines

To minimise the danger of plastic dust escaping into the environment during machining: l l l l l

Keep the machines in good order The pelletising machine must have well-sharpened blades Proper-sized granulators must be used Waste disposal containers must be placed strategically Conveying systems must be installed to avoid collisions of material with hard surfaces

The zero pellet loss initiative helps manufacturers adhere to environmental regulations while minimising wastage and subsequent costs. More importantly, it ensures that indiscriminate and careless disposal of plastics that can pollute soil and water bodies is avoided through simple and inexpensive steps such as equipment and technology upgradation, education and personnel training.

Implementation The All India Plastics Manufacturersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Association (AIPMA) has signed an MoU with SPI, USA. This MoU was signed in March 2012 to promote not only greater trade between the two countries but also implement a systematic process akin to OCS in India.

Conclusion By increasing the efficiency of pelletising machines, companies will be able to use more materials in their product manufacture resulting in lesser wastage. In the process, companies will be able to enhance their reputation in the fraternity and egg others on to practice similar techniques. By keeping plastic pellets out of the environment, the plastics industry can significantly reduce its environmental footprint.

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GREEN SHOOT S: Constraint-based planning and scheduling

ENERGY consumption optimisation

Although energy-saving practices are widely implemented by plastics manufacturers, there remains more potential to reduce energy consumption through technological innovation and research and development. Moreover, the recent economic climate, ie volatile crude oil prices and more stringent environmental legislation, makes it essential for companies to continuously strive towards energy reduction. Many other industries facing similar challenges in energy conservation have turned to technologies that make them more efficient. However, generic industry solutions cannot be applied to the plastics sector. This industry needs tailor-made solutions that will reduce overall energy consumption during production.

W

ith the recent economic fluctuations, many practices for energy saving, such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and supply chain management technologies, have been adopted by other industry segments. Experts believe that improved planning and scheduling systems can make a significant difference to the plastics industry. Although optimisation in plastics manufacturing will require significant investments (initial and regular personnel training), several companies abroad, in particular those of the EU, have developed and marketed such software simulation packages.

Constraint-based manufacturing

Planning and scheduling solutions can help plastics manufacturers reduce energy consumption. Some of these solutions are

Activity-based costing when planning

Before reducing energy consumption, it is important to understand where, when, why and how much energy is used. Useful energy key performance indicators can be derived and then used to monitor and reduce further consumption of energy. A constraint-based system includes the ability to associate fixed and variable costs with various aspects of production planning, including materials, usage of different machine/mould combinations, performing changeovers and idle time. It therefore enables users to project the energy consumption of alternative production plans.

Optimising machine routing and mould allocation decisions

A large plastics manufacturer could have 50â&#x20AC;&#x201C;100 injection moulding machines at a given site. These may have several hundred moulds, with perhaps multiple copies of the more popular moulds, and usually any one mould can be fitted to multiple machines. Because several thousand items are made, the combinations of the problem can increase. There may also be practical considerations on the shop floor such as 98

Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

trying to achieve long production runs (to avoid unnecessary and costly changeovers) that sometimes prevent the least cost machine/mould combination from being used. Considering all of the possible routing options and simultaneously creating a weekly master production plan for 6â&#x20AC;&#x201C;12 months, respecting the myriad constraints becomes impossible using conventional tools such as spreadsheets. Constraint-based systems are simultaneously able to consider all of the possible routing options, both in terms of machines and moulds, deriving a feasible plan in minimal time. Users can let the system manage the constraints and complex capacity/demand calculations, while they apply their considerable planning more effectively, focussing on comparison of different planning strategies and conducting what-if analysis to arrive at the most acceptable trade-off in terms of plant throughput, energy consumption, customer service and machine efficiency.

Reducing mould changeovers and machine idling

The main reason for machines becoming idle is when performing a mould changeover. A further undesirable consequence of changeovers and restarting machines is increased wastage of costly material. It therefore becomes necessary to plan changeovers in production schedules by l Identifying when machines may be idle for long periods of time to identify opportunities for energy reduction through stopping/starting machines l If possible, idle time should be minimised by planning long production runs l Minimise the number of changeovers during planning/ scheduling to reduce wasted energy and material A constraint-based system is able to represent all typical constraints associated with plastics manufacturing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; including mould changeovers. As a result, any derived plan is feasible and provides more accurate long-term visibility of projected times when specific machines may be idle. The management is therefore better informed in terms of introducing machinery shutdowns at appropriate times, thus minimising related energy costs.


Constraint-based planning and scheduling

Improved visibility and control In a constraint-based application, longterm demand visibility and future inventory goals can be merged with complex machine/mould constraints. The ability to represent costs and compare plans from a broad range of perspectives (eg customer service, changeover frequency, cost, energy and production throughput) enables the planner to quickly and consistently identify optimal trade-offs between the customer, energy and production conflicts. A planning and scheduling system can allow energy monitoring and control objectives to be embraced as an integral part of the planning process.

Environmental benefits l Reduction in overall energy consumption during manufacture constraint-based l A simulation programme helps manufacturers anticipate energy consumption

A constraint-based system has the ability to associate fixed and variable costs with various aspects of production planning. A constraint-based simulation system can allow planners to make informed decisions in their planning process from the point of inventory, throughput or material and energy conservation.

Applications

What-if analysis Plastics companies need to conduct what-if simulations for a variety of reasons. Spreadsheets can be extremely time-consuming. A c on st r ai nt - base d simulation system can facilitate such strategic analysis. Alternative plans may be created by simply changing constraints/ parameters in the model. This can allow planners to make informed decisions in their planning process from the point of inventory, throughput or material and energy conservation.

Constraint-based systems are simultaneously able to consider all of the possible routing options, both in terms of machines and moulds, deriving a feasible plan in minimal time.

Dow Chemical Company Dow Chemical Company has implemented the use of the Logility Voyager Manufacturing Planning System (Logility Inc, UK). With significant changeover, production and additive constraints, The Dow Chemical Company needed to improve visibility across plants, reduce inventory, decrease the amount of offgrade product produced and increase efficiency. Through better inventory and raw material management, companies can save energy and optimise output. In the future, a module for especially monitoring energy consumption can be incorporated into a constraint-based software system.

Bharti Telecom PPS and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore A study carried out by researchers from the Nanyang Techological University, Singapore, details the possible incorporation of simulation software for optimising manufacturing parameters on the shop floor of Bharti Telecom’s Plastic Processing Section. This particular unit that produces plastic components for the assembly of Bharti telephones has 40 different plastic

components that have one mould for each part. The production line also comprises seven IMMs, two ovens/pre-heaters, three presses, one granulator and one buffing machine. The aim of the simulation support system was to optimise production through meeting due dates, reduce flow time and WIP and maximise machine utilisation by, for instance, reducing idle running time. Although this is a theoretical case study, future work aims to run trials of these scheduling algorithms in conjunction with the plant’s ERP software.

Sun Vacuum Formers and Auto Décor These manufacturers of plastic components and auto ancillaries use Eastern Software System (ESS) ERP systems to optimise their outputs and reduce overall wastage.

IBM’s ILOG used by BASF Using IBM ILOG’s optimisationbased planning and scheduling solution, BASF, Germany, better aligned its plastics production with demand, while accomplishing planning tasks 2–3 times faster than the previous planning method.

Conclusion Plastics manufacturing environments are extremely complex and considerably flexible in nature. However, in these times, even a small increase in energy prices can have a dramatic impact on a company’s balance sheets. To survive, companies need to carefully investigate areas of cost savings. With timely planning and scheduling, companies with energy costs significantly in excess of industry averages will find the aforementioned technologies helpful to achieve savings. July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers

99


GREEN SHOOT S: Use of rapid prototypes

Developing

component plastics

A decade ago, the vocation of mould-making was largely based on skilled experience and craftsmanship. The advent of technology has made mouldistorically, prototyping of components often necessitated the makers efficient enough to cut down on manufacture of steel moulds. This is both time consuming time and cost. However, in contrast to other and costly. Further, design changes often meant that the initial industries, the acceptance of technology prototype mould had to be extensively modified or scrapped. in mould-designing for plastics has been In recent years, the following technologies have been developed to produce relatively slow. Until only quite recently, prototypes directly from computer designs, without the need for moulds. commercial software systems have begun to appear and are being Stereolithography adopted in the tool-making and Stereolithography is an additive manufacturing process that employs a vat of moulding industry. liquid ultraviolet curable photopolymer ‘resin’ and an ultraviolet laser to build the

H

parts’ layers one at a time. For each layer, the laser beam traces a cross-section of the part pattern on the surface of the liquid resin. Exposure to ultraviolet laser light cures and solidifies the pattern traced on the resin and joins it to the layer below. After the pattern has been traced, the stereolithography’s elevator platform descends by a distance equal to the thickness of a single layer, typically 0.05–0.15 mm (0.002” to 0.006”). Then, a resinfilled blade sweeps across the cross section of the part, re-coating it with fresh material. On this new liquid surface, the subsequent layer pattern is traced, joining the previous layer. A complete 3D part is formed by this process. After being built, parts are immersed in a chemical bath to be cleaned of excess resin and are subsequently cured in an ultraviolet oven.

100 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013


Use of rapid prototypes

Stereolithography is an additive manufacturing process that employs a vat of liquid ultraviolet curable photopolymer ‘resin’ and an ultraviolet laser to build parts’ layers one at a time.

A rapidly growing application of Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is in art.

SLS is an additive manufacturing technique that uses a high power laser to fuse small particles of plastic, metal, ceramic or glass powders into a mass that has a desired 3D shape. Building 3D objects in ballistic particle manufacturing uses CAD-generated 3D solid model data to direct streams of material at a target, building 3D objects in much the same manner an ink-jet printer produces 2D images.

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)

SLS is an additive manufacturing technique that uses a high power laser (eg a carbon dioxide laser) to fuse small particles of plastic, metal (direct metal laser sintering), ceramic or glass powders into a mass that has a desired 3D shape. The laser selectively fuses powdered material by scanning cross sections generated from a 3D digital description of the part (eg from a CAD file or scan data) on the surface of a powder bed. After each cross section is scanned, the powder bed is lowered by one layer thickness, a new layer of material is applied on top and the process is repeated until the part is completed. Because finished part density depends on peak laser power rather than laser duration, a SLS machine typically uses a pulsed laser. The SLS machine pre-heats the bulk powder material in the powder bed somewhat below its melting point to make it easier for the laser to raise the temperature of the selected regions the rest of the way to the melting point.

XO Heart Shield

Application

One of the largest makers of protective athletic products wanted to expand into chest protection for young baseball players in the US. A flawless prototype for testing and tooling verification was critically important. The process of overmoulding – joining flexible and hard materials – added a layer of complexity to the task, which had to be completed in just one week. Cadability Inc, provided data files to ART Corp Solution from which they produced a stereolithography master and rubber tooling. The experts cast a hard urethane liner and then overmoulded it with a soft rubber-like urethane. The unique

SLS technology is in wide use around the world due to its ability to easily make complex geometries directly from digital CAD data. While it began as a way to build prototype parts early in the design cycle, it is increasingly being used in limited-run manufacturing to produce end-use parts.

Ballistic particle manufacturing

Ballistic particle manufacturing uses CAD-generated 3D solid model data to direct streams of material (waxes, plastics, photo curable polymers, ceramics or metals) at a target, building 3D objects in much the same manner an ink-jet printer produces 2D images. An object is built by a three-axis robotic system controlling a piezoelectric ink-jet mechanism ‘shooting’ particles of the material, producing multiple cross sections, onto a target. There are different ink-jet techniques (deposition systems), but all rely on squirting a build material in a liquid or melted state that cools or otherwise hardens to form a solid on impact.

design of the heart shield product channels impact energy to three anchor points, away from the critical heart area, greatly reducing injury potential. For testing purposes, the XO Heart Shield was glued onto T-shirts. During actual production, the device is injection moulded directly onto the T-shirt. A single iteration of the prototype proved highly effective and successful. The one-week turnaround enabled the client to prove the effectiveness of the design before making an enormous financial commitment to creating the product. Thus, rapid prototyping not only helped create a precise and successful product but also enabled its production in limited time.

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 101


Use of rapid prototypes

Environmental benefits Rapid prototyping finds use and application in almost all industries. The advantages of rapid prototyping: l l l l l l l l l l

Visualisation capabilities are enhanced in the early designing phase The user gets a fair idea of how the final product will look by observing the working model in the early design stage Design flaws can be detected before the manufacture process is initiated Enables producer and users to participate actively The user is able to get a higher output Development costs are reduced considerably and hence quite cost effective Increases the speed of system development Assists in refining the potential risks that are involved in the delivery Different aspects of the prototype can be tried and tested and immediate feedback is possible from user Better communication is enabled between the user and designer as there is clear expression of requirements and expectations from the start itself

Conclusion Generally, one or more prototypes are developed in the process of software development in a series of incremental and iterative steps. Every prototype that is manufactured is based on the performance of previous designs, and it is a corrective process through which defects or problems of the past design are corrected. The product is readied for production when the prototype is refined as per requirements and meets all the design goals such as manufacturability, robustness and functionality. Significant advantages of rapid prototyping include reduction in project cost and risk.

102 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013


SPECIAL FOCUS

Thermoforming Efficient thermoforming:

Increased production with better technology......................................................................................... 104

Thermoforming technology:

Propelling growth with creativity.......................................................................................................... 106

The thermoforming edge:

Faster prototyping and processing ........................................................................................................ 108

Interface:

Sunil Jain, President, Rajoo Engineers Ltd.................................................................................. 110

S C Dutta, Managing Director, Shalimar Thermoforming Pvt Ltd............................................... 111

Roundtable:

Are Indian thermoformers ready to compete with low-cost Chinese thermoforming machines?....... 112

May July 2012 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 103


SPECIAL FOCUS: Ef ficient thermoforming

Courtesy: WM Wrapping Machinery SA

INCREASED PRODUCTION WITH BETTER TECHNOLOGY

The Indian thermoforming and plastics industry is embracing new technology and energyefficient heating options for machines. With more people becoming aware of the need for energy efficiency in the thermoforming industry, production accuracy is expected to get a boost. Anwesh Koley looks at various techniques that help this sector to increase efficiency.

T

he efficiency of thermoforming technology depends on the varied applications of the process. Thermoformed packaging refers to a type of packaging that is made using thermoforming technology. This process melts a special type of plastic into the liquid form and then freezes it to a brittle, almost glass-like state. This type of thermoformed packaging is preferred for various applications such as dairy and food packaging. The main advantages of thermoformed technology are cost efficiency and high quality of polymer substance used in packaging. V Vikram, Proprietor, Sealers India Agencies, says, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Thermoformed packaging materials are 104 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

stiffer than average packaging. They are also transparent and provide a barrier against outside flavours or even odours, keeping the food products inside fresh and tasteful. This also keeps the package from smelling like the food product inside it. Additionally, this type of packaging has anti-fogging characteristics and a general resistance to grease and oil.â&#x20AC;? Because this packaging material is stiff, it allows manufacturers to downgrade to smaller containers. This is not an easy process when manufacturers have to deal exclusively with polystyrene containers.

Thin gauge and heavy gauge thermoforming

Thin gauge is the process using continuous

forming of roll-fed thermoplastic sheet through an oven tunnel into a forming station, on through trimming to picking and packaging. Thin gauge thermoforming is usually a more automated process than heavy gauge thermoforming. Thin gauge thermoforming is used extensively in the packaging industry. The heavy gauge division of thermoforming feeds cut sheets of thermoplastics into a machine that carries the sheets through one or more heating stations to the forming station for moulding and then out of the machine. Here, secondary steps are necessary to trim the finished part. Trimming includes sawing, routing, shearing and drilling. â&#x20AC;&#x153;In the early


Ef ficient thermoforming

days of heavy gauge thermoforming, an acrylic thermoplastic sheet was hung in an oven to absorb heat. The material was then stretched over a mould. After allowing time to cool, it was removed and trimmed. Drape forming is still being used for various applications in the manufacturing of many products,” says Vikram.

Vacuum thermoforming – the most preferred choice

Vacuum thermoforming is a process that uses heat and suction to shape the plastic sheet onto the desired mould. A secondary operation is required for trimming features such as cutouts and holes. This technique is best suited for large, lightweight parts or textured or coloured parts that do not need finishing. It is easy to create a mould, allowing for quick turnaround time, and is well suited for prototyping and short-tomedium run production of thick gauge parts. Vacuum thermoforming provides the solution for product simplification and aesthetics enhancement for products such as panel covers, trays, dividers, guards, pans and display cases.

Applications to improve accuracy

Heavy gauge thermoforming serves every industry. New applications include building & construction products, products for the electronics industry (usually replacing injection moulded parts) and products for the heavy trucking industry and automotive manufacturing. In automotives, the matched moulding system is commonly used for forming doors, headlining panels, wheel well openings and closeout panels in the boot. A variation of drape forming and match moulding (slip forming) utilises a mould with a matching plug assist where the material is free to slip into the mould configuration. Slip forming is commonly used in automotive manufacturing for forming carpeting. “Another important industry served by heavy gauge thermoforming is sanitary wear including bathtubs, shower stalls and wash basins.

The materials generally used are Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), vinyl, acrylic and/or acrylic over an ABS substrate. Some manufacturers use cell cast acrylic, heating the sheets in the convection oven and using vacuum to form the part,” adds Vikram. Other methods use ABS with a co-extruded top coat of acrylic. This is usually formed on standard thermoforming equipment. The surfaces are then reinforced with fibre glass (woven or chopped fibres) or sprayed urethane foam. A process recently introduced uses thermoformed finished surfaces with a waffled thermoformed material back panel, reinforced with cast urethane foam between the two parts. The appliance industry uses vacuum forming to produce the interior boxes and door liners in refrigerators. The common materials used here are polystyrene and ABS. The trimmings of refrigerator parts are moving from massive punch die to 5 axis robotic router trimming. The industrial pallet industry is moving rapidly from wood boxes and pallets to twin-sheet thermoformed products. The material used is generally high-density and high-molecular-weight Polyethylene (PE). The automotive and food industries have been driving this change because of the increasing demand for recyclable containers and pallets. This has presented a great opportunity for plastics and thermoforming. Thermoforming technology can also be used if very long packaging lines arise as a result of the output level and many functions. The principle of the jumbo tray comes into play here, as a complete array with trays is formed first. After being formed, this array is separated with a cut cross to the film running direction and placed on a transmodule, which then moves through the line according to the tasks to be carried out. “If several transmodules are lined up for coupled mode, patented continuous counter-running can be utilised for picker line operation. Here, products move through the packaging line from

Thermoformed packaging materials are stiffer than average packaging. They are also transparent and provide a barrier against outside flavours or even odours, keeping the food products inside fresh and tasteful. V Vikram

Proprietor, Sealers India Agencies

one side and the packaging materials from the other side,” says Vikram.

Areas of growth

The material growth in thermoforming sheets is greatest in high-density and high-molecular-weight PE. PE has high resistance to impact, heat, chemicals and weather. Polypropylene (PP) is also beginning to be used in heavy gauge thermoforming. In addition, high-temperature, high-performance engineering materials, such as ABS and polycarbonate, are used where standard PE or PP are not sufficient in properties. Heavy gauge thermoforming has grown due to a variety of reasons that increase production and efficiency. It also offers a better quality sheet. Precise control of the heat and forming cycles at regular timings ensures better production quality. “The acceptance of well-designed, quality-built temperaturecontrolled forming moulds that allow tighter control of part dimensions, residual internal stresses and the ability to produce repeatable parts has made heavy gauge the chosen technique for a vast range of thermoforming requirements,” feels Vikram. Email: anwesh.koley@network18publishing.com

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 105


PROPELLING GROWTH WITH

CREATIVITY

Courtesy: Origin Manufacturing

SPECIAL FOCUS: Thermoforming technology

Owing to their cost-effectiveness, lower weight and properties of recyclability, thermoformed products enjoy a huge market in India. This has given a boost to the thermoforming industry in India, and thermoforming has become a preferred technique. Avani Jain discusses the competitive edge offered by thermoforming over other processing techniques and charts the growth trajectory of this industry.

