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ORGANI ZATI ON BEHAVI OUR 500

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR CONTENTS:-

Unit- I

01-45

Meaning and definition of Organisational Behaviour (OB) – Scope and importance of OB – OB and other similar fields of studies – disciplines contributing to OB – Models of OB – historical evolution of OB – Hawthorne Experiments and its implications.

Unit- II

46-89

Learning – meaning and definition – principles - theories – perception – process - factors influencing perception.

Unit – III

90-124

Attitude – nature – functions - formation - changing attitude - personality nature – types – theories.

Unit- IV

125-161

Motivation – nature – theories, job satisfaction - causes - measuring of job satisfaction.

Unit – V

162-198

Group dynamics – nature - process of group formation - types - leadership importance – styles – theories.

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UNIT –I ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Define Psychology? What do you mean by psychology? Psychology: Psychology is the science of behavior. It focuses directly on understanding and predicting individual behaviour. It has contributed to intra personal dynamics of human behaviour. Topics such as personality, perception, attitude, opinion, learning and motivation describe intra personal aspects of OB. Definition: Psychology is “The science of human and animal behaviour: It includes the application of this science to human problems”.

Organisational Psychology: The application of psychology to the problems of industries and organizations is called industrial and organisational psychology. This is a sub-field of psychology in which psychological principles are applied to practical problems of work and commerce. Define Organisational behaviour? Explain Organisational behaviour? MEANING AND DEFINITION OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR: ~ •

All organizations, be these business, educational or government, are social systems. These are run by people. For example, It is a combination of men, money, machinery, material and methods, commonly known as 5m’s.Then it means the functioning of organization mainly depends on how people work or behave in the organization.

Human Behaviour is caused and highly unpredictable. Therefore, understanding human Behaviour has assumed great significance for the managers for managing the people effectively.

Psychology: It is a science that focuses directly on understanding and predicting individual behaviour. It has contributed to intra personal dynamics of human behaviour. Topics such as personality, perception, attitude, opinion, learning and motivation describe intra personal aspects of OB.

Psychology is “the science of human and animal behaviour: it includes the application of this science to human problems”.

Organisational Psychology: The application of psychology to the problems of industries and organizations is called industrial and organisational psychology.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR •

The first application of psychology to the problems of industries and organsations was the use of intelligence and aptitude tests in selecting employees. Today many tests in their modern versions of such tests in their hiring and placement programs.

DEFINITIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR (OB) •

“According to Luthans “OB is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behaviour with in organisations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards so improving an organisations effectiveness”.

Organizational behaviour is the study of organizational components, and their impact on human behaviour and organizational performances. Such study can benefit from various behavioural and social sciences.

Organizational behaviour is the study and application of knowledge about how people act within the Organizations. It is a human tool for human benefit. It applies broadly to the behaviour of people in all types of organizations such as business, government, schools and service organizations.

Meaning: Organisational behaviour is the study of the behaviour of people within an organisational setting. It involves the understanding prediction and control of human behaviour and the factors, which influence the performance of people as members of an organisation. Definition: According to S.P. Robbins “Organisational behaviour is a field of management that is primarily concerned with understanding, predicting and influencing human behaviour in the organisation.

Discuss the key elements of organisational behaviour? The external environment influences the following key elements and they influence it. 1. People: The success and failure of an organisation mainly depends upon the type of people with which it is working. People make up the internal social system of the organisation. They consist of individual employees who are expected to perform the tasks allotted to them, the groups work as teams and have the responsibility for getting the job done. 2. Structure: It defines the formal relationships of people in organisations. Different jobs are required to accomplish all organisation activities. There are managers and employees. These

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people have to be related in some structural way so their work can be effectively coordinated. Their relationship creates complex problems of co-operation, negotiation of decision-making. 3. Technology: Technology is the mechanism by which the end product or service of the organisation is produced. It provides the resources with which people work and affects the tasks that they perform. The great advantage of technology is that it allows people to do more and better work, but it also restricts people in various ways. It has costs as well as benefits. 4. Environment: All organizations operate within a given internal and external environment. In fact no organisation exists alone. An organisation is a part of a larger system that contains other factors or elements, such as a government, the family and other organisations. All of these mutually influence one another in a complex way.

SCOPE OF OB Explain the nature and scope of Organisational Behaviour. 1. A separate field of study: A discipline is an accepted science that is based on a theoretical formulation. But OB has a multi-interdisciplinary orientation and is not based on specifies theoretical background. 2. An inter disciplinary approach: OB is essentially an interdisciplinary approach as it tries to integrate the relevant knowledge drawn from related disciplines like psychology, sociology and anthropology to make them applicable for studying and analyzing Organisational Behaviour. 3. An applied science: OB basically does the application of various researches to solve the organisation problems related to human behaviour. It concentrates on applied research. 4. A normative science: The positive science discuses only cause-effect relationship, OB prescribes how the findings of applied researches can be applied to socially accepted organisational goals. OB deals with what is accepted by individuals and society engaged in organisation. 5. A humanistic & optimistic approach: OB applies humanistic approach towards people working in the organisation. It treats people as thinking, feeling human beings. OB is based on the belief that people have an innate desire to be independent, creative and productive. 6. A total system approach:

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR The systems approach is one that integrates all the variables affecting developed by the behavioral scientists to analyses human behaviour and to find solarium to his/her psychological framework. 7. Oriented towards organisational Objective: Though an organisation may have several objectives and sometimes conflicting with individual objectives, it should not be understood that OB only emphasis the achievement of individual objectives at the cost of organsiational objectives. In fact, OB tries to integrate both types of objectives so that these are achieved simultaneously.

Write about the scope of the organisational psychology. Scope of OB: OB is the study of human behavior at work in organisations. Accordingly, the scope of OB includes the study of individuals, groups and organisation individuals, groups and organisation structure. The scopes of OB are as follows: 1) Individuals: Organisations are the associations of individuals. Individuals differ in many respects .The study of individuals, therefore, includes aspects such as personality, perception, attitudes, values, job satisfaction, learning and motivation. 2) Groups of individuals: Groups include aspects such as group’s dynamics, group conflict communication, leadership, power and polities & the like. 3) Organisation / structure: The study of organisation /structure includes aspects such as formation of organisational structure, culture of change and development.

Explain the need of Organisational Behaviour? Explain Significance Organisational Behavior? 1. Understanding people: The study of OB helps to understand people in a better way. This helps greatly in improving interpersonal relations in the organisations. 2. Social systems: The basic job of a manager is to develop an environment conductive to effective co-ordination. An organisation is a social system in which behavioural patterns work. Unless it is an integrated and coordinated team, it will be difficult to achieve corporate objectives.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR 3. Decision-making: Decision-making is the basic job of any manager. It involves collection of data regarding problems and the analysis of them for drawing the right conclusions. Measurement of attitude becomes a part of decisions making as it is necessarily a study of behaviour. 4. Better knowledge of human: The knowledge of OB helps the managers know individual employees better and motivate employees to work for better results. 5. Problem solving: OB tackles human problems humanly. It helps understand the cause of the problem, predicts its future course of action and controls its evil consequences. 6. Managerial functions: Planning, organizing motivating, coordinating and controlling are managerial functions of managers, and that would be effective only when the manager has the necessary skills to perform these functions. 7. Prediction: The most popular reason for studying OB is to learn how to predict human behaviour and then apply it in some useful area to make the organisation more effective. 8. Motivation: OB helps managers how to efficiently manage human resources in the organisation. It enables managers to inspire and motivate employees towards higher productivity and better results. Opportunities for ob 1. Responding to globalisation: Philips sells more than 95% of products outside its country, ford makes cars in india, maruti is going towards european countries. Today’s manager shoukd be capable of working with people from different cultures. 2. Managing workforce diversity: Workforce diversity focuses on dffernces among people withi given countries interms of gender, race and ethnicity. Ob helps to manage diversity positively which interms increases morale and productivity of the employees. 3. Improving quality and productivity; Contemporary managers understand that, any effort to improve quality and productivity to succeed, it must include their employees and their involvement. Ob offers important isights to help managers to get compolete involvement of employees. 4. Improving people skills: Ob helps managers gain insights into specific people skills that can be used on the job. How to motivate people? How to do better communicator? How to create more effective teams.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR 5. Empowering people: it is putting employees incharge of what they do. Today organizations are using self managed teams, where workers operate largely without bosses.ob helps managers to learn how to give up control and teaches emplolyees to learn how to take responsibility for their work. 5. Coping with temporariness: Today’s world faces permanent temporariness. Ob helps managers and employees to better understand the world of continual change, how to overcome resistance to change etc. 6. Stimulating innovation and change: An organisation’s employees can be impetus for innovation and change or they can be a major stumbling block. The challenge for the managers is to stimulate employee creativity and tolerance for change. Ob helps them in realizing their goals. 7. Improving ethical behaviour: Ob helps today’s managers to create an ethically healthy climate for his or her employees.

FOF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR: 1. To improve efficiency and output in the industry: In every organisation where goods are manufactured, increased productivity with low expenditure has been the consideration in determining the destiny of the plant. Organisational behaviour acts as an aid to improve production with less expenditure. 2. To understand and consider the human nature of human beings: Organisational behaviour helps the superior to understand that every worker is basically a human being first with a personality which has the desire for power, prestige, and recognition and that he is a worker afterwards. 3. To discover the best possible human condition in work: Organisational behaviour helps the management to adopt the best possible human condition so as to improve their morale and to avoid fatigue, monotony and boredom. 4. To discover causes and remedy of irritations, discontentment and unrest: organisational behaviour aims at giving full training to the laboureer supervision and executives so that tahey are well versed with work situation. 5. To improve industrial relations: Organisational behaviour aims at improvement in industrial relations. It studies the attitude of employees and individual differences between people. Therfore different measures may be adopted in solving the problems of individuals. 6. To measure the attitude: If the worker has favourable attitude towards the work, he can do it correctly, otherwise even the best conditions cannot persuade the worker to work. The study and measurement of workers attitude done with the help of psychologist is so useful for the industrialist.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR OB AND OTHER SIMILAR FIELDS OF STUDIES As discussed above. the emerging field of study of human behaviour in organisation is referred to by different names - organisational behaviour, behavioural science, human relations. or organisation theory. Though each of them tries to study human behaviour in organisation and they are used interchangeably in many cases. they differ in their approaches. In the following paragraphs. a comparison between OB and other similar field of studies such as behavioural science. human relations and organisation theory is presented.

OB and Behavioural Science A comparison of OB and behavioural science shows that both have similar focus on organisational study. Behavioural science can be defined as the study of human behaviour to establish generalisations that are supported by empirical evidence collected in an impersonal and objective way. This evidence must be capable of verification by other interested scholars, and procedures must be completely open to review and replication. Thus. behavioural science is interested in studying human behaviour in a scientific way. Therefore. behavioural science avoids speculation about 'what is' and normative discourse about 'what' ought to be.' This characteristic differentiates between OB and behavioural science though OB also uses scientific methods in collecting facts about human behaviour, it goes one step further by providing the answer of the question 'what ought to be in a given situation rather than merely giving the answer of the question 'what it is in the given situation.' This normative aspect of human behaviour in organisation goes a long way in improving human. behaviour in the organisation to realise its objectives. Davis makes a difference between human relations and organisational behaviour and observes that 'organisational behaviour is an academic discipline concerned with understanding and describing human behaviour in an organisational environment.

0B and Human Relations A comparison of OB and human relations shows that sometimes both are used synonymously, while at other times, a distinction is made between the two. Human relations broadly applies to the interaction and co-operation of people in groups. This can happen to any aspect of human activity-organisational or non-organisational. Thus, human relations can be applied in a wider context, either in organisational setting or non-organisational context. When human relations is used in the organisational context, particularly in business and industrial organisations, the term has quite a different connotation for persons in managerial positions. In this context, it means the integration of people into a work situation which motivates them to work together effectively. The basic implication of motivating human beings in the organisation is that managers are no longer pushing or driving forces but their role is to help It seeks to shed light on the whole complex human factor in organisations by identifying causes and effects of that behaviour. Human relations goes one step further and

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR applies behavioural knowledge in operating organisations to build human co-operation toward organisational ends. It is action-oriented and goal-directed. While organisational behaviour seeks to gain understanding, human relations seeks to use it in operational situations. The difference in emphasis between the two terms is similar to the difference between a pathologist and a physician. The pathologist seeks to understand certain human ills,and the physician uses that knowledge to achieve result.

0B and Organisation Theory OB and organisation theory are also used interchangeably. However, some differences can be made between the two. Organisation theory may be defined as the study of structure, functioning, and performance of organisations and the behaviour of individuals and groups within them. If this definition of organisation theory is compared with that of OB, the differences between the two can be identified on two counts. First, organisation theory is macro analysis of organisation, that is how the organisation structure is designed to integrate people with organisation. OB, on the other hand, deals with micro aspect ofthe organisation, that is, individual and group behaviour in the organisation. Second, organisation theory is descriptive and predictive about a particular state of affair in the organisation: organisational behaviour provides ways for influencing human behaviour in certain directions on the basis of such description and prediction. Davis states that "from administrative point of view, organisational behaviour seeks to improve the people-organisation relationship in such a way that people are motivated to develop teamwork that effectively fulfils their needs and achieves organisational objective".

What is meant by organisational theory? Point some traditional issues in it [or] Bring out the importance of organisation theory. Meaning: The word ‘theory’ is derived from the Greek word ‘qewpix’ meaning ‘theoria’. It means looking at, viewing or contemplation. Thus, theory means a systematic grouping of interrelated happening having relationships between two or more dependent and independent variables. Definition: According to Tyson and Jackson “ Organisation theory is like a guide for decisions, a set of explanations and statements, based on research and experience, which describe different kinds of working relationships and their consequences”. Thus, it is the study of structure, functioning, and performance of organisations and behaviour of individuals working therein. In brief, organisational theory prescribes how best to organise people and tasks to effectively accomplish organisational goals. Importance: Organizations are a major part in every body’s environment. Organisations are interwoven in the human life. We are born in organisations and spend much of our lives

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working for organisations. Everywhere there are organisations and we are invaded by organisations different quarters. Organisational theory helps us in appreciating and understanding of what is happening in organisation.

The importance is as follows. 1. Organisations are very complex entities and organisational theory helps in reducing this complexity by providing a useful set of concepts and models. 2. Organisational theory helps in exploring analyzing and explaining what is happening in the organisations. Because of it, managers can take the decisions with much more certainty. 3. Organisational theory helps in designing and understanding the organisational structure.

Discuss the important elements of classical organisation theory (Or) What are the chief characteristics of classical theory (Or) Discuss the evolution of classical theory of organization. (Or) What is meant by classical organisational theory? The term ‘classical’ means something traditionally accepted or long th

established. The evolution of organisation theory is traced back to the second half of the 19

century when industry and urbanization started expanding considerably. The systematic study of organisations begins with the classical organisational theory. The need of theory was realized to solve the problems caused by the development of large-scale organisations and the mass product techniques, which were quite different from the traditional techniques. The classical writers considered the organisation as a machine and man as a component of it. Human aspect was totally ignored. They considered the man as economic man motivated by economic rewards, who works for the achievement of common goals. They emphasized on internal factors and ignored external environmental factors to promote efficiency.

Characteristics and Assumptions of classical theory: 1. Workers are economic men and may be motivated by economic rewards. 2. Emphasis on detecting of errors and their correction. 3. The theory emphasizes on centralized organisation. 4. Man is homogeneous and unmodifiable. 5. The relationship between management and workers was established through scalar chain. 6. Managers are rational, kind hearted, intelligent and qualified. 7. Both management and workers are rational and both should work for mutuality of interests. 8. Organisation is a machine and the workers are its components.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Bring out the criticisms of classical theory (or) “The traditional theory of organisation suffers from a narrow approach towards specialization and a narrow definition of the efficiency criterion” – Discuss. The neo classical theorists on the following grounds have criticized the theory. 1. Criticisms based on assumptions Certain assumptions of classical theory are stated unrealistic. They are: i Close system assumption: The theory assumes that the organisation is not affected by the environment and also does not affect it. It is a closed house that once created would function smoothly. ii Static View of organisation: It assumes that organisation is static and not dynamic to adopt the changes occurring in the environment. The assumption is not realistic. iii Unrealistic assumption about human behaviour: The theory assumes that the human behaviour is too simple and ignored all complexities of human behaviour. iv Economic rewards are main motivators: Theory assumes man as an economic man who is motivated only by economic rewards. Other motivational considerations have been ignored.

2. Criticisms based on principles: Certain principles of classical theory were also criticized. i) Lack if empirical verifiability: The classical principles are not based on empirical researches. They are based on experience. ii) Lack of universality: Principles of classical theory are not universally applicable i.e. to all and organisations, to all levels of one organisation, and to all functions of the organisation as claimed by the theorists.

3. Excessive reliance on the strength of key pillars: i) Division of labour: Division of labour created many problems such as depersonalization, interdependence of individuals and organisations. No criteria for grouping the activities are given. ii) Scalar and functional process: It raises the problem of delegation of authority i.e., authority will be delegated to those who have capacity and capability. But it cannot be measured and rather it will not solve all problems. Problems will be solved through satisfying the requirements of people. iii) Structure: The criticism is that human behaviour disrupts the structure. Line and staff conflicts are very common. Moreover, things do not sail smoothly as desired otherwise there would be no need of control agency. iv) Span of control: Narrow span of control does not favour the present organisation.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR 4. Neglect of human factor: The theory neglects many environmental factors such as formation of informal groups and their leaders, emotions and sentiments of people at work, etc. 5. Little scope for integration: Theory provides no integration of people with decision makes. Decision makers are superiors and people at lower levels are not consulted.

Explain Organizational Behaviour. “Organisation behaviour is concerned with the understanding, predicting and management of human behaviour in organisation” - Fred Luthans. There are many definitions about organizational behaviour; three features should be emphasized in any definition. 1. Organizational behaviour is the study of human behaviour; 2. The study is about behaviour in organisation; and 3. Knowledge about human behaviour would be useful in improving an organization’s effectiveness.

OB has emerged as a distinct field of study. It is a distinct area of expertise with a common body of knowledge. OB is also an applied field. It applies the knowledge gained about individuals, group, and the effect of structure on behaviour in order to make organisations work more effectively.

Write about principles of scientific management. (Or) Bring about Taylor contributes to the scientific management? Taylor’s scientific management: Taylor published his views on scientific management in 1911. He proposed four principles of scientific management. 1. The replacement of rule-of-thumb methods for determining each element of a worker’s job with scientific determination. 2. The Scientific selections and training of workers. 3. The Co-operation of management and labour to accomplish work objectives in accordance with the scientific method and 4. A more equal division of responsibility between management and workers, with the former doing the planning and supervising and the latter doing the execution.

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What are the techniques of scientific management? (Or) Write about the mechanism of the Taylor’s new approach. Following are the important techniques which, taken together constituted the mechanism of the Taylor’s new approach: 1. Time study to analyses and measure the time taken in doing the various elements of a job, and to set standards for both work and time for a day. 2. Motion study to eliminate wasteful motions and decide on the best way of doing the job. 3. Standardization of tools, equipments and machinery and working conditions. 4. Differential piece rate of wages for efficient and inefficient workers. 5. Functional foremanship involving different specialist for men supervising machine, speed, group work, repairs etc. 6. Fatigue study to study how much work a worker can perform with good health and efficiency. 7. Routing, Scheduling, Follow up are the elements of systematic task planning The biggest strength of the Taylor’s scientific management was conversation and proper use of every once of workers’ energy. His time and motion techniques are important tools to organize the task in the ‘one best way’ in which it should be done. This forms a part of what today we call the issue of work design. Limitation: 1. One of its shortcomings is assuming workers inherently lazy and thus, requiring strict supervision and exercise of authority by managers. 2. It only believes monetary rewards as the best motivations. 3. No importance is attached to social and psychological aspects to work environment State the Fayol’s contribution of management? Or What are the principles of Management? Fayol’s administrative management: Henry Fayol, director of a coal mining company in France, made a systematic analysis of the process of management. His approach to the study of management is also known as the Process or Functional Approach. In Fayol’s view, every business organisation consists of six inter-dependent operations viz., technical, commercial, financial, security, accounting and administrative or managerial operations. According to him, management involves application of certain skills, which can be acquired by persons on the basis of systematic instructions and training. He emphasizes

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that once such skills are acquired, these could be applied to all types of institutions including church, schools, politics, industrial organisations and so on. Fayol proposed fourteen principles of management, which he argued, were universally applicable. They are as follows. 1. Division of work: The object of this principle is to derive the benefits from the principles of specialization. It believes that specialization increases output by making employees more efficient. 2. Authority: Managers must be able to give orders. Authority gives them this right. Along with authority, however, goes responsibility. Wherever authority is exercised, responsibility arises. 3. Discipline: Employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the organisation. Good discipline is the result of effective leadership a clear understanding between management and workers regarding the organization’s rules and the judicious use of penalties for infractions of the rules. 4. Unity of command: Every employee should receive orders from only one superior. 5. Unity of direction: Each group of organisation activities that have the same objective should be directed by one manager using one plan. 6. Subordination of individual interest to the general interest: The interests of any one employee or group of employees should not take precedence over the interests of the organisation as a whole. 7. Remuneration:

Workers must be paid a fair wage for their services.

8. Centralization: This term refers to the degree to which subordinates are involved in decision-making. Whether decision-making is centralized or decentralized is a question of proper proportion. The task is to find the optimum degree of centralization for each situation. 9. Scalar chain: The line of authority from top management to the lowest ranks represents the scalar chain. Communications should follow this chain. However, if following the chain creates delays, cross-communications can be allowed, if agreed to by all parties and superiors are kept informed. 10. Order: People and Materials should be in the right place at the right time. 11. Equity: Managers should be kind and fair to their subordinates.

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12. Stability of tenure of personnel: High employee turnover is inefficient. Management should provide orderly personnel planning and ensure that replacements are available to fill vacancies. 13. Initiative: Employees who are allowed to originate, carry out plans, will exert high levels of effort. 14. Espirit de corps: Promoting team spirit will build harmony and unity within the organisation.

Neo-classical theory Write about the neo-classical theory. (Or) The neo classical theory is human oriented. Discuss. (Or) State the characteristics of neoclassical theory (Or) What are the major elements of neoclassical theory? On what lines it is superior to classical theory? Neo-classical theory emphasizes on the human relations and behavioural movement. It is built on the base of classical theory. Classical theory was more concerned with the job while neoclassical theory is more concerned with the human beings working in the organisation. This theory advocated the importance of human values in business. The main points under this approach are: 1. The business organisation is not just a techno-economic system. Basically, it is the social system. 2. The employees cannot only be motivated by the financial incentives but also by social and psychological want fulfillment. Money is less important than the emotional factors in determining production efficiency. 3. Democratic rather than autocratic leadership style to deal with the employees. 4. Effective two-way communication to establish common flow of understanding in any organisation. Participation is the essence of neoclassical school. 5. Management must take great interest in employee development of worker’s satisfaction as there is a very close connection between morale and productively. 6. Informal groups and informal organisation must be recognized. 7. Job Structure, job design should receive the secondary importance.

ELEMENTS: 1. THE MAN: The classical theory ignored the difference among individuals. But, the neoclassical theory emphasized that individual differences must be recognized. Each person is unique and each

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR has different feelings, perceptions and attitudes. The theory means that for motivating individuals, the needs of different individuals are to be identified and the measures are to be taken to motivate them accordingly. 2. WORK GROUPS: An individual in a group develops social wants e.g. a desire to belong, to be accepted by and stand well in his work groups. The existence of informal organisation is natural. It must be integrated with formal organisation. The informal communication i.e. grape vine is often very speedy and often accurate. Classical theory ignored the importance of informal organisation. Human relation theory emphasized its importance. 3. PARTICIPATION: Neo-classical theorists advocated workers participation in management. Allowing workers to participate in decision-making, primarily to increase productivity was a new form of supervision. Neoclassical theory focuses its attention on the worker and it is employee oriented.

Modern organizational theory: What is modern organizational theory? Discuss the system approach in detail. (Or) Write about the systems approach to organisational theory? Explain the salient features of this approach? (Or) Elaborate the general systems theory. (Or) What do you mean by system? Distinguish between open system & closed system? Modern organisation theory is basically the combination of classical and neoclassical principles. It is a sophisticated and scientific way of explaining a complex organisation. The Theory is centered on the concept of system. The theory is very systematic and highly constructive Systems approach: Basically systems approach is a technique for the application of scientific approach to the complex problems, which concentrates on the analysis, and design of the whole as district from components. Systems approach basically is a problem solving process. A word system is derived from Greek word meaning to bring together or to combine. A system is a group of inter-related parts, which function together to achieve a goal. Parts of system: a) Every system is a goal oriented and its must have a purpose of objective to be attained. The objective provides the basis for evaluating functions performed within the system. b)

System is a necessary arrangement of components.

c) Inputs of material, information are allotted for processing as per plan. So that the outputs can achieve the objective of the system i.e productively and satisfaction.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Features: 1. Systems consists of inter-related and inter- dependent parts. 2. The systems approach to management brings out the complexity of a real life management problem much more sharply than any other approach. 3. The systems approach has been utilized in studying the function of complex organisations and has been utilized as the base for new kinds of organisation like the project management organisation. Types of systems: Systems are of two types: (a) Open system is the system, which continuously interacts with the environment and also adopts the changes that are taking place in the environment. All living human beings and present day organisations constitute the open system. (b) Close system is one, which does not interact with the external system. It is a dead system. Environment can affect the system but the system does not respond to it.

Systems approach applied to an organisation: An organisation is an open adaptive system. The features of the organisation as an open adaptive system are as follows: (a) It is sub-system of its grader environment. (b) It is a goal-oriented system. (c) It is a technical system. (d) It is a system where people work together on interrelated activities i.e. it is a structural system. (e) It is co-ordinate by the managerial system.

APPRAISAL OR CRITICISM: 1. Systems view provides an over all view which is more in line with reality of the organisational life. 2. The total systems concept is an approach that visualizes the business organisation as a single entity composed of various interrelated and interdependent sub-systems working together to provide timely and accurate information for management decision making which leads to the optimization of over all enterprise resources.

CONTINGENCY APPROACH Explain the contingency approach to modern organisation theory (or) Critically evaluate the contingency approach to the theory of organisation. The best approach to manage organisations is contingency approach or situational approach. Contingency approach emphasizes that there is no universal approach or

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR principle to be applied in all situations. It focuses attention on specific situational factors that influence the appropriateness of one managerial strategy over another. Features of contingency approach: (a) Management action is dependent upon certain active outside the system or sub-system as the case may be. (b) Organisational system should be based on the behavior of action outside the system so that organisation should be integrated with the environment. (c) Because of the specific organisational environment relationship, no action can be universal. It varies from situation to situation. The contingency approach can be expressed as IF-THEN relationship, if denotes the independent variable – environment when, then stands for the dependent variable i.e. Management action. ADVANTAGES: 1. It widens their horizons beyond the theory of management, etc, concepts, principles, techniques and methods. 2. It helps them to broad base their approach from more technique orientation to problem situation orientation. 3. It leads them to be sensitive, alert and adaptive to situation behavioral variables, while tailoring their approaches and styles. 4. It guides them to adopt open system viewpoints.

EXPLAIN THE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR? Individual differences Each person in the world is individually different. Each individual is different from others in several ways. Whether it is intelligence, physique, personality in any way one can find striking differences. From the date of birth, each person is unique and individual experiences after birth make people even more different. OB begins with the individual. Only a person can take the responsibility and make more decisions; a group by nature cannot do so. A Whole person When an individual is appointed, his\her skill is not hired, his\her social background likes and dislikes, pride and prejudices are also hired. A person’s family life cannot be separated from factory life. They not only strive hard to develop a better employee out of a worker, but also a better person in terms of growth and fulfillment. Caused Behaviour The Behaviour is directed towards some end that the employee believes, rightly or wrongly, is in his best interest. Thus, when the worker comes late to his work, pelts stones at

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR a running bus, or abuses the supervisor, there is a cause behind. The manager must have the basic principle to solve the problem of late coming or stone pelting. Human dignity This concept is of a different order from the other three because it is more an ethical philosophy than a scientific conclusion. It conforms that people are to be treated differently from other factors of production because they are of a higher order in the universe. It recognizes human dignity because people are of higher order; they wanted to be treated with respect and dignity and should be treated this way. Every job, however simple, entitles the people who do it to proper respect and recognition of their unique aspirations and abilities Organization are social system From sociology we learn that organizations are social systems; consequently, activities therein are governed by social laws as well as psychological laws. Just as people have psychological needs, they also have social roles and status. Mutuality of interest Mutual interest is represented by the statement that “organizations need people and people need organization�. Organisations have a human purpose. They are formed and maintained on the basis of some mutuality of interest among their participants. People see organizations as means to help them reach their goals, while at the same time organizations need people to help reach organizational objectives. Holistic concept When the six fundamental concepts of OB are placed together, a holistic concept emerges. This concept interprets people organization relationship in terms of whole group, whole person, whole organization and social system.

DISCIPLINES CONTRIBUTING TO ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR EXPLAIN THE CONTRIBUTING DISCIPLINES OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR? Organizational Behaviour is an applied behavioural science. It has drawn heavily from a number of applied behavioural disciplines such as psychology, sociology and anthropology. A brief description of each is in order. Psychology: Psychology is understood as the science of behaviour. It is generally includes animals as well as human behaviour. Animals like rats and monkeys are used for psychological experimentation and the conclusions drawn from such experiments. Psychology is concerned with individual behaviour. It has greatly contributed to the intra-individual dynamics of human

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR behaviour. In other words, intra-personal aspects of organizational behaviour like motivation, personality, perception, attitude, opinion, learning etc. Psychologists themselves are becoming increasingly important these days. The number of professional psychologists has also been growing. They hold important positions in many fields. Sociology If psychology is the study of individual behaviour, sociology addresses itself to the study of group behaviour. It studies the behaviour of people in relation to their fellow human beings. Sociologists have enriched organizational behaviour through their contribution to the study of inter-personal dynamics like leadership, group dynamics, communication, and formation of groups and the like. Anthropology Anthropology is understood as the study of man and his works. In particular anthropologists study culture. Culture has significant influence on human behaviour. It dictates what people learn and how they behave. Some organizations, Tata for example, take employee welfare and social responsibility as their main goals. Culture of organization will have an influence on employee. The above said are the contributing disciplines of organizational behaviour.

EXPLAIN THE APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR? Four approaches are human resources approach, contingency approach, productivity approach, and systems approach. These are examined in the following paragraphs. Human resources approach This approach recognizes the fact that people are the central resource in any organization and they should be developed towards higher level of competency, creativity and fulfillment. People thus developed will contribute to the success of any organizations. The human resource approach is also called as the supportive approach in the sense that the manager’s role changes from control of employees to active support of their growth and performance. The supportive approach contrasts with the traditional management approach. In the traditional approach managers decided what employees should do and closely monitored their performance to ensure the task accomplishment. In human resource approach the role of manager’s changes. Contingency approach The contingency approach is based on the premise that methods or behaviours, which work effectively in one situation, fail in another. OD programmes, For example, may work brilliantly in one situation but fail miserably in another situation. Results differ because situations differ.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR The manager’s task, therefore, is to identity, which method will suitable in a particular situation, under particular circumstances, and at a particular time, best contributes to the attainment of organization’s goals. Productivity approach Productivity, which is the ratio of output to input, is a measure of an organization’s effectiveness. It also reveals manager’s efficiency in optimizing resource utilization. The higher the numerical value of this ratio, the greater the efficiency. Productivity is generally measured in terms of economic inputs and outputs, but human and social inputs and outputs also are important. If better organizational behaviour can improve job satisfaction, a human output or benefit occurs. Systems approach Systems approach to OB views the organization as a united, purposeful system composed of interrelated parts. This approach gives managers a way of looking at the organization as a whole, whole person whole group, and whole social system. Systems approach tells us that the activity of any segment of an organization affects, in varying degrees, the activity of every other segment. Managers, however, tend to have larger responsibility, because they are the ones who make majority of the decisions affecting human issues, and most of their daily activities are people- oriented. Manager’s help to build an organization culture in which talents are utilized and further developed, people are motivated, teams become productive, organizations achieve their goals and society reaps the reward.

MODELS OF OB Organisational Behaviour Models: Explain the various Models of Organisational Behaviour: Four OB models have been developed by experts. These are: 1,Autocratic 2, Custodial 3, Supportive and 4,Collegial Thus understand the autocratic model, the employees are made to work like machines. The use of such an approach may not always give the manager the desired result. In long run, the employees may develop frustration and may be prone to stress conditions. There physical or mental health may get affected. The organization may also begin to face such behavioural problems as a high rate of absenteeism, low morale, high rate of labour turnover and so on.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

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Custodial Model: If under the autocratic model the employee has to depend on his boss all the time, Under the custodial model he has to depend on the organization. The organization takes care of all the needs of the employees. This is done by the introduction of a number of welfare measures like rent free accommodation, subsidized food, free education for the children and soon. Under the custodial approach the employee is happy as the organization satisfies his needs. But there is no guarantee that his performance level be high. ‘A happy and satisfied employee need not be a productive employee’.

Custodial

Autocratic

Models of Organizational Behaviour

Supportive

Collegial

Supportive Model: In this case the manager supports his subordinates in the performance of their tasks. The focus here is on managerial leadership rather than on the exercise of authority of fulfillment of the subordinates needs. The manager does not make unilateral decisions but involves his subordinates in the decision-making process. The supportive model is suitable in those workplace where the employees are self-motivated. It has greater relevance personnel rather than the operative level workers. Collegial Model: In the collegial model the manager participates in the process of task performance by the subordinates. In other word, the manager and the subordinates work as a team. There is better interaction among the team members. Such an approach is suitable where every subordinate is able to be self- disciplined. A comparison between the four OB models may be tabulated as follow:

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

22

Autocratic

Custodial

Supportive

Collegial

Basic difference

Authoritative

Organisation

The employee

The employee

in approach.

nature of the

takes care of the

is assisted by

and the

management

needs of

the manager.

manager work as a team.

employees. Position of the

Total

Safe and

Can get help

Can secure the

subordinate

dependence on

secured.

from the

participation of

superior.

the superior in

the manager.

work. Needs of

Subsistence

Security

Recognition

Self-Fulfilment

Minimum

Passive Co-

Greater scope

Higher

operation

to perform well

performance

employees met. Performance level of subordinates.

level.

EXPLAIN THE THEORIES WHICH ARE USED IN ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR? The model or theory describes all interrelated concepts in a systematic manner. In organizational behaviour, theories and models are used interchangeably. Types of research: Applied and fundamental: Research can either be applied research or fundamental. Research done to generate a body of knowledge about some phenomena of interest to the researcher, it is called fundamental research. It is also known as basic research or pure research. The most university professors are engaged in fundamental research. When a research is conducted to find out solution to a specific real problem, it is called applied research. Finding solutions for why there is a frequent strike in Hindustan Paper Corporation is an example of applied research. Descriptive and analytical: In descriptive research, the researcher can presents a description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. The researcher can present only what has happened or what is happening. On the other hand, in analytical research, the researcher only makes analysis of facts and information already available to make critical evaluation of the material.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Conceptual and empirical In conceptual research, the researcher tries to develop new concept or to reinterpret the existing ones. empirical generally used by the philosophers and thinkers. Research is based on first hand data and facts. Thus, in empirical research, the researcher has to control over variables.

EXPLAIN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MANAGEMENT AND ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR? Inter personal role: Working with and through people. Management is basically concerned with getting things done through the efforts of other people. The study of OB helps us to understand ourselves and others in better way. This helps greatly in improving our inter personal relations in the organization. Inter personal relations such as group dynamics; inter group conflict, communication and leadership. A universal process: Management involves the co-ordination of human and material resources towards the accomplishment of organizational objectives. Basically, it is a mental work, concerns with thinking, feeling and intuiting. Organizational behaviour helps us to understand the people. And it helps the people to use in a better way. Through proper OB only co-ordination is possible. OB is a mental work for the managers. Contributing disciplines: Management and organizational behaviour have drawn knowledge and concepts from several disciplines such as sociology, psychology, anthropology, economics, political science, history etc. Prediction: Management predicts on the basis of knowledge of relationship between variables. Management is merely a guess based on subjective understanding of realities. Organizational behaviour is also predicts the human working in the organization. Managers have to predict the future course of action and control evil consequences. Human resource: Management is concerned with conversion of diverse resources- mainly people. Management is concerned with how efficiently and effectively it has used its human and physical resources.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR This recognizes the fact that people are the central resources in any organization and that they should develop towards higher level of competency, creativity etc. Whole person The management should be viewed as a total system. All the sub-systems are to be organized in such a way so as to ensure the efficient functioning of the system as a whole. Organizational behaviour is also considered as a whole person. When an individual is appointed, his/her skill is not hired, his/her social background- likes and dislikes, pride and prejudices are also hired. Both are purposeful: Management is a way to achieve certain end results, without end results it would be of directionless. All activities of management are goal oriented. In organizational behaviour, if there is a change in structure or technology surely that there must be a purpose behind. Both are human activity: Management is a human activity where human beings plan, implement and control the activities. Managers perform the functions of management Organizational behaviour is the study and application of knowledge about how people act in organization. It is a human tool for human benefit. Organization needs people and people need organization. Hence both are interdependent. Both can be applied in any situation: The basic principles of management are universal. They can be applied more or less in each and every situation. In organizational behaviour there are some theories or models. That can be applied in any situation. If there is any deviation between standard performance and actual performance. The manager may use such models. Skills required: For both management and OB, the following skills are required. Conceptual skills: It is the ability to integrate and co-ordinate the various activities. The manager needs to have the qualities and skills. Human skills: A manager has to get the things done through other people and hence he must have human skills or ability to learn, judge and control the people.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

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Technical skills: Technical skill is to be needed for the lower management. It is an ability to use a special proficiency or expertise in particular field.

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR OF INDIVIDUALS

INTER GROUP BEHAVIOUR INTER PERSONAL BEHAVIOUR

What do you mean by group behaviour? What is the nature of INTER GROUP BEHAVIOUR? Group Behaviour: Groups are composed of individuals. Hence group behaviour means behaviour of its members. In practice, each member of the group affects the behaviour of thither member and, in term, is also affected by them. The nature and patterns of reinforcement the members receive through their interaction with one another is also determined by the group itself. This is because the behaviour of individual members in a group becomes different than their behaviour outside the group situation. Therefore, while studying group behaviour, the factors that should be understood are group norms, group cohesion, group role, group conflict, and group decision- making. What is the nature of Inter group behaviour? Or Explain INTER PERSONAL BEHAVIOUR? Inter group behaviour: Organisation is composed of individuals and groups. Organisation being a system, both individuals and groups cannot remain independent but dependent on each other.

For example, one group may depend on other for raw materials, information

and other assistance. The nature of interdependence among different groups can be classified into the following four categories. i) Pooled Interdependence: When the groups belonging to the same parent organisation depend on each other, it is called ‘pooled interdependence’. Such groups have limited interaction amount them. Manufacturing

divisions

producing

independent

products

are

examples

of

pooled

interdependence. ii) Sequential interdependence:

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Group activities occurring in a sequential manner create sequential interdependence. For example, A group’s activities or operations precede and act as pre requisite for B group’s operations. Assembly line departments represent sequential interdependence. Reciprocal interdependence: when group relies on the other to perform its own job effectively, it is called reciprocal interdependence’. Relationship between union and management is and example of reciprocal interdependence. iv) Team interdependence: The reciprocal interdependence gets multiplied with interaction among multiple groups. The example of multiple groups may bb various departments such as sales, advertising, and market research in marketing division. The nature and degree of interdependence among groups will influence the degree and quality of inter-group behaviors. Accordingly groups tend to have the following two types of interactions. Types of interactions. i) Inter group openness and cooperation: Groups being parts on and organisational system. Each group cooperates with other to achieve organsiational objectives. Factors like super ordinate goals, lateral communication, and suitable structural arrangement help establish co-operation amount various groups. ii) Inter group closure and competition: Intergroup relations become as competitive in the following situations: a) One group sees other group, as enemy with decrease in interaction and communication, hostility of one group towards others tend to increase. b) With interacting with each other, the groups try to defend own viewpoints and finding faults with the other. Interpersonal behaviour: Interpersonal behaviour is concerned with interaction of two persons at a time. In this interaction, the individual behaves in a particular way, which may be either cooperative or conflicting. State the types of Interpersonal Behaviour? Interpersonal cooperative Behaviour: When the interaction between two persons is mutually gratifying, it is cooperative behaviour. In this case, both persons are engaged in complementary transactions. Out of this interaction, both persons get satisfied over the objective of mutual interaction. Conditions necessary for cooperative interpersonal behaviour are mutual trust and respect, concern for each other’s needs, and interaction with complementary ego states. Ion organisational setting, such behaviour are functional and lead to the achievement of organsiational objective providing satisfaction to the individuals at the same time.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Interpersonal conflicting Behaviour: Out of interpersonal interaction, it is not necessary that only cooperative behaviour will result. Because of several reasons like personality differences, different value systems, interest conflict role, ambiguity etc. interpersonal conflict may arise in the organsiation. This type of behaviour may not be functional for the organisation. Therefore, the managers should take effective steps to overcome such behaviours.