T

he Indian plastics industry is witnessing growth in all verticals. This growth, coupled with increasing awareness about the importance of recycling plastic products, has ensured that not only consumers get a better finished product but the environment also breathes a sigh of relief. This has led to increased usage of thermoformed products. Raw materials, such as Polypropylene (PP) and Polystyrene (PS), are fast gaining ground in terms of their use in production of packaging material or containers, trays and boxes. Therefore, to manufacture finished products, thermoforming is the most widely used technique. Further, with the recent revolution in organised retail and increased use of disposable containers in households and commercial establishments, the thermoforming industry is booming, both in India as well as globally. Khushboo Doshi, Executive Director, Rajoo Engineers, notes, â&#x20AC;&#x153;The 106 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

thermoforming market is constantly growing in India. At present, this technology is only used to make cups for tea and water, but it can be used in various other segments to make a variety of products such as automotive parts, suitcases and briefcases, bathtubs, white goods such as refrigerator liners & door panels and industrial trays or covers. The key demand driver for the growth of such type of process and machinery is the booming packaging sector, which consumes almost 50â&#x20AC;&#x201C;60 per cent of machines. This demand will increase in the future as well. Further, organised retail will provide a fillip to this industry.â&#x20AC;?

The process Thermoforming is a term generally used for manufacturing of plastic components through vacuum or pressure forming processes. Single-sheet thermoforming consists of heating an extruded plastic sheet and forming it over a male mould or into a female mould. That is,

the thermoplastic sheet is heated to a temperature where it softens and is then stretched over or into a single-sided mould and held in place until it cools and solidifies into the desired shape. Depending on the type of mould that the customer prefers, the thermoforming process enables a part having aesthetic properties identical to those achieved by an injection-moulded part for a fraction of the tooling expense in injection moulding.

Thermoforming over other processes Thermoforming, one of the oldest plastics processes, has the ability to fabricate thin-walled parts with large areas using relatively inexpensive, single-sided tooling. The process can also economically produce a few thick-walled parts or many thin-walled parts. As technology advancements have greatly improved in all aspects of thermoforming machines, thermoformers are now well equipped to drive competition to the next level.


Thermoforming technology

Thermoforming allows manufacturers to produce final products at a much faster rate. Similar products can be made through injection moulding, but thermoforming is quicker and helps meet production targets better. Thus, compared to other methods of plastics processing, such as injection and blow moulding, thermoforming offers lowcost tooling, faster and inexpensive prototyping, shorter production lead times, custom designs that can be easily modified, thin-gauge products, demand flexibility and exceptionally large part capabilities. This technology is widely used across the world for creating thin-gauge finished products that can also be effectively recycled. The most common applications in India are trays, soft covers or packaging products that do not require much protection from external conditions. At present, the thermoforming industry in India seems to be witnessing an upward moving graph. The demand for light, recyclable yet rigid products is on the rise, and thermoformed articles enjoy a market that is benefitting from the above-mentioned characteristics.

Diversity in applications Thermoforming is commonly used for manufacturing food packaging, but it finds wide applications in the production of plastic toys, cafeteria trays and even aircraft windscreens. Thin-gauge (less than 0.060 in) sheets are mostly used for rigid or disposable packaging, while thick-gauge (greater than 0.120 in) sheets are typically used for cosmetic permanent surfaces of automobiles, shower enclosures and electronic equipment. Thin-gauge sheets find wide and ready application, which is primarily due to lower cost and weight of the final product.

Challenges faced Despite the benefits offered by thermoforming, the industry has to tackle certain issues. A key challenge for the sector is the decline in the quality of thermoformed products, which is the result of cost reduction and competition.

There should be a set thickness for thermoformed products, which must be made mandatory or else it will compromise on the quality. While growth is expected in the flexible packaging industry, consumers increasingly prefer rigid containers, the quality of which can be ensured by prescribing a minimum thickness for the product. Another important factor is the confidence of investors in the sector. With rapid implementation of stringent norms by the government, new entrepreneurs are often apprehensive to venture into this industry due to fear that they might soon have to look for alternative business avenues.

Future outlook While there is no denying the challenges facing the thermoforming sector, customer demand and global trends still have a long way to go in determining the future of this industry. Stiff competition coupled with stringent government regulations are a matter of concern for industry players, but everyday use of thermoformed products will ensure an upward growth of this sector. Further, the growing demand in the food packaging sector will surely have a positive impact on the growth of this sector. Lakshmi Ramakrishnan, Chief Executive Officer, Essen Speciality Films Pvt Ltd, says, â&#x20AC;&#x153;The demand for thermoforming products is growing by the day, especially in the food packaging segment. In the coming years, there will be more demand for disposable containers rather than pouches, so we are trying to develop new products in this segment.â&#x20AC;? Industry experts also believe that India has the opportunity to become a major hub for manufacturing in the days to come. The future of the thermoforming industry seems to be bright and is expected to be double the GDP growth in the next three to five years. Processors need to enhance capacities to meet the challenges of the organised retail sector and should also be more flexible in coming up with innovative packaging formats. Email: avani.jain@network18publishing.com

The demand for thermoforming products is growing by the day, especially in the food packaging segment. In the coming years, there will be more demand for disposable containers rather than pouches. Lakshmi Ramakrishnan Chief Executive Officer, Essen Speciality Films Pvt Ltd

The key demand driver for the growth of such type of process and machinery is the booming packaging sector, which consumes almost 50â&#x20AC;&#x201C;60 per cent of machines. This demand will increase in the future as well. Further, organised retail will provide a fillip to this industry. Khushboo Doshi

Executive Director, Rajoo Engineers

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 107


Courtesy: Shalimar Thermoforming Pvt Ltd

SPECIAL FOCUS: The thermoforming edge

Lightweight plastic products have gained a steady market around the globe due to a variety of reasons. The ability to produce cost-effective plastic products without compromising on rigidity makes thermoforming a viable option for plastics processors. Anwesh Koley looks into the latest technologies used in this process to offer highquality end products.

W

ith the rapid ly increasing price of commodity polymers, the scenario in the plastics market has changed recently. Many plastics processors have entered into thermoforming by the acquisition of one or more companies in that business in order to remain a competitive supplier of containers, particularly to the dairy market. The reason is easy to comprehend â&#x20AC;&#x201C; orientation strength, which is only obtainable by thermoforming because it is performed below the melting point of the polymer, particularly with Polypropylene (PP). Due to these benefits, it is possible to produce containers such as those used for dairy products

with much thinner walls but having the same compression strength as their injection moulded equivalents. Vir Singh, Proprietor, Sai Thermoformers, says, â&#x20AC;&#x153;The thermoforming industry is flourishing in India. Thermoforming has wide ranging applications in the day-to-day life of the people in India as it is substituting packaging items for more than a decade,

particularly the thermoformed catering items, food trays/packages, cups & glasses and other beverage containers, bakery/ sweets packaging etc, besides large industry applications.â&#x20AC;?

Preference for this process

Customers today demand lightweight packaging for most of their daily re q u i re m e n t s . Thermoforming offers the advantage of manufacturing thinwalled products that help in reducing weight. For this reason, more entrepreneurs are entering the thermoforming process industry. The important thing that needs to be considered is that entrepreneurs consciously manufacture using virgin or high-quality plastics and polymers to meet environment norms.

FASTER

PROTOTYPING AND PROCESSING

108 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013


The thermoforming edge

Plastics find a variety of applications in every day life. However, when it comes to packaging material or containers, trays and boxes, raw materials such as PP and Polystyrene (PS) are fast gaining ground in terms of usage, and the most widespread technique used in making finished products is thermoforming. The ongoing development of new materials, equipment and tooling technology has enabled thermoforming to find applications in areas that formerly utilised paperboard, glass, metal, wood, expanded polystyrene foam etc. “Compared to other plastics processing processes (eg injection or blow moulding), thermoforming offers low-cost tooling; fast, inexpensive prototyping; shorter production lead times; custom designs that can be easily modified; thin-walled products that demand flexibility and exceptionally large part capabilities. Thus, thermoforming facilitates ideas into reality,” says Singh.

Applications of thermoforming

Thermoforming is a secondary shaping process, the primary process being that which produces the sheet or film. Only thermoplastics can be thermoformed because extruded sheets of thermosetting or elastomeric polymers have already been cross-linked and cannot be softened by reheating. Common thermoforming plastics are polystyrene, cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, polyvinyl chloride, acr ylic (polymethylmethacr ylate), polyethylene and PP. Mass production thermoforming operations are performed in the packaging industry. The starting sheet or film is rapidly fed through a heating chamber and then mechanically formed into the desired shape. The operations are often designed to produce multiple parts with each stroke of the press using moulds with multiple punches and cavities. In some cases, the extrusion machine that produces the sheet or film is located directly upstream from the thermoforming process, thereby eliminating the need to reheat the

plastic. For best efficiency, the filling process to put the consumable food item into the container is placed immediately downstream from thermoforming. Thin film packaging items that are mass produced by thermoforming include blister packs and skin packs. They offer an attractive way to display certain commodity products such as cosmetics, toiletries, small tools and fasteners (eg nails, screws etc). Thermoforming applications include large parts that can be produced from thicker sheet stock, eg covers for business machines, boat hulls, shower stalls, diffusers for lights, advertising displays & signs, bathtubs and certain toys. Often injection moulding is compared to thermoforming. However, there are certain advantages enjoyed by thermoforming that make it the preferred choice. Injection moulding has its limitations when it comes to size of product and cost of tooling. A typical injection mould tool will cost roughly 33 per cent more than a similar thermoformed tool, and the margin increases as the parts get larger. “Injection moulding does not have a good prototype process; typically SLA or SLS parts used for prototyping offer limited comparisons to the actual final product, can be expensive and are not of the same material the final product will be made from,” adds Singh. Thermoforming, on the other hand, utilises a prototype tool made from wood or epoxy that can be used to create several finished parts of the product and formed from the same material as that of the final product. Therefore, many possible design or fit issues can be caught up front before going to production tooling, thus saving time and money.

Areas to be worked on

Although thermoforming has many advantages, the industry needs to understand certain fundamental requirements to ensure steady growth. “An important aspect of concern is thermoforming machinery which is very costly as the same is monopolised by very

Thermoforming offers low-cost tooling; fast, inexpensive prototyping; shorter production lead times; custom designs that can be easily modified; thinwalled products that demand flexibility and exceptionally large part capabilities. Thus, thermoforming facilitates ideas into reality. Vir Singh

Proprietor, Sai Thermoformers

few manufacturers who are concerned only up to supplies and have not given thought to develop the skilled workforce to facilitate the entrepreneurs to grow. The after sales service is also not up to the mark which has to be taken care of by the machinery manufacturers,” feels Singh. Also, the remote areas have more problems where the technical know-how, logistics and after sales service support reach late and affects the industry.

Challenges ahead

The key challenge for the thermoforming sector in India is that the used disposable plastic and polymer articles are not properly collected for recycling to avoid hazardous effects. “The government, society and industry have to put in efforts to create awareness and pass ordinance to ensure scientific disposal of used plastics for environmental safety otherwise the thermoforming sector cannot reach the desired heights in the coming years, which would be a huge loss for both industry and society,” opines Singh. Email: anwesh.koley@network18publishing.com

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 109


SPECIAL FOCUS: Inter face – Sunil Jain

“The thermoforming industry is booming both in India and globally” …opines Sunil Jain, President, Rajoo Engineers Ltd. In an exclusive conversation with Avani Jain, he talks about the growth of the thermoforming segment in the country. He further elaborates on the leading innovations making headway in the thermoforming machinery segment. What is the current scenario of the thermoforming industry in India and globally?

is hesitation to adopt new and latest technologies or to upgrade to higher automation levels in machines, but one cannot run away from these realities. Obsolete machines and technology should be replaced with the objective of reducing costs.

With the revolution in organised retail and increased usage of disposable containers, the thermoforming industry is booming both in India and globally. The growth rates and the formats may vary from region to region, but the increased demand for sheet line and thermoforming machines augurs well for the growth in this industry.

How can the thermoforming industry beat the current slowdown?

What are the major demand drivers for the industry?

The major demand drivers are innovative packaging formats by the organised retail sector and the increased demand by the catering industry for more social and business functions. Further, with Double Income & No Kids (DINK) households and the habit of not cooking at home, increase in take-away foods will rise, thereby increasing the demand for thermoformed containers.

What are the peculiar demands of plastics processors for thermoforming machinery?

Plastics processors want machines to produce light and lower grammage products. They are becoming conscious about cost of production and energy costs, thus there is a pressure on machinery manufacturers to increase unit capacities and reduce power consumption. There is also a demand to automate downstream packaging so that labour cost is reduced.

What are the technological innovations making headway in the thermoforming machinery segment?

Machines that use lower energy, produce 110 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

less wastage, utilise less manpower and are able to process an increased quantum of recycled materials are in demand. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle flakes to produce Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (rPET) sheets at affordable investment levels have been established as an ideal substitute for glass in packaging cold drinks and potable water instead of polypropylene and polystyrene. Sheet line and thermoformers for XPS foamed containers for the food take-away industry are also available indigenously from manufacturers like us in technical collaboration with Commodore Inc, USA.

What are the best practices that can be implemented by processors in order to optimise resources and enhance processes?

Wastage reduction and energy conservation are important aspects that need focus. It needs to be understood that this industry in our country is mostly owner managed, and thus there

Few action points need to be considered such as higher unit capacities to reduce energy costs and achieve higher economies of scale, machines with higher automation levels, reduced wastage and downgauging, in which no one can beat the Indian industry. The introduction of new packaging formats and new polymers should also be explored. Focus should also be on the usage of more appropriate materials such as rPET sheets produced from PET bottle flakes, which are available in abundance. The XPS foamed container is another packaging format that needs focus.

How do you envisage the future of the plastics thermoforming industry?

The future is bright, and we machinery manufacturers are extremely bullish. As mentioned earlier, all the demand drivers are favourable, and consumption is poised to increase exponentially. Processors need to enhance capacities to meet the challenges of the organised retail sector and to be more flexible in coming up with innovative packaging formats. Capacities need to be increased to be able to process PET bottle flakes into rPET and also produce XPS foamed products. Email: avani.jain@network18publishing.com


SPECIAL FOCUS: Inter face – S C Dutta

“The packaging industry has immensely benefitted from the use of thermoforming technology” …feels S C Dutta, Managing Director, Shalimar Thermoforming Pvt Ltd. In an interaction with Anwesh Koley, he explains the current scenario of the thermoforming industry in India and what can be expected from the sector in the future. base in powder or pellet form. Vacuum forming begins further down the line with an extruded plastic sheet that incurs an additional process and therefore an extra cost to reach this stage. In addition, there is generally an area of material that is cut away from the formed part, which, unless reground and recycled, has to be considered as waste and accounted for in any expenditure made. However, these problems have been invariably resolved by strict control of sheet quality and by clever mould design to minimise the amount of waste material.

Brief us about the thermoforming industry in India.

The thermoforming industry in India is witnessing a steady growth due to an increase in applications from the packaging industry. Packaging is by far the most known application of thermoforming. The packaging industry has immensely benefitted from the use of thermoforming technology. Thermoforming is a versatile process that has helped modernise several industries such as automotives, medical, non-conventional energy sectors and a long list of others. Thermoformed parts have become important in two main areas – structural and functional parts and low-cost, highperformance packaging applications. The advantages of thermoforming are the significantly lower tooling costs and lead times as compared to injection moulding or other closed cavity methods.

How do you see the progress of this technology in India?

The thermoforming industry has developed despite two fundamental shortcomings. Many other thermoforming processes use a resin

What are the advantages of thermoforming over other plastics processing techniques?

Thermoforming offers several processing advantages over other processes such as blow moulding, rotamoulding and injection moulding. Therefore, fairly low forming pressures are needed to enable comparatively low cost tooling to be utilised and relatively large size mouldings to be economically fabricated which would otherwise be cost prohibitive with other processes. Because the moulds witness relatively low forces, moulds can be made of relatively inexpensive materials and mould fabrication time can be reasonably short. This results in comparatively short lead times. It provides the perfect solution for prototype and low-quantity requirements of large parts as well as medium size runs utilising multiple moulds.

What are the challenges facing the sector?

Our biggest threat is from Chinese manufacturers. We follow a single quality standard, while they have different product ranges for different consumers. The customer willing to pay a high sticker

price can opt for a high-quality product, while the one looking for quantity and bulk purchase also has his options, so Indian manufacturers have little to offer. However, international customers prefer Indian machines as these are of better quality and there is scepticism regarding the quality of Chinese products. They produce in bulk, and we offer quality, and majority of our customers look for quality. The Chinese manufacturers are behind the Indian manufacturers in terms of reliability. As far as the domestic consumers are concerned, they would not prefer to buy any machinery that has Chinese parts, let alone buying Chinese machines. Our customers do not have faith in Chinese components, so we do not even use Chinese parts for our machinery.

What are the current key requirements of this sector in India?

With cost reduction and competition, the quality of thermoformed products is feared to go down. There should be a set thickness for thermoformed products that should be made mandatory or else quality gets compromised. While growth is expected in the flexible packaging industry, consumers are fast preferring rigid containers, the quality of which can be ensured only through prescribing a minimum thickness for the product. Another important factor is the confidence of investors in the sector. With the rapid implementation of stringent norms by the government, new entrepreneurs are often afraid to venture in this industry with the fear that they might soon have to look for alternative business avenues. The fear of ban has been rampant for quite a while now, and this hinders fresh investment in this sector. Email: anwesh.koley@network18publishing.com

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 111


SPECIAL FOCUS: Roundtable

Are

Indian thermoformers ready

to compete with low-cost Chinese

thermoforming machines? Although thermoforming companies have been successful in catering to the varied requirements of packaging in India, it remains to be seen how well placed domestic thermoforming machine manufacturers are to meet the current demands of a market highly influenced by international trends, especially low-cost Chinese thermoforming machines. Avani Jain gauges the opinions of industry experts on the preparedness of the market to compete on a global level and against Chinese counterparts. Mohammed Arif Director, Delta Thermoformers

Jaydeep Aghera

The cost of Indian thermoforming machines is a bit higher than Chinese machines. The main reason for this is that production of thermoforming machines in India is limited; therefore, the machines are highly priced. At the same time, China takes up bulk production, so obviously the cost is less. Also, government policies are favourable in China and industries get full support in terms of loans, export benefits etc from the government in that country. However, there is not a big gap between Indian and Chinese thermoforming machines. If we talk about the quality, then Indian machines are definitely much better than Chinese machines and have a long life. Overall, the thermoforming segment is growing in India, thus the demand for thermoforming machines is surely going to increase. If there is proper support from the government and the volume of production is increased, then Indian thermoforming machines will definitely be able to compete with Chinese and other global thermoforming machine manufacturing companies.

President, ELPIE Engineers Pvt Ltd

Jigish Doshi

In India, thermoformed products mainly find usage in the food packaging segment. Thermoforming is generally used to make use-andthrow tea cups and other items for food packaging. This demand is bound to increase, leading to a bright future for thermoforming machinery. As compared to Chinese thermoforming machines, Indian machines are definitely better because of their quality. In the plastics processing segment, enhanced productivity and long life are more important than the initial cost of the machine. If the initial cost is high but the machine is of good quality, then the return on investment will be good. Hence, Indian machines are undoubtedly better than Chinese machines; unfortunately, people fail to realise this fact and go for lowcost machines that require huge maintenance costs. These low-cost machines are generally not of good quality, and thus the product quality is also affected. Generally, it is seen that sensible companies go for good quality machines, irrespective of the price.

Chairman & Managing Director, Vishakha Group

Editorial take:

The demand for thermoforming machines is good in India, but it is mainly for manufacturing disposable items. However, outside India, the thermoforming technique is used for making several household and packaging items. So, Indian manufacturers have to target those markets and manufacture highspeed machines. Further, Indian machines are not of a very good quality and lead to manufacturing of uneven products and wastage of film sheets. Thus, the machines should be designed in a manner to optimise resources and increase productivity. Hence, thermoforming machine manufacturers need to pay attention to all these things and manufacture quality machines so as to successfully compete with low-cost Chinese thermoforming machines. Indian thermoforming machines need to be accurate and good in quality in order to face the competition in the global market, where the demand for thermoforming machines is continuously increasing. Email: avani.jain@network18publishing.com

The demand for thermoforming machines is high, and domestic and international competition is increasing. Currently, the biggest threat is from Chinese manufacturers and their low-cost machines. However, when it comes to quality, Indian machines are clearly the winner. In addition, Indian thermoforming machine manufacturers must adapt quickly to meet international requirements to retain their market share. 112 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013


INSIGHT & OUTLOOK

Plastics in Electronic/Electrical Appliances Plastics in electronics:

Attractive and advanced applications......................................................................................... 114

Advanced nanomaterials:

Leveraging the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;currentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; trends in nanotechnology.....................................................................116

Conducting polymers:

Emerging application areas...........................................................................................................118

Interface:

Varun Kapoor, Director, Sarvasv Machinery & Equipments Pvt Ltd..............................120

Andreas Kuechler, Project Manager, PolyIC GmbH & Co KG....................................... 121

Hot runners:

Reflecting on the fundamentals Y R Anand, Partner, Unimark.....................................................................................................122

GRE technology:

Reinforcing reliability and performance Sangeeta Baksi and Soumitra Biswas, TIFAC, Department of Science & Technology, Government of India; and Leena Modi and Jayrah Shah, EPP Composites Pvt Ltd......................124

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 113


INSIGHT & OUTLOOK: Plastics in electronics

ATTRACTIVE AND

ADVANCED APPLICATIONS

Plastics make electrical goods safer, lighter, attractive, quieter, environment-friendly and durable. Because of properties such as heat resistance, flame retardant, electrical performance and physical performance, plastics play a vital role in the safety and reliability of electrical and electronic products. Sweta M Nair discusses the most recent advancements made in plastics for electronic/electrical applications.

I

n the electrical industry, plastics are widely used in transformers, wires & cables, high- & lowvoltage electrical and electric power capacitors, high- & low-voltage complete switch gears, overload protection devices, automatic control systems etc. In the field of consumer electronic products, plastics are generally used to manufacture enclosures and components for instruments & meters, mobile phones, digital cameras, computers, IT consumables, lighting fixtures and other products. Consumption of engineering plastics is the highest in the electrical and electronics industry. Because electrical and electronic products, particularly consumer electronic products, characteristically upgrade quickly and have a short life cycle, these products associated with modified plastics have a huge potential for development.

Thin is in Along with the rapid progress in the electrical and electronics industry, there has been a drive towards miniaturisation and weight reduction. Moreover, because engineering plastics are able to replace metal, they play an important role in achieving these requirements. Such plastics are available in a variety of chemical compositions and can be 114 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

modified by reinforcement with a variety of fibre materials and fillers. With forming polymer alloys, it is also easy to design a suitable plastic material for a given appliance. Furthermore, super-engineering plastics, which are characterised by combining much higher heat distortion temperature with excellent mechanical strength, are being applied not only to mechanical and structural components and parts of appliances but also to electronic components and parts. Peter Dufour, Global Marketing Manager – Electrical, DSM Engineering Plastics, says, “Industry trends such as miniaturisation, integration or thinnovation, combined with the expanding content, will soon transform reflow soldering to a mainstream assembly technology. As a consequence, plastic materials used in connectors on motherboards will need to meet stringent electrical, thermal and mechanical characteristics. DSM’s Stanyl® ForTii™ shows exceptionally high-performance characteristics with a very balanced profile for all of these requirements. Stanyl ForTii excels in mechanical strength, and the material outperforms other hightemperature polyamides or liquid crystal polymers in the wall breakage test. This is especially relevant because our customers are constantly updating their product


Plastics in electronics

specifications to meet even more severe test conditions, requiring an even higher strength for thin(ner) walls. In UL94 flammability testing, StanylForTii is the only polymer in this product family that is able to pass the stringent UL test.” In the era of finding solutions for saving power, companies are innovating in the lighting segment as well. Retrofit lamps are an energy-efficient replacement for all conventional light bulbs and halogen spotlights. Because LED lamps consume only 10–20 per cent of the energy of conventional lamps, they contribute to the reduction in global warming. In this type of application, thermal management is the main challenge, followed by mechanical/ electrical performance. “Stanyl TC was developed specifically to meet these needs. Globally available Stanyl TC is a thermally conductive polymer based on Stanyl PA46. Stanyl TC is a thermally conductive PA46 providing high thermal management while retaining the material’s very high mechanical strength. Stanyl TC makes it possible to produce unique designs, which when compared to traditional plastics delivers improved cooling of the lamp while securing electrical safety,” adds Dufour.

Safety and reliability In the space of offering reliable insulation properties, safe operation and 100 per cent protection against electric shock, plastics are being preferred in electronics and electrical engineering sectors. Moreover, for these functions, the material must naturally possess a high mechanical property profile. Shedding light on some of DSM’s product contributions in this space, Dufour adds, “Moulded-Case Circuit Breakers (MCCB) are heavy duty circuit breakers, mostly used in industrial and commercial applications, operating at far higher electrical ratings than residential circuit breakers. They comprise a large moulded box that isolates the electrical paths and contains a safety mechanism that protects downstream equipment from overloads. Use of MCCBs is increasing due to the growing need for

energy conservation through electronic regulation of large area electrical networks. Being pioneers in replacing thermosets with thermoplastics such as polyamides and polyesters in low voltage switch gear applications for over 35 years, the company’s most recent developments consist of a proven portfolio of engineering plastics and support services that will enable material substitution in MCCBs, which are far more demanding in their technical requirements. The DSM portfolio now comprises advanced materials such as the Stanyl polyamide 46 range – including Stanyl CR new-generation, halogen-free UL94 V-0 flame retardant types – as well as new halogen-free state-of-the-art FR grades of Akulon polyamide 6 and 66. This portfolio enables DSM customers to produce parts with improved functional properties like mechanical and electrical endurance, enhanced aesthetics and reduced wall thickness compared with parts made in traditional thermoset compounds. Thus, DSM is the first engineering plastics supplier to offer a full portfolio of materials that can replace thermosets in demanding MCCBs with open arc extinguishing chambers.” The electronics and electrical industry is facing growing regulatory demands and original equipment manufacturer requests related to the elimination of substances of hazardous concern, eg halogen-free technology and solutions for lead-free soldering. Moreover, producers of key electronic components, such as connectors, sockets, wires & cables, low-voltage switch gear devices and, more specifically, enclosures of MCB, MCCB and other industrial control gear devices and LED lighting, are looking to advance miniaturisation, system cost reduction and integration of components. This requires materials with higher mechanical, thermal and processing performance over conventional halogen-free hightemperature polyamide materials, higher temperature performance and flow, thin wall strength, high reflectivity and glow

Industry trends will soon transform reflow soldering to a mainstream assembly technology. As a consequence, plastic materials used in connectors on motherboards will need to meet stringent electrical, thermal and mechanical characteristics. Peter Dufour

Global Marketing Manager – Electrical, DSM Engineering Plastics

wire ignition temperature at the end use part level.

High-tech outlook

Plastics are expected to play the lead role in continuing to fuel the future of appliances, electrical & industrial equipment, components, computers & peripherals, records and batteries. Personal computers, high-tech buildings, security systems etc are areas where research is likely to continue. Technologies that revolve around the field of audio and video recording will grow, with plastics providing avant garde concepts and applications. More electronic and electrical products will be available to more people as plastics continue to bring both quality and economy to the goods that consumers buy. True innovations will be those that generate revenue – the plastic electronics industry needs to focus immediately on products that capitalise on the excellence knowledge base. These must align with the general trends for technology convergence. Email: sweta.nair@network18publishing.com

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 115


INSIGHT & OUTLOOK: Advanced nanomaterials

LEVERAGING ‘CURRENT’ TRENDS IN

THE

NANOTECHNOLOGY

For plastic electronics, advances in nanotechnology are moving hand in hand with diverse applications. This technology helps the electronics industry realise its novel material formulations and processes that can be used in a wide range of applications, making performance improvements possible. Sweta M Nair charts the promising developments for nanotechnology and the level of success it is yet to experience with the help of inherently conducting polymers.

I

nherently Conducting Polymers (ICPs) have been an area of intense interest over the past 30 years. Properties of these materials, such as higher conductivity and more rapid discrete electrochemical switching processes that are apparent at nanodimensions, have now become accessible. Breakthroughs in synthesis and fabrication of ICPs have become possible because of its nanodimensional control. When referring to the three types of Conducting Polymers (CPs) such as CP composites, ICPs and ion CPs, nanotechnology plays a vital role in composites or hybrid composites. In addition, there are materials created by a combination of nanomaterials along with inherently ion-CPs. The terms CPs and ICPs are equivalently used without fully acknowledging a major difference in these polymers. Both these polymeric materials conduct electricity, but the difference lies in how each material conducts electricity. For CPs of the past, an electrically conductive filler such as metal particles, carbon black or graphite would be blended into a polymer (insulator) allowing for the CP to carry 116 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

an electric current. T a l k i n g about CPs, Dr S Radhakrishnan, Professor Emeritus, D i r e c t o r, Research Development & Innovation, Maharashtra Institute of Technology, says, “Nanotechnology has tremendously impacted the plastic electronics industry. For CP composites, the threshold of the additive concentration which was more than 30 per cent in bulk has come down to 5–10 per cent because of nanomaterials. This has helped in easy processing of the filled polymer systems because viscosity is no longer a constraint. The applications of CPs are wide ranging – semiconductor, chip packaging, display materials, plastic transistors, ultra capacitors, electromagnetic interference shielding, electrochromic cells, radar absorption, sensors & actuators, radio-frequency identification tags, photovoltaic cells, biosensors and so forth. Apart from ease of fabrication at nanolevels (micro machining), using electron beam technology, CPs

combined with nanomaterials as well as nanodevices form a powerful hybrid technology that will give a breakthrough in innovations in electronic devices. The whole concept of electronics manufacturing is on the brink of change and is only a glimpse of what is to come is seen because of such new materials.”

Functional temperament An ICP conducts electricity because of its intrinsic nature and chemical structure. The discovery of ICPs has made a dramatic impact on the field of materials science. Besides playing varied intrinsic electrical properties such as those of being insulating to metal, ICPs possess the properties of plastics such as being lightweight and flexible. Nanosize inorganic oxides Titanium Dioxide (TiO2), Zinc Oxide (ZnO) etc as well as Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) have been used together with ICPs to achieve the performance characteristics of devices. When talking about the fillers that are being used in the development of nanotechnology, Dr Radhakrishnan says, “CNTs (multi-wall


Advanced nanomaterials

and single-wall), expanded graphite, graphene, nano metal particles & wires, polyaniline nanotubes, nanoparticulate polypyrrole, nanoparticulate TiO2, ZnO, Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3), Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) etc are used for nano devices using ICPs or other polymers. Some common ICPs include p o l y a c e t y l e n e, polythiophene, polyethylenedioxythiophene, polypyrrole and polyaniline, which is one of the most researched ICPs because of its economical and facile synthesis coupled with many unique properties. These polymers become conducting upon doping – an inherent property of the polymer.

(used in clean rooms for fabrication of devices) as well as Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding of instruments and mobile phones. When dealing with ICPs, the basic requirement is a good chemical synthesis laboratory with fairly clean facilities (1000 class) not as high as that for silicon-based electronics. Purity of chemicals is also acceptable up to 99.9 per cent and not as high as that required for silicon device technology. Inert atmosphere chambers with nitrogen are acceptable for handling. Excellent level dispersing and micro-dispensing instruments are a must,” affirms Dr Radhakrishnan.

Application segments

The flip side

The novel characteristics of ICPs enable them to be used in a variety of applications. Some of the touted applications include polymer batteries, electronic devices, light emitting diodes, corrosion prevention and radar evasion. ICPs can also be used in electronic textiles that are useful in areas that require electrostatic dissipation and electromagnetic interference shielding. Although many applications are possible using ICPs alone, composite materials utilising these polymers in other matrices provide for a new and exciting area of materials research. Many ICPs can be cast as films from common solvents in addition to being blended into a host resin to make a film. They can be easily blended into other polymeric resins in order to produce homogeneous films with desirable electronic and optical properties that are seen in metals. The film-forming properties of these new materials are just one of many unique properties. Electronic devices such as sensors and biomedical devices also make use of these materials. “There are extremely sensitive (detection as low as parts per billion) and selective sensors for hazardous/toxic chemicals using functionalised ICPs. Large area display screens make use of a combination of electrochromic and liquid crystal display materials. Nanosize ICP dispersions are useful for coatings used in electrostatic discharge protection, anti-static textiles

Since the discovery of ICPs, a new class of materials with novel and fascinating combinations of properties has come to the forefront. As such, these are of major scientific interest and will ultimately have considerable technological impact. However, there is considerable controversy with regard to the nature of the basic conducting process in these materials and the extent to which their technological promise may be realised. In their conducting state, ICPs typically lack longer term stability, are difficult to fabricate and have poor mechanical properties. Success in mitigating these disadvantages has not been spectacular. ICPs have certain disadvantages that limit their use in applications requiring a material with high conductivity. Although some ICPs possess conductivities close to those of metals, disorder limits carrier mobility in the metallic state. Therefore, they are not able to carry large current density because of hopping that is required for electron movement within the polymer network. “The main difficulty with ICPs is the availability of the material on a large scale. Because each application needs a specially designed molecule, functional group and/or additive, there is no single material like a silicon wafer that can be modified later to form an n-type or p-type semiconductor so as to suit the specific device. This leads to additional

Hybrid conducting composites that incorporate nanomaterials along with conventional fillers and ICPs appear to be more promising for large-scale use. Such materials have found applications in anti-static EMI shielding in electronic devices and instruments on a large scale. Dr S Radhakrishnan

Professor Emeritus, Director, Research Development & Innovation, Maharashtra Institute of Technology

cost in supplying the ICPs and also leads to large inventory. On the other hand, hybrid conducting composites that incorporate nanomaterials along with conventional fillers and ICPs appear to be more promising for large-scale use. Such materials have found applications in anti-static EMI shielding in electronic devices and instruments on a large scale,” explains Dr Radhakrishnan. He adds, “ICP alone forms a small percentage (10 per cent) by volume of the CPs market, which is by itself more than a $ 1 billion industry and expected to go to $ 3.8 billion by 2017. The major chunk (55 per cent) of this though goes to low level applications such as corrosion protection, ESD and EMI shielding coatings. On a much broader scale, however, high-tech applications such as plastic electronics, printed devices, radiofrequency identification tags etc, which need various ranges of ICPs, are yet to take off on a large scale.” Email: sweta.nair@network18publishing.com

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 117


INSIGHT & OUTLOOK: Conducting polymers

EMERGING APPLICATION

AREAS

Polymers that exhibit high electrical conductivity have successfully been synthesised in the last few decades. The early problems associated with the stability and solubility of such conducting polymers have largely been overcome using intuition and experimentation. Sweta M Nair lists down a fairly wide range of interesting applications based on these polymers that are emerging in the current day and age. soluble (hence, processable) without significant loss in their conductivity. One other problem that plagued this field from its inception was the inherent instability of these polymers (especially, in the doped form) to ambient conditions. Today, conducting polymers that are stable even in the doped form have been prepared. Although several conducting polymers have been prepared, it was soon realised that they cannot compete with metals in traditional electrical applications, such as wiring, transmission cables etc. Therefore, researchers have focussed on other applications that exploit the existence of extended conjugation in these polymers.

P

olymers, by virtue of their lightweight and greater ease of fabrication, have replaced and are continuing to replace metals in several areas of applications. Polymers have traditionally been considered good electrical insulators, and a variety of their applications have relied on this insulating property. However, for more than a decade now, researchers have shown that a certain class of polymers which are conjugated exhibit semiconducting behaviour. The discovery of doping led to a further dramatic increase in the conductivity of such conjugated polymers. “Conductive polymers are polymers which conduct 118 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

Lightweight batteries electric current. In their structural form, they contain a free radical which helps in conduction. They can be made flexible with plastics in place of metals,” adds Geetha Baskaran, Director, Suba Plastics Pvt Ltd. The chemical origins of such a remarkable difference in the material properties between various types of polymers can be readily rationalised. These conjugated polymers, hence, lacked one of the most important and useful properties of polymers, viz ease of processability. More recently, however, it was demonstrated that when lateral substituents were introduced, even conjugated polymers can be made

One of the first applications of conducting polymers that was the focus of attention worldwide was that of lightweight batteries. While a lot of the conjugated polymers were tried, most of them failed to exhibit the desired properties, specifically with respect to stability. However, batteries made using either polypyrrole or polyaniline as the positive electrode (cathode) and lithium–aluminium alloy as the negative electrode (anode) exhibited more respectable properties. One major drawback of this battery is that the energy density or energy storage capacity is low and its recyclability (charging– discharging cycles) is relatively poor.


Conducting polymers

Geetha Baskaran Director, Suba Plastics Pvt Ltd

Conductive polymers are polymers which conduct electric current. In their structural form, they contain a free radical which helps in conduction. They can be made flexible with plastics in place of metals.

More recently, however, some composites of an alkali metal alloy and polyphenylene have been very effectively used as anode materials in batteries that exhibit much higher energy densities. In these cases, the conducting polymer serves as a binder for the alkali metal alloy, forming a multiply connected electronically and ionically conductive network within which the alloy particles are held. The mixed ionic and electronic conductivity of the conducting polymer binder allows the alloy particles to continue the electronic and ionic processes associated with the charge窶電ischarge cycles, consequently extending battery life. Thus, the prospect of a polymeric battery is still alive and is awaiting further technological refinement.

Electrochromic display Electrochromic display is another interesting application that utilises the electrochemical doping and undoping of conducting polymers. The basic idea, in such devices, is to effect a significant change in the colour (both the wavelength of absorption and its intensity) on application of an electric potential. Depending on the conducting polymer chosen, either the doped or undoped state can be essentially colourless or intensely coloured. In general, the absorption of the doped state is dramatically red-shifted (moves to longer wavelength) from that of the undoped state. Polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophene and their derivatives have been successfully used to prepare prototypes of such display devices. However, for successful commercial utilisation of these materials in display devices, one important aspect is again the cycle life. Thus, while these materials are yet to achieve the set target (in terms of their life cycle) for use as electrochromic displays, other interesting and innovative applications, such as electrochromic windows and other applications in the automotive industry, are being actively pursued. Electrochromic windows, for instance, are windows in buildings/automobiles that can be made to go from low transmitting (during the day) to high transmitting (during the night); the switching in such systems occurs on application of an electric potential. Email: sweta.nair@network18publishing.com

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 119


INSIGHT & OUTLOOK: Inter face – Varun Kapoor

“There is a demand for extrusion sheathing lines for the cable industry” …believes Varun Kapoor, Director, Sarvasv Machinery & Equipments Pvt Ltd. With the latest technology and equipment available to Indian manufacturers, the plastics industry is poised to deliver the best results. In an interaction with Anwesh Koley, he shares his views on current industry demands. How is the plastics sector gearing up for the electrical industry?