ORGANISATIONAL THEORIES OR THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION What is meant by organisational theory? Point some traditional issues in it [or] Bring out the importance of organisation theory. Meaning: The word ‘theory’ is derived from the Greek word ‘qewpix’ meaning ‘theoria’. It means looking at, viewing or contemplation. Thus, theory means a systematic grouping of interrelated happening having relationships between two or more dependent and independent variables. Definition: According to Tyson and Jackson “ Organisation theory is like a guide for decisions, a set of explanations and statements, based on research and experience, which describe different kinds of working relationships and their consequences”. Thus, it is the study of structure, functioning, and performance of organisations and behaviour of individuals working therein. In brief, organisational theory prescribes how best to organise people and tasks to effectively accomplish organisational goals. Importance: Organisations are a major part in every body’s environment. Organisations are interwoven in the human life. We are born in organisations and spend much of our lives working for organisations. Everywhere there are organisations and we are invaded by organisations different quarters. Organisational theory helps us in appreciating and understanding of what is happening in organisation. The importance is as follows. 1. Organisations are very complex entities and organisational theory helps in reducing this complexity by providing a useful set of concepts and models. 2. Organisational theory helps in exploring analyzing and explaining what is happening in the organisations. Because of it, managers can take the decisions with much more certainty. 3.Organisational theory helps in designing and understanding the organisational structure.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

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What is meant by classical organisational theory? The term ‘classical’ means something traditionally accepted or long established. The th

evolution of organisation theory is traced back to the second half of the 19 century when industry and urbanization started expanding considerably. The systematic study of organisations begins with the classical organisational theory. The need of theory was realized to solve the problems caused by the development of large-scale organisations and the mass product techniques, which were quite different from the traditional techniques. The classical writers considered the organisation as a machine and man as a component of it. Human aspect was totally ignored. They considered the man as economic man motivated by economic rewards, who works for the achievement of common goals. They emphasized on internal factors and ignored external environmental factors to promote efficiency. Characteristics and Assumptions of classical theory: The characteristics and assumptions of classical theory are: 1. Workers are economic men and may be motivated by economic rewards. 2. Emphasis on detecting of errors and their correction. 3. The theory emphasizes on centralized organisation. 4. Man is homogeneous and unmodifiable. 5. The relationship between management and workers was established through scalar chain. 6. Managers are rational, kind hearted, intelligent and qualified. 7. Both management and workers are rational and both should work for mutuality of interests. 8. Organisation is a machine and the workers are its components.

Taylor’s scientific management: Frederick Winslow Taylor, who was a mechanical engineer, introduced an alternative to the prevailing system of management by unitizations and incentives based on his work experiences in Miolvale and Bethlehem Steel Companies In Pennsylvania. After years of conducting experiments with workers output was believed that workers output was only about one-third of what was possible. He set out to correct the situation by applying the scientific method. To jobs to replace methods based on trial & error and rule of thumb. Taylor published his views on scientific management in 1911. He proposed four principles of scientific management. HENDRI FAYOL’S CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS THE MANAGEMENT

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Fayol provides Current Management thought. The following fourteen principles create the successful organization. This is also calling it as principle of management, Fayol thoughts, Fayol contribution. I. Division of work: The division of work or specialization of functions can be applied in all the spheres of activity; technical as well as managerial. Specialization belongs to natural order. The work is divided to all. It refers to separation of various management functions like planning, directing, coordinating, staffing, controlling etc., and entrusting them to different experts specializing in related fields. It would to greater efficiency and systematic working of enterprise. II. Authority and responsibility: Both are related authority as a continuation of official and personal factor. Official authority is derived from the manager’s position and personal authority is derived from personal quality such as intelligence, experience, moral worth, past services etc. Responsibility arises out of assignment of activity. In order to discharge the responsibility properly, there should be parity of authority and responsibility. Authority

:

Responsibility :

“ is the right to give the orders and the power to extract obedience”. “ obligation to perform the work in the manner desired and directed

by the superior authorities”. III. Discipline: Discipline is the condition precedent for the smooth functioning of every enterprise. All the personnel serving in an organisation should be disciplined. Discipline is obedience, application, energy, behaviour and outward mark of respect shown by employees. Prerequisites for discipline: ~ a. Good supervisors at all level b. Clean and fair agreements c.

Judicious application of penalties or sanctions.

IV. Unity of command: Means that a person should get orders and instructions from only one supervisor. One man – one head. The principle means that each employee must receive orders from and be responsible only to one supervisor. No man can serve best under two masters. V. Unity of direction: The objective, aim and goal of all the departments are seem to be the same line. Better coordination among various activities to be undertaken by any organisation. Unity of direction means that each group of activities having the same objectives must have one head ands one plan. In other words, there should be only one plan for action or schedule of

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Programme for each category of work and it is to be executed under the over all supervision and control of a single authority. VI. Subordination of individual to general interest: Individual interest to common interest must prevail over individual interest, but some factors like ambition, laziness, weakness, and others tend to reduce the importance of general interest. This principle says that the elimination of the personal element form the work of the organization. HENDRI FAYOL says that, the interest of one employee or group of employees should not prevail over that of the concern" i.e. the common interest must prevail over individual interest. VII. Remuneration of personnel: Fair and satisfactory. The salary method should be refreshed. First the manager has to identify the need and satisfaction level of a worker. Accordingly we have to decide the salary and wages. The given salary satisfies the basic need of a worker. At most good action should take to find out the satisfaction level. Remuneration and methods of wage payment fair and afford maximum satisfaction both to the employees and to the worker. 8. Centralization: Every thing, which goes to increase the importance of the subordinates’ role, is decentralization and every thing, which goes to reduce it, is decentralization. In this context, the principle refers to the extent to which authority is delegated and the extent to which it is retained in the hands of higher management. The degree of centralization depends upon the circumstances of each case. 9. Scalar chain: The chain of superiors or the line of authority from the highest executive to the lowest one for the purpose of communication. The scalar chain refers to the chain of superiors or the line of authority from the highest executive to the lower one for the purpose of communication. If the chain is clear from the top to the bottom, the proper functioning of the organization 10. Order: “A Place for every thing and something in its place and social order demands the engagement of the right man in the right place”. This principle relates to the arrangement of things and person. There should be a place for every thing and for every person. The right man must be in the right place and right thing in the right place. 11. Equity: Results from the combination of kindliness and justice. Equity requires good sense, experience, and good nature with a view to securing devotion and loyalty from employees. Equity means fair dealings, accommodative, or cooperative attitude among the personnel in the undertaking. It is greater than justice as it is a combination of kindness and justice. It

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR ensures a cordial relationship between the management and the employees, and elicits loyalty and devotion from them. 12. Stability of tenure of personnel: Experience and stable personnel strength. Decreased employees turn over. Every employee must have security f job tenure. An employee who feels insecure about his opposition or who has fear of losing his job will not be motivated to turn out better work. The management must generate a feeling of security in the minds of the employees. This will develop a sense of attachment towards the undertaking. 13. Initiative: Motivation, freedom to propose a plan and to execute it is what is known as initiative that increases the zeal and energy on the part of human beings. Initiative means and includes the freedom and capacity to think out original plans and execute them with independent discretion. The management must turn it subordinates to exercise initiative. This will create a greater sense of satisfaction in the minds of the employees. 14. Espirit – de- crops: The principle denotes the well-known rule that “union is strength ”. – FAYOL says that to maintain proper espirit de crops in the organization, the manager should not resort to the policy of divide and rule and the abuse of written communication. Unity of command– spirit, teamwork, avoids politics in the organization. Explain Max Weber’s ideal bureaucracy? Or What are the characteristics of Max Weber’s ideal bureaucracy? Bring out its criticisms? Max Weber, the German Sociologist, is regarded as the father of the concept of bureaucracy. Based on sound reasons, Weber developed a structural model, which he called ‘ideal type’ and argued that it was the most efficient means for achieving organisational ends. According to him, an ideal structure of bureaucracy should have the following characteristics in it: 1.Specialization & division of labour 2.Hierachical positions 3.A system of abstract rules 4.Impersonal relationship Critisisms of bureaucrcy: 1.Bureaucracy does not adequately allow for personal growth and development of make personalities. 2.It develops conformity and groups think.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR 3.It does not take account the informal organisation and the emergent and unanticulated problems. 4.Its system of control and authority is outdated. 5.It does not possess adequate means for dissolving differences and conflicts between rank & most particularly between functional groups. 6.Communication and innovative ideas are thwarted or distorted as a result of hierarchical divisions. 7.It modifies personality structure in such a way that the person in a bureaucracy becomes the dull, guy, conditioned, organisational man. The NEO CLASSICAL THEORY is human oriented. Discuss. OR State the characteristics of neoclassical theory (OR) what are the major elements of neoclassical theory? On what lines it is superior to classical theory? Neo-classical theory emphasizes on the human relations and behavioural movement. It is built on the base of classical theory. Classical theory was more concerned with the job while neoclassical theory is more concerned with the human beings working in the organisation. This theory advocated the importance of human values in business. The main points under this approach are: 1. The business organisation is not just a techno-economic system. Basically, it is the social system. 2. The employees cannot only be motivated by the financial incentives but also by social & psychological want fulfillment. Money is less important than the emotional factors in determining production efficiency. 3. Democratic rather than autocratic leadership style to deal with the employees. 4. Effective two-way communication to establish common flow of understanding in any organisation. Participation is the essence of neoclassical school. 5. Management must take great interest in employee development of worker’s satisfaction as there is a very close connection between morale and productively. 6. Informal groups and informal organisation must be recognized. 7. Job Structure, job design should receive the secondary importance.

ELEMENTS OF NEO-CLASSICAL SCHOOL: There are three main elements of neo-classical school:

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR 1.THE MAN: The classical theory ignored the difference among individuals out the neoclassical theory emphasized that individual differences must be recognized. Each person is unique and each has different feelings, emotes perceptions and attitudes. The theory calls that for motivating individuals, the needs of different individuals are to be identified and the measures are to be taken to motivate them accordingly. 2.WORK GROUPS: An individual in a group develops social wants e.g. a desire to belong, to be accepted by and stand well in his work groups. The existence of informal organisation is natural. It must be integrated with formal organisation. The informal communication i.e. grape vine is after very speedy and after accurate. Classical theory ignored the importance of informal organisation. Human relationists through out its importance. 3.PARTICIPATION: Neo-classical theorists advocated workers participation in management. Allowing workers to participate in decision-making, primarily to increase productivity was anew form of supervision. Neoclassical theory focuses its attention on the worker and it is employee oriented.

Modern organisational theory-system approach: What is the systems approach to organisational theory? Explain the salient features of this approach? (Or) Elaborate the general systems theory. IS it rally a skeleton of science (or) what do you mean by system? Distinguish between open system & closed system? (Or) What is modern organisational theory? Discuss the system approach in detail. MODERN ORGANISATIONAL THEORY: Modern organisational theory is a sophisticated and scientific way of explaining a complex organisation. The Theory is centered around the concept of system. The theory is very systematic and highly constructive. It is basically the combination of classical & neo-classical principles. It is composite representation of various contributions from different disciplines over 3 decades. The protagonists of these schools are Chester. I Bernard, Mary Parker Follet, Norbert Weiner, Philip selzick, George Hormans, Luduring von Burtalanffy, churchman and his associates Burns and Stalker, Katz and Kahn, Charles perrow and others. Systems approach: Basically systems approach is a technique for the application of scientific approach to the complex problems, which concentrates on the analysis, and design of the whole as district from components. Systems approach basically is a problem solving process. The system concept recognizes the fact that any organisation is a system made up of a member of segments each of which has that parochial goal. Attentions must be paid to the overall effectiveness of the system rather than the effectiveness of the sub-system in isolation from other sub-system. Parts of system:

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR a) Every system is a goal oriented & its must have a purpose of objective to be attained. The objective provides the basis for evaluating functions performed within the system. b)

System is a necessary arrangement of components.

c) Inputs of material, information are allotted for processing as per plan. So that the outputs can achieve the objective of the system i.e productively & satisfaction. Features of systems approach: The major features of the systems approach to the study of management may be summed up as under: 1. A system consists of inter-related and inter- dependent parts. 2. The systems approach to management brings out the complexity of a real life management problem much more sharply than any other approach. 3. The systems approach has been utilized in studying the function of complex organisations & has been utilized as the base for new kinds of organisation like the project management organisation.

Types of systems: Systems are of two types: (c) Open system is the system, which continuously interacts with the environment and also adopts the changes that are taking place in the environment. All living human beings and present day organisations constitute the open system. (d) Close system is one, which does not interact with the external system. It is a dead system environment can affect the system but the system does not respond to it. Systems approach applied to an organisation: An organisation is an open adaptive system. The features of the organisation as an open adaptive system are as follows: (e) It is sub-system of its grader environment. (f) It is a goal-oriented system. (g) It is a technical system. (h) It is a system where people work together on interrelated activities i.e. it is a structural system. (e) It is co-ordinate by the managerial system.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR APPRAISAL: Systems view provides an over all view which is more in line with reality of the organisational life. The total systems concept is an approach that visualizes the business organisation as a single entity composed of various interrelated and interdependent sub-systems working together to provide timely& accurate information for management decision making which leads to the optimization of over all enterprise resources. CONTINGENCY APPROACH Explain the contingency approach to modern organisation theory (or) critically evaluate the contingency approach to the theory of organisation. The best approach to manage organisations is contingency approach or situational approach. Contingency approach emphasizes that there is no universal approach or principle to be applied in all situations. It focuses attention on specific situational factors that influence the appropriateness of one managerial strategy over another. FEATURES: 1. Management action is dependent upon certain active outside the system or subsystem as the case may be. 2. Organisational system should be based on the behavior of action outside the system so that organisation should be integrated with the environment. 3. Because of the specific organisational environment relationship, no action can be universal. It varies from situation to situation. The contingency approach can be expressed as IF-THEN relationship, if denotes the independent variable – environment when then stands for the dependent variable i.e. Management action. The figure below shows the contingent relationship between environmental variables. ADVANTAGES: 1. It widens their horizons beyond the theory of management, ets, concepts, principles, techniques& methods. 2. It helps them to broad base their approach from more technique orientation to problem situation orientation. 3. It leads them to be sensitive alert and adaptive to situation behavioural variables. 4. It guides them to adopt open system viewpoints.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Behavioural

36

contribution

sciences

Psychology

learning,

motivation,

personality,

training,

leadership,

effectiveness, attitude, work design, work stress, individual decision making

Sociology

group conflict,

dynamics, work intergroup

teams, communication,

behaviour,

organisational

power, change,

organization change

Social psychology

behavioural change, attitude change, group processes, group decision making

Anthropology

comparative values, comparative attitudes, cross cultural analysis, organisational culture, organisational environment

Psychology Organizational psychology

Sociology Organizational sociology

Anthropology Anthropology

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Power

History of organization and management

Decision theory

History

Organisation/structure: the study of organization/ structure includes aspects such as formation of organizational structure, culture and change and development.

Political science individuals

Economics groups

Personality, Learning Group Dynamics Perception, Values Group Conflicts Attitudes Leadership Motivation Organizational Power Behavior Politics FOR MORE DETAILS VISIT US ON WWW.IMTSINSTITUTE.COM OR CALL ON +91-9999554621 Structure, Change, Culture And Organizational Development


ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

37

structure Basic Objectives of Organizational Behaviour The basic objectives of OB are follows.

Objectives of Organisational Behaviour

To describe behaviour

To understand behaviour

To influence behaviour

To predict behaviour

To ‘describe’ human behaviour in workplace: The first objective of OB is to describe how people in the workplace behave under different conditions. The manager, should be able to talk about how the employees would react to a change in working hours or a cut in pay. To ‘understand’ behaviour: Understanding behaviour is the next important objective of Ob. The manager should be able to understand why his subordinates behave in a particular manner. Roe Example: An employee, who is eligible for promotion and is denied the same, may not work with enthusiasm. To ‘predict’ behaviour: Making a prediction of the future behaviour of the employees is another objects of OB. If the manager knows beforehand that a change in working hours would be resisted by the employees on certain grounds, he can overcome such resistance by explaining the proposal to the employees well in advance and by getting their consent to it. Any attempt to thrust a certain decision on the employees would certain be resisted by them. To ‘influence’ behaviour: The ultimate objective of OB is to influence positively the employees to attain the organizational goal. The manager should use his positive to induce, persuade and motivate the employees to approach work with a positive attitude.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

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HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

The quotes from george Santayana and oliver w. helmes stated above, tell us why, one should know history. With regard to organizational behaviour, its history will tell us how the subject has evolved, over a period of time, to its present stage. It will help us understand, for instance, how management came to impose rules and regulations on employees, why many employees in organizations do standardized and repetitive tasks on assembly lines and why a number of organizations in recent years have replaced their assembly lines withtem-based work units.

Interestingly, many contemporary managers today have come to appreciate value of history. For example, managers glean insights from Mahabharata, iliad and other great works. And some organizations such as tatas, godrej and salgaocars have corporate historians, others such as coca-cola, openly proclaim their heritage as part of their employee orientation programmes.

Concern for the welfare of workers in management of business enterprises has been in existence since ages. Kautilya’s arthasastra states that there existed th

a sound base for systematic management of human resources as early as the 4 century B.C. itself. The government then, took an active interest in the operation of public and private sector enterprises and provided systematic procedures for regulating employer-employee relationships.

Elsewhere human resource in organizations received management’s attention much earlier. As early as 1800 B.C. itself, ‘minimum wage rate’ and ‘incentive wage plan’ was included in the Babylonian code of hammurabi.

But experts of human behavior have tired to chronicle the growth of the subject th

th

only from the beginning of the 19 century. The early part of the 19 century is significant because it was during this period that the industrial revolution took place that resulted in the total transformation of the then industrial environment.

Platitudes about minimum wage rate, incentive wage plan and sound base for systematic management of human resources apart, there is no gainsaying the facts that life th

for an average employee, prior to the 19 century, was miserable to say the least. Working conditions in factories were brutal and buck breaking. People worked from dawn until duck under intolerable conditions of disease, filth, danger and scarcity of resource s. they had to work this way to survive, so that they had little time to improve job satisfaction.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

The came the industrial revolution which brought about materialism, discipline, monotony, boredom, job displacement, impersonality, work interdependence, and related behavioural phenomena. Nevertheless, the industrial revolution was responsible for planting the seed for potential improvement. Industry created surplus of goods and knowledge that eventually gave workers increased wages, shorter hours, and more work satisfaction. In this new industrial environment Robert Owen, a young welsh factory owner, about the year 1800, was one of the first to emphasize the human needs of employees. He refused to employ young children. He taught his workers cleanliness and temperance and improved their working conditions. Owen could demonstrate in his own fctory that it paid to devote as much attention to’ vital machines’ as to ‘inanimate machines.’ His methods entitled him to be called the ‘ father of personnel management.’ This could hardly be called modern organizational behaviour, but a beginning in that direction was, however made.

In 1835, Andrew ure published his the philosophy of manufactures, in which, he included the human factor as one of the factors of production, besides the mechanical and commercial parts. Believing in the importance of the human factors, ure provided workers with hot tea, medical treatment, and sickness payments.