The plastics processing equipment industry is shaping up very well. With greater rural connectivity and electrification programmes, there is a demand for extrusion sheathing lines for the cable industry. We provide equipment for machinery that goes into the production of cables. Primarily two compounds are used for making cable sheathing pipes – polyvinyl chloride and cross linking polymers. There are different variants that can be produced out of these materials. The machines for manufacturing insulating cables have been contributing well to the overall growth of the extrusion sector. The industry had been doing well, but currently, it is going through a bad phase as the infrastructure sector has not seen much activity. The infrastructure industry is heavily dependent on the government and the policy makers are not doing enough. This has a direct impact on the cable industry and subsequently on the plastics machinery industry that makes these cables. One side of this industry is domestic cables, while the other side is power cables, which is completely dependent on infrastructural developments. What cannot be denied is the need for immediate infrastructure investments. When this picks up, the extrusion sector will benefit from it.

Tell us about the latest technology used in this industry.

We are into the manufacturing of highspeed extrusion and sheathing lines. The technology employed by us is at par with the technology available in Europe. We have been in this industry for the last 30 years. The technology has had vast 120 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

improvements over the years as customers have become more extractive of the products, and global trends have kept domestic manufacturers on their toes. We have witnessed constant upgradations especially on the electronic and electrical aspects of extrusion machinery. Over the years, the speed of sheathing lines has increased, and companies have started paying more attention towards waste management. The efficiency of gear boxes and other components has also increased.

How important is energy efficiency in this sector?

Improving efficiency is a priority for extrusion companies and is one of the major development objectives for machine manufacturers. High technology extruder screw/barrel units and extrusion dies are key factors in this respect. Maximum melt throughput with good melt quality plus the ability to process a broad range of raw materials with the same screw are main advantages when using barrier/mixing screws

in single-screw extruders. The combination of grooved barrel conveying, barrier melting mechanism and multiple-zone mixing can substantially enhance the performance of single-screw extruders. Furthermore, the improvements in throughput rate and melt temperature control are evident for a broad range of resins. The latest technology in screw and barrels is introduction of bimetals. Bimetallic construction provides a protective wear surface fused to the high strength backing material. The design delivers efficient energy transfer between the bore and the backing material. This characteristic allows for rapid detection of process condition changes, quick response to heat and cool commands, precise control and uniformity of barrel zone temperatures. An engineered lining improves component compatibility between the screw and barrel wear surfaces, minimises the wear gap and prolongs productive life.

What are the challenges faced by the industry?

Competition is always a healthy challenge as it encourages higher productivity coupled with an eye towards innovations. The government should be more supportive towards machinery manufacturers. Better infrastructural facilities should be provided to make products more competitive and provide that crucial edge over manufacturers from countries such as China. The machinery industry in India is a small and medium enterprise industry. For manufacturers to have their own research and development centres will not be favourable in the short run. Thus, the government should initiate research activities. Email: anwesh.koley@network18publishing.com


INSIGHT & OUTLOOK: Inter face - Varun Kapoor

“Printed electronics is expected to provide new opportunities to create low-price electronics” … affirms Andreas Kuechler, Project Manager, PolyIC GmbH & Co KG when talking with Sweta M Nair on the scope of plastics in electronics. In this exclusive conversation, he sheds light on the demand and production projection areas of printed electronics. What is the role of plastics when it comes to printed electronics?

we are talking about smart objects carrying interactive displays. For the time being, these displays can be used in simple marketing, advertisement applications and games.

To print organic electronics, a substrate is needed to carry the electronic structures. The substrate used is mostly polyethylene terephthalate. Special kinds of inks with electrical or optical functionality are deposited on the substrate to create passive or active applications.

What is the scope of printed electronics in the automotive field?

How commercially successful is this application? Printed electronics is expected to provide new opportunities to create low-price electronics for applications such as radiofrequency identification, photovoltaic elements, simple circuits used in decorative or animated posters & surfaces and in intelligent packaging. All this is more or less still subject to ongoing development and improvement. The market focus is currently on transparent conductive films used in touch screen or touch-key applications (eg mobiles/smartphones, tablet PCs and control panels) in the white goods or consumer electronics segment. In recent times, even the automotive branch is turning out to be a huge market.

In the last decade, what have been your breakthrough products in this segment? For realisation of interesting functions, printing of high-resolution electrodes is essential. PolyIC has a process in place that allows printing of electrodes down to 10 µm. I can say confidently that the transparent conductive films were responsible for the breakthrough. These films can be used in many applications (eg mobiles/smartphones, tablet PCs, control panels, EMI shielding, heating elements etc). These products are already available and can be purchased at PolyIC.

What are the universal technological challenges facing plastic electronics? There are mainly four areas where the printed electronics branch is facing further challenges. These are materials, processes, circuit design and automated testing. These areas must be seamlessly meshed in order to produce reliable products in high-volume roll-to-roll processes.

What are the commercial benefits of your products POLYTC®, POLYID® and POLYLOGO®? For POLYTC®, there is a huge market visible. An obvious trend is exchanging mechanical switches with touch key elements, and touch sensors are already widely spread. This occurs especially in the automotive, white goods and consumer electronics segments. These branches are identified to be high-volume markets. POLYID® is most interesting with regard to printed radio-frequency identification chips to be used (eg for access control batches, logistic chains, fake protection applications etc). With POLYLOGO®,

Printed electronics can be used in various areas of the automotive environment. Touch key elements may substitute mechanical switches within the car centre stack. The touch key elements can also be combined with decoration parts within the car dashboard or within door trims. Furthermore, touch sensors will be used for displays for multi-functional purposes such as air condition control, a navigation system and multi-media control. Another application could be the usage of EMI shielding foils within the car to reduce or eliminate disturbance of electronic devices. For example, heating foils could be applied onto rear view mirrors or onto rear view camera lenses in order to avoid foggy or iced surfaces.

What is the scope of printed electronics in India? What factors do you think is driving its growth in India? The scope of printed electronics in India is similar to that in Europe. For example, the introduction of touch key elements could be interesting for the Indian automotive industry as well because it will help in reducing costs. Because the automotive branch is quite young in India, I would expect good chances in bringing innovations to the market right from the beginning. This would help make Indian cars attractive and competitive not only from a cost perspective. Email: sweta.nair@network18publishing.com

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 121


INSIGHT & OUTLOOK: Hot runners

Reflecting on the fundamentals

Over the last 20 years, Indian moulders have adapted to using hot runners in a very big way. Although the prevalence of hot runners for the processing of plastics has increased, there are still many misconceptions about their use and applications. Here, we review the fundamentals of hot runners in an attempt to clarify these misconceptions. Y R Anand

A

bout 20 years ago, using a hot runner system in India was considered a privilege of only large volume and highly sophisticated moulders. We have come a long way since then. The growth of hot runner applications, particularly in the last 10 years, has been phenomenal. It is now almost a case of cold runner moulds as an exception for very low volume parts and hot runner moulding is almost taken for granted. Theoretically, any tool room can manufacture a basic hot runner system. Its manufacture is similar to a simple nozzle extension with a heater band around it. Herein lies the first danger. It is important to remember that the hot runner is NOT a mould element. It is a machine element and really an extension of the machine nozzle. It should also be kept in mind that a hot runner is a pressure vessel and as such all safety precautions applicable to such elements should be applied here also.

The hot runner advantage

The obvious advantages of hot runners are material savings and cycle time reduction.

However, there are a few more such as elimination of trimming, clean gate cosmetics and dramatically improved part quality. There could also be significant reduction in energy due to smaller tonnage machines and lower injection pressures. The next fundamental point to remember is that it is best to choose hot runner nozzles with a heat source fused to the heater body. Most suppliers of highquality hot runners are now supplying heaters integrated to the nozzle body and even the manifolds. Systems with external

Good hot runner design The basic principles of good hot runner design: Respecting polymer flow properties Open pipeline flow with no dead spots Natural balance as far as possible and permissible Thermal uniformity Excellent heat profile and control Robust construction to withstand high temperature and pressure It is also essential to profile the heater coils to spread the heat correctly based on usage and heat loss.

heater coils are cost effective, but these can prove very expensive during usage due to high thermal losses and higher heater failure rates.

Gating

The three basic methods of gating the part via a hot runner are as follows: 1. Sprue gates: These are still probably the most widely used in gating because they are considered a low-cost option. Although this is not always the case, the perception remains. 2. Tip gates: These allow direct gating to the part or a sub-runner; however, the gate cosmetics must be clean. The tip gate is the gate of choice for directly gated parts due to cost benefits. 3. Valve gates: These offer the best gate finish and highest injection speeds. They are gaining in popularity as they use a shut-off mechanism to the gates, offering the best gate cosmetics. Because the gate diameters are larger, they also offer higher injection speeds. This allows reduction in cycle times and becomes essential in thin wall moulding.

Facing challenges While designing moulds with hot runners, the typical challenges faced are Locating the gate on the part Cavity layout Pressure drops versus colour changes Thermal expansion during processing Gate details Cooling

Typical profiled heat nozzle Courtesy: Mold Masters Ltd

122 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013


Hot runner fundamentals

even more complex because several thermocouples may have to be used. Low-cost thermocouples have destroyed thousands of good moulds over the years.

Thermal expansion

Complex hot half Courtesy: Mold Masters Ltd

While discussing the subject of valve gates, there is always a debate about actuation of valve gates. In most cases, it is possible to activate them pneumatically or hydraulically. The choice always depends on the mould size, application and machine selection. With increased use of all-electric or hybrid machines, using pneumatics may become necessary. In other cases, hydraulic valve gating becomes necessary because of the high forces required. There is also a gradual shift to electrically actuated valve gates, keeping energy efficiency in mind.

Raw materials

It is worth paying attention to the material used for nozzle bodies and gates. High-performance raw materials result in high wear and tear, and the materials used must be up for the challenge. High cavitation moulds working at cycle times below 5 sec also offer challenges of wear and tear on the gates. Beryllium copper was the material of choice for the tips in the early stages. This gave way to complex alloys involving copper. Lately, many applications are using high wear-resistant materials such as tungsten carbides.

Thermocouples

The quality of thermocouples used for controlling the temperature and their location in the nozzles and manifolds are also critical to good performance. In a nozzle, the sensing must be closest to the gate. This allows the most consistent results in moulding. With manifolds, the thermocouple location becomes

Thermal expansion is another area of frequent neglect. One has to be aware of the heat expansion effects and allow for the expansion all over the system with adequate precautions and allowances.

Manifold design

The hot runner manifold requires a lot of attention. From material selection to the layout of the runner channels to the thickness of plates used, every segment affects the performance. As the complexity of moulds changes, so does the hot runner manifolds. These days, a few top-quality suppliers offer two-piece brazed manifolds. These make the manifold plates more compact and allow for complex geometries for the runner channels.

Points to ponder

It is important to design the manifolds with the following factors in mind: Minimum thickness to keep the mould height in check Stable thermal balance with minimum temperature variation Lowest pressure drops across the whole system Open pipeline concept to allow quick material and colour changes

Cooling

Cooling is another neglected but important area in a hot runner mould. While the melt is delivered to the cavity at full temperature and pressure, it is extremely important to take away the heat rapidly in order to prevent overheating of the mould, stringing and subsequent energy losses.

Nozzle tip

It is always worth matching the machine nozzle tip diameter to the inlet diameter of hot runner systems. Several problems

can be avoided if they are matched exactly and will result in optimum performance. However, this may not be practical for custom moulders as they will have to use multiple moulds, and the nozzle tip cannot be altered for every application. In high-volume production with limited mould changes, this is worthwhile to review.

Controller

Hot runner controllers play a key role in good and long running of moulds. One should pay attention to the controller selection and not try to take a shortcut here on account of the purchasing price. Controllers are very important to protect the hot runner system and make it perform to the limit of its design. It is always a good idea to buy the controller from the supplier of hot runners.

On/off

When hot runners are put to use, it is also important to pay attention to start up and shut down procedures recommended by the supplier of every hot runner. This also ensures troublefree running of the moulds over a long period of time. Due to constant upgradation of technology, there are now numerous choices for every aspect of mould design and hot runner usage. However, it is always wise to keep the fundamentals in mind while making even the most complex mould. Y R Anand has a Bachelorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degree in Mechanical Engineering from University of Mysore and a Masterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degree in Production Engineering from IIT, Kharagpur. He worked for a little over 9 years in manufacturing industries in Mumbai. Since 1980, he has been a partner of UNIMARK, which sells and services machines in the plastics processing, tooling, micro-electronics and wire mesh welding industries. Email: anand@unimark.in July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 123


INSIGHT & OUTLOOK: GRE technology

REINFORCING RELIABILITY AND PERFORMANCE With a distinctive combination of good mechanical, thermal and chemical resistance, Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) pipes find extensive applications in the oil & gas industry, particularly in oil transportation, which demands properties such as lower resistance to crude oil, paraffin build-up and high internal pressure, besides being extremely maintenance-free. Sangeeta Baksi, Leena Modi, Soumitra Biswas and Jayrah Shah

G

lass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) pipes offer a unique combination of good mechanical, thermal and chemical resistance, with smooth internal surface allowing reduced friction and high flow rate. These are commonly used in oil transportation that requires lower resistance to crude oil, paraffin build-up and high internal pressure. Low thermal conductivity of GRE pipes as compared to steel minimises the cost of insulation and heat loss. In the oil and gas production industry, high-pressure applications for composite pipes include 4-inch diameter pipes for 4,000 psi internal pressure in oil field service, 2- to 16-inch diameter pipes for water filtration projects and a 12-inch diameter pipeline operating at 290 psi at

temperatures up to 50째C in salt water/ crude oil. The GRE piping system is also used on offshore rigs for sea water cooling lines, air vent systems, drilling fluids, fire fighting, ballasts and drinking water lines.

Construction of GRE pipe

The inner liner of a GRE pipe, which is made of a resin-rich layer reinforced with C-glass or synthetic veil (70 per cent resin & 30 per cent C-glass), guarantees pipe water tightness and chemical & temperature resistance. The subsequent structural layers are composed of successive layers of high-strength E-glass roving impregnated with epoxy resin (70 per cent E-glass & 30 per cent resin) and orientated with a precise, predetermined angle selected for achieving the properties required. The resin and the hardener system are selected considering a combination of properties required for the finished product. The resin-rich outer

surface is used for weather and ultraviolet protection of the composite pipes and contains 100 per cent epoxy resin. The pipe wall thickness is designed based on the internal pressure, pipe diameter and hoop strength of the pipe material. The commonly used curing agents for curing epoxy pipes comprise primary & secondary polyamines, anhydrides and polyamides. Aromatic amine provides excellent thermal and chemical resistance with ease of processability and moderate pot life due to its low viscosity than other amines.

Manufacturing GRE pipes

GRE pipe technology is based on the discontinuous filament winding process, where continuous glass fibres are helically wound at predetermined angles and bonded with the epoxy resin. The filament winding provides better strength and stability for internal and external loadings in both circumferential and longitudinal directions for the pipes and pressure vessels. Such a wound pattern attains

GRE pipes in industrial applications

Filament winding of GRE pipe in progress

124 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013


GRE technology

resistance to high internal pressures, thermal variations and impact loads induced by thrust due to water pressure. The appropriate joining procedures for composite piping, supporting systems etc assume importance for better system performance. The glass fibre bundles are drawn continuously through platinum–rhodium bushings, each comprising several hundred filaments. The fibres are pulled away at speeds of 1,000–2,000 m/min, as molten glass is extruded and coated with a sizing that lubricates the surface to prevent abrasion before the filaments are brought together in a tow.

Dual helical winding

In this process, the glass fibre-woven roving wetted with resin is wound on the steel mandrel at pre-calculated winding angles of 45°–90°. Glass reinforcement in the form of continuous roving is chosen, which has its compatibility with epoxy resin. The dual helical winding pattern provides maximum mechanical durability to the composite product. The entire process is controlled via software, which determines the winding angles and number of layers to be wound on to the product. The greater the winding angle, the greater is the elasticity of the pipe.

Joining methodology

GRE pipes are manufactured with an integral joint, ie, the socket (for bonding, lock or thread) is produced simultaneously with the pipe by winding on a specially designed metallic mould fixed at one end of the mandrel. The pipes are wound on precisely machined steel mandrels, which are extracted only when the pipe is cured. Three types of joining techniques are adopted for composite piping, viz adhesive bonding, mechanical means of jointing and key–lock joint system. For higher pressure applications, socket and spigot joints with moulded threads are used, sometimes in conjunction with a thread sealant and adhesive. GRE straight/taperbonded joint is of rigid type. It consists of a 0.5° conical socket end and a cylindrical spigot end. The joint is available for sizes

up to 400 mm and 16 bar pressure rating. GRE taper adhesive-bonded joint is a rigid type of joint. It consists of a taperend socket and a taper-end spigot. The joint is available for sizes up to 600 mm and 100 bar pressure rating.

Mechanical joint system

O-ring joint: The socket end of this joint is an integral part of filament wound pipes. The spigot end is machined, on which the O-ring seal is positioned. This flexible joint allows axial movement of the spigot in the socket and some angular deflection. This joint is non-tensile and, when applied, the changes in direction must be blocked in the axial force direction. This joint is available in sizes up to 600 mm and pressure up to 25 bar. Key–lock joint system: It consists of an integral filament wound socket end and a machined spigot end. The O-ring seal is positioned on the spigot end. The locking key (polyamide) is inserted through an opening in the socket end. It fits in a circumferential groove on the inner side of the socket end and on the spigot end. The key–lock joint allows for some axial movement as well as a certain angular deflection. This joint is available for maximum pressure rating of 100 bar depending on the pipe diameter. Flange joint: To enable connections with steel piping, valves and instruments and allow easy assembling & disassembling of lines, GRE pipes & fittings are supplied with flanges, drilled in accordance with the specifications. For higher pressures, a flange with an O-ring groove could be used. This method protects the mechanical integrity of the pipe and is considered highly reliable.

Composite pipe design

Due to the nature of anisotropy and performance degradation of composite materials, the design of composite piping is unique. The structure typically includes the design for internal and external pressure as well as axial, bending and buckling strength. Testing-based methods are required in most cases to establish long-term performance of composite

piping, while the design strain-based calculation is used with short-term verification tests. Composite pipe design is greatly influenced by process design. The process generally determines the required corrosion liner resin selection and thickness, design & operating temperatures, pressures and vacuum. The laminate design balances the economic benefit of various resin and reinforcement characteristics to meet the specified process design. Finally, the overall system is evaluated for proper support, expansion and compliance with appropriate codes and standards.

Mechanical design

There is no universal set of criteria for designing filament wound composite pipes. The mechanical design of composite pipes is based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D 2996, Standard Specification for Filament Wound Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Pipe. Internal pressure rating: This is based on the hoop strain under static or cyclic conditions as per ASTM D2992 and estimated for 100,000 hour or 150 million cycles for static or cyclic conditions (usually 0.50–0.56 for static and 0.8–1.0 for cyclic conditions). Thermal expansion: It varies in hoop and axial directions. Typical axial expansion for filament wound pipe at a 55o winding angle is 1.1–1.5 × 10–5 inch/inch/oF. Thermal expansion in piping systems may be accommodated by guides, expansion loops, mechanical expansion joints, anchors or combinations of the above. Sangeeta Baksi and Soumitra Biswas are from Advanced Composites Programme, Technology Information, Forecasting & Assessment Council (TIFAC), Department of Science & Technology (Government of India), New Delhi. Email: compotifac@gmail.com Leena Modi and Jayrah Shah are from EPP Composites Pvt Ltd, GIDC Lodhika Industrial Estate, Rajkot, Gujarat. Email: jayrajshah@atikagroup.com July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 125


ENERGY MANAGEMENT - CASE STUDY: Advanced gear lubrication

Courtesy: ExxonMobil Lubricants Pvt Ltd

To ensure that lubricants meet the latest requirements, leading lubricant suppliers such as ExxonMobil work closely with key Equipment Builders (EBs) to ensure that their products are ideally formulated to meet the rapidly evolving gear design and operation requirements. A good example of this approach is the recently launched Mobil SHC Gear series of high-performance fully synthetic gear oils.

GET INTO TOP GEAR Shankar Karnik

I

n an increasingly competitive marketplace, maximising productivity and reducing operating costs have never been more important. In gear-driven operations of plastics processing industries and manufacturing plants, industrial gears are fundamental to the productivity of the operation. Even a failure of one gearbox can cause an entire production line to grind to a halt, which can be expensive in terms of loss of production, associated labour costs and replacement of parts to get the operation back on line. Lubricants are the lifeblood of a gearbox. They help reduce friction and provide long-lasting protection for the rotating, sliding and moving components of a gearbox. As a result of the high costs of gear-related downtime, an increasing number of operators are opting for highquality synthetic gear oils that offer

126 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

superior protection and performance compared to standard mineral-based industrial gear oils.

Industry collaboration Over the years, EBs have focussed on developing new, more compact and efficient gearboxes that are capable of delivering even higher load capacities. Such improvements put additional stress on lubricants in terms of higher operating temperatures, faster speeds and heavier loads. These effects are compounded by the EBâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s drive to reduce total life cycle costs for their products, which includes reducing oil volume while extending oil drain intervals. Mobil SHC Gear oils have been designed in close cooperation with leading EBs to ensure that they operate effectively in the latest gearboxes. Based on extensive research and testing, these gear oils demonstrate excellent wear protection for gears and bearings, enhanced resistance to micropitting fatigue, improved seal

compatibility, excellent oxidation stability and outstanding viscosity behaviour in extreme temperature conditions, all of which ensure that the latest industrial gears maximise their full performance potential. As a result, these gear lubricants can help improve operatorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; bottom line and provide companies with a competitive edge.

Mineral versus synthetic lubricants Higher operating temperatures, faster or even slower speeds and heavier loads are challenges that face industrial gears today. While high-performance synthetic lubricants can perform in these conditions, conventional, mineral-based fluids really cannot deliver the same level of protection. Operators need to look to upgrade to synthetic lubricants to help minimise unscheduled downtime and maximise performance. The advantage of using a synthetic gear oil, such as Mobil SHC Gear, is a balanced formulation, which has been developed


Advanced gear lubrication

to offer exceptional performance in the critical areas required to keep a gearbox working efficiently. In addition, Mobil SHC Gear’s high viscosity index and low traction coefficient combine to provide a significant reduction in energy consumption in many gear drives. In statistically validated laboratory tests and field trials, Mobil SHC Gear oils exhibited energy efficiency of up to 3.6 per cent versus conventional oils, delivering considerable costsaving benefits to organisations. Here, energy efficiency relates solely to the fluid performance when compared with conventional reference oils of the same viscosity grade in gear applications. The technology used allows up to 3.6 per cent efficiency compared with the reference when tested in a worm gearbox under controlled conditions. However, efficiency improvements vary based on operating conditions and application. These benefits combine to offer operators the benefits of longer equipment life, extended oil drain, high-temperature

capability and ultimately the opportunity for maximised productivity.

Optimising maintenance practices To help maximise gearbox productivity and reduce costs, operators should incorporate an oil and equipment condition monitoring programme alongside the use of high-quality gear lubricants. As part of routine maintenance, the lubricant and the equipment should be regularly checked. Typically, it is advised that maintenance professionals perform quarterly oil analyses and annual system inspections. The oil analysis should include a measurement of chemical condition, fluid viscosity, water content, particle count and dissolved metals to determine how well the system is operating. Examining changes in the oil analysis data over time, also known as ‘trending’, is necessary to assess the condition of the lubricant. By trending oil analysis data, it is possible to proactively address undesirable conditions before they become problems.

For equipment maintenance professionals who want an effective oil analysis programme, ExxonMobil offers a proprietary online S ignum oil anal ysis system. Signum oil analysis offers engineers immediate access to and direct control of their lubricant sampling programme. Beyond oil analysis, visual system inspections should be conducted regularly to check and document the condition of the gear box. Inspection data can be used to establish the optimum time to perform maintenance on critical components such as the gear teeth. Comprehensive leak detection should also be performed, especially if excessive oil usage is noted during a routine system inspection. Shankar Karnik is Brand Manager for Mobil SHC - Asia Pacific, ExxonMobil Lubricants Pvt Ltd. www.mobilindustrial. com/IND/english/

Business Insights •Technologies•Opportunities

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July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 127


PROJECT S

New projects and expansion activities are the barometers of industrial growth. These also present business opportunities to service providers like consultants, contractors, plant & equipment suppliers and others down the value chain. This feature will keep you updated with vital information regarding new projects and capacity expansions being planned by companies in the plastics, polymers and allied industries.

High-density polyethylene pipes

Plastic conduit pipe

Project type New facility Project news UPI Polymers Pvt Ltd is planning to set up a new polymers project at Nellore in Andhra Pradesh. The project involves manufacturing of high-density polyethylene pipes. Project location Nellore, Andhra Pradesh Project cost NA Implementation stage Planning

Project type New facility Project news National Small Industries Corporation Ltd is planning to set up a plastic conduit pipe manufacturing plant. Project location Okhla Project cost NA Implementation stage Planning

UPI Polymers Pvt Ltd

Contact details: UPI Polymers Pvt Ltd 6-3-600/3, A2 Girishikara Apartments Hilltop Colony, Erramanzil Hyderabad 500 082 Tel: 040-30420460, Fax: 040-23370460 Email: info@upipolymers.net

Multi-layer film

National Small Industries Corporation Ltd

Contact details: National Small Industries Corporation Ltd NSIC Bhawan, Okhla Industrial Estate New Delhi 110 020 Tel: 011-26826941/26826847 Email: tech@nsic.co.in

Plastic moulded components

Jay Precision Products (India) Pvt Ltd

Project type New facility Project news Parakh Agro Industries Ltd is planning to set up a new polymers project at Pune in Maharashtra. The project involves manufacturing of multi-layer film. Project location Pune, Maharashtra Project cost NA Implementation stage Planning

Project type New facility Project news Jay Precision Products (India) Pvt Ltd is planning to set up a new plastics project at Thane in Maharashtra. The project involves manufacturing of plastic moulded components (excluding items reserved for SSI). Project location Thane, Maharashtra Project cost NA Implementation stage Planning

Contact details: Parakh Agro Industries Ltd 1, Parakh House, Gultekdi Market Yard, Pune 411 037 Tel: 020-24261733, Fax: 020-24263211

Contact details: Jay Precision Products (India) Pvt Ltd 12-A, Colopen Compound Old Nagardas Road, Andheri (East) Mumbai 400 069

Parakh Agro Industries Ltd

Plastic moulded components for two and three wheelers Varroc Polymers Pvt Ltd

Project type New facility Project news Varroc Polymers Pvt Ltd is planning to set up a new polymers project at Dhar in Madhya Pradesh. The project involves manufacturing of plastic moulded components of two and three wheelers. Project location Dhar, Madhya Pradesh Project cost NA Implementation stage Planning Contact details: Varroc Polymers Pvt Ltd E-4, MIDC Industrial Area Waluj, Gangapur, Aurangabad 431 136 Maharashtra

Polyester strapping roll

Shree Krishna Polystrap Pvt Ltd

Project type New facility Project news Shree Krishna Polystrap Pvt Ltd is planning to set up a manufacturing unit for polyester strapping roll. Project location Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh Project cost NA Implementation stage Planning Contact details: Shree Krishna Polystrap Pvt Ltd 1, Ground Floor, Bhagirathi Ammal Street Opposite T P Road, T Nagar Chennai 600 017 Tamil Nadu

Information courtesy: Tendersinfo.com 1, Arch Gold, Next to MTNL Exchange, Poisar, S V Road, Kandivali (W), Mumbai 400 067, Maharashtra, India Tel: 022-28666134 â&#x20AC;˘ Fax: 022-28013817 â&#x20AC;˘ Email: parmeet.d@tendersinfo.com

128 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013


TENDERS

Latest Popular Tenders brought to you by www.tendersinfo.com Polythene garbage bags Org : Housing Authority TRN : 16578373 Desc : Supply of polythene garbage bags BOD : 12 July 2013 Loc : Hong Kong BT : Global (ICB)

Laminated sheet Org : Western Railway TRN : 16563218 Desc : Supply of decorative thermosetting synthetic resin-bonded laminated sheet (RDSO) BOD : 15 July 2013 Loc : Mumbai, Maharashtra BT : Domestic (NCB)

Plastic containers Org : Hindu Religious Institutions and Charitable Endowments TRN : 16579115 Desc : Supply of plastic containers (God Vallies) for temple BOD : 15 July 2013 Loc : Bengaluru, Karnataka BT : Domestic (NCB)

Plastic containers Org : Hindu Religious Institutions and Charitable Endowments TRN : 16579124 Desc : Supply of plastic containers (theertha bottles) for temple BOD : 15 July 2013 Loc : Bengaluru, Karnataka BT : Domestic (NCB)

Plastic food containers Org : Hindu Religious Institutions and Charitable Endowments TRN : 16579119

Desc : BOD : Loc : BT :

Supply of plastic containers (food containers) for temple 15 July 2013 Bengaluru, Karnataka Domestic (NCB)

Polyvinyl chloride pipes Org : Kerala Water Authority (KWA) TRN : 16576179 Desc : Supply of unplasticised polyvinyl chloride pipes of various diameters BOD : 16 July 2013 Loc : Kerala BT : Domestic (NCB)

Plastic containers Org : Army Ordnance Corps TRN : 16491815 Desc : Supply of plastic containers without lid for carrying fresh items BOD : 18 July 2013 Loc : Delhi BT : Domestic (NCB)

Hose pipe Org : Northern Railway TRN : 16576084 Desc : Supply of high-pressure hose pipe for contrifusing plant BOD : 19 July 2013 Loc : New Delhi BT : Domestic (NCB)

Drinking water bottles Org : Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation TRN : 16524125 Desc : Supply of 200 ml drinking water bottles BOD : 24 July 2013 Loc : Mumbai, Maharashtra BT : Domestic (NCB)

Org: Organisation’s name, TRN: Tendersinfo Ref No, Desc: Description, BOD: Bid Opening Date, Loc: Location, BT: Bidding Type. Information courtesy: Tendersinfo.com 1, Arch Gold, Next to MTNL Exchange, Poisar, S V Road, Kandivali (W), Mumbai 400 067, Maharashtra, India Tel: 022-28666134 • Fax: 022-28013817 • Email: parmeet.d@tendersinfo.com

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 129


EVENT LIST

National

Ahmedabad Gujarat

Pune

Maharastra

Chennai Tamil Nadu

Ludhiana Punjab

Indore

Madhya Pradesh

Aurangabad Maharastra

Rudrapur Hyderabad Uttarakhand

Andhra Pradesh

India’s premier industrial trade fair on products and technologies related to Machine Tools, Hydraulics & Pneumatics, Process Machinery & Equipment, Automation Instrumentation, Packaging & Auxiliaries, IT Products, Electrical & Electronics, Material Handling and Safety Equipment.

For details contact: Network18 Media & Investments Ltd

Network18 Media & Investments Ltd, Ruby House, 1st Floor, J K Sawant Marg, Dadar (W), Mumbai 400 028 Tel: 022-30034651 • Fax: 022-30034499 • Email: engexpo@infomedia18.in • Web: www.engg-expo.com

Injection Moulding & Blow Moulding International Conference 2013

This international conference will bring together industrial leaders and specialists from all facets of the plastics sector to share knowledge and provide networking opportunities among industry leaders, players and key decision makers from the injection moulding, blow moulding and Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) industries. Being organised as a twoday conference, Day One will be dedicated to injection moulding and Day Two will be on blow moulding/ PET. Formal discussions, informal tie ups, domain-specific discussions, panel discussions & debates, long-term networking opportunities and best practices sharing will be the hallmark of this conference; July 25–26, 2013; at The Lalit Intercontinental, Mumbai For details contact: ElitePlus++ Business Services 61, Radheya, 14th Road, Plot 359 Khar (West), Mumbai 400052 Tel: 022-26000555/6 Fax: 022-26000556

Pharmapack Expo

Pharmapack Expo is the most cost-effective marketing opportunity and is the best opportunity to meet senior buyers and decision makers from all facets of the user industry. The exhibits will include packaging materials & products, glass & plastic 130 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

jars and bottles, aluminium & plastic tubes, corrugated & cardboard boxes, dosing machines for liquids & powders, filling machines, blister packing machines, strip packing machines, labels & labelling equipment, form-fill-seal machines etc; September 12–14, 2013; at Bombay Exhibition Center (BEC), Mumbai For details contact: Intel Trade Fairs & Expositions Pvt Ltd 113, New Sonal Link Industrial Estate Building No. 2, Link Road Malad (W), Mumbai 400 064 Tel: 022-26003977 Email: info@intelexpo.com Website: www.pharmapackexpo.in

PlastShow

PlastShow is dedicated to offering a comprehensive range of plastic products and processing equipment. The event strives to offer complete information about the recent innovations in the plastics manufacturing sector. The exhibitors find this expo to be the perfect business meeting place where the exhibiting companies get an opportunity to establish themselves and promote their brands; September 27–30, 2013; at Vapi Industrial Association Ground, Vapi, Gujarat For details contact: Brijesh Purohit Sunline Infotech

118, Lotus Arcade Opposite Automotive Show Room Gondal Road, Rajkot, Gujarat Tel: 0281-2460135

Plastivision India

Designed to help exhibitors and visitors to discover potential markets, Plastivision India will be the 9 th in the series of national exhibitions and seminars organised by the All India Plastics Manufacturers’ Association (AIPMA). With participation from more than 45 countries and visitors from over 61 countries, the event will include exhibitors ranging from categories such as raw materials & chemicals, plastic packaging machinery & equipment, machinery & equipment for processing, recycling, pre & post processing machines, plastic extrusions, thermoforming/films/thermoplastics etc. The five-day exhibition will be an ideal place to meet leading members from the plastics industry; December 12–16, 2013; at Bombay Exhibition Center (BEC), Mumbai For details contact: AIPMA A-52, Street No. 1, M I D C, Marol Andheri (East), Mumbai Tel: 022-28217324/28217325/ 28352511/283 Fax: 022-28216390 Email: marketing@plastivision.org Website: www.plastivision.org


EVENT LIST

International Full Plast Chile

Full Plast Chile is a three-day event that will be held in Santiago, Chile. This international event focusses on the plastics industry. It brings together senior executives, decision makers, experts and professionals of the industry to network, interact and disseminate quality ideas and information with each other. More than 4,000 visitors will grace the event with their presence and will get an opportunity to know and understand the details of the sector; July 24–26, 2013; at Espacio Riesco Convention Center, Santiago, Chile For details contact: Fisa SA Av. Alcantara 200 Of Las Condes, Santiago, Chile Tel: +(56)-(2)-5307000 Fax: +(56)-(2)-5307272 Website: www.fullplast.cl

CamboPlas

CamboPlas is considered one of the most popular and well attended trade shows catering to the requirements of the plastics industry in Cambodia. Since the main industry in the country is agriculture, all the other industrial activity revolves around it. This trade event will play an important role in ensuring an overall growth and development for the plastics industry; August 8–11, 2013; at Diamond Island Convention & Exhibition Center, Phnom Penh, Cambodia For details contact: Tracy Chang Chan Chao International Co Ltd 3-F, No. 185, Kangchien Road Nei Hu District Taipei, Taiwan Tel: +(886)-(2)-26596000 Fax: +(886)-(2)-26597000 Email: service@chanchao.com.tw Website: www.camboexpo.com/CIMIF/ camboplas

Plastech Brasil

Plastech Brasil is one of the leading fairs in its category in Latin America. The fair will display the latest technology in the sphere of thermoplastics and thermosetting. The event enjoys the support of most of the representative entities in its industry. The event has parallel activities planned alongside the exhibition that include a special lecture by an internationally acclaimed guest and a fundamental course on safety in injector machines; August 27–30, 2013; at Centro de Feiras e Eventos Festa da Uva, Caxias Do Sul, Brazil For details contact: Plastech Brasil Rua Ítalo Victor Bersani, 1134 Bairro Jardim América 95050-520 - Caxias do Sul - RS Tel: (54) 228.1251/8135.1182/8114.0013 Email: plastech@plastechbrasil.com.br Website: www.plastechbrasil.com.br

Philplas

Philplas 2013 is one of the biggest plastics machinery, equipment, tools, accessories, raw material, products and services exhibition in Philippines. The event will provide a perfect platform to meet professionals from the industry. Profile for exhibit includes auxiliary/ ancillary equipment, eco-friendly processing technologies, extruders & extrusion lines, injection & blow moulding machines; August 28–31, 2013; at World Trade Center Metro Manila, Manila, Philippines For details contact: Angie Barrios Mai Market Access & Innovations Management Philippines Unit 315-B 3rd Floor, LRI Business Plaza 210 Nicanor Garcia Street Makati City, Manila, Philippines Tel: +(63)-(2)-8992642/8989272 Fax: +(63)-(2)-8982198

Vietnam Plas

The 13th Vietnam International Plastics & Rubber Industry Exhibition is a premium exhibition providing the latest and the best in plastic materials for manufacturing and processing industries alike. The unique feature of the expo is the presence of the entire spectrum of plastic and rubber products manufacturers; September 3–6, 2013; at Saigon Exhibition & Convention Center (SECC), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam For details contact: Tracy Chan Chao International Co Ltd 3-F, No. 185, Kangchien Road Nei Hu District Taipei, Taiwan Tel: +886-2-26596000 Fax: +84-2-827 9157

K 2013

K 2013 is one of the world’s leading trade fairs for the rubber and plastics industries. This event has a record of bringing international exhibitors and trade visitors with great decision-making powers under one roof. This event covers the entire segment of the rubber and plastics industries from basic products and innovations to efficient high-tech solutions; October 16–23, 2013; at Dusseldorf Exhibition Centre, Dusseldorf, Germany For details contact: Messe Dusseldorf GmbH Stockumer Kirchstrasse, 61 Messeplatz Dusseldorf, Germany Tel: +(49)-(211)-4560900/4560175 Fax: +(49)-(211)-4560668/4560740 Email: k-online@messe-duesseldorf.de Website: www.k-tradefair.com

The information published in this section is as per the details furnished by the respective organiser. In any case, it does not represent the views of Business Insights •Technologies•Opportunities

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 131


EVENT REPORT: Engineering Expo Hyderabad 2013

HYDERABAD May 31–June 3, 2013 HITEX Exhibition Centre

Invoking the ‘Andhrapreneurial spirit’ for industrial leap

After its IT revolution, Hyderabad has undergone a metamorphosis. Over the last few years, the city has been trying to give its manufacturing mettle a new global identity. Rising as a favourable destination for businesses in the south, the city already has global heads making a beeline to the region for investments. Giving impetus to this growth saga, Engineering Expo made its debut in Hyderabad. A report… of Andhra Pradesh Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FAPCCI) and with co-operation from United Nations Industrial Development Organization International Centre for Advancement of Manufacturing Technology (UNIDOICAMT), Federation of Indian Export Organizations (FIEO), National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC) and Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSME) and was supported by Andhra Bank.