Nearer home, around this time J.N. tata took a special interest in the welfare of this worker. He installed the first humidifiers and fire sprinklers in his factories. In 1886, he was decades ahead of his time and miles ahead of his competitors. The empress mills experiments showed that not only profits but people mattered to him.

The ideas of Owens, ure and tata were accepted slowly or not at all, and they often deteriorated into a paternalistic, do-good-approach than a genuine recognition of the importance of the people at work.

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

The very mention of scientific management brings Taylor to our memory. He is appropriately called the ‘father of scientific management’ as he converted broad generalization into practical tools. He was also responsible for awakening interest in workers in the 1900s. Taylor advocated the selection of right people for right jobs, training them handsomely. To be sure, Taylor’s goal was technical efficiency, but at least management was awakened to the importance of human resources which was hitherto neglected.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

40

Taylor published his major work principles of scientific management in 1911. During the decade, interest in human conditions at work was accelerated by World War I.

Taylor’s ideas were criticized-particularly; his belief in rationalizing everything and holding the assumption that human behavior is based on ‘rabble hypotheses.’

But Taylor’s ideas are practiced even today. As the talking technology story in exhibit 3.1 describes, companies such as UPS still use some of the basic concepts introduced during the scientific management era in their efforts to become even more efficient. HUMAN RELATIONS MOVEMENT ~

The

scientists

who

were closely influenced by tailor were the industrial psychologists frank and Lillian gilberts. This husband – and-wife team pioneered time- and-motion study, a type of applied research Failure of Scientific Management gave birth to the human relations movement which is characterized by heavy emphasis on employee cooperation and morale. Under this, people to be treated as human beings and not as machines, listening to their needs and problem involving them in decision-making in matters relating to working conditions. There are and complex reasons for this human relations position. Historically, three of the most imp contributing factors would be the Great Depression, the labor movement, the results of th famous Hawthorne Studies’ The stock exchange crash of 1929 in America marked the beginning of the Great Depr~ The consequences of the Depression were wide spread unemployment, decline of pure power, collapse of markets, and lowering of the standard of living of people. This pheno was world wide and not confined to America alone. designed to classify and steamline the individual movements needed to perform jobs with the intent of finding “ the one best way” to perform them. Although this approach them. A

One positive outcome of the Depression was that management began to realise that prod alone could not be its major function. Marketing, finance, and personnel were also required

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The scientists who were closely influenced by Taylor were the industrial psychologists' and Lillian Gilbreth. ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR 41 This husband - and - wife team pioneered time-and-motion study, a~ applied research designed to classify and streamline the individual movements needed top~ jobs with the intent of finding "the on~ best way" to perform them. Although this approach ~ to be highly mechanical and dehumanising, Gilbreths had great concern for human beings. exhibit 3.2) Scientific management was criticised by employees and theorists for its over emph task accomplishment and monetary incentives at the cost of respect for human beings. approach that treated workers as hUlp.an beings was desired)

Mere creation or strengthening of personnel departments did not improve the plight of workers. Production still preceded people in order of importance in organisations. Decent hours of work, fair wages, and adequate working conditions were sacrificed for more production. There were people like Taylor, Ford, and Sloan who sincerely believed in giving labour due share. Such noble hearted souls were few and far between. In general, exploitation of labour continued,) 't'Labour Movement: Continued exploitation made workers realise that their protection lay in their own hands. They formed strong unions and this had the desired effect on management.

I

HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS AND THEIR IMPORTANCE: Bad working conditions always affect the productivity adversely. It has been established that comfortable workplace will be the productivity. Hence, while designing a work place such factors must be considered. Following are some of the important elements which are related to the work place:1. Cleanliness: Working place must be clean. For this purpose, care must be taken to provi9de a suitable place for everything connected with the job workers must be asked to keep everything in its place. Work area must be clean and well painted. 2. Proper Illumination: Work place must be properly illuminated so as to avoid eyestrain. Care must be taken to avoid glare and flickering of light. Colour of light selected must be such as to reduce fatigue. 3. Noise: A work place must be selected so as to have as less noise as possible. Experiments have shown that reduction in noise results in the increase of efficiency with lesser fatigue. 4. Location for tools and materials: All tools and materials required by a worker must be located within the normal group are and as far as possible in front of the worker because such and arrangement saves a lot of time and energy of the worker. 5. Chairs and Workbench: Performing a job on floor in sitting position or on table on floor in sitting position or on table in standing position requires more energy. The height of chair and

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

42

of the workbench must be arranged in such a way that the worker may not experience any difficulty while working. Describe Hawthorne experiments and highlight their significance (Or) What are all the findings of Hawthorne experiments? (Or) Explain the place of physical and human environment in promoting work efficiency in the light of Hawthorne experiment INTRODUCTION: Hawthorne experiments (1924-1932)

were conducted at Western Electric’s

Hawthorne plant at Chicago to determine the effect of better physical facilities on workers output. This experiment contributed by Elton Mayo, Roethlisberger and White Head.

FOUR TYPES OF EXPERIMENT WERE AS FOLLOW

1. ILLUMINATION EXPERIMENT: (1924-1927) This experiment was conducted to know the effect of illumination on workers productivity. For the purpose of this experiment workers were divided into two groups. One group was sent to an experimental room with varied illumination and the other group was sent to the control room with constant condition .The productivity of the test group increased each time with the intensity of the light increased, but quite contrary to the expectation output also increased in the control room. Even when the level of illumination was reduced to that of ordinary moonlight the productivity increased. So the researchers concluded that there is no relationship between illumination and output.

2. RELAY ASSEMBLY TEST ROOM EXPERIMENT: (1927-1928) This experiment was conducted to know out the effect of change in working hours and other working conditions on productivity. In this experiment two groups of six female telephone relay assemblers were put under close observation in separate room. In one room the conditions were altered and in the other they were not. One observer was also placed in the test room to record the work and create a friendly atmosphere. Over a two-year period many changes were introduced. The following were the changes and resultant output.

1. Incentive system was changed, Based on group performance –productivity increased. 2. Two five minutes rest –one in morning and another in evening session –productivity increased. 3. Two ten minutes rest instead of two five minutes-productivity increased. 4. Four five minutes rest-productivity decreased because rhythm of the workers was affected. 5. Two ten minutes with coffee or soup in the morning and snacks in the evening – productivity increased. 6. Allowed to disperse at 4.30 pm instead of 5.30 pm.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

As changes were introduced absenteeism decreased, less supervision was required and morale increased. Then all these changes were dropped and returned to their original status productivity increased because of -

Changes in girls’ attitude towards work.

-

Development of senses of self -discipline and sense of responsibility.

-

Friendly relationship between supervisor and worker.

2. MASS INTERVIEWING PROGRAMME: (1928-1930) This experiment was conducted to find the workers attitude and sentiments. Interview with workers confirmed the fact that performance at work depended not merely on pay but on employee’s feelings about how they were treated and their perception of the supervisors’ style of management.

3. BANK WIRING OBSERVATION ROOM EXPERIMENT: (1931-1932) This experiment was conducted to know social aspect of work organization .In this experiment 14 male workers were formed into a group and were closely observed. The employees were paid based on efficiency rating plus bonus based on group effort. It was expected that highly efficient workers would increase output to attain bonus. The expected result did not come about. It was found that the group had established its own standard of output. From that we know the output of member is a function of accepted social behaviour and norms established in the group. Member avoided both under production and over production in order to gain social acceptance of the group. PHASE IV: THE BANK WIRING OBSERVING ROOM EXPERIMENT: In this experiment, 14 male workers were formed into a small work group and intensively observed for 7-months in the bank wiring room. The men were engaged in the assembly of terminal banks for the use in the telephone exchanges. The employees in the group were paid in the regular way depending on the efficiency rating plus a bonus based on average group effort. Thus, under this system, an individual’s pay was affected by the output of the entire group and by own individual output. In was expected that highly efficient worker would bring pressure to bear on less effective workers in order to increase and thus take advantage of the group incentive plain. But, these expected results did not come about. The researchers found that the group had established its own standard of output and this was enforced rigorously by various pressures. In summary, the Hawthorne experiments indicated that employees were not only economic beings, but social and psychological beings as well.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR The reasons for the restricted output were - Fear of unemployment - Fear of raising the standards. - Protection of slowest workers.

IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS ARRIVED FROM THIS EXPERIMENT 1. SOCIAL FACTOR IN OUTPUT: Elton Mayo has described an organization as a “social system�, informal status system ritual, and mixture of logical, non- logical and illogical behavior. The level of production is set by social norms not by physiological capacities. Economic satisfaction and productivity do not necessarily go together. Non -economic rewards and sanctions significantly affect the behavior of the worker and limit the effect of the economic incentives.

2. GROUPS: In the organization, individual tend to create groups. They like to react as member of group and not as individual. Thus management cannot deal with workers as individual but as member of work group.

3. LEADERSHIP: Leadership cannot come from superiors only as told by Scientific Management approach. In some cases, informal leader is more important than formal one. The supervisor could not exercise pressure on workers to accept group norms of which he was in charge. However, a supervisor is more acceptable as leader if his style is in accordance with human relation approach. In this situation democratic style is the best, which provide greater satisfaction to workers.

4. COMMUNICATION These experiments show that communication in the organization is very important. Through communication workers can be explained why a particular course of action is being taken. Participation of workers can be sought in decision making process concerning the matter of their importance and problems faced by them and their attitude, opinion and method of working may be identified.

5. CONFLICT Conflicts generate in the organization because of the creation of groups with conflicting objective. Thus, Group may be in conflict with organization. Though the creating of groups sometimes helps to achieve organizational objective, conflict raises the problem of adjustment of individual to the organization. In course of time the individual adjusts with the total structure, if the individual stands still, the structure itself may change.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

6. SUPERVISION The supervisory climate has also an important role to play in determining the rate of output. The friendly to worker, attentive, genuinely concerned supervisor affect the productivity positively. Example: In the bank wiring room, an entirely different supervisory climate existed-more friendly to the workers and less use of authority in issuing order- which helped in productivity, while in regular departments, supervisors were used to maintain order and control and this type of supervisory arrangement produced inhibiting atmosphere.

CONCLUSION: The Hawthorne studies have been severely criticized as being inadequately controlled and interpreted. Despite some limitations, there are some interesting insights from the experiments that contribute to the better understandings of the human behaviour in the organization. It becomes evident that the informal association to be found in almost every organization affects an individual ‘s motivation to work, level of output and quality of performance. .

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

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UNIT- II LEARNING LEARNING OBJECTIVES The term learning means changes in our behavior, attitude, knowledge and skills. In other wards we can say that through learning we can feel permanently changes in our self. If we are not feeling any changes in our above skills then it will not be cal ed as learning. The learning is a type of reinforcement, which may learn a change in behavior enduring by strengthening and intensifying certain aspect of an individual behavior. Learning may be described at the process of acquiring the ability to respond adequately to a situation, which may or may not have been previously an countered. After analysis, the term learning consist of the following contents:L - At length E - It should be affective A - It should be apparent R - Relentless N - Elimination of negative thoughts I - Implanting N - Elimination negative internalization. G - Elimination of generalization

Meaning and definition 1.

Learning is a change in behaviour for better or worse.

2.

It is a change that takes place through experience or practice and this does not include changes that take place due to growth, maturation or injury. The change, must be relatively permanent, that is it must lost for a fairly long

3. time.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After studying this unit you will be able to:

explain the concept of Learning define learning describe the factors involved in learning explain the Classical conditioning identify the stimuli and responses in classical conditioning explain the various types of instrumental conditioning list out other types of operant learning

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR NATURE OF LEARNING

Learning is a key process it pervades everything we do and think, it influences various aspects of our behavior like the way we speak, dress, attitudes, belief and the goals we pursue. Let us first define the learning.. Learning may be defined as “any relatively permanent change in behaviour which occurs as a result of experience or practice� excluding the role of motivation. You must note that in this definition there are three important elements.

Meaning and definition 1.Learning is a change in behaviour for better or worse. 2.

It is a change that takes place through experience or practice and this does

not include changes that take place due to growth, maturation or injury. 3.The change, must be relatively permanent, that is it must lost for a fairly long time.

LEARNING PRINCIPLES AND METHODS

Learning, relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience is a basic topic of psychology. However it is a process that must be assessed indirectly by observing performance. In this unit, we will define learning, factors involved in learning; explain the Classical conditioning and the various types of instrumental conditioning. Finally, other types of operant learning will be listed out.

FACTORS INVOLVED IN LEARNING

There are many factors that contribute to learning, for the phenomena of learning to occur; a single factor or a combination of factors may be involved.

a) Arousal and motivation: We all know that the most fundamental condition for learning to take place is that the organism be in a reasonably high state of arousal. Although it has been claimed that some learning can take place during sleep, such learning is very minimal. But than, is being aroused a sufficient condition for learning or do you think that the organism must also be motivated. Being motivated for learning to take place is important in at least three ways.

1.

First, it is a condition for eliciting behaviour. For example if a rat is to learn a maze, it must at least walk through it, rat will do this merely to explore, but they are found to be more active when they are hungry.

2.

Second motivation is necessary for reinforcement, which in turn is an essential condition of learning. Reward and punishments act as reinforcers. For a hungry rat, food not water is a reinforcer that explains the point that reinforces should

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR be appropriate. Thirdly, motivation controls the variability of behaviour. When learning a new

3.

half, a motivated organism will run through an extensive repertory of response, one of which may be “correct”. Let us make this clear with an example, suppose a mother is interested in teaching her child, who is thirsty to say “milk” when a glass of milk is shown to. One way of doing this is to show the child a glass of milk while saying ‘milk’ at the same time. If he says ‘milk’ be will be given a sip as reinforcement. If he is motivated, the child will quickly run through many behaviours, he may grab for the glass, he may cry, he may imitate 3 and say “milk” the “correct” response. If he is not motivated this repertory of responses will be less likely to occur.

In summary we can say that motivation is important become

(1)

It brings out appropriate behaviours to be learned.

(2)

It permit reinforcement to occur and

(3)

It increases the variability of behaviour, this raising the probability that a correct response will occur.

b) Association: One factor that is common to most situation in which learning takes place is association. By association, here we mean some connection in time and place between two events. Lightning (S1) and thunder (S2) usually occur in close sequence, so the light and sound may be connected. There connections in the physical world provide opportunities for an organism to form association’s focus experiencing two events simultaneously or in close succession. The formation of such associations is a function of the brain. Stated symbolically, if S1 and S2 together will tend to form an association between processes in the train, so that S1 can now a rouse S2 or S2 arouse . (i)

Stimulus Response Association

Another kind of association is the S-R or stimulus response association. In this care the learner associates a stimulus with a response. For instance, when we learn a foreign language vocabulary, we are forming a S-R association. The foreign work is a stimulus for the English learning response or vice versa. S-R association lend themselves to objective observation, and for this reason they have received the greatest attention in psychological experiments.

(ii)

Contiguity

The concept of association implies contiguity that is to say, for two physical events to be connected, and hence for the corresponding processes in the training to become associated,

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR the event must occur at approximately the same time and place. They must be contiguous, or paired, events. For this reason, contiguity has long been started as a basic law governing the formation of associations.

What must be contiguous varies with different learning situations. In simple conditioning, it is the contiguity of two stimuli that is essential for learning. In more complex learning it is the contiguity of a response and a reward or punishment that is important for learning. For example, we give a dog a bit of food when he performs a trick, or we slap a child’s hand when he reaches for a lighted matchstick. In every care, it is the pain of event making them contiguous that is essential in learning.

(iii)

Interference

Still another aspect of forming association deserves emphasis the possibility of interference among associations. One stimulus may become associated with two different stimuli or with two different responses. If the two associations with the single to stimulus are incompatible, are tends to block interfere with the other. Let us understand this better with an example of learning two languages at the same time. Children who are brought up in bilingual homes or where two languages are used are slower in language development than there who learn only is language of home. A child learns a good deal of language by associating a word with same stimulus. He learns to associate (thirst) with water. But if he must learn to associate ‘thanni’ (Tamil for ‘water) or ‘pani’ (Hindi for ‘water’) at the same time, he has two different associations (R 1 and R2) for the same visual stimulus (5). He cannot say than both at the same time. Hence are association interferes with the other and neither association is built up so rapidly as it might be. The principle of mutual interference of association is a general one, which accounts of several of the phenomena of learning and for getting.

c) Reinforcement

Another important term, one that psychologists repeatedly use when talking about learning, is reinforcement. This term has two meanings, depending on the kind of learning situation be is talking about. In simple conditioning, it merely refers to the second stimulus of the pair being presented. The other meaning is what is commonly called reward or punishment. Examples of the things that serve, as reinforcers are food for a hungry organize, praise for a child or escape from punishment.

Reinforcement is of great importance in learning and hence Thorndike called it the law of effect. This law states that an act, wh ich has a satisfying effect for instance, satisfaction of a drive, escape from punishment, or relief from pain, fear will be learned, but an act, which has an unpleasant effect such as frustration of a motive, punishment, or fear, will

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR not be learned. It is relatively easy to observe that reinforcement strengthen. Certain kind of association’s Hall has called this simple fact that reinforcement work to strengthen association has the empirical law of effect.

We have discussed three basic principles or factors in learning can you recall them; they are motivation, association and reinforcement.

THEORIES OF LEARNING

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

Classical conditioning is a form of learning. In lower organisms, much behaviour is instinctive, or inborn for e.g. fishes are born “knowing” how to swim. Among human being, however, the variety and complexity of behaviors pattern are largely learned through experience. Classical conditioning involves same of the ways in which we learn to associate events. let us understand this better with an example we are i usually more likely to stop our cars for red traffic light. Why? Red light is associated with avoiding accidents and traffic regulations.

Ivan Pavlov Rings a Bell

Lower animals also learn relationships among events, as Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) discovered in research with laboratory dogs. Pavlov during his research found that because of its biological making, a dog will salivate if meat powder is placed on its tongue. Salivation in response to meat powder is unlearned, a reflex. A certain range of stimuli elicits reflexes. A stimulus is an environmental condition that evokes a response from an organism. Reflexes are simple unlearned responses to stimuli. Pavlov discovered that reflexes could also be learned, or conditioned, through association. His dogs began salivating in response to clinking food trays became this noise, in the past, had been paired repeatedly with the arrival of food. The dogs would also salivate when an assistant entered the laboratory. Guess why? In the past the assistant had brought food.

When we are faced with novel events, we sometimes have no immediate way of knowing whether or not they are important. When we are striving for concrete goods, we often ignore the unexpected, even when the unexpected is just as important, or more important, than the goal. So it was that Pavlov at first saw this uncalled for canine salivation as an annoyance, a hindrance to his research. But in 1901, he decided that this ‘problem’ was worth looking into. He then set about to show that he could train, or condition, his dogs to salivate when he wished and in response to any stimulus he chose.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Pavlov termed the trained salivary responses as “conditional reflexes”. They were conditional upon the repeated pairing of a previously neutral stimulus (such as the clinking of a food tray) and a stimulus (in this case, food) that predictably evoked the target response (in this case, salivation). Today conditional reflexes are more generally referred to as conditioned responses, (CRS) since they are responses to previously neutral stimuli that are learned or conditioned.

Pavlov demonstrated conditioned responses by strapping a dog into a harness. When meat powder was placed on the dog’s tongue, the dog salivated. Pavlov repeated the process several times, with are difference. He preceded the meat powder by hall a second or so with the sounding of a bell on each occasion. After several pairing of meat powder and bell Pavlov sounded the bell but did not follow the bell with the meat powder. Still the dog salivated. It had learned to salivate in response to the bell. Why did the dog learn to salivate in response to the bell? Behaviorists explain the out came of classical conditioning in terms of the publicity observable conditions of learning.

They define classical conditioning as a simple form of learning in which one stimulus craves to evoke the response usually evoked by a second stimulus by being paired repeatedly with the second stimulus, In Pavlov’s demonstration, the dog learned to salivate in response to the bell because the sounding of the bell had been paired with meat powder. Thus, in classical conditioning, the organizing forms association between stimuli because the stimuli are contiguous. Behaviorists are of the opinion that any targeted behaviour can reliably be made to occur, and hence behaviorists focus on the mechanical acquisition of the conditioned response.

Stimuli and responses in classical conditioning: US, CS, UR and CR.