Setting the stage Lighting the lamp (L–R): Ravi Ramana, AGM, Andhra Bank; Devendra Surana, President, FAPCCI; Archana TiwariNayudu, Editor, Network 18 Publishing; Ganesh Parthasarathy, CEO, Tussor Machine Tools and Nitin Kunjir, Deputy Manager – Marketing, Network 18 Publishing

Debarati Basu Das

W

hile the industrial climate is conducive for growth and opportunities are rife in India, Andhra Pradesh, in general, and Hyderabad, in particular, are brimming with potential and possibilities. Andhra Pradesh’s manufacturing might has helped it emerge as a key state for the knowledge-based industry. The mushrooming of MNCs is also a clear reflector of the healthy FDI inflows that the state has attracted over the years. Among the other regions in the state, Hyderabad exudes tremendous potential owing to its strategic geographic positioning, availability of low-cost, 132 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

highly skilled labour and the presence of a very strong SME circuit. Acting as a catalyst to help the engineering and manufacturing fraternity leverage on the Hyderabad advantage, Network 18 Publishing organised the maiden edition of Engineering Expo Hyderabad at HITEX Exhibition Centre from May 31, 2013 to June 3, 2013. The four-day Expo portrayed the best of Hyderabad’s industrial assimilation and built a platform for the industry to showcase the city’s calibre in terms of innovations, products & technologies, diverse industry verticals and customised manufacturing. The event was hosted with valueadding partnerships from Federation

Engineering Expo Hyderabad was inaugurated in the presence of esteemed dignitaries including Devendra Surana, President, FAPCCI; Ganesh Parthasarathy, CEO, Tussor Machine Tools India Pvt Ltd and Ravi Ramana, Assistant GM, Andhra Bank. The most striking feature of the trade show was that over 60 per cent of the 130+ exhibitors were from across the country. It also witnessed delegations from Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (BHEL); Tata Projects; Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO); NSL Renewable Power; Vasantha Group and Amara Raja, among others. This unique blend of local and national participation gave a special boost to the business dynamics that the Expo offers. Commemorating this fact, Surana said, “Such exhibitions ensure that we remain updated about the latest happenings in the national industry.” Parthasarathy, a regular participant in Engineering Expo,


Engineering Expo Hyderabad 2013

highlighted, “There are many flagship expos, but most expos in India are not as well organised as Engineering Expo. Today, Engineering Expo has become one of the most important exhibitions in the country.” Engineering Expo is India’s largest SME gathering on engineering and manufacturing. The trade show has always sought to provide SMEs – the small wonders that play a pivotal role in helping the country progress economically – a stepping stone to succeed. Apart from finding the right contacts, SMEs need finance to thrive in this competitive era. Commenting on the need to finance SMEs, Ramana, at the inaugural function, explained, “We feel that every bank should understand SMEs’ potential and encourage them financially.”

Opportunities for exhibitors Engineering Expo Hyderabad received an enthusiastic response from exhibitors. Elaborating on how the trade show has been a boon for participants, Ilesh Pancha, MD, iPan Engifab, a Gujaratbased fabrication firm, stated, “We have been dealing with customers in Hyderabad but did not have a proper avenue to exhibit ourselves in this city. In this backdrop, Engineering Expo was the best medium for us to connect to a larger audience in Hyderabad.” Similarly, Srinivas Kimar Twarakavi, Founder & CEO, G4 Solutions & Applications Pvt Ltd, a Hyderabadbased company, averred, “This is a very good platform to connect with a national audience. We are confident of taking our product to a bigger platform at this Expo.” There were other exhibitors who discussed the fact that Engineering Expo Hyderabad gave them an opportunity to explore the region. Affirming the same, B Mukherjee, Product Manager, Juaristi Oriental Engineering Services, a Mumbai-based company, expressed, “Hyderabad is one of the new areas that our company wants to explore.” Engineering Expo Hyderabad had something for everyone; it helped participants successfully generate more

than 50 business leads per day.

Visitors optimise Expo Engineering Expo was visited by more than 10,600 people. The four-day Expo received an overwhelming response from the Hyderabad crowd who made the most of their visit. It had everyone, right from entrepreneurs who wanted to strike deals and build contacts to youth who wanted to understand the variety in technology across the nation. Commenting from a visitor’s perspective, Suresh S, CEO, Excell Industries, informed, “I make it a point to visit expos across the country to know about the latest technologies that are coming up in the industry. However, Hyderabad does not have many expos and, even if there are any such expos, the level of participation is very low. Interestingly, even on Day 1 of Engineering Expo Hyderabad, the participation of exhibitors and visitors was very encouraging, which is a very rare sight.” Engineering Expo Hyderabad has become a ‘myth breaker’ in the region. According to Rajshekhara T, Manager Sales, Sai Engineering, a visitor, “Hyderabad is a pharma-dominated industry. You do not find many exhibitions that cater to automotive and machining industries. Engineering Expo will break this myth; if it is organised on a regular basis, we will have a good expo to look forward to. More so, there are so many companies from Gujarat, Maharashtra and other states. This gives us a holistic vision on all that is happening in the industry across the country. This will also help us to understand the things that we need to do to meet the demands of the industry outside Hyderabad.” The event also had visitors who hoped to make the Expo a base for their entrepreneurial venture. Manohar M, a retired industry professional from the plastics industry, was one such visitor. He commented, “I have retired from my services, but I am looking for options to start my own business in the

Highlights of this edition Pan India participation from 139 exhibitors Spread over more than

50,000 sq ft 10,638 business visitors

across India Business transacted worth ` 70.85 crore* 7,457 business leads generated* 4,500+ products displayed from different industries More than 78,000 kg machinery moved in for display 78% exhibitors satisfied with visitors 80% exhibitors intend to participate next year 85% exhibitors recommended Engineering Expo to others 82% exhibitors prefer Engineering Expo over other industry exhibitions *Feedback received from exhibitors

plastics industry. I am basically here to look for the kind of products on display to get a feel of the industry’s need. This Expo is certainly worth an experience as there are a few good companies that have displayed some very good products in the plastics sector. This will help me build ideas and contacts for the small scale enterprise that I intend to start.”

A grand success This maiden edition of Engineering Expo Hyderabad proved to be a boon for the Hyderabad industry. It not only helped the country understand and see the capabilities that Hyderabad has but also took Andhra Pradesh’s entrepreneurial spirit one notch higher. While the city eagerly awaits the next edition of Engineering Expo Hyderabad, Network 18 Publishing is all set to host another exciting Engineering Expo at Ahmedabad during September 20–23, 2013. Email: debarati.basu@network18publishing.com

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 133


EVENT REPORT: Engineering Expo Hyderabad 2013 – Panel Discussion

Is Hyderabad ready for the industrial leap?

Hyderabad is renowned for being the ‘IT’ hub, but, over the years, it has expanded its horizons to harness its manufacturing potential. However, it needs to make its mark in the global domain. In an attempt to help the region gain 360° visibility, a panel discussion on the topic ‘Is Hyderabad ready for the industrial leap?’ was organised on the sidelines of Engineering Expo Hyderabad 2013, on May 31, 2013. A report…

An eclectic mix of experts (L–R): Devendra Surana, President, FAPCCI; Y Sreenivas Rao, Project Director, DRDO; Archana Tiwari-Nayudu, Editor, Network 18 Publishing (moderator of the panel discussion); M Sreenivasulu, Dy Director (IMT), MSME - Development Institute and Sreeram MM, MD, Scarlet Industries Pvt Ltd

Debarati Basu Das

H

yderabad is now going through its next phase of evolution by taking its potential to the world. Providing the platform for the right growth trajectory and understanding the need gaps, Network 18 Publishing organised a panel discussion on the sidelines of Engineering Expo Hyderabad 2013 at Aditya Sarovar Premiere, Hyderabad. The online partner of the event was Apex Auction. The panel discussion was conducted on the theme ‘Is Hyderabad ready for the industrial leap?’ This discussion was truly insightful and acted as food for thought for the more than 200 industry professionals gathered at the venue.

At the discussion The discussion comprised an eclectic mix of experts including Sreeram M M, MD, Scarlet Industries Pvt Ltd; M Sreenivasulu, Dy Director (IMT), MSME - Development Institute; Devendra Surana, President, 134 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

FAPCCI and Y Sreenivas Rao, Project Director, DRDO. The panel discussion was moderated by Archana TiwariNayudu, Editor, Network 18 Publishing. Each speaker had a unique growth story for Hyderabad; however, they all agreed on one aspect – Hyderabad is destined to become an investment hub. Hyderabad not only manufactures world-class aerospace and defence products, the country’s demand for tooling accessories is also met by the city. All this is coupled by the advantage that the city gets from strong clusters of SMEs who are in every way capable of manufacturing world-class products. However, the speakers opined that even though the city has every possible advantage to grow, the opportunities are not being utilised optimally. Issues such as power outage and political uncertainty have handicapped the manufacturing sector.

What’s the solution? The discussion not just highlighted the problems but also gave solutions for the same. Every speaker expressed

measures that need to be taken to regain growth. For instance, Surana pointed out, “Hyderabad already has a fantastic availability of manpower and entrepreneurial spirit. If these two problems are addressed, the city will grow at the rate of 15–20 per cent.” Rao opined, “We have to decongest Hyderabad. We need to have 7–8 clusters each with a nodal centre which will have the technology. Each cluster should have proper infrastructure, export and marketing requirements and focus on a particular skill. This will enhance the manufacturing set up. We need to foresee 10 years ahead and project growth,” he expressed. Sreenivasulu, on the other hand, talked about the various government schemes available for the growth of SMEs. He argued that human resource development and finance are the areas that need to be strengthened. Sreeram wrapped up the session by emphasising on the need for multiple financial cities in the country. “Hyderabad has the prerequisite infrastructure and knowledge base; it must be identified as a financial hub for national growth. SMEs have grown over the last 40–50 years and contribute 70 per cent to the state’s GDP. If we address these problems, Hyderabad will carve a place for itself in the global map,” Sreeram concluded.

Way to go Every city has its roadblocks to opportunities; however, for Hyderabad, unbound opportunities lie ahead. The industry and government need to take collective steps to overcome the hurdles and carve the road map to global opportunities for Hyderabad. Email: debarati.basu@network18publishing.com


BOOK REVIEW

Rosin-based Chemicals and Polymers Editor: Jinwen Zhang Price: ` 8,237 Current interest in sustainable polymeric materials has created interest in rosin, which is derived from pine tress. Rosin is used in many kinds of polymers and polymer chemicals for applications such as printing inks, adhesives, paints, varnishes, coatings, alkyd resins, polyurethanes, epoxy resins, polyesters and polyamides. Rosin has been historically ignored as biomass for manufacturing ‘Green Plastics’ and composites. This is largely due to the difficulties of precisely controlling the molecular structure through molecular engineering. However, in recent years, rosin acids have received growing interest as feedstock chemicals. The editor has summarised the recent progress in chemicals and polymers derived from rosin and turpentine as feedstock chemicals. Various chapters focus on rosin-derived epoxies curing and coating applications, turpentine-derived polyols and polyurethane applications, rosin-derived monomers in thermoplastic polymers, rosin-derived surfactants and finally biological activities of rosin-derived chemicals. This book is a useful guide and reference for those involved in the investigation of chemicals and polymers based on pine resin.

Design of Extrusion Forming Tools

Editors: Olga S Carneiro and J Miguel Nóbrega Price: ` 10,838 Forming tools, ie the extrusion die and the calibration systems used, are the key components of extrusion lines. The objective of an extrusion line is to produce, at a high rate and quality, the required product. These two goals are generally conflicting. Optimisation of the processing conditions and design of extrusion tools demand deep knowledge and careful study of all the phenomena involved during the extrusion process. Authors have felt that there is a clear lack of literature devoted to the design of extrusion forming tools and integrating the different phenomena involved. This book fills up the gap. It is a useful reference for higher education students, teachers, researchers and engineers active in the extrusion industry. It is also a practical guide for those involved in the design of forming tools. Each chapter is written by researchers, both from academic and industrial communities, whose contribution in the specific field is internationally recognised. Chapters are arranged in logical sequence, starting with objectives and the most relevant problems associated with design of tools, polymer properties required for design process, specific chapters on pipes, flat film & sheet, blown film, profiles, flexible dies and rotating mandrel dies.

Reviewer: Dr Yatish Vasudeo, President & CEO, By Innovations Consultancy India Pvt Ltd Available at: SCI-TECH Books & Periodicals, 414, Janki Centre, Veera Desai Road, Andheri (W), Mumbai 400 053 Tel: 022-26735260/66970507 • Fax: 022-6735424/26735260 • Email: info@scitechbooks.co.in/scitechbooks@gmail.com July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 135


PRODUCT S

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Blow moulding booster

Blow Moulding Booster (BMB) units have been developed by Blue Air Systems (BAS),Austria, based on the many years of their experience, to improve product quality and consistency and increase production of blow moulded products. Cooling the product is the longest and most critical part of the solidification process. The fact that the mould only removes the heat from the outside surface of the container causes material stress and extended cooling time in the mould. BMB replaces regular blowing air with chilled compressed air (3–5°C) inside the container during the blowing process. The specially designed blow pins enable flushing of the product and thereby transport the heat from within the container to outside resulting in reduction in cooling time. The BMB units are now being manufactured in India in co-operation with BAS, Austria. These units have critical components imported from Europe, which guarantees quality and enduring performance. Madhu Machines & Systems Pvt Ltd Vadodara, Gujarat Tel: 0265-2353886, Fax: 0265-2334278 Email: machinery@madhugroup.com Website: www.madhu-group.com

DST 2 motor

This motor has smooth running characteristics, and energy efficiency is maintained through wide speed/load range. This motor is suitable for sophisticated direct drive technology. It also delivers high torque at low velocities; hence, it produces very low noise. This motor also offers water cooling in a stainless steel design, which is compact and robust with IP54 type of protection. The smooth housing surface makes it easy to keep the machine clean. Baumuller India Pvt Ltd Pune, Maharashtra Tel: 020-40160328 Email: dhanashree.brahme@baumuller.in Website: www.baumuller.in 136 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

Ozone generator

The ozone generator features a quartz dielectric high barrier and has a high operation life of minimum three years at high ozone concentration. High barrier quartz has a high breakdown temperature of 12,000°C, excellent resistance to ozone and high-frequency dielectric strength. The generator is water cooled to give constant ozone output, and it incorporates IGBT-based higher frequency residual inverter for high ozone concentration at lower power and PWM design to withstand wide voltage fluctuation. It also provides over-voltage and sewage protection, interlock protection for no feed gas and loss of cooling, optional PLC controller and oil-filled high voltage transformer for long life. Model S1 300 ozone generator has a size of 15” × 24” × 10” and output of 5–25 g/hr. A.M. Ozonics Pvt Ltd Mumbai, Maharashtra Tel: 022-30484019 Email: ozonics@gmail.com Website: www.amozonics.com

High pressure gear pump

This pump is ideal for the most demanding extrusion processes. It is designed to process highly viscous, filled materials and can operate at pressures up to 10,000 PSI and temperatures up to 600°F. The HGP accurately meters the polymer and pressure from the extruder to the die, providing consistent output, precise gauge control and a higher quality end product. It is mounted between the extruder and the die head to eliminate any process variations initiating in the extruder. Multiflo Instruments Pvt Ltd Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra Tel: 022-27780880/27780881 Fax: 022-27780882 E-mail: sales@multifloinstruments.com Website: www.multifloinstruments.com


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PRODUCT S

Hybrid moulding machine

ED series Large-size hybrid drive features space saving, energy saving and high-speed cycle. The ED series is the strongest series in the class that achieves energy saving, space-saving, high-speed cycle, and high-value addition. The machine adopts the hybrid mold clamping unit that unites the mold opening and closing by electric servomotor drive with hydraulic type high-pressure mold clamp. The machine decreases pump drive motor capacity by 80 per cent compared with a conventional hydraulic machine, to promote energy saving. The machine also reduces hydraulic fluid quantity by 84 per cent compared with the hydraulic machine and greatly lowers environmental load. The original technology that synchronously controls two or more servomotors carries out compound operation of "1) opening and closing the mold, 2) driving tie rods at the speed the same as the mold and 3) closing the half nut", to achieve further shortening of operation cycle. Toshiba Machine (Chennai) Pvt Ltd Chennai, Tamil Nadu Tel: 022-67050505/67051147/44-26812046 Fax: 022-67051309 Email: ppm.mktg@toshiba-machine.co.in Website: www.toshiba-machine.co.jp

High speed steel

High speed steels have been named to show their ability to resist softening at elevated temperatures therefore maintaining a sharp cutting edge when cuts are heavy and speeds are high. They are the most highly alloyed of all of the tool steel types. They normally contain comparatively large amounts of tungsten or molybdenum, chromium, Cobalt and vanadium, along with carbon. Two groups of high speed steel are available – molybdenum types and tungsten types. The molybdenum high speed tool steels contain 3.50 to 9.50 per cent molybdenum. They characteristically contain 4.00 per cent tungsten, and 1.00 to 5.00 per cent vanadium. Carbon is fairly high – 0.80 to 1.50 per cent Applications cover a wide range of cutting tools. Examples include twist drills, reamers, milling cutters, lathe & planer tools, cutoff knives and insert cutter blades. The tungsten high speed tool steels have 12.00 to 20.00 per cent tungsten. They also have substantial amounts of chromium and vanadium, and some have considerable amounts of cobalt. Carbon is high – 0.70 to 1.50 per cent, depending on the grade. EST Tools Steel Pvt Ltd Mumbai, Maharashtra Tel: 022-28846441, Fax: 022-28847014 Email: sales@esttoolsteel.com Website: www.esttoolsteel.com

Screw chiller

Wide range of water cooled screw chiller is offered - Single Compressor, which is manufactured using quality screw compressors from bitzer (Germany) and frascold (Italy). These are offered with multiple screw compressors in one machine but have separate and individual refrigeration circuits. Fabricated in ISO certified manufacturing unit with an option of using CFC free refrigerants r-407c & r-134a complete with in-built process pump and stainless steel chilled water expansion tank. Our range of Water Cooled Screw Chiller is also rated for an ambient of up to (+) 50°c and cooling tower water temperature up to (+) 37°c at the inlet of the condenser. The chillers are fully microprocessor based and are suitable for process cooling applications from (+) 20°c up to (-) 40°c.The salient features of screw compressors are: It is tested in accordance with Ari / European standards, Oil level switch and oil differential pressure switch, discharge temperature protection with its controller, highly reliable, efficient and low noise levels, latest 5 to 6 patented profile design, PTC motor winding protection and a built - in oil separator. Dry Air India Pvt Ltd Mumbai, Maharashtra Tel: 022–61410900 Fax: 022-61410909 Email:siddharth@dryairindia.com Website: www.drycoolchiller.com

High-speed mixer

Various combinations of this heating/ cooling mixer are used in many areas for processing thermoplasts and elastomers. The mixer is also used in processes that require stepby-step heating and cooling of the product. In this high-speed mixer, the heat generated due to friction is utilised for mixing; hence, it is known as a heater mixer. It can be used to mix solid, liquid and pasty components. The hot mixture should be cooled subsequently in the cooler mixer in order to keep it in a free flow condition, suitable for storage, transportation and subsequent treatment. Mixing, dispersing processes and de-agglomeration are frequently of equal importance as factors concerning the handling of the machines. Primetech Industries Ahmedabad, Gujarat Tel: 079-25841883/64501883 Fax: 079-25841993 Email: primetechindustries@yahoo.co.in/nmpatel@eth.net Website: www.madhu-group.com July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 137


PRODUCT S

Servo pump

This servo pump can be connected to injection moulding & blow moulding machines and hydraulic presses without difficulty. It significantly reduces the energy consumption of a hydraulic machine, enables shorter cycle times and higher accuracy and lowers noise levels. With its head office in Pune, the company is well equipped with servicing facilities for servo drives and servo motors. In addition, application and service engineers have been placed in major cities across the country. . Baumuller India Pvt Ltd Pune, Maharashtra Tel: 020-40160328 Email: dhanashree.brahme@baumuller.in Website: www.baumuller.in