In the demonstration described above we have seen that that meat powder is an unlearned or unconditional stimulus (US). Salivation in response to the meat powder is an unlearned or unconditional response (UR) where the bell was at first a meaningless or neutral stimulus. Then, through repeated association with the meat powder, the bell became a learned or conditioned stimulus (CS) for the salivation. Salivation in response to the bell (or CS) is a learned one or conditioned response (CR). A CR is a response similar to a UR, but the response elicited, or brought out, by definition a CR, not a UR.

Fig A schematic Representation of Classical Conditioning

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

52 Before conditioning

Neutral stimulus (Bell)

No response or orienting response

US (Food)

UR (Salivation)

During conditioning CS (Bell)

UR

US (Food)

(Salivation)

After conditioning CS (Bell)

CR (Salivation)

Extinction

In classical conditioning, extinction is the process by which conditioned stimulus (CS) Jose the ability to eiicit conditioned responses (CR) because the CS are no longer associated with unconditioned stimuli (US). From the cognitive perspective, extinction teaches the organism to modify its representation of the environment because the CS no longer serves its predictive function.

In this experiment in the extinction of CR, Pavlov found that repeated presentation of CS (or bell) without the US (meat powder) led to extinction of the CR (salivation in response to the bell). The dog conditioned by Pavlov began to salivate (CR) in response to a bell (CS) often only for a couple of pairings of the stimuli led to increased salivation, as measured in number of drops of salivation. After seven or eight trials, salivation leveled off at eleven to twelve drops. Then, salivation to the bell (CR) was extinguished through several trailsreferred to as extinction trials in which the CS (bell) was presented without the meat powder (US). After about ten extinction trails, the CR (salivation in response to the bell) was no longer shown.

Generalisation

We know that no two things are exactly alike. Traffic lights are hung at slightly different heights, and shades of red and green differ a little. The barking of two dogs differs and the sound of the same animal differs slightly from back to back. Adaptation requires that

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR we respond similarly to stimuli that are equivalent in function and that we respond differently to stimuli that are not. Pavlov noted that responding to different stimuli as though they are functionally equivalent is adoptive for any organism.

In a demonstration of generalization, Pavlov first conditioned a dog to salivate when a circle was presented. During each acquisition trial the dog was shown a circle (CS), then given meat powder (US) After several trials, the dog exhibited the CR of salivating when presented with the circle above. Pavlov demonstrated that the dog also exhibited the CR (salivation) in response to closed geometric figures such as ellipses, pentagons, and squares. The more closely the figure resembled a circle the greater the strength of the response (the more drops of salivation that flowed).

Discrimination

This is another important concept organizers must also learn (1) that many stimuli perceived as being similar are functionally different and (2) to respond adoptively to each. During the first couple of months of life, babies can discriminate the voices of their other from there of others. They will often stop crying when they hear a stranger’s voice.

Pavlov showed that a dog conditioned to salivate in response to circles be trained not to salivate in response to ellipses. The type of conditioning that trains an organisms to show a CR in response to a narrow range of stimuli (in this care, circular rather than elliptical geometric figures) is termed discriminating training, Pavlov trained the dog by presenting it with circles and ellipses but associating the meat powder (US) with circles only. After a while, the dog no longer showed the CR (salivation) in response to the ellipses. Instead the animal showed discrimination. It displayed the CR in response to circle only.

Instrumental or Operant Conditioning

This is another important type of learning: operant conditioning also referred to as instrumental conditioning. An organism learns to engage in certain behaviors because of the effects of those behaviors. There are two important psychologist associated with operant conditioning. They are Edward L Thorndike and B.F.Skinner.

Edward Thorndike used stray cats for his research in learning by trial and error. He placed the animals in so-called puzzle boxes. If they managed to pull a dangling string a latch would be released, allowing them to joining out and reach a bowl of food. When the cat was placed in a puzzle box, it tries to squeeze through any opening and would claw and bite at the confining bars and wire or would claw at any feature it could reach. Through such random trail-and-error behaviour, if might take three to four minutes, before the cat would chance a

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR response of pulling the string. Pulling the string would open the cage and allow the cat to reach the food.

Classical conditioning experiments throw light on important features of learning or association providing a starting point for the study of more complex types of learning. The next basic kind of learning is what is known as Instrumental or operant conditioning. The term “operant” emphasizes the component of work involved on the part of the learner, because he has to “operate” on his environment, and the term “instrumental” points to the fact that the learner” has some control over his circumstances (his action is instrumental to what happens to him) Instrumental conditioning involves more activity on the part of the learner than classical conditioning. Generally, behaviors directed towards gaining a reward or avoiding a punishment are examples of instrumental action. In this form of behaviour, the intention and achievement are important.

The important concepts in this sort of conditioning are contingency and consequences. Instrumental learning involves learning about the consequences of behaving in a specific way (Le.) learning that making of a particular response will be followed by a specific stimulus event. For instance, a child might learn that crying would fetch him his mother’s attention. Simplifying the basic idea, we might say that learning consists of discovering that a particular response (R) wilt be followed by a stimulus event (S).

In another way, we may interpret it in terms of contingency learning. The learner finds out that for the purpose of making a stimulus event to occur (getting the mother’s attention), he will have to perform a particular response (crying). Here, the stimulus (S) is contingent upon the response.

Historically, as classical conditioning is associated with the work of Pavlov, instrumental conditioning is associated with the works of E.L. Thorndike and B.F. Skinner. Thorndike was the first to conduct laboratory experiments on instrumental conditioning leading to the formulation of the Law of Effect, which formed the basis for the principle of reinforcement. But it was Skinner who made operant conditioning popular. His studies on the behaviour of pigeons, rats and human beings led to the identification of the basic elements and laws of operant conditioning. The development of the concepts functional analysis, which. emphasizes on the functions (the consequences of behaviour is due to his efforts) His findings, which forms the foundation for the development of a new technology of behaviour modification in its application.

Though this is in its formative stage, still it is useful and controversial. Skinner’s Work

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Skinner used a device, which has come to be known as Skinner box to investigate the relationship between the events of instrumental conditioning. He placed a rat inside a glass box containing a lever and food tray. The animal was free to explore the box. Whenever the lever in the box was pressed, automatically a pellet of food was dropped on the tray. A mechanical device recorded the number of times the rat pressed on lever. Pressing of the lever was the response to be learned (the operant response), and the food was the stimulus consequence (reinforcement). The rate: of presses increased notably with the rewarding of the rat with food each time he pressed the bar. By reinforcement, the rat learned the instrumental response.

Basically the reinforces are of two kinds namely the positive (S+) and the negative (S). A positive reinforcer refers to a stimulus event that when made contingent on a response will cause the frequency of that response to increase. In the rat experiment, the food is a positive reinforcer because the rat will increase the number of presses if food is withheld until he presses the lever. Generally speaking, positive reinforcers are those things that are liked or desired i.e., rewards. On the other hand, a negative reinforcer refers to the stimulus event that will cause an increase in response frequency when the contingency is a negative one Le. the making of the response results in the cessation of the stimulus. For example, an electric shock in the place of food may be called a negative reinforcer. Generally, a negative reinforcer is one, which is disliked or avoided by an organism, i.e., punishments.

Types of Instrumental Conditioning

By this conditioning method, it is possible to teach an individual to make a particular response or withhold it by providing him with either rewards or punishments. A combination of two kinds of consequences (rewards and punishments) with two kinds of contingencies (either the consequences is contingent on making or on not making it) can be presented. They are: reward, omission, escape and punishment training. Positive reinforcement is used in reward training. For example, giving an individual his due allowance is a case of this kind of training. When rewards are used to withhold a response that is not desired, it is called omission training. For instance, if a child is offered a candy for giving up nail-biting it is a case of omission training. Escape training refers to the use of negative reinforcement to increase the frequency of a desired response. Telling a convict that good conduct on his part will secure him remission of sentences of this type. Lastly’ punishment training is used to make the learner cease performing an undesired response. Scolding a child for using impolite language is a good example of this type of instrumental conditioning.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Shaping

Shaping refers to the reinforcing of closer approximations for performing a desired response. This consists of learning graduated steps, where each following step has a resemblance to the desired performance and hence it is known as the method of successive approximations. For example, in the case of an animal in the operant conditioning apparatus, with the help of a remote control, the experimenter reinforces the approaches to the lever, by going near it, pawing it and eventually pressing it a sequence of responses leading to the appropriate response. This kind of a thing is done with children, when they are taught to learn languages. At the beginning, the child may say “Maaa”..... “Mrrr”... “Maar” and finally “Mother”.

PRINCIPLES OF REINFORCEMENT

Primary and Secondary Reinforcement

We have already seen what reinforcement means. in primary reinforcement, a reinforcer is an event that increases or maintains the strength of a response. Secondary reinforcement also is important in operant conditioning. A stimulus is a secondary reinforcer if it has acquired a reinforcing quality because it has been associated with a primary reinforcer. When such a stimulus follows a response, it tends to increase and maintain the strength of a response.

The experiment by Cowles with chimpanzees would be useful. The chimpanzees learned to work for poker chips, which in turn helped to get food. Here poker chips were token rewards and they were exchanged for food. While food is the primary reinforcer, poker chips are the secondary reinforcers. In human beings, in the social learning’s secondary reinforcers plays a vital role: Symbolic rewards like degrees, titles, promotions and money serve as secondary reinforcers.

Schedules of Reinforcement

Fixed Ratio Schedules

If a schedule is administered on a ratio basis, reinforcement is given after a certain number of responses. If the schedule is a fixed ratio, the exact number of responses is specified. A fixed ratio that reinforces after every response is designated as 1:1. The 1:1 fixed ratio is generally used in basic conditioning experiments, and almost every type of learning situation must begin with this schedule. However, as learning progresses, it is more effective to shift to a fixed ratio of 2:1, 4:1, 8:1 and even 20:1.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

Administering rewards under a fixed ratio schedule tends to produce a high rate of response that is characterized as vigorous and steady. The person soon determines that reinforcement is based on the number of responses and performs the responses as quickly as possible in order to receive the reward.

Fixed Interval Schedules

A second common way to administer rewards is on a fixed interval basis. Under this schedule, reinforcement is given after a specified period of time, which is measured from the, last reinforced response. The length of time that can be used by this schedule varies a great deal. In the beginning of practically any learning situation, a very short interval is required. However, as learning progresses, the interval can be stretched out.

Behavior resulting from a fixed interval method of reinforcing is quite different from that exhibited as result of a fixed ratio schedule. Whereas under a fixed ratio schedule there is a steady, vigorous response pattern, under a fixed interval schedule there is an uneven pattern that varies from a very slow, unenergetic response immediately following reinforcement to a very fast, vigorous response immediately preceding reinforcement. This type of behavior pattern can be explained by the fact that the person figures out that another reward will not immediately follow the last one. Therefore, the person may as well relax a little until it is time to be rewarded again.

Variable or Intermittent Schedules

Both ratio and interval schedules can be administered on a variable or intermittent basis. This means that the reinforcement is given in an irregular or unsystematic manner. In variable ratio, the reward is given after a number of responses, but the exact number is randomly varied. When the variable ratio is expressed as some number say, 1:50 this means that on the average the organism is reinforced after fifty responses. However, in reality the ratio may randomly vary from 1:1 to 1:100. In other words, each response has a chance of being reinforced regardless of the number of reinforced or non reinforced responses that have preceded it.

The variable interval schedule works basically the same as the variable ratio schedule except that a reward is given after a randomly distributed length of time rather than after a number of responses. a fifty-minute variable interval schedule means that on the average, the individual is reinforced after fifty minutes, but the actual reinforcement may be given anywhere from every few seconds to’ every two or three hours.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Behavior under Variable Schedules

Both variable ratio and variable interval schedules tend to produce stable, vigorous behavior under variable schedules is similar to that produced by a fixed ratio schedule. Under a variable schedule, the person has no idea when the reward is coming, and so the behavior tends to be steady and strong. It logically follows that variable schedules are very resistant to extinction.

Variable schedules are not very effective in highly controlled learning experiments and are seldom used. On the other hand, they are the way in which many real-life, everyday learning situations are reinforced. although primary reinforcers for humans are administered on a relatively fixed basis (for example, food is given three times a day at mealtimes, and organization compensation plans are on either a fixed ratio or a fixed interval basis), most of the other human behavior that takes place is reinforced in a highly variable manner. For example, practically all social rewards are administered on a variable basis. Attention, approval, and affection are generally given as reward in a very random fashion.

OTHER TYPES OF OPERANT LEARNING

a) Aversive Conditioning

This is kind of conditioning response learning in which aversive stimuli (Stimuli that the unpleasant, painful or noxious) playa part. Escape conditioning, avoidance conditioning and punishment training are the various types of aversive conditioning.

i) Escape conditioning Here the organism learns to get away from a stimulus situation that is aversive to it. There termination of electric shock reinforces the response. With repeated trials the subject escapes more and more quickly from the shock.

ii) Avoidance conditioning Here, a warning signal is followed by the onset of an aversive stimulus. This happens until such time the proper response is made terminating the aversive stimulation. However, a quick reaction on the part of the subject may help him to avoid the aversive stimulation completely. For instance, a rat placed in a box, which has two apartments, one painted white and another black, separated by a low partition over which the rat can, jump. in the whit portion there is a provision to give electric shock to the rat and in the black portion the animal can stay without a shock. A few minute following the sound of a buzzer, the rat is administered a shock. After some random movements, the rat jumps to the black apartment. Following such a procedure repeated a number of times; the response generally becomes so

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR immediate that the rat avoids the shock totally.

In the case human beings also, learned or acquired fears induce behaviour and responses that remove a fear-arousing signal are secondary reinforcing. When external stimulus situations given rise to fear such as addressing a big audience, or pursuing a difficult academic task, the response that would help the individual to get away from the situation is reinforced by reduction of fear.

iii) Punishment Training Punishments are generally used for suppressing or eliminating undesired behaviour of an individual. In punishment training, an aversive stimulus is contingent on response. Cases such as being fixed for not following the rules of the road or an employee being taken to ask for late coming are examples. Punishments generally result in suppressing the responses at least for sometimes. Punishment or threat of punishment to improve human learning has many problems. The individuals getting punishment develop hostility towards the punisher Punishment may also wound one’s feelings that one is not being wanted and loved. Punishments may produce unrealistic and exaggerated fears. For instance, a child who is punished for sex play may develop a generalized fear of everything related to sex.

TYPES OF LEARNING

Conditioning is most directly to single identifiable responses, but much learning is more complex than this. These more complex instances are classified as multiple response learning. Some psychologists are not in favour of over emphasis upon the automatic nature of learning that comes from stimulus response associations. Much of our learning consists of acquiring patterns of sequences of behaviors, as in learning athletic skills of in memorizing a poem. In this unit, we will discuss about the multiple response learning, cognitive learning, programmed learning and computer aide~ instruction, transfer of learning and role of reward and punishment in learning.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After reading this unit you would be able to: explain about multiple response learning describe multiple response learning explain the components of cognitive learning discuss about the programmed learning explain the advantages of computer aided instruction analyse the transfer of learning

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR highlight the significance of reward and punishment in learning

MULTIPLE-RESPONSE LEARNING

These patterns illustrate multiple response learning, a kind of learning involving more than one identifiable act, with the order of events usually fixed by the demands of the situation. To study this kind of learning psychologists have designed such laboratory tasks as mirror drawing, target tracking, and rote memorization. The first two tasks are forms of sensorimotor skill, and the last is largely verbal. Tasks such as these approximate the learning of skills that are used in everyday life.

Sensorimotor Learning

By a sensorimotor skill we mean one in which muscular movement is prominent, but under sensory control. Riding a bicycle, turning a flip from a diving board, playing a piano, and typing are sensorimotor skills. They are not simply patterns of skilled movements. The bicycle rider has to watch the traffic and the bumps in the road and be guided by them; the diver must adjust his timing to the height of the platform; the musician reads notes and attempts to play with feeling; the typist must follow a manuscript and stay within specified boundaries. These considerations call attention to the sensory control of skill.

Psychologists have not limited themselves to laboratory tasks in studying skills. The pioneer study was, in fact, a practical one on learning to send and receive telegraphic messages, carried out by Bryan and Harter in 1897. Many of the best-established principles are first worked out on laboratory skills, however, and later validated in more complex practical situation. A convenient laboratory illustration is given by the mirror-drawing experiment. We learn something of the importance of eye-hand coordination in developing skills by studying what happens when our usual eye-hand coordination’s are inappropriate and we have to reorient accordingly.

In a typical mirror-drawing experiment, the subject is required to trace a path around a geometric figure, such as a star, while viewing it in a mirror. The subject knows that the correct performance is a smoothly traced line within the path around the figure. The subject starts out by using familiar habits. These of course cause trouble. When using the visual cues from a mirror in the same way as cues in direct vision, the subject will find that the pencil will not go where it is supposed to go. The subject therefore attempts to correct movements and gradually approximates a good performance, although at first a very jagged line is drawn. Old habits may again interfere at the corners of the figure. With practice, however, the lines smooth out, and the subject can achieve a rapid tracing of the figure.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

a) Learning curves for skill

Experimenters typically keep track of progress in skill learning by plotting a learning Curve similar to those used to depict the course of classical conditioning. Two learning curves for mirror drawing are plotted, one representing massed practice (practice trails follows each other consecutively within one period) and the’ other depicting spaced practice (practice trails distributed one per day). Note that spaced practice is more efficient, which is generally the case although there are exceptions. This comparison shows how learning curves can be used to display a relationship between two variables.

The measure of proficiency is the time required to trace a figure seen in the mirror. Improvement shows a decrease in time required and yields a falling curve. If the measure of proficiency is a score that increases with practice, then the learning curve rises. Scores in a target-tracking task like the pursuit rotor are of this sort. The subject attempts to keep the tip of a hand-held stylus in contact with a small metal disc mounted near the edge of a revolving turntable much like that of an ordinary record player. When the stylus is in contact with the moving target, an electric circuit is completed though a clock. The subject’s score is the amount of time on target.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR b)

Qualitative Changes with Practical

A learning curve presents performance over the course of an experiments as though the subject followed the same pattern of activity at the end as at the beginning and improved only in efficiency. But it is quite possible that in the course of improvements the subject’s method changed. For example, in studying learning how to type, some investigators have detected a shift from a letter to a word habit (learning the location of the individual keys associated with a single burst of movement, embedding the letters in a total pattern). Occasionally these higher order and lower order learning conflict, and there is a period of no improvement in the learning curve. This period is described as a plateau because it has been preceded by improvement and will be followed by more improvement when the higher order learning wins out.

Rote Memorization

By rote memorization we mean verbatim learning by repetition, as contrasted with substance memorization. Experiments on rote memorization take one of two chief forms, corresponding to the ways we learn things verbatim in ordinary experience. One form is serial memorization, as in memorizing poetry or lines of a play. In a laboratory experiment, a list of words is memorized from beginning to end, so that each word in the list is in some sense the stimulus for the word to follow. The second form is paired associate learning, which is comparable to the method sometimes used in learning the words of a foreign language. The words are learned in stimulus response pairs, such as prepared-afraid, careless-vacant, hungry quiet; a stimulus word is presented, and the response word has to be learned. The pairs are not learned in any special order and depending on the experiment, mayor may not be meaningfully related.

The experimenter usually presents the material to the subject by means of an exposure device called a memory drum. The items to be learned appear one at a time at fixed intervals in the aperture of the memory drum. ‘After the initial presentation of each item, the subject tries to state in advance the next item to appear in the aperture. By keeping score of the subject’s hits and misses throughout memorizing, the experimenter can plot a learning curve from his record.

The anticipation method for rote memorization requires that the subject try to state what lies immediately ahead. It can be used for either serial memorization or paired-associate memorization. In the serial method the item anticipated becomes the stimulus for the next anticipation when it (the item) appears in the aperture; it is both a response item and a stimulus item. In the paired associate method the stimulus item is used only as a stimulus, not as a response. When the stimulus is presented in the aperture of the memory drum the

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR subject tries to anticipate the response item; then the stimulus response pair appear together for a brief period of study prior to presentation of the next stimulus item.

COGNITIVE LEARNING

The kinds of learning that we have considered thus far all stress the organization of behavior into learned stimulus response associations. In studying more complex forms of learning, attention must be given to the roles of perception and knowledge, or cognitive processes. There is the possibility that emphasis upon stimulus-response associations may lead to too much concern for piecemeal activities and too little attention to organized relationships and meaning. The teacher impressed by habit formation may use rote memorization and drill excessively, without caring enough about whether the child organizes and understands what is learned.

Those identified with the cognitive viewpoint argue that learning, particularly in humans, cannot be satisfactorily explained in terms of stimulus response associations. They propose that the learner forms a cognitive structure in memory, which preserves and organizes information about the various events that occur in a learning situation.

When a test is made to determine how much has been learned is largely depend upon the situation. When a test is made to determine how much has been learned, the subject must encode the test stimulus and scan it against his memory to determine an appropriate action. What is done will depend upon the cognitive structure retrieved from memory, which preserves and organizes information about the various events that occur in a learning situation. When a test is made to determine how much has been learned, the I subject must encode the test stimulus and scan it against his memory to determine an appropriate action. What is done will depend upon the cognitive structure retrieved from memory, and the contex1 in which the test occurs. Thus the subject’s response is a decision process that varies with the nature of the test situation and the subject’s memory for prior events.’

Insight Experiments

Partly in protest against too much study of the kinds of learning that involve stimulusresponse associations, Wolfgang Kohler, a German psychologist who immigrated to the United States. performed a series of dramatic experiments with chimpanzees. At some point in working on a problem, chimpanzees appeared to grasp its inner relationships through insight; that is, they solved the problem not through mere trial and error, but by perceiving the relationships essential to solution. The following experiment by Kohlier is typical.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Sultan (Kohler’s most intelligent chimpanzee) is squatting at the bars but cannot reach the fruit which lies outside by means of his only available short stick.· A longer stick is deposited outside the bars, about two meters on one side of the object and parallel with the grating. It cannot be grasped with the hand, but it can be pulled within reach by means of the small stick. Sultan tries to reach the fruit with the smaller of the two sticks. Not succeeding, he tears at a piece of wire that projects from the netting of his cage, but that too, is in vain. Then he around about him (there are always in the course of these tests some long pauses, during which the animals scrutinize the whole visible area). He suddenly picks up the little stick once more, goes up to the bars directly opposite to the long stick, scratches it towards him with the “auxiliary,” seizes it, and goes with it to the point opposite the objective (the fruit), which he secures. From the moment that his eyes fall upon the long stick, his procedure forms one consecutive whole, picking the bigger stick by means of the smaller is an action that could be complete and distinct in itself, yet observation shows that it follows, quite suddenly, on an interval of hesitation and doubt staring about-which undoubtedly has a relation to the final objective. Then it is merged in the final action of the attainment of the end goal.

Other types of Cognitive Learning Apart from the learning types mentioned, hitherto, there are certain other types of learning are prevalent. This may appear simple but do have lot of social relevance and day to day living. They are:

a) Latent Learning

The word latent means “hidden” or that is too obvious. Latent learning refers to the learning that occurs but this learning is not obvious or apparent until the conditions for its appearance are favorable. Latent learning is essentially cognitive learning since it occurs without reinforcements for particular responses; it also involves changes in the methods in which information is processed.

b) Insight Learning

The term insight describes the phenomenon in which a problem is posed. This is followed by a period of no apparent improvement in solving the problem. Then a sudden solution occurs. The suddenness of the solution is the unique nature of insight. Insight learning occurs because it involves a perceptual reorganization of the elements in the environment suddenly new relationships among objects and events are seen. The nature of perceptual reorganization would be seen clearly by getting to know the experiments conducted by Wolfgang Kohler, a German psychologist. He conducted many experiments making use of chimpanzees as his subjects and this is explained in the next unit.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

c) Imitation and Modeling

Learning by modeling is also known as observational learning, learning by imitation, vicarious learning and social learning, such learning involves the observation of a response or a sequence of responses on the part of somebody else and later incorporation and display of these in one’s own behaviour is known as modeling or imitation.

Though the basic principle of modeling is the same, it may occur in many different ways. Live modeling or observation is one kind. This refers to the common form of learning, is by direct observation of a live model by the learner. This involves significant persons like the parents, friends and teachers with whom the observer has frequent contacts. Verbal modeling is another, which, perhaps is mostly characteristic of human beings. For example, through the use of vocabulary a person can learn from another (such as a short-cut route to a destination). Imitative behaviour is important in understanding such psychological phenomena as language learning, attitude formation and personality development.

PROGRAMMED LEARNING

Programmed learning is essentially an instructional procedure that represents an application of learning principles to educational practice. This instructional procedure requires learner participation, provides immediate feedback and permits each individual to progress at his or her own pace.

According to DL. Cook programmed learning is a term sometimes used synonymously to refer to the broader concept of auto instructional method. According to Fred Stoftel,” The arrangements of the tiny bits of knowledge into a logical frequency is called the programme and its process is called programmed learning”

Principles of Programmed Instruction

The principles of programmed learning are as follows:-

Small steps: The materials to be programmed are divided into meaningful segment are presented through small steps.

Immediate Confirmation or feed back: As soon as the learner proceeds through programmes, his response, is immediately confirmed as to be either correct or incorrect by knowledge of results (KR) and feedback is immediately provided.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Active Responding: For the success of any programme the learner has to any how respond. Response is core of programmed learning that keeps the learner busy through out the programme.

Self pacing: An individual learner proceeds through a programme at his own pace without care for the group. He is not forced to move quickly by the teacher without mastery.

Student Testing: Regular and continuous testing of the effectiveness of the programme to the particular individual learner is conducted by the particular individual learner is conducted by the teacher with a view to improve upon it.

Book “Programmed Instruction; Techniques and trends� has classified principles of programmed instructions into two groups. Mandatory Principle, and Optional principle. We would discuss each of there principles in brief:

(i) Mandatory Principle

(1) Objective specification: The programme, while developing a programmed instructional maternal, specifies the objectives of the programme in behavioural terms. He further specifies the conditions under which the terminal behaviours are to be manifested and states explicitly restrictions to be imposed. The standard of judging the acceptable performance is also mentioned in definite terms.

(2) Empirical Testing: Programmed material is empirically tested material. The programmer, after writing a few initial draft of the programme tries it out in the following three phases.

(a) Individual tries out- The first draft of the programme is tested on .an individual in face to face testing. The Reactions of the individual recorded for each frap1~.

(b) Small group try out - After modifying the programme on the basis of individual try out, the programme to test on five to ten representative students of the class for which it is developed.

(c) Field try out - At the third stage, the programme, after modification on the observation of small group, is administered in actual class room conditions.

(3) Self pacing: In programmed learning, the learner decides the rate at which he progresses through the programme. He adjusts the pace of the work to his own ability and

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR motivation level. He is not forced to work with the speed of other students of the class. The principle of self pacing incorporates the concept of individualized instruction.

(ii) Optional Principles

(1) Overt Responding: The learners are asked to respond frequently to explicit or implicit questions as they progress through the programme. The overt response requirement of programmed learning insures that the learner will become and remain active and attentive to the instructional material. The active involvement of the learner increases the learner’s motivation.

(2) Immediate Feed Back: Back to the learner. It is the knowledge of the result or the performance of the learner. When a learner works through a programmed text, he is immediately fed back by comparing his response with the response of the programme.

(3) Small step size: As already described the body of knowledge is broken into small units (Frames) of meaningful information and presented one frame at a time.

Psychological Principles under laying Programmed Learning

Ernest R.Hilgard has summed up the psychological principles of learning which support programmed learning.

(1)

Programmed learning recognizes individual difference by beginning where the learner is and by permitting him to proceed at Rise own pace. It is possible that programmed learning may success in reducing individual differences because of there features.

(2)

Programmed learning requires the learner to be active. Since learner is active he I she feels more involved and learns faster.

(3)

Programmed learning provides immediate knowledge of results.

(4)

Programmed learning emphasizes the organized nature of results knowledge because it requires continuity between the easier (earlier) concepts and harder (later ones).

(5)

Programmed learning provides spaced review in order to guarantee the high order of success that has become a standard requirement of good programmer.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR (6)

Programmed learning reduces anxiety because the learner is not threatened by task.

Advantages:

programmed instruction has innumerable advantages over the traditional methods of learning that have been proved through research. A few of those are enumerated as under.

(I)Foreign languages drill in spelling, factual information can best be taught through programmed instruction.

(II) Teachers being free from routine classroom activities can devote more independent time and think more creatively in case of programmed instruction.

(III) Social and emotional problems, especially in the West, have been effectively dealt through programmed instructions in the classroom. The self instructional materials have successfully eliminated the problem of indiscipline inside the class.

(IV) It caters for the individual needs through individualized instruction and self pacing and can better serve a heterogeneous population of learners.

(V) It helps the teacher to clearly diagnose the needs and problems of the individual learner and correct those on personal basis without any delay that is quite absent in a traditional classroom of uncountable students.

(VI) Learning becomes interesting through programmed instruction. It provides challenge to the individual confirmation of correct responses provides sufficient motivation to proceed at a quicker speed to wards cent percent mastery.

Limitations of Programmed learning

Though the supporters of programmed learning make high claims and point out many advantages, there are certain limitations in programmed learning which require presence of the teacher.

(I) In programmed learning students learn how to search out the facts needed for a given purpose. E.g. Students can not develop the habit of using a dictionary of going the library with the help of a teaching machine or programmed learning.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR (II)

In the rapidly changing world new situations arise quickly. In order to function

effectively in new situation and adjust accordingly, the students require developing certain personality qualities and social maturity.

(III)

The third limitation of the programmed learning is that it does not develop in students

the ability to discover problems for them selves and solve them on their own.

(IV)

Programmed learning does not develop creativity among students to the extent a

teacher can.

(V)

Teaching machines provide programmed learning in a scientific manner and thus

programmed is the science of teaching. As regards the art of teaching it is possible only withthe help of a teacher.

(VI)

Teaching machines and programme learning ignore the human factor and do not

provide opportunities for human relations, which is now regarded as the fourth R. The 3 Rs. being reading, writing, and arithmetic.

(VII)

Another limitation in programmed learning is that it does not help in socialization of

students. It is in peer groups play groups and work groups that social development of children takes place

Application of Programmed Learning

Programmed instruction can be applied where ever learning occurs, whether in the classroom or in the industrial setting. In the classroom it helps in regular instruction, enrichment of learning and for remedial instruction. In industry, it helps discriminating the technical innovations through refresher courses for up-to date professional development. This can also be applied in teaching military sciences in defence, for example teaching of electronic trouble shooting programmed instructions.

The use of programmed learning finds application in the following areas:

1.

Teacher’s training: Programmed material can be used at all levels of teacher education programmes. Many teachers need to keep abreast with knowledge latest developments in the field. In There areas programmed instruction is of considerable aid.

2.

Correspondence Courses: Education through correspondence courses or distance education is becoming very popular. \t is emerging as a very successful media for

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR educating the masses as well as those who want to continue their education.

3.

Non formal education: Nor-formal education is becoming highly popular in India, especially with especially with unprivileged groups masses. Non-formal education makes use of programmed learning.

4.

Use of programmed material in air force: Programming techniques can be used to

train cadets in air force.

5.

Use in Banks: In U.S.A all banks use programmed material for training cashiers.

6.

Use for gifted children: Carefully programmed material can be used to enrich the

curriculum to cater to the needs of gifted children.

7.

Vocational training: Programmed instruction has been applied to vocational training

and psychotherapy. A technique of programmed therapy has been recently developed to correct deviants to rehabilitate emotionally disturbed children.

8.

Modification of deviant behaviour: Programmed instructional material has been

used very successfully to modify the behaviour of deviant children. A project has been undertaken at Draper correctional centre Elmore Alabama. The population consisted of young sociopath offenders. The objective was to reduce the rate of offences to rehabilitate the offenders in the society. The immediate aim was to raise the academic standard to develop vocational proficiency in the inmates. To achieve the Objectives, the project staff utilized th~/ programmed instruction adapting to the needs of individuals. The result ofthe project was very significant.

9.

Programmed instruction and exceptional children: programmed instructional

material has been used on disturbed children slow learners with great success. Eldred his coworkers conducted a study on slow learner’s under-achievers with programmed instructional technique. The student shied great improvement in their performance.

Special programmes should be developed for exceptional children. Abraham 1966 warned about the false assumption that a programme developed for so called typical children will work for exceptional children, disadvantaged population dropouts delinquents others.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR PROGRAMMED LEARNING AND AUTOMATED INSTRUCTION

For centuries teachers have stood in front of classrooms and dispensed words of wisdom. Students passed or failed depending on how much of this knowledge they could recall at the time of an examination. This form of instruction has obvious limitations when compared to a tutorial arrangement - a one-to-one relationship between the student and teacher. But the cost of tutorial education makes it impractical on a large-scale basis. In the 1950s, under the guidance of B.F. Skinner at Harvard University, an effort was made to approximate some aspects of tutorial instruction in the form of a teaching machine. The basic idea was to present information to the student in a series of frames. Each frame contains a new item of information and also poses a question which the student must answer. After writing the answer (usually in a word or brief phrase), the student turns a knob that uncovers the correct answer and exposes the next instructional frame. In this way the student goes step-wise through a course, gradually being introduced to each unit of instruction and being tested to see that he understands it.

With the advent of computers it became evident that teaching devices could be developed that would be far ore flexible and responsive to the student than the Skinner-type teaching machine. As yet the use of computers in business, science, and engineering far exceeds applications in education. However, if potentials are properly realized, the nature of education during our lifetime will be radically changed by the computer. The most important feature of computerized instruction is that it permits a high degree of individualization; each student can proceed at his own pace following a path through the curriculum best suited to his particular interest and talents.

COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI)

Because of its great speed of operation, a large computer can handle many students simultaneously as many as several thousand students each at a different point in one of several hundred different curricula. One of the student terminals of a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system used for research purposes at Stanford University. Located at each student’s station are a cathode-ray tube, a microfilm-display device, earphones, and a typewriter keyboard. Each device is under computer control. The computer sends out instructions to the terminal to display a particular image on the microfilm projector to write a message of text or construct a geometric figure on the cathode-ray tube and simultaneously plays an auditory message. The student sees the visual display, hears the auditory message, and then may be required to respond. The student responds by operating the typewriter keyboard or by touching the surface of the cathode-ray tube with an electronic pencil. This response is fed back to the computer and evaluated.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR If the student is correct the computer moves on to the next instructional item; if incorrect the computer evaluates the type of error made and then branches to appropriate remedial material. A complete record on each student is stored in the computer and is updated with each new response. The record is checked periodically to evaluate the student’s rate of progress and to determine any particular difficulties. A student making exceptionally good progress may be moved ahead in the lesson sequence, or branched out to special materials designed to enrich his understanding of the curriculum. A student having difficulties may be branched back to review earlier materials or to a special remedial sequence. in a very real sense the CAI system simulates the human tutorial process.

Although CAI has had only limited development, experience and research support the claim that it will have wide application in the future. For example; CAI programs designed to teach reading in the early grades have proved remarkably successful Children receiving computer-based instruction made significant gains over comparable groups taught by traditional classroom methods (Atkinson, 1974).

One interesting outcome of CAI concerns sex differences in reading. With traditional teaching methods girls generally learn to read more rapidly than boys. Several explanations have been offered for this difference. The environment of the primary classroom, which is often run by a female teacher, nay be more oriented toward the needs of girls. The fact that first-grade girls rend to be more mature physically than boys of the same age may also be important. Whatever the explanation, this sex difference in reading performance disappears with the CAI reading program. Boys progress through the curriculum as rapidly as the girls, and do equally well on tests administered at the end of the school year.

Instruction under computer control has also been used successfully at the college level.

Instructional Program

The essence of teaching, whether in the classroom or under computer control, lies in the arrangement of the material to be learned. A body of material arranged so as to be most readily mastered is called a program. Instructional programs have two basic formats: the linear program and the branching program. With the linear program, the student progresses along a single track from one frame to the next; each time an item is answered the student moves on to the next regardless of whether the response was correct. The branching program allows the learner to take any number of different paths through the curriculum. Each response is evaluated; that evaluation determines, in part, where the student goes next. An error in response is pointed out, and the student is given help to avoid making that error again. The student who has done very well on a number of questions may be given an

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR opportunity to jump ahead; the one who has made too many mistakes may retrace his steps or taken alternative route in an effort to resolve difficulties.

TRANSFER OF LEARNING

An important issue in optimizing learning is the extent to which the learning of one thing facilitates the learning of something else. If everything we learner was specific to the situation in which it was leaned, the amount of learn in that would have to be crammed into a lifetime would be phenomenal Fortunately, most learning is readily transferable, with some modification, to a number of different situations.

The influence that learning one task may have on the subsequent learning of another is called transfer of learning. The term positive transfer is used when learning one task does facilitate learning another. If one is a good tennis player it is easier to learn to play squash; this is positive transfer. But transfer is not always positive; when interference occurs, we have negative transfer.

There are numerous examples of negative transfer in everyday life. When driving a car with automatic transmission after having been accustomed to one with a hand gear, we may find ourselves pressing a nonexistent clutch pedal. When changing from a pedal-brake to a hand-brake bicycle, we me still try to press back on the pedal when we have to stop quickly. And the transition from driving on the left -hand side of the street to the American procedure of driving on the right is difficult for many Indian visitors to America and vice versa. The original habit is so over learned that even after driving successfully on the left for some time, an individual may revert to right-side driving when required to act quickly in an emergency.

Doctrine of Formal discipline

The problem of transfer of learning has been historically of great concern to educators. For them it constitutes the very important practical question of “how the school curricula should be arranged to ensure maximum positive transfer. Does learning algebra help in the learning of geometry? Which of the sciences should be taught first to ensure maximum transfer to other science courses?

One of the earliest notions of transfer of learning, prevalent among educators around the turn of the century, maintained that the mind was composed of faculties that could be strengthened through exercise, much as individual muscles can be strengthened. This notion, known as the doctrine of formal discipline, was advanced in support of keeping such studies as Latin and Greek in the high school curriculum. It was argued that the study of mother tongue/native language, for example, trains a students powers of self-discipline, reasoning,

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR and observation.

Learning to Learn

A special example of transfer of training is a phenomenon that psychologists have labeled learning to learn. Subjects who learn successive lists of verbal materials over a period of days are able to increase the speed with which they learn subsequent lists. Positive transfer occurs even though the lists are not similar. The subjects apparently learn a technique or an approach to the task that facilitates their performance on later tasks of the same sort.

Another example of learning to learn is provided by an experiment in which monkeys are presented with a series of discrimination problems. For each problem the animal is shown two objects for example, a red triangle and a green circle and is reinforced with food if it selects the correct object, which might be the red triangle. Object position is alternated in a random order from trail to trial so that sometimes the triangle is on the right and sometimes on the left. The animal must learn to ignore positional cues in selecting the correct object. After the monkey has learned consistently to select the correct object, it is given a problem involving a different pair of objects.

Transfer by Mastering Principles

One factor that makes transfer possible is the appropriate application to new situations of principles learned in old situations. The Wright brothers applied the principles they learned in flying kites to building an airplane. Principles of reasoning learned in logic are equally applicable in mathematics. The following experiment demonstrates the advantage of learning principles.

Reward and Punishment in Learning

Anyone responsible for training or instructing, whether at home, in school, or in business, has to decide what motivational techniques to use. Success may depend upon the skillful use of rewards and punishments to encourage and guide the learning process.

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards

In choosing goals for the learner, it may be possible to select those intrinsically related to the task rather that those extrinsically related. A goal is intrinsic if it is natural or inevitable. For example, the boy who assembles a radio in order to communicate with a friend derives a satisfaction inherent in the task when he completes the instrument and finds that it

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR works. The relation between a task and a goal is extrinsic if it is arbitrarily or artificially established. For example, a father may promise to buy his son a radio if the cuts the grass each week. The radio is an incentive extrinsically related to cutting grass; there is no natural relationship between cutting grass and a radio.

The distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is not clear-cut, and in most learning situations both, types of motivation are involved. A child !earning to ride a bicycle is usually intrinsically motivated by the pleasure derived from mastering this new skill. But fear of derision from his peers if he fails may also be a motivation, an ex1rinsic one.