PID controller

This PID controller has the shortest length behind the panel to save on space. It is equipped with a 0.4" LED display to show SV/PV at a glance. The front panel is protected with NEMA-4/IP65 (the attached packing is required). Higher sampling (100 ms) results in higher control performance. It protects the control object from thermal shock (ie rapid temperature change) with the excellent ramp rate facility, and it protects the heating element from excess current during initial power-up. Baumuller India Pvt Ltd Pune, Maharashtra Tel: 020-40160328 Email: dhanashree.brahme@baumuller.in Website: www.baumuller.in

Hopper dryer

The SHD series ‘Standard’ hopper dryer offers an effective and low-cost method for plastic material drying. Hot air is used to dry wet materials during packaging, transportation, and recycling cycles. The hopper dryer can be directly mounted on the moulding machine for quick drying and space saving. It adopts hot air diffuser to gain an even hot air flow from bottom to the top of the hopper with capacity ranging from 12 to 1000 kg to improve drying efficiency. It adopts heat-insulated blower to prolong its lifespan. Optional 24-hour timer is available for each model. 138 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

Shini Plastics Technologies India Pvt Ltd Thane – Maharashtra Tel: 0250-3021166, 88 Fax: 0250-3021100 Email: india@shini.com Website: www.shini.com

Mould sweat protector unit

This mould sweat protector unit is manufactured with co-operation with Blue Air Systems, Austria, at a Bengaluru facility. The finished unit is supplied not only to the Indian market but is also exported. It is based on the condensation drying principle, requiring much less connected load and practically nil maintenance as compared to equivalent desiccant-based equipment. The mould sweat protector not only protects the mould against sweating and rusting but also assists in improving product quality and increasing productivity. The unit is available from process air capacities of 1,000 m³/hr to 5,000m³/hr. Madhu Machines & Systems Pvt Ltd Vadodara, Gujarat Tel: 0265-2353886 Fax: 0265-2334278 Email: machinery@madhugroup.com Website: www.madhu-group.com

Fully automatic PET blow moulding machine

Fully automatic PET stretch blow moulding machine is useful in manufacturing PET bottles and jars, which are being used for mineral water, edible oil, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, carbonated soft drinks, liquor, cosmetics and confectioneries. It has a unique bottle auto clipper for online filling system and is also useful as bottle ejector. The production capacity is 3200 to 3600 bottles / hour up to 30 mm neck size. It is equipped with a fully electrical automatic preform loader and 160 character LCD display programmed with two high speed Intel 8051 microcontroller for easy operation. Shree Samarth PET Industries Mumbai – Maharashtra Tel: 022-32415603 Fax: 022-28676131 Email: info@samarthpet.com, sales@samarthpet.com Website: www.samarthpet.com


PRODUCT S

Low cost PID temperature controller

Low cost intelligent PID temperature controller provides thermocouple input like thermocouple K, E, J, N, RTD Pt100 and relay or SSR voltage output. It also facilitates maximum two alarm relay outputs. This model is available in different sizes of 48 × 48 mm², 72 × 72 mm² and 96 × 96 mm². It has measurement accuracy of 0.3 per cent FS±1oC and temperature display resolution of 1oC. Different control mode can be configured as on or off, artificial intelligence control, including fuzzy logic PID control and advanced control algorithm with the function of parameter auto tuning. It has a built-in switch mode power supply voltage rating of 100-240 VAC/ 50-60 Hz and consumes only 2 W. Micon Automation Systems Pvt Ltd Ahmedabad – Gujarat Tel: 079-32900400 Email: sales@miconindia.com Website: www.miconindia.com

Thermoplastic material

Hipolyene is a high performance polypropylene base thermoplastic material, suitably tailored to meet specific requirements of automotive OE / Tier I. These state of the art, technology driven, compounds consists of high flow, high modulus, high impact formulations, providing excellent scratch and mar resistance, low fogging, moulded in colour, odourless, yet paintable compositions, with low thermal expansion. These compounds are developed to comply with automotive specifications, for interior, exterior, under the hood and body parts, covering wide varieties of applications such as instrument panel, door and pillar trims, consoles, bumpers, body panels, body side moulding, wheel arch liners, rub strip, AC and heater housing, ducts, radiator fan, engine covers and so on. Zylog Plastalloys Pvt Ltd Pune – Maharashtra Tel: 020-26650219 Fax: 020-26650220 Email: sales@zylogplastalloys.com Website: www.zylogplastalloys.com July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 139


PRODUCT S

Long fiber rigid thermoplastic polyurethane

RTP 2300 series long fiber rigid thermoplastic polyurethane surpasses rigorous set of tests for reinforced shoes. The long fiber TPU compound can be injection molded into toe caps. A VLF TPU toe cap can exceed ANSI specifications requiring that a cap must withstand 7500 pound of direct impact and 2500 pound of static load. With this compound, it is possible to almost double the static load standard for safety toe caps. Compared to steel, this material has high strength, weight reduction and being non-conductive will not activate metal detectors, insulates against heat and cold, non-magnetic and static free. Though this material is ideal for safety work boots and shoes, their use has greatly expanded into other markets such as the military. RTP Company Chennai – Tamil Nadu Tel: 044-42147313 Email: srengasamy@rtpcompany.com Website: www.rtpcompany.com

Injection moulding

Injection moulding technology is used across the range of polymer families from polyolefins to engineering polyamides, styrenes and various special compounds to meet the specific needs of the parts. Parts from sizes as small as a button to as large as the front hood of heavy commercial vehicles are moulded, covering products of both technical and aesthetic requirements. It has the most advanced technology ranging from 50 tonne to 3000 tonne across reputed brands in the industry. Application areas include production of HVAC unit, rack system for retail, ice twister, radiator grill, bumper system, blower case, truck front panel, fan unit, pillars, door bin and washing machine tub.

Mutual Industries Ltd Mumbai - Maharashtra Tel: 022-66895300 Website: www.mutual-industries.com

Thermoplastic rubber

Thermoplastic rubber is primarily an elastomer which combines the performance traits of a rubber and processing ability of plastic. It exhibits excellent physical and mechanical properties, high tensile strengths and tear

140 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

strengths, good thermal properties and excellent resistance to water, alcohol, acids and bases. It finds wide use applications as gasket support and hose connector’s, automobile dust cover, boots and grommets, flexible cords and coiled cords, weather stripping for doors and windows etc. Welset Plast Extrusions Pvt Ltd Mumbai – Maharashtra Tel: 022-28215734/28387054 Email: info@welset.com Website: www.welset.com

Multilayer polyethylene film

The multilayer polyethylene film is coated with pressure sensitive adhesive. A wide range of innovative solutions for protection of PVC Section with an extensive range of adhesion level, film thickness of 50 micron to 80 micron and color are available. It has a maximum length of 1000 m per roll and maximum width of 1550 mm. It provides outdoor weather resistance. The protective film peels out easily after finishing operations. It preserves the quality of surface without leaving residue or any marks once the protective film is removed. It provides uniform and stable adhesion throughout the life cycle of the product. Ecoplast Ltd Mumbai - Maharashtra Tel: 022-26830064/26840359 Email: info@ecoplastindia.com Website: www.ecoplastindia.com

Flame-retardant plastic compounds

Flame-retardant plastics are essential to devices we use every day, providing a valuable tool in fire prevention. For fire to occur, the three basic elements of fuel, heat and oxygen must exist. The science of flame retardance uses chemical reactions to moderate one or more of these attributes. Flame retardant compounds help mitigate fire danger, increase plastic's ignition resistance, reduce the speed of flame spread, reduce heat release and smoke & fume generation. RTP Company Chennai – Tamil Nadu Tel: 044-42147313 Email: srengasamy@rtpcompany.com Website: www.rtpcompany.com


PRODUCT S

Silicone transparent tubing and braided hose

Polyester-reinforced silicone transparent braided hose is made for food, pharmaceutical, chemical, medical and heavy engineering industries, thermal power stations and PSUs. This braided hose is made of 100 per cent pure silicone rubber by using fully automatic state-of-the art machines and technologies. It already caters to all the major pharmaceutical companies in India and is also exported to overseas customers. Medical grade braided hose is manufactured under stringent quality control and is made of medical grade silicone rubber, temperature-resistant from -80°C to 250°C (-110°F to 480°F), non-reactive to body tissue and fluid, unaffected by most water-soluble materials, sterilisable by steam, dry heat, ethylene oxide and gamma radiation and has an indefinite shelf life. The silicone transparent tubing sizes are available from 0.5 mm ID to 200 mm ID, and braided hoses have sizes available from ID range ½” to 2 ½”. Ami Polymer Pvt Ltd Mumbai - Maharashtra Tel: 022-28555107/631/914, Mob: 09223290931 Fax: 022-28555378 Email: amipolymer@vsnl.com Website: www.amipolymer.com

Dual-control water-type mould temperature controller

The dual-control water-type mould temperature controller is a single machine that can simultaneously control the temperature requirements of different male and female moulds. The male and female moulds require different temperature degrees. Dual-control series lets you control two different temperatures accurately. The size is decreased by 40 per cent to save space. It does not need constant replacement which helps in acquiring substantial savings with regards to cost and time and improves work efficiency. The patented ‘Heat-insulated’ design improves safety, extends the machine’s life and makes repair and maintenance more efficient and safer. The watertype series does not produce oil and gas, thereby reducing pollution in the work place which is useful in electronics, medical and cosmetic industries. In the water-type series, the cooling effect increases efficiency and does not pollute the mould. It is economical and has widespread applications. The imported PID temperature controllers are used for accurate control of temperature within ±0.1°C.

One must consider the cost of the product before ed purchasing so as to secure definite and assur returns over the period of time.

Manisha Kadam (Assistant Manager) Ashok Industry

Yann Bang Electrical Machinery Co Ltd Taichung -Taiwan Tel: 886-4-22710000, Fax: 886-4-22711988 Email: yb@yannbang.com Website: www.yannbang.com July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 141


PRODUCT S

Universal PID controller

blowing technology), high productivity and good stability. It is suitable for lightweight and extra-thin (thinnest up to 0.3 mm) disposable products. Other features are waste reduction, lower production cost, high stability of finished products, low defect rate, strong mould structure, floating structure, thin finished products, average thickness, stable quality and long life of mould.

The universal PID controller adopts digital calibration technology for input measurement with input measurement accuracy 0.3 per cent FS. Non-linear calibration tables for standard thermocouples and RTDs are available in the instrument. All other linear inputs such as 4–20 mA, 0–10 VDC etc are also available. It can satisfy the requirements of various applications, make quick delivery and is easy to maintain. Its friendly and customised operating interface leads to easy learning and simple manipulation. It has high quality and performance hardware design, using high-performance tantalum capacitor or ceramic capacitor. Compared to competing models, it consumes less electricity, experiences less temperature shifting, provides higher stability and reliability and can work in a wider range of temperatures.

Mo Chyi Enterprise Co Ltd Changhua County - Taiwan Tel: +886-4-7354681 Email: lcn11111@ms23.hinet.net Website: www.food-mold.com

Micon Automation Systems Pvt Ltd Ahmedabad – Gujarat Tel: 079-32900400 Email: sales@miconindia.com Website: www.miconindia.com

Pellet screening system

Super Platon is the latest generation of pellet screening system for plastics industry. This system detects black spots or off-colour contaminants as small as 0.1 mm in a pellet stream by using four highresolution line sensor cameras. The Super Platon is installed inline or offline after a vibratory sizing screener to detect and remove defective pellets. Kubota Corporation Shanghai City - China Tel: +86-21-63298843 Email: obahideaki1224@yahoo.co.jp Website: www.keisoku.kubota.ne.jp/chinese

Hot runner system mould

Some characteristics of the Moki patent hot runner system mould include short cycle time (shortest time up to 3.2 s with advanced 142 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

Mould-temperature controller and chiller

The mould temperature controller and special custom-made chiller are new products that include cold-hot all-in-one mould temperature controller, die-casting mould temperature controller, quick-cooling & heating mould temperature controller, two machines in one water circulation temperature controller and rubber/high temperature/roller mould temperature controller. These machines are intended for processes such as plastic injection moulding, extrusion moulding, blow moulding, chemical industry, dye-casting, reaction axe rubber tyre, rubber vulcanisation, electric wire, calendar, printing, ban-burying and other related industries. Weichi Enterprise Co Ltd Guangzhou - China Tel: +86-020-36850626 Email: weichimaster@163.com Website: www.weichigz.com

Extrusion machine

The LIN-90II-TS is a performance-based machine designed to accommodate large containers with outstanding cycle time. It produces from 200 ml to 4 L of PE/PP and PVC/PTEG, and the productivity reaches 4,500 and 860 pc/hr, respectively. To ensure quality, mechanical and electrical components from leading brands are used in this machine. Akei Plastic-Machine Mfy Ltd Kowloon - Hong Kong Tel: +852-27411312 Email: akeisimon@akei.com.cn Website: www.akei.com.hk


PRODUCT S

Anti-static plastic pallet

This anti-static plastic pallet is available in various sizes. It is made from virgin foodgrade plastic materials and is used in pharmaceutical and food-based industries. Also offered are grain storage pallets, steel reinforced plastic pallets, drum pallets, moulded plastic pallets, rackable plastic pallets etc.

Ergen Plastic Industries Jodhpur - Rajasthan Tel: 0291-2433737 Mob: 09414195707 Email: info@ercon.co.in Website: www.indiamart.com/plastic-pallets

Specialty chemicals

The Millad NX 8000 offers important sustainability benefits enabling PP to be processed at significantly lower temperatures versus standard clarified PP. The superior clarifying performance enables broader use of PP, a low-density and easily recycled plastic, to replace less-sustainable materials in packaging, household and food storage applications. Hyperform HPN nucleating agent for polyolefins is a family of high-speed nucleating agents, which allow for faster crystallisation rates, improved processing and higher throughputs. Hyperform HPR synthetic reinforcing agents for polypropylene improve mechanical properties, while reducing part weight as compared to traditionally filled automotive compounds.

Milliken Asia Pte Ltd Singapore Tel: +65-65931319 Email: tiffany.tay@milliken.com Website: www.millikenchemical.com

Wood plastic composites

Wood Plastic Composites (WPC) are thermo-plastically processible materials made from wood and plastics (PP, PE, PVC, PS, ABS) for use in building, furniture, automotive, consumer goods, housing industry etc. In order to operate with optimum function, upstream and downstream equipments are designed for the best match with the extrusion line. For further improving the output of extrusion line, each processing device and computer-controlled possibility (eg PLC, PC base) are recommended to suit different usersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; demands.

Intype Enterprise Co Ltd Tainan - Taiwan Tel: +886-6-2614196 Email: extruder@intype.com.tw Website: www.intype.com.tw

Mould change system

Quick mould change system uses hydraulic drive to achieve a simple, convenient and quick mould change steps. Compared to the traditional way of fixing mould by hand, it not only reduces half machine idle time, the labour force and cost of production but also increases machine utilisation and productivity. Quick mould change system includes power unit, die clamps, hydraulic parts and electrical control box. They can be customised according to the customerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s machine requirements. In case of sudden stop power supply, the quick mould change system can supply pressure for more than 48 hours to avoid the mould from falling. When clamping abnormally, it can connect with the machine to stop the operation immediately to protect personnel safety. Forwell Precision Machinery Co Ltd Zhejing - China Tel: +86-574-86599196, Fax: +86-574-86599197 Email: forwell@forwellnb.com Website: www.forwell.com

Resin forming line

CYKF designs and manufactures automatic resin forming line, integrating procedures such as setting parameters, feeding, manufacturing, resin forming, dehydration and dust collection in one production line. These complicated procedures can be dealt with more smoothly by this machine. The company applies this equipment not only in resin forming but also in the production of compound materials integrating plastics, wood flour, synthetic rubber and PVC resin. Cheng Yieu Development Machinery Co Ltd Tainan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Taiwan Tel : +886-6-726 6668, Fax : +886-6-726 6658 Email: cykf8688@ms54.hinet.net Website: www.cykf.com.tw July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 143


PRODUCT S

Servo-driven beam robot

Redstone series servo-driven beam robot is applicable to all types of horizontal injection machines ranging from 50 tonne to 500 tonne. It has a full AC servo motor driven on each axis, taken out at super high speed. By using linear slide rail, adjusting the gap is not needed, and it is stable, wear-proof and has a long life. Besides high speed take-out product, insert moulding, picking up the inserts of two combined IMM, IML and collocation of peripheral automation are provided. The range of services includes home appliances, computer peripherals, office products, food packaging, toys, PET, precision gear etc.

Dongguan Alfa Automation Dongguan - Taiwan Tel: +86-769-83180326, Fax: +86-769-83180329 Email: info@alfarobot.com Website: www.alfarobot.com

Gravimetric feeder

Colormax systems provide various gravimetric feeders, which are designed to provide high-accuracy, high-value gravimetric feeding for a wide variety of materials, such as cohesive or sticky powders, fibres, flakes and free flow powders. Feed rates range from 15 to 4,000 l/hr based on various configuration and material characteristics. The feeder is mounted on the C2 scale with internationally proved weighing technology.The controller is from K-Tron Electronics in the US, which provides outstanding performance on high-frequency sampling and high-accuracy weight control. Wuxi Process Equipment Manufacturing Co Ltd Jiangsu - China Tel: 0510-83830028, Fax: 0510-83832686 Email: ajiang@ktroncolormax.com Website: www.colormaxsystems.cn

Label printing machine

Printing speed of PCD80-08H-RE (UV ) is 80–100 pcs/min. The features include double transferring roller design, stopples roller adjustment design, plate wheel outer fine-tune mechanism, quick release ink rollers, printing wheel clean system (200 mm dischargeable), sleeve printing and plate wheel pre-register mechanism that make production more smooth. 144 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013

Bonmart Enterprise Corp Taipei City - Taiwan Tel: +886-2-2299 4281, Fax: +886-2-2299 4284 Email: bonmart@bonmart.com.tw Website: www.bonmart.com.tw

Multi-cavity hot runner controller

The TC5200 multi-cavity hot runner controller features a 12–60 point temperature combination controller and multi-machine networking. Maintenance operations can be simplified with its modularised device design and requirementbased configuration. The purchasing costs are greatly reduced by its unique temperature control, with two points within one level. The GUI-based user interface, along with its adjustable perspective angle, is easy for fast adoption in multi-points control. The RS485 communication function enables you to set up multiple controls at once to simplify the required operations. The built-in and practical current sensor and indicator functions benefit various applications, especially automotive, bottle billet injection and medical supplies, by realising the concept of one-stop control. Arico Technology Co Ltd Taipei City – Taiwan Tel: +886-2-2910-1266, Fax: +886-2-2915-9434 Email: info@arico.com.tw Website: www.arico.com.tw

Copolymer emulsion

Dipicryl 03D6 is vinyl acetate, butyl acrylate copolymer emulsion, which is slightly viscous and of medium particle size with excellent flow properties. It is specially developed for making highly pigmented emulsion paints. It has a milky white appearance with free flowing dispersion and particle size of 0.5 to 0.8 microns. It forms tough and flexible film above 7°C which is clear, non-tacky and free from bits. Dipicryl 03D6 has good compatibility with pigments, extenders, protective colloids, plasticisers and other acrylic emulsions. It is used in making premium quality interior and exterior coating wall paints. Speciality Polymers Pvt Ltd Mumbai - Maharashtra Tel: 022-22063534, Fax: 022-22063533 Email: spdp@vsnl.com, import@specialitypolymer.com, export@specialitypolymer.com Website: www.specialitypolymer.com

The information published in this section is as per the details furnished by the respective manufacturer/ distributor. In any case, it does not represent the views of Business Insights •Technologies•Opportunities


LIST OF PRODUCT S

Looking For A Specific Product?