Whenever possible, it is advantageous to use goals intrinsically related to the learning task. A child whose interest in music has been stimulated at an early age will persevere in practicing the piano longer than one whose motivation stems solely from promised rewards and threats of punishment. But even the intrinsically motivated child may require some extrinsic rewards when the drudgery involved in mastery outweighs the satisfaction of making music. !n most cases, if the person who guides and controls the learning situation can capitalize on intrinsic motives, the battle is half won.

We know that rewards are effective, but extrinsic rewards-such as prizes for excellence-may have some objectionable by products:

1.

A reward planned by an adult (parent or teacher) and arbitrarily related to the activity is like a bribe, and may lead to docility and deference to authority rather than to originality and self-initiated activity. It may engender in the child an attitude of “What do I get out of this?� The activity becomes worthwhile only for the praise, attention, or financial gain it brings. Cheating on examinations sometimes occurs when desire for the external reward outweighs regard for the processes by which the reward is achieved.

2.

Rewards are often competitive. One or a few learners may be encouraged by the reward, but many will be frustrated. If there is only one prize and many contestants, the problems of the losers must be considered. Is the gain to the winner worth the price in disappointment to the losers?

These remarks, however, should not be interpreted as justification for eliminating all extrinsic rewards in home or school situations. Evidence (to be discussed later with regard to behaviour modification.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Controlling Learning through Punishment

Folklore leads us to believe that punishment is an effective way of controlling learning. “Spare the rod and spoil the child’ is not an isolated epigram. Fines and imprisonment are forms of social control that are sanctioned by all governments. For many years arguments have continued over the relative advantages and disadvantages of benevolent treatment (emphasizing reward for good behaviour) and stern treatment (emphasizing punishment for error). The preference has shifted slowly from punishment to reward.

Has this shift come about solely on humanitarian grounds or has punishment been found less effective than reward? Evidence from psychological experiments indicates two important conclusions:

(1) punishment is often less effective than reward because it temporarily suppresses a response but does not weaken it and

(2) when punishment is effective it accomplishes its purpose by forcing the individual to select an alternative response that may then be rewarded.

PROS AND CONS ON THE USE OF PUNISHMENT:

In addition to its suppressive effect, punishment may unsatisfactorily control behaviour for the following reasons:

1.

The results of punishment, although they may include altered behaviour, are not as predictable as the result of reward. Reward says: “Repeat what you have done.” Punishment says “Stop it!” Punishment by itself fails to give you an alternative. As a result, an even more undesirable response may be substituted for the punished one.

2.

Punishment under some circumstances tends to fix the behaviour rather than eliminate it, perhaps as a consequence of the fear and anxiety induced by the punishment. Punishing a child for wetting the bed, for example, often increases the frequency of the behaviour.

3.

The byproducts of punishment may be unfortunate. Punishment often leads to dislike of the punishing person-whether parent, teacher, or employer-and to a dislike of the situation in which the punishment occurred.

These cautions about punishment do not mean that punishment is never serviceable

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR in learning and teaching. In fact, it may be useful for several reasons:

1.

Punishment can effectively eliminate an undesirable response if alternative

responses are available that are not punished or, better yet, are rewarded. Rats who learned to take the shorter of two paths to reach food in a goal box will quickly switch to the longer path if they are shocked in the shorter one. In fact, they will learn the new response more quickly than animals whose response of taking the shorter path is blocked by a newly placed barrier. In this case, the temporary suppression produced by punishment provided the opportunity for the organism to learn a new response. Punishment was an effective means of redirecting behaviour.

2.Punishment can be quite effective when all we want is that the organism responds to a signal to avoid punishment. For example, people learn to come inside when they hear thunder, or to seek shade when it is hot and additional sun may cause uncomfortable sunburn. Avoiding a threatened punishment can be rewarding. The policeman is seldom a punishing person; he is more usually a symbol of threatened punishment. How does a policeman control us if he has never struck us with his stick or placed us under arrest? Our anxiety explains his control over us. If we drive too fast, and see a police car in the rearview mirror, we become anxious lest we get a ticket, and feel reassured when we have slowed down and the police officer has driven past without stopping us. Our reward comes from the reduction in anxiety we feel as a result of conforming to the law.

3.

Punishment may be informative. A child who handles electrical appliances

and gets shocked may learn which connections are safe, which hazardous. A teacher’s corrections on a student’s paper can be regarded as punishing; but they are also informative and can provide an occasion for learning. Informative punishment can redirect behaviour so that the new behaviour can be rewarded.

PERCEPTION

a) Color Constancy

Familiar objects appear to retain their color under a variety of lighting conditions even colored light provided there are sufficient contrasts and shadows. The owner of a blue car sees it as blue whether looking at it in bright sunlight, in dim illumination, or under a yellow street light. He is relying on his memory of the car’s color, which is one factor contributing to color constancy. Information about the nature of the illumination and the color of surrounding objects are also clues to color constancy.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR b) Shape and size constancy

When a door sings open toward us, its shape as projected on the retina goes through a series of distortions. The door’s rectangular shape becomes a trapezoid, with the edge toward us looking wider than the hinged edge; then the trapezoid grows thinner, until all that is projected on the retina is a vertical line the thickness of the door. We can readily distinguish these changes, but the psychological experience is an unchanging door swinging on its hinges. The fact that the door does not seem to change it shape is an example of shape constancy.

Size constancy refers to the fact that as an object is moved farther away we tend to see it as more or less invariant in size. Studies of what people blind from birth see when their sight is restored through surgery show that the figure-ground organization is present even when other features of perception are missing. Adults who see for the first time have no difficulty seeing something as a figure on a background, although they are unable to identify familiar forms by sight.

We can perceive figure ground relationships through senses other than vision. For example, we may hear the song of a bird against a background of outdoor noises or the melody played by the violin against the harmonies of the rest of the orchestra.

FIGURE AND GROUND

Geometrical patterns are always seen as figures against a background and thus appear to be like objects, with contours and boundaries. Figure-ground organization is basic to stimulus patterning. Patterns do not have to contain identifiable objects to be structured as figure and ground. Patterns of black and white and many wallpaper designs are perceived as figure-ground relationships, and very often figure and ground are reversible.

In the following figure note that the part that is seen as figure seems more solid and well defined and tends to appear slightly in front of the background, even though the spaces in and around the figure to a uniform background behind, whether the background is in white (or a light color) or black (or a dark color).

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Fig: A Butterfly or Two Faces?

Reversible Figures

In spite of producing a ‘good figure’ with the information given above, it will be not be maintained if the formulation and integrity of their borders is interfered by the introduction of succeeding ‘stronger’ figures.

The multiple interpretations are afforded by the ‘ambiguous figures’, a sub-class in this type of figure is ‘reversible figures’. In such figures, perception seems to be perversely unstable. That is, a figure may remain detectable; its spatial stability may be disrupted in the absence of an articulated background.

A reversible figure is so structured that it gives rise to two possible figure ground relations. That is, at one time figure A becomes the figure and figure B becomes the ground, subsequently, figure B becomes the figure and figure A becomes the ground. in this, in any ideal condition which maintains stable perception, instability will occur if given a chance. But, the total figure does not disappear, only analogous to disappearance occurs. Alternative figures replace each other; when one is dominant, the other is in abeyance. The lines remain visible, but the interpretations change.

Perceptual Grouping and Patterning

Even simple patterns of lines and dots fall into ordered relationships when we look at them. In the top part of figure we tend to see three pairs of lines, with an extra line at the right. But notice that we could have seen three pairs beginning at the right with an extra line at the left. The slight modification shown in the lower part of the figure causes us to do just that. This tendency to structure what we see is very compelling; what we see in figures seems to be forced on us by the patterns of stimulation. The properties of wholes affect the ways in which parts are perceived. For that reason we may say following the lead of Gestalt psychology that the whole is different from the sum of its parts.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

Visual Illusions

Sometimes we select a perceptual hypothesis that is actually incorrect; in this case we experience an illusion. Visual i1iusions have long intrigued psychologists by studying stimulus situations where perceptions are misleading; they hoped to gain information about how perception works.

MOVEMENT PERCEPTION

When you perceive movement, you sense action in space taking place over time. Usually the perception of movement is explained according to the stimulation of successive parts of the sensory surface. When an image moves across our line of vision it produces a pattern of successive stimulation of the rods and cones, and we perceive movement.

When you turn your head to look around the room. Images move across the retina, yet objects in the room appear stationary.

Some higher brain process apparently integrates the information from the retinal stimulation and the kinesthetic information from your head, neck, and eye muscles to tell you that your head or eyes are moving, not the room.

Apparent Motion

It is also possible to perceive motion without a successive pattern of stimulation. We will now consider some examples of this kind of apparent motion.

(i) Autokinetic effect: If you stare for a few seconds at a single spot of light in a completely dark room, the-light will appear to move about in an erratic manner-sometimes oscillating back and forth, sometimes swooping off in one direction. This apparent movement of a stationary light, known as the auto kinetic effect.

(ii) Stroboscopic motion: Another kind of apparent motion is known as stroboscopic motion this illusion of motion is created when separated stimuli, not in motion, are presented in succession. Each frame of a film is slightly different from the preceding one, but if the frames are presented rapidly enough, the pictures blend into smooth motion.

A simpler form of stroboscopic motion, known as the phi phenomenon, when one light blinks on and then off, followed shortly by another, there is the illusion of a single light moving from the position of the first to the position of the second, and so on. The apparent movement

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR is seen as occurring through the empty space between the two lights.

Real motion

We can see apparent motion, when there is no real motion at all. The perception of real motion is even more complex; it depends upon the relations between objects within the visual field. Whenever there is movement, the perceptual system must decide what is moving and what is stationary with reference to some frame of reference. Experiments have shown that when the only information we have about movement is visually we tend to assume that large objects are stationary and smaller objects are moving. If a subject views a spot of light within a frame or against a screen background and the frame is moved while the spot remains stationary, he will perceive that spot as moving. This type of induced movement experienced when the moon is viewed through a thin cover of moving clouds. In a clear sky the moon appears to be stationary.

Depth Perception

Our study of perception would be incomplete without considering the problems of perceiving the third dimension that is distance and depth. The retina is essentially a twodimensional surface. How, then, is it possible to perceive things as filling a space of three dimensions?

(i) Binocular Cues to Depth

Many of the facts of vision can be treated by considering phenomena that can be registered with one eye only. A man with vision in only one eye has most of the visual experiences of a man using two eyes. He sees colors, forms, and space relationships, including third-dimensional configurations. We might suppose that two suppose that two eyes have evolved merely to give man a “spare� in case of injury, just as he has two kidneys although one is enough.

A man with vision in both eyes does have advantages over a man with vision in one eye: his total visual field is larger, so that he can see more at once, and he has the benefit of stereoscopic vision. In stereoscopic vision the two eyes cooperate to yield the experience of solidity and distance. That the experience does indeed depend upon the cooperate of the two eyes is clear enough from the effects that can be produced with a stereoscope. In these device two flat pictures, presented one before each eye, combine to yield an experience of depth very different from that received from a single flat picture. The depth appears real, as though the objects pictured were exactly set up on a stage or in their true relations of depth and distance.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

Stereoscopic experience differs from the experience of the third dimension in single flat pictures because of retinal disparity. Since our eyes are separated in our head, the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye; the stereoscopic effect results from the combination of these slightly different pictures in one view. You can easily demonstrate retinal disparity for yourself. With one eye closed hold a pencil about a foot in front of you and line it up with some vertical edge on the opposite wall. Open that eye and close the other. The pencil will appear to have moved a considerable distance from its original alignment. If you line up the pencil with both eyes open and then close each eye alternately, you can determine which your dominant eye is; that is, if the pencil shifts when you close the right eye, your right eye is dominant (which is usually the case with right-handed individuals).

The facts of stereoscopic vision are clear enough, but just how the process works is not so clear. Because of the way in which the nerve fibers from the eyes are separated in passing to the brain, the combination cannot take place in the eyes. Information from the two eyes must somehow be combined in the brain, probably at the level of the visual cortex (Barlow, 1972).

(ii) Monocular Cues to Depth

Although having two eyes helps us to perceive depth and distance, we are by no means restricted to binocular effects for this perception. Closing one eye causes the loss of some precision, but there is much left to go on. An artist is able to give depth to his picture because he can make use of the many monocular cues that tell us the distance of objects.

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The above Figure illustrates four types of cures that are used in the perception of depth. If one object appears to cut off the view of another, the presumption is strong that the first object is nearer (Figure A). If there is an array of like objects of different sizes then the smaller ones are perceived as being in the distance. Even a series of scattered circles of different sizes may be viewed as spheres of the same size at varying distances (Figure B); another hint of perspective is height in the horizontal plane. As we look along a flat plane objects further away appear to be higher, so that we can create the impression of depth for

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR objects of the same size by placing them at different heights (Figure C). Even for irregular surfaces, such as a rocky desert or the waving surface of the ocean, there is a gradient of texture with distance, so that the “grain� becomes finer as distance becomes greater (Figure D).

THE ROLE OF LEARNING IN PERCEPTION

The phenomena of perceptual organization movement, and depth perception, and the various perceptual constancies lend themselves to simple and convincing experimental demonstrations, so that by now there is general agreement over what the subject perceives. Disagreements remain, however, over how to explain what happens. One of the traditional problems of visual perception has been the question of whether our abilities to perceive the spatial aspects of our environment are learned or innate. This is the familiar nature-nurture problem, and its investigation with relation to perception goes back to the philosophers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Natives and Empiricist Viewpoints

One group, the atavists (Descartes, Kant), argued that we are born with the ability to perceive the way we do. I n contrast, the empiricists (Berkeley, Locke) maintained that we learn our ways of perceiving through experience with objects in the world about us. Among the early sensory psychologists, Herring and Helmholtz (whose theories of color vision were discussed in Unit 5) held opposing views. Herring pointed to retinal disparity as evidence for the view that our eyes are innately designed to perceive depth; he developed a theory of distance vision based on the fact that each eye registers a different image. Helmholtz argued that visual perceptions were too variable (for example, the reversible figure) to be explained on the basis of fixed receptor mechanisms and must therefore be learned.

Most contemporary psychologists believe that a fruitful integration of these two viewpoints is possible. No one today really doubts that practice and experience affect perception. The question is whether we are born with some ability to perceive objects and space in our environment or whether these abilities are completely learned. Let us examine some of the areas of research that yield information on the role of learning in perception.

Effects of Restored Vision

As far back as the seventeenth century, Locke quotes a letter he received from a colleague, in which the problem is posed:

Suppose a man born blind, and now adult, taught by is touch to distinguish between a

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR cube and a sphere of the same metal, and nightly of the same bigness, so as to tell, when he felt one and the other, which is the cube, which the sphere. Suppose that the cube and the sphere placed on a table, and the blind man be made to see... (Could be) now distinguish and tell which is the globe, which the cube? (Locke, 1690).

Locke, supporting the empiricist viewpoint, concluded that he could not. A partial answer to this question is provided by studies of individuals who were blind from birth with cataracts on both eyes and whose vision was restored by surgical means when they were adults (Senden, 1960). When the eye bandages are removed for the first time, the patient is confused by the bewildering array of visual stimuli. He is able, however, to distinguish figure from ground (apparently perceiving figure-ground relationships in much the same way as normally sighted people do), to fixate figures, scan them, and follow moving figures with his eyes. These abilities then appear to be innate. He cannot identify by sight alone objects very familiar from the sense of touch, such as faces, knives, and keys. He cannot distinguish a triangle from a square without counting the number of corners or tracing the outline with a finger. He also cannot tell which of two uneven sticks is longer without feeling them, although he may report that the two sticks look somehow different. Often it takes several weeks of training for such patients to learn to identify simple objects well from sight, and even after identification has been learned in a specific situation, the patient shows little evidence of generalization or perceptual constancy.

These studies of previously blind adults who are suddenly able to see for the first time suggest that our perceptions develop gradually from primitive visual experiences in which figure--ground relationships and color predominate, becoming more accurate and more detailed with practice. They cannot, however, be take-n as conclusive evidence of the innate visual ability of the infant.

Visual Deprivation with Animals

In an attempt to provide a more controlled situation similar to restored vision in humans, animals have been raised in various degrees of darkness and then tested for visual ability. Investigators who reared infant chimpanzees in total darkness until they were sixteen months old found serious perceptual deficiencies when the animals were tested upon first exposure to light. But these chimpanzees were later discovered to have defective retinas. Apparently a certain amount of light stimulation is necessary for normal anatomical development of the visual system. Without any light stimulation, nerve cells in the retina and the visual cortex begin to atrophy. This fact is interesting in itself, but it does not tell us much about the role of learning in perceptual development.

Later studies made use of translucent goggles so that the animals received light

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR stimulation, but of a diffuse, unattended form. Studies have been carried out with monkeys, chimpanzees, and kittens wearing translucent goggle from birth to anywhere from one to three months of age. The result showed that although some simple perceptual abilities were unimpaired, more complex visual activity was seriously affected. The visually deprived animals did almost as well as normal animals in distinguishing differences in color, brightness, and size. But they could not perform such tasks as following a moving object with their eyes, discriminating forms (a circle from a square of triangle), perceiving depth, and distinguishing between a moving and a nonmoving stimulus.

Perception in Infants

If the human infant could tell us what the world looks like to him, many of our questions concerning the development of perception might be answered. Since he cannot, experimenters have had to stretch their ingenuity to try to measure the visual abilities of infants.

An infant’s perception of height, a special case of depth perception, has been investigated. The apparatus has been used with human and various animal infants in attempts to determine whether the ability to perceive and avoid a brink is innate or must be learned by the experience of falling off and getting hurt. Most parents, mindful of the caution they exercise to keep their offspring from falling out of the crib or down the stairs, would assume that his ability to appreciate height is something the child must learn. But observation of the human infant’s susceptibility to such accidents does not tell us whether he is unable to discriminate depth or whether he can indeed respond to depth cues but lacks the motor control to keep from falling.

Gibson and Walk (1960) tested the response of infants, ranging in age from 6-14 months, when placed on the centerboard of the visual cliff. The mother called to the child from the cliff side and the shallow side successively. Almost all the infants crawled off on the shallow side but refused to crawl on the deep side. Their dependence on vision was demonstrated by the fact that they frequently peered through the glass on the deep side and then backed away. Some of the infants patted the glass with their hands but still remained unasserted that it was solid and refused to cross.

ATTENTION AND PERCEPTION

Our perceptions are selective. We do not react equally to all the stimuli impinging upon us; instead we focus upon a few. This perceptual focusing· is called attention. Through attentive processes we keep in focus-selected stimuli and resist distracting stimuli.

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Selective Attention

We are constantly bombarded by stimuli to which we do not attend. In fact, our brains would be quite overloaded if we had to attend to every stimulus present in our environment. Somehow, our brain selects those stimuli that the pertinent and ignores the others until a change in a particular stimulus makes it important for us to notice it. There is evidence, however, those stimuli to which we are not actively attending still register in some form in our perceptual system, even though we may not recognize them at the time. Consider what takes place during a cocktail party. Out of the complex volume of sound generated by the wavelengths of many voices taken together, you are able to listen to one voice. Although you may think you are not attending to the other voices, let someone in the far corner of the room mention your name and you are immediately aware of it; apparently the nervous system monitors the other voices for relevant stimuli without your being aware of such activity.

Determinants of Stimulus Selection

What factors determine which of many competing stimuli will gain our attention? The characteristics of the stimulus are important, as are our own internal needs, expectancies, and past experience. The advertiser is concerned with discovering these factors so that he can direct attention to his product. Some physical properties of the stimulus that are important in gaining attention are intensity, size, contrast, and movement.

Certain internal variables, such as motives and expectations, are equally important in determining which stimulus attracts our attention. The advertiser counts on an appeal to the male sex drives when he uses pictures of scantily clad females to advertise anything from carpets to automobile tires. In a culture where hunger is a more generally unsatisfied drive than sex, pictures of food might prove to be a more powerful attention-getter.

Because of habitual or momentary interests, individual vary greatly in their responses to the same stimuli. The naturalist will hear sounds in the woods that the ordinary picnicker would miss. A mother will hear her baby’s cry above the conversation of a room full of people. These two illustrations represent abiding interests. Sometimes momentary interest controls attention. When you page through a book looking for a particular diagram, only pages with illustrations cause you to hesitate; others you ignore. Emotional states, especially moods, may also affect the ways in which attention is directed. In a hostile mood, personal comments are noticed that might go unremarked in a friendlier mood.