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Product

Pg No

Product

Pg No

Product

Pg No

AC/DC panel for pipe plant........................................77

CPVC pipe........................................................................ 10,21

Fully automatic strapping plant............................................. 81

Acoustic enclosure............................................................. 11,53

Crystalliser............................................................................. 65

Gear pump............................................................... 154

Additive masterbatch............................................................... 8

Cylinder engraving - lenticular & optical roll mould.......... 139

Granulating & recycling........................................................ 85

Air audits blower.................................................................... 19

Dehumidified dryer..................................................FIC

Granulator............................................................... FIC 65,153

Air bubble film extrusion line................................................ 45

Dehumidifying air dryer...................................................... 153

Gravimetric blender............................................................. 153

Air bubble sheet plant............................................................ 81

Dehumidifying dryer.............................................................. 35

Gravimetric feeder............................................................... 144

All-electric machine............................................................... 23

Digital panel meter................................................................ 12

Gun drilling process............................................................... 29

Anti-static plastic pallet....................................................... 143

Digital temperature controller.............................................. 102

HDPE pipe plant.......................................................77

Automation.............................................................................. 6

Dosing & blending.................................................................. 6

Heart valve frame................................................................... 61

Automation system................................................................ 85

Dosing & mixing................................................................... 85

Heat transfer roll.................................................................. 154

Barrels...................................................................... 154

Drive.................................................................................... 102

Heating & cooling.............................................................. 6,85

Barrels for plastic & rubber injection moulding.................... 29

Dry van pump................................................................... 11,53

High cavitation...................................................................... 17

Batch weighs blender............................................................. 22

Dry-break coupling................................................................ 19

High-discharge (flooding type) pump................................. 139

Biodegradable masterbatch...................................................... 8

Drying...................................................................................... 6

High-performance screw...................................................... 154

Black masterbatch.................................................................... 8

Drying & dehumidifying....................................................... 85

High-pressure gear pump.................................................... 136

Blender................................................................................ FIC

Drymax air-hot air dryer.................................................... FIC

High-speed mixer............................................................. 27,73

Blow moulding booster........................................................ 136

Drymax dryer...................................................................... FIC

High-speed steel.................................................................. 137

Blower series.......................................................................... 85

Drymax PET-dehumidified dryer...................................... FIC

High-speed mixer................................................................ 137

Blown film extrusion system................................................ BC

DST 2 motor....................................................................... 136

HM/HDPE/LDPE/LIDPE................................................. 81

Capping machine........................................................49

Dual channel with modbus.................................................. 102

Hopper dryer........................................................................ 138

Cast film line......................................................................... 81

Dual-control water-type mould temperature controller...... 141

Hopper loader...................................................................... 153

Chemical & industrial pump................................................. 89

Dynamic controller.............................................................. 102

Hot air dryer................................................................... 35,153

CIM mould............................................................................ 37

Ejector.......................................................................19

Hot runner system................................................................. 85

Clean room application.......................................................... 17

Elastomer extrusion pump..................................................... 89

Hot runner system mould.................................................... 142

Cleaning oven...................................................................... 154

Electric injection moulding machine gearbox.......................... 7

Hybrid moulding machine................................................... 137

CNC vertical machining centre............................................. 87

Exhibition - Plastivision India 2013...................................... 40

Hydraulic block...................................................................... 29

Co-extruded sheets and telecom cable.................................. 31

Extruder machine.............................................................. 27,73

Hydraulic injection moulding machine.................................. 23

Colour masterbatch............................................................. 8,15

Extrusion.............................................................................. BC

Hydraulic piston rams............................................................ 29

Compact chiller.................................................................... 153

Extrusion................................................................................ 37

IML technique...........................................................17

Compressed air dryer............................................................. 65

Extrusion coating lamination plant........................................ 81

Injection moulding machines...................... FGF,5,18,25,37,93,

Compressed air system........................................................ BIC

Extrusion machine............................................................... 142

Injection moulding............................................................... 140

Compressor.................................................................... 19,BIC

Extrusion machinery.............................................................. 29

Inline drip tubing.............................................................. 10,21

Conductive compound............................................................. 8

Extrusion system.................................................................. BC

Label printing machine............................................. 144

Conical twin screw extruder.................................................. 16

Feeding & conveying............................................. 65,85

Large flow water heaters........................................................ 85

Continuous screen changer.................................................. 154

Filling machine...................................................................... 49

Liners barrels.......................................................................... 20

Conventional and mono block pump.................................. 139

Film extrusion line................................................................. 45

Loader................................................................................. FIC

Conveying................................................................................ 6

Flame-retardant plastic compound...................................... 140

Loading arm........................................................................... 19

Coolant accessories............................................................... 139

Foam sheet............................................................................. 45

Long fibre rigid thermoplastic polyurethane....................... 140

Coolant pump...................................................................... 139

Fueling system........................................................................ 19

Low-cost PID temperature controller................................. 139

Copolymer emulsion............................................................ 144

Fully automatic PET blow moulding machine................... 138

LSR machine......................................................................... 37

FGF - Front Gate Fold, FIC - Front Inside Cover, BIC - Back Inside Cover, BGF - Back Gate Fold, BC - Back Cover

148 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013


LIST OF PRODUCT S

Product

Pg No

Product

Pg No

Product

Pg No

Manual & hydraulic screen changer.......................... 154

Polyolefin pipe................................................................... 10,21

Stack mould........................................................................... 17

Masterbatch............................................................................ 31

Power generator shaft............................................................ 29

Storage tank equipment......................................................... 19

Masterbatch/plastic compound.............................................. 24

PP-r pipe........................................................................... 10,21

System solution...................................................................... 85

Material storage................................................................... 153

PP TQ plant.......................................................................... 81

Tank truck equipment.................................................19

Medical mould....................................................................... 17

PP/HDPE-semi automatic strapping plant.......................... 81

Mfrs of cast film line, streach, cling, masking,

PP/HDPE raffia tape line..................................................... 81

Technical mould..................................................................... 17

blister & CPP film................................................................. 14

PPRP powder....................................................................... 141

Mfrs of co-rotating twin screw extruder................................ 20

Priming valve......................................................................... 19

Milky polymer...................................................................... 141

Printing machine.................................................................... 37

Mould repair........................................................................ 139

Process controller................................................................... 12

Mould temperature controller................................................ 35

Profile controller................................................................... 102

Temperature controller.................................................... 12,102 Thermoformer...................................................................... BC Thermoforming.................................................................... BC Thermoforming & PS foam................................................ BC Thermoplast production pump.............................................. 89 Thermoplastic material........................................................ 139

Moulding................................................................................ 17

Profile sheet............................................................................ 45

Monolayer blown film....................................................... 10,21

Pulveriser........................................................................... 27,73

Monolayer blown film line................................................... BC

Pump....................................................................... 11,19,53,89

Mould................................................................................ 27,73

PVC........................................................................................ 24

Mould change system.......................................................... 143

PVC compound..................................................................... 31

Mould sweat protector unit................................................. 138

PVC foam core pipe......................................................... 10,21

Mould temperature controller.............................................. 153

PVC mixer cooler............................................................. 10,21

Mould-temperature controller and chiller........................... 142

PVC palletising line.......................................................... 10,21

MTC................................................................................... FIC

PVC pipe.......................................................................... 10,21

Twin screw co-rotating extruder............................................ 61

Multi-component mould....................................................... 17

PVC profile line................................................................ 10,21

Twin screw extruder............................................................... 61

Multi-cavity hot runner controller....................................... 144

Reclaim system...........................................................45

Twin mill pulveriser.......................................................... 27,73

Multi-layer blown film...................................................... 10,21

Recycling.................................................................................. 6

Twin screw extruder gearbox................................................... 7

Multi-layer blown film line.................................................. BC

Refinery/petrochemical.......................................................... 24

Twin screw extrusion line...................................................... 16

Multi-layer blown film plant................................................. 81

Resin dehumidifier................................................................. 65

Twin screw pipe plant for RPVC pipe.................................. 77

Multi-layer polyethylene film............................................... 140

Resin dryer........................................................................... 149

Twin screw side feeder .......................................................... 20

Multi-stage (high pressure) pump....................................... 139

Resin forming line............................................................... 143

Two layer blown film........................................................ 10,21

Natural polymer........................................................ 141

Rigid sheet............................................................................. 45

Two platen injection moulding machine............................... 23

Non-phthalate plasticiser....................................................... 95

Robot................................................................................... FIC

Optical brightener....................................................... 8

Rock n roll machine.......................................................... 27,73

Ultra sonic flow meter.................................................12

Ozone generator................................................................... 136

Roots blower..................................................................... 11,53

Paperless recorder.......................................................12

Round table carrousel............................................................. 27

Parallel & right angle axes gearbox......................................... 7

Safety access equipment..............................................19

Pellet screening system......................................................... 142

Screw chiller......................................................................... 137

Pelletiser............................................................................... 154

Second & dull polymer........................................................ 141

PET box strapping plant....................................................... 81

Segmented barrel.................................................................... 20

PET perform dedicated machine.......................................... 57

Segmented screw.................................................................... 20

Petline injection moulding machine...................................... 23

Servo energy saving machine................................................. 57

PID controller...................................................................... 138

Servo pump.......................................................................... 138

Pipe extrusion line for PVC/PPR/PE................................... 93

Servo-driven beam robot..................................................... 144

Plastic auxiliary equipment.................................................... 22

Shut off nozzle..................................................................... 154

Plastic brightener................................................................. 141

Silicone transparent tubing and braided hose...................... 141

Plastic conveyor belt............................................................... 27

Thermoplastic rubber........................................................... 140 Three arm bi-axial rotomoulding machine....................... 27,73 Tie bar.................................................................................... 29 Toggle injection machine....................................................... 23 TPU masterbatch................................................................... 15 Trade show organiser........................................................... 119 Transmissions & pot.............................................................. 19

Universal controller.............................................................. 102 Universal PID controller...................................................... 142 UV stabiliser............................................................................. 8 Vacuum booster pump............................................ 11,53 Vacuum dryer......................................................................... 35 Vacuum forming machine.................................................... BC Vacuum pump & system........................................................ 19 Vacuum system.................................................................. 11,53 Variable displacement pump energy-saving machine............ 57 Vibro screen...................................................................... 27,73 Virgin polymer..................................................................... 141 Volumetric dosing unit........................................................... 65

Single mill pulveriser......................................................... 27,73

Water chiller...............................................................65

Plastic tinopol...................................................................... 141

Single screw extruder gearbox.................................................. 7

Water jetting.......................................................................... 19

Plastic whitener.................................................................... 141

Single screw extruder plant.................................................... 16

WFR................................................................................... FIC

Plastics moulding................................................................... 24

Single screw pipe plant for RPVC........................................ 77

White masterbatch................................................................... 8

PLC...................................................................................... 102

Software for central monitoring............................................ 65

Wire EDM............................................................................ 87

Polymer production pump..................................................... 89

Specialty chemicals............................................................... 143

Wood plastic composite....................................................... 143

FGF - Front Gate Fold, FIC - Front Inside Cover, BIC - Back Inside Cover, BGF - Back Gate Fold, BC - Back Cover

150 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013


LIST OF ADVERTISERS Advertiser’s Name & Contact Details

Pg No

ACS Auxiliaries India Pvt Ltd....................... 22

Advertiser’s Name & Contact Details

Pg No

Advertiser’s Name & Contact Details

Pg No

Engineering Expo.........................................147

Kabra Extrusion Technik Ltd......................... 21

T: +91-02135 - 329112

T: +91-09819552270

T: +91-22-2673 4822

E: acsindia@corpemail.com

E: engexpo@infomedia18.in

E: sunil@kolsitegroup.com

W: www.aecinternet.com

W: www.engg-expo.com

W: www.kolsite.com

Aerodry Plastics Automation Pvt Ltd............... 6

Everest Blower Systems............................ 11, 53

Karan Engineering Co................................... 37

T: +91-120 4766777

T: +91-11-45457777

T: +91-022-40214997

E: info@aerodry.com

E: info@everestblowers.com

E: sundaram@karanengineers.com

W: www.aerodry.com

W: www.everestblowers.com

W: www.karanengineers.com

All India Plastics Mfrs Association................ 40

Ferromatik Milacron India Pvt Ltd................ 23

Konark Plastomech Pvt Ltd........................... 81

T: +91-22-28217324

T: +91-79-25890081

T: +91-79-22891670

E: pvi13@plastivision.org

E: salesfmi@milacron.com

E: sales@konarkplastomech.com

W: www.plastivision.org

W: www.milacronindia.com

W: www.konarkplastomech.com

Alok Masterbatches Ltd................................ 15

Gardner Denver Engineered Pro. (I).............. 19

T: +91-011-41612244

T: +91-79-40089312

T: +91-9810043265

E: sales@alokindustries.com

E: info.ahm@gardnerdenver.com

E: in@wjpin.com; greenyc@wjpim.com

W: www.alokmasterbatches.com

W: www.gardnerdenver.com

W: www.plaimm.com

Korea Trade Centre (Kotra)............................. 5

Boge Compressed Air System..................... BIC

Hindustan Plastic and Machine Corporation. 16

L & T Plastics Machinery Ltd................... FGF

T: +91-44-43593453

T: +91-011-25473361

T: +91-044-26812000

E: fc.jayakaran@boge.com

E: poonam@hindustanplastics.com

E: handigolg@toshiba-machine.co.in

W: www.boge.in

W: www.hindustanplastics.com

W: www.toshiba-machine.co.in

Bry- Air (Asia) Pvt Ltd.................................149

Indo-Tech Engineers..................................... 29

Lan Marketing Pvt Ltd.................................. 89

T: +91-011-2390677

T: +91-79-22870368

T: +91-022-27893645

E: bryairmarketing@pahwa.com W: www.bryairsystems.com C & G Extrusion Machines........................... 77 T: +91-9272235867 E: cgext@hotmail.com W: www.cgext.com Chi Chang Machinery (India)........................ 45 T: +91 9820141845 E: info@suprapti.com

E: info@indotechengineers.com W: www.indotechengineers.com J P Extrusiontech Ltd.................................... 14 T: +91-2646-222163 E: info@jpel.in W: www.jpel.in Jacobsen Lenticular Tool & Cylinder Engraving Technology Co ( JACO TECH)............................139 T: 1-630-467-0900 E: gj@jacotech.com W: www.jacotech.com

E: jai@lanengg.com W: www.maag.com Matsui Technologies India Ltd...................... 35 T: +91-0120-4243862 E: rahuldeep@mass.motherson.com W: www.matsuiindia.in Messe Dusseldorf GmbH.............................119 T: 49-211-4560-0 E: interpack@messe-duesseldorf.de W: www.messe-duesseldorf.de

CJ Shah & Co............................................... 95

Kabra Extrusion Technik Ltd......................... 10

Mifa Systems................................................102

T: +91-022-43436969

T: +91-22-2673 4822

T: +91-79-26870825

E: mkmishra@cjshahgroup.com

E: sunil@kolsitegroup.com

E: info@mifasystems.com

W: www.kolsite.com

W: www.mifasystems.com

Our consistent advertisers

COC - Cover on Cover, FGF - Front Gate Fold, FIC - Front Inside Cover, BIC - Back Inside Cover, BC - Back Cover

July 2013 | Modern Plastics & Polymers 151


LIST OF ADVERTISERS

Advertiser’s Name & Contact Details

Pg No

Advertiser’s Name & Contact Details

Pg No

Advertiser’s Name & Contact Details

Pg No

Mold-Masters Technologies Pvt Ltd.............. 69

Plast Fine Polymers......................................141

SCJ Plastics Ltd............................................ 31

T: +91-422-4502171

T: +91-79-65242332

T: +91-011-25439950

E: mmiplinfo@moldmasters.com

E: plastfine@gmail.com

W: www.moldmasters.com

W: www.plastfine.com

Mona Chem Additives Pvt Ltd...................... 24

Plastiblends India Ltd..................................... 8

T: +91-265-3028918

T: +91-022-67205200

E: sales@monachem.com

E: rsd@koisitegroup.com

W: www.monachem.com

W: www.plastiblendsindia.com

N.A. Corporation.......................................... 73

Prasad Gwk Cooltech Pvt Ltd........................ 27

T: +91-79-25840374

T: +91-79-25830112

E: info@naroto.com

E: plastics@prasadgroup.com

W: www.naroto.com

W: www.prasadgroup.com

Neejtech India (Braunform)........................... 17

Procon Technologies Pvt Ltd......................... 12

T: +91-79-26561312

T: +91-79-27492566

E: info@neejtech.com

E: info@procon.co.in

W: www.neejtech.com

W: www.procon.co.in

Neejtech India (Niigata)................................ 25

Rajamane Industries Pvt Ltd........................139

T: +91-9909974224

T: +91-80-43659000

E: contact@niigataindia.com

E: coolantpump@rajamane.com

W: www.niigataindia.com

W: www.rajamane.com

Nordson X-Aloy Asia (Thailand) Ltd............154

Rajoo Engineers Ltd....................................BC

T: +91-79-40327380

T: +91-2827-252701

E: m.sanghvi@th.xaloy.com

E: kcdoshi@rajoo.com

W: www.xaloy.com

W: www.rajoo.com

Nu-Vu Conair Pvt Ltd..................................153

S&T Engineers............................................. 87

T: +91-9376783206

T: +91-422-2590810

E: salesindia@conairgroup.com

E: stycm@stengineers.com

W: www.conairgroup.com

W: www.stengineers.com

Piovan India Pvt Ltd..................................... 65

Sacmi Engineering India Pvt Ltd................... 18

T: +91-22-27782367

T: +91-7600003968

E: amit.bajaj@piovnindia.com

E: sales@negribossi.in

W: www.piovan.com

W: www.negribossi.com

Our consistent advertisers

E: vball@scjgroup.net W: www.scjindia.com Shini Plastics Technologies I Pvt Ltd............. 85 T: +91-250-3021166 E: jnbhat@shiniindia.com W: www.shini.com Specific Engineering..................................... 20 T: +91-265-2646871 E: info@specificgroup.com W: www.specificgroup.net Sri Sai Plasto Tech........................................ 57 T: +91-044-42994365 E: sspt_plastics@live.in W: www.srisaiplastotech.com SS Packaging Industries................................ 49 T: +91-011-45072942 E: ssgroup@vsnl.net W: www.sspackaginggroup.com Steer Engineering Pvt Ltd............................. 61 T: +91-80-23723309 E: info@steerworld.com W: www.steerworld.com Windsor Machines Ltd.................................. 93 T: +91-79-25841591 E: sales.imm@windsormachines.com W: www.windsormachines.com Wittmann Battenfeld India Pvt Ltd.............FIC T: +91-044-42077009 E: info@wittman-group.in W: www.wittmann-group.com Zambello Riduttori Group.............................. 7 T: 39-0331-307-616 E: info@zambello.it W: www.zambello.it

COC - Cover on Cover, FGF - Front Gate Fold, FIC - Front Inside Cover, BIC - Back Inside Cover, BC - Back Cover

152 Modern Plastics & Polymers | July 2013


July 2013

156

Modern Plastics & Polymers

Reg No: MH/MR/WEST/234/2012-2014 RNI No: MAHENG / 2008 / 25265 Licence to Post at Mumbai Patrika Channel Sorting Office, Mumbai GPO., Mumbai 400 001. Date Of Posting 1st & 2nd Of Every Month / English & Monthly. Date Of Publication: 28th Of Every Previous Month.


Modern Plastics & Polymers july 2013