Physiological Correlates of Attention

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When a stimulus attracts our attention, we usually perform certain body movements that enhance our reception of the stimulation. If it is a visual stimulus we turn our head in the proper direction, our eyes turn so that the image falls on the fovea, our pupils dilate momentarily to allow lighter to enter the eye, and the lens muscles work to bring the image clearly into focus. If the stimulus is auditory we may cup our hands behind our ears or turn one ear in the direction, of the sound, keeping the rest of our movements very still so as to enhance the reception of a faint auditory stimulus. These body movements are accompanied by certain characteristic internal physiological changes. The physiological reactions that occur in response to stimulation changes in the environment form such a consistent pattern that they have been called the orienting reflex and have been studied extensively by psychologists.

The orienting reflex occurs in both man and animals in response to even minimal changes in the stimulus environment. The physiological accompaniments of attention, in addition to the body movements mentioned above, include dilation of the blood vessels in the head, constriction of the peripheral blood vessels, certain changes in the gross electrical responses of the brain (EEG) and changes in muscle tone, heart rate, and respiration. These responses serve the dual function of (1) facilitating the reception of stimulation and (2) preparing the organism to respond quickly in case action is needed we can see why such a reflex is extremely valuable for self-preservation.

Needs and Values

What a person perceives and how he perceives it may also be determined to some extent by his needs and personal values. The value an individual places on an object may affect such direct impression as those of size. For example, it has been shown that children from poorer homes tend to overestimate the size of coins more an do children from well-to-do homes (Bruner and Goodman, 1947).

PROCESS i) Socialization process: The contribution of family and social group in combination with the culture is known as socialization. It initially starts with the contact with the mother and later on the other members of the family. The social group plays influential role in shaping and individual’s perception. ii) Identification process

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Identification starts when a person begins to identify himself with some other members of the family. Normally child tries to behave as father or mother. He tries to emulate certain actions of his parents.

Factors influencing perception

Sex: Men in the workplace generally show greater interest in union activities. Women employees, on the other hand, may be reluctant to even join trade unions. There is also a feeling among many employers that women employees are generally more sincere and will work with greater commitment. It is for this reason that they appoint more women employees.

Women employees may have to avail leave frequently due to greater domestic obligations. A pregnant employee, fro example, will apply for maternity leave that must be given to her as per law. Likewise, when the child is ill, it is she who has to give the necessary medical care. For all this, she has to abstain from work. Some women employee may even resign their jobs after marriage in view of family obligations.

Education: The influence of level of education on a person’s behavior may also be explained from another angle. If a highly qualified person is given a lower level job he may not work with enthusiasm. Such a person deserves a better placement. On the other hand, if a person is given a placement for which he does not possess the requisite qualification and experience he will not be able to perform his duties. “Selection and placement of the right person for the right job, thus, is very important”.

Marital Status: The need for a secured job and stable income is greater in case of married employees. A married employee has domestic commitments and therefore adapts himself to the needs of the organization. He cannot reign his job in case he derives less or no job satisfaction or finds the work environment not conducive. On the other hand, an unmarried employee without much domestic commitments may find a better job if the present job does not give him satisfaction.

Potentials: Needless to say, the potentials of an individual influence behaviour. A person with the ability to perform any task effortlessly is able to be emphatic. He is in a position to demand better status in the organization. It is only people with greater potentials who contribute significantly to the progress of any organization.

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UNIT-III INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR

PERCEPTION

PERSONALITY

ATTITUDE

LEARNING

INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR: Introduction: All organizations are composed of individual. No organization can exist without individuals. The organizational performance is largely affected by the way individuals behave at work. The individuals with different characteristics behave differently in the similar and different characteristics behave differently in the similar and different situations. Thus there is a need for managers to understand individual behaviour at work so as to extract the best and maximum contribution from them.

Meaning: Individual behaviour means some concrete action by a person. For Example, How a principles behaves in the class reflects his behavior. The behaviour of an individuals his behaviour. The behaviour of an individual is influenced by various factors. Some factors lie within himself.

What is mean by Individual behavior? Explain the positive and negative of industrial behavior? An organization cannot function by itself. It is only the individuals in the organization, who do and make things happen. As far as the individuals are concerned, it is their attitude towards work, their superiors, fellow employees and the management.

A person’s behavior, therefore, needs to be observed. While positive or favorable employee behavior is detrimental to its interests. The success of the manager, therefore, lies in his capacity to secure positive employee behavior.

POSITIVE INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR:•

Completes to task within the stipulated time

Does not waste time during working hours

Does not complain about anything or anyone unnecessarily

Is regular for work and also punctual

Accepts and carries out any assignment with enthusiasm

Negative individual behaviour: The individual behaviour is negative when

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There is always undue delay in carrying out his duties.

There is always a tendency to while away time.

He complains frequently about someone or something.

He is irregular for work.

He shows resistance to any proposal

Individual differences Different individuals possess different personality traits. Such differences may be usually noticed in respect of the following personal attributes.

Intelligence, Attitude, Aptitude, Preference, Memory, Perception, Inquisitiveness and Ambition. How the individual behaviour induces in workplace in an organization •

Some employees join trade unions while others do not.

Job satisfaction is of paramount

importance for some while others attach much

importance to monetary benefits. •

Some people just mind their work irrespective of whether the supervisors is present or not while others work only under strict supervision

Job stress affects the performance of same individuals while there are people who can successfully handle stress situation

Some subordinates expect spoon feeding by their superiors. On the other hands there are subordinates who can perform their tasks without any kind of assist once from anyone

Explain the various factors that influence individual behaviour? The various factors influence individual behaviour have been classified as shown in the following chart Factors Influencing Individual Behavior

Environmental Factors

Personal Factors

Psychological Factors

Organizational Factors

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Sex: Men in the workplace generally show greater interest in union activities. Women employees, on the other hand, may be reluctant to even join trade unions. There is also a feeling among many employers that women employees are generally more sincere and will work with greater commitment. It is for this reason that they appoint more women employees.

Women employees may have to avail leave frequently due to greater domestic obligations. A pregnant employee, fro example, will apply for maternity leave that must be given to her as per law. Likewise, when the child is ill, it is she who has to give the necessary medical care. For all this, she has to abstain from work. Some women employee may even resign their jobs after marriage in view of family obligations.

Education: The influence of level of education on a person’s behavior may also be explained from another angle. If a highly qualified person is given a lower level job he may not work with enthusiasm. Such a person deserves a better placement. On the other hand, if a person is given a placement for which he does not possess the requisite qualification and experience he will not be able to perform his duties. “Selection and placement of the right person for the right job, thus, is very important”.

Marital Status: The need for a secured job and stable income is greater in case of married employees. A married employee has domestic commitments and therefore adapts himself to the needs of the organization. He cannot reign his job in case he derives less or no job satisfaction or finds the work environment not conducive. On the other hand, an unmarried employee without much domestic commitments may find a better job if the present job does not give him satisfaction.

Potentials: Needless to say, the potentials of an individual influence behaviour. A person with the ability to perform any task effortlessly is able to be emphatic. He is in a position to demand better status in the organization. It is only people with greater potentials who contribute significantly to the progress of any organization.

II Psychological Factors Personality: The personality of a person, as misunderstood by many, is not just determined by his physical appearance alone. The physical characteristics of a person, no doubt, are important but these get notices only if accompanied by certain intellectual qualities as state below. •

Communication ability

Perseverance

Reasoning power

Leadership capacity and so on.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR An individual, who possesses the attributes mentioned above, can certainly command respect wherever he is. Such person is always able to achieve what he wants to achieve.

Perception: Perception is the process of knowing or understanding. A given situation is perceived differently by different people. If the perception of a person is correct he\his organization stands to benefit.

Attitudes: In the context of the workplace ‘attitude’ is the feeling of an employee about his job, his superiors and fellow-employees. Attitude may be positive of negative. An employee with a positive attitude like his job, carries out the tasks assigned by his superior and maintains friendly relationships with the fellow-employees.

Values: The ‘values’ of a person indicate to him as to what is good and what is bad. Different people have different values. In the workplace the value of an individual do influence his behaviour. For Example: Some people are spendthrifts while others consciously save. Some contribute to charity while others don’t.

Learning: Learning is the process of bringing about changes in an individual’s behaviour. Employee absenteeism, for example, may be a problem faced in many organizations. AS employees are eligible for certain types of leave, casual leave, sick leave, earned leave etc., they may be willing to avail the same.

III Organizational Factors

Nature of Job: Among the various organizational factors influencing behaviour the important one is the nature of an employee’s job. Obviously, if the employee’s job is a challenging one he will have greater motivation to work. On the other hand, if the work is of a routine, dull or repetitive mature the employee may not work with interest.

Job Security: One of the most important needs of employees is job security. An employee with security of service can, certainly, work with greater motivation than the one without it. Further, job security also makes an employee more loyal to his organization. The happens because he is able to identify himself with the organization.

Work Environment: We can always talk about two kinds of work environment- one ‘physical environment’ and the other ‘social environment’.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Physical work environment is concerned, needless to say, the employer shall ensure the necessary physical amenities in the workplace- drinking water, toilet, rest room, canteen, workrooms with proper ventilation and lighting and so on.

By ‘social environment’ we means the ‘employer-emplosyee’ and the ‘employee-employee’ relationships. If such relationships are cordial the employee may exhibit more favorable behaviour. If the inter-personal relationships are strained if will affect performance.

Pay Benefits: Let us not say here that the employee should be give higher pay. He should be adequately compensated for his work. The compensation package of the organization should to both the employee and the employer.

Leadership Style: Different managers adopt different leadership styles. Autocratic style of leadership dies not always produce good result. An autocratic manager may succeed in the short-run. He is sure to incur the displeasure of his subordinates and this may affect the attainment of goals in the long-run.

IV Environmental Factors The important factors in the external environment affecting behavior are discussed below.

Economic Conditions: Availability of plenty of employment opportunities results in a higher rate of labour turnover in workplaces. This happens because individuals begin to look for jobs that gives them better pay, status, and greater satisfaction. Once they find such a job they resign their present job and go. Fewer employment opportunities, on the other hand, curtails the rate of labour turnover and absenteeism because the employees are keen on retaining their present job.

Technological Change: Technological changes affect job opportunities and cause dissatisfaction among individuals. As a result of such changes there is a reduction in the skill of employees. For Example, in the past people with typewriting and stenography qualification could find jobs. But at present most employers want people with knowledge of computer operation.

Government Policies: The labour policy of the government is yet another important factor. Employees feel insecure due to such decisions of the Government as stated below. •

Reduction in the retirement age

Compulsory retirement

Increase in the rate of income-tax

Ban on future recruitment

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Cultural Environment: Cultural environment differs from region to region. For example, workers in the western countries work overtime to show their protest to the antilabour policies of their employers. But in India, workers strike work to show their protest.

V Situational Factors: The effect of environment is quite string. Knowledge, skill and knowledge are acquired and represent important modifications of the behaviour, learned modification in behaviour are not passed on to the children they acquired by them through their own personal experience through interaction with the environment. Various Models of Man

Discuss the ‘Economic Man’ and ‘Social Man’ models of behaviour. State the important behavioral models. Behavioral Models It has been mentioned already that difference among individuals cause difference in behavior. Based on behavioral differences the following models of man have been developed.

Rational-Economic Man Model

MODELS Self-actualizingOF MAN Man Model (i)

Social Man Model

Organization Man Model

Rational Economic Man Model

This is one of the oldest behavioural models. According to this approach, man is primarily interested in monetary incentives. He is rational because he expects reward proportionate to his efforts. The manager, thus, can motivate his subordinates to produce more by providing more economic incentives. (ii)

Social man Model

According to the concept of social man, an individual is basically induced by certain social needs. Every individual strives to gain the acceptance of the society of which he is a part. A right thinking person does anything that appears to be right from the society’s point of view. It is said that no man can live by himself. He needs the moral support and sometimes even the physical support of the people around. (iii)

Organization Man Model This model is based on the assumption that the individual gives utmost importance to the interest of the organization in relation to his personal interest. Management experts are also of the view that whenever there is a conflict between individual interest and that of the organization the latter should get

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR priority. (iv)

Self-Actualizing Man Model According to this view man is self-motivated. It is not necessary that the manager has to motivate an employee all the time in the work place. The unfulfilled needs of an individual do induce him to strive hard.

Attitude What are attitudes? Discuss the cognitive and affective components of an attitude. Meaning: Attitudes are evaluative statements. They respond one’s feeling either favourably or unfavourably to persons, objects or and events. In other words attitudes reflect how one feels about something. For Example, Professor Philip Kotler says, “ I like teaching” he is expressing his attitude about his work. Definition: Krech and Cruthfield define attitude as ‘an enduring organisatioon of motivational, emotional, perceptual and cognitive processes with respect to some aspect of the individual’s world”. An attitude is a predisposition to react to a situation, person, or concept with a particular response. This response can be either positive or negative. It is a learned reaction - one that results from individuals, past observations, direct experiences or exposure to others attitude. For E.g. someone may say, “I love cricket”, thus communicating to others a general attitude about the sport. Some people developed their love towards that sport while playing it in childhood: direct experience shaped their attitude. Others never played the game but developed their love by watching it on television. Still others had friends or family members who influenced their attitudes by communicating their love for the game. NATURE / CHARACTERISTICS OF ATTITUDE A. Valence It means the degree of favorableness or unfavorableness toward the object/event. If a person is relatively indifferent toward an object then his attitude has low valence. On the other hand, if a person is extremely favorable or unfavorable or unfavorable toward an attitude object, then his attitude will have high valence. B. Multiplicity: It means the number of components constituting the attitude. For e.g., an employee may feel simply loyal to an organization, but another may feel loyal, respectful, fearful and dependent. C. Relation to needs. Attitudes depend upon the needs they serve. For instance, attitudes of an individual towards pictures may serve only entertainment needs. On the other hand,

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attitudes of an employee towards task may serve strong needs for security, achievement, recognition and satisfaction. D. Centrality: It means importance of the attitude object to the individual. The attitudes, which have high centrality for an individual, will be less susceptible to change.

NATURES OR FEATURES OF ATTITUDE 1. Attitudes are related to the feelings and beliefs of people. 2. Attitudes respond to persons, objects or events 3. Attitudes affect behaviour either positively or negatively. 4. Attitudes undergo changes. COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE The structure of person’s attitude of three vital components. Cognition

Cognition Affection

Affection Behavior

Cognitive component: It is the opinion or belief segment of an attitude. The belief that “discrimination is wrong” is a value statement. Such an opinion is the cognitive component of an attitude. Affective component. It is the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. It is reflected in the statement “I don’t like John because he discriminate against minorities” Behavioral/ overt /conative component This is concerned with an intention to behave in certain way towards someone or something. So to continue our example, I might choose to avoid John because of my feeling about him.

FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDES Katz has suggested that attitudes and motives are inter-related and depending on individual’s motives, attitudes can serve four main functions. 1. Knowledge function: Attitude provides knowledge. The knowledge helps to understand the world. The attitudes that are unsuitable to the situation will be retained and those that are outdated are discarded by an employee. 2. Expressive function Attitudes cause positive expression about an individual in the minds of other people. This enable individuals to indicate to others the values they hold and thus to express their selfconcept and adopt or internalize the values of a group.

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3. Instrumental The people strive to maximize the rewards and minimize the penalties in their external environment. Attitudes are the means for reaching the desired goals or for avoiding undesirable results. 4. Ego-defensive Attitudes may be held in order to protect the ego from an undesirable truth or reality.

FORMATION OF ATTITUDES. According to Stephen Robbins, the attitudes are acquired from parents, teachers and peer group members. In our early years, we begin modeling our attitudes after those we admire and respect. We observe the way family and friends behave and we shape our attitudes and behavior to align with theirs. People imitate the attitude of popular individuals.

Basically

attitudes are not inborn and they are learned. They are acquired through the process of learning. Job experience. Generally people learn attitudes through job experience. They develop attitudes about such factor as salary, performance reviews, job design, work group affiliation and managerial capabilities. Association: People are subject to group influence or association to which they belong. For e.g. Religion, educational background, race, sex, age and income class all strongly influence attitudes. Family. Members of a family inherit attitudes from parents, brothers and sisters etc. It is found that a higher degree of relationship is found between parents and children in attitudes than they found between children and their peers. They also observed low correlation between attitudes of the children and their teachers. Peer groups: We often seek out others who share attitudes similar to conform to the attitude of those in the group who approval is important to us. Society: The culture, language and structure of the society all provide an individual with the boundaries of his initial attitudes. Personality factors Personality differences between individuals appear to vary, some people may be too fast to grasp things, and some may be too slow.

COGNITIVE DISSONANCE Cognitive dissonance refers to any inconsistency between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR No individual can completely avoid dissonance. We know cheating on our income tax is wrong but we fudge the numbers a bit every year. You tell your children to brush after every meal but you don’t.

The desire to reduce dissonance would be determined by -Importance of elements creating the dissonance. -Degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements -The rewards that may be involved in dissonance.

Discuss the formation of attitudes? or How are attitudes formed? or what are the sources of attitudes? Attitudes, like values are acquired from parents’ teachers and peer group members. People imitate the attitudes of popular individuals or those they admire and respect. In organizations, attitudes are important because they affect job behaviour. In contrast to values, our attitudes are less stable. Advertising messages for example, attempt to alter the attitudes toward a certain product or service. 1.Job experience: Generally, people learn attitudes through job experiences. The develop attitudes about such factors as salary, performance reviews, work group affiliation and managerial capabilities. Even the past experiences account for the individual differences in attitudes such as loyalty, commitments, and performance. 2.Association: People are subject to group influence or associations to which they belong. For example, religion, educational background, race, sex, age and income –class-all strongly influence our attitudes. 3. Family:

Members of a family inherit attitudes from parents, brothers, sisters etc. The

family characteristics influence the individual’s early attitude patterns and control to which he is initially exposed. 4. Peer groups:

When the individuals grow they increasingly rely on their peer groups

for approval/attitude. Generally, the people would judge an individual largely depends upon his self-image, and approval seeking behaviour. 5. Society: The culture, language and the structure if society, all provides an individual with the boundaries of his initial attitudes. Normally, at the initial period, an individual is taught that certain attitudes are acceptable in the society. State the kinds of attitude? Or what are the kinds of job related attitudes?

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A person can have thousands of attitudes but organizational behaviour focuses our attention on a very limited number of job-related attitudes. 1) Job satisfaction: The term job satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitude towards his job. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitude towards the job while a person, who is dissatisfied with hiss job, holds negative attitudes about the job, when people speak of employees’ attitudes, more often than not, they mean job satisfaction. 2) Job involvement: The term job involvement is a more recent addition to the organizational behaviour literature while there is not complete agreement over what the term means, a workable definition states that job involvement measures the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his job and considers his perceived performance level important to self worth. Employees with a higher level of job involvement strongly identify with the job and rarely care about the kind of work they do. 3) Organizational commitment: The third job attitude is organization commitment. It is defined as a state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. So high job involvement means identifying with one’s specific job, while high organizational commitment means identifying one’s employing organization. What do you understand by attitudes? Discuss the various techniques used for measurement of attitudes. 1.Interviews: Interview, is a common method of obtaining information about personnel reactions. The workers are interviewed by the representatives of some outside organisation such as a consultancy firm or a university department. In a guided interview, the interviewer asks a series of questions such that each of which may be answered by a simple ‘Yes” or ‘No’ or by some other words or phrases. In the unguided interview, the interviewer asks the interviewer asks general questions to encourage the employee to express himself and solicit information about his job satisfaction, job involvement, job involvement and job commitment. 2) Opinion surveys: Attitude scales help to measure the attitudes of individuals by summarizing data for all employees with a group. Such scales can be used to quantify morale of employee groups. The information can be obtained by the use of questionnaire that provides for giving opinions about specific matters such as work conditions, company policies. The usual practice in opinion surveys questionnaire is to ask the employees each item in one of the boxes:

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satisfied, neutral or dissatisfied. The questionnaire serves both the purposes of measuring their attitudes. 3) Likert’s scale: Likert’s method does not require the use of Judges in scaling the statements. A number of statements describing attitudes are prepared and each statement has five degree of approval and the person is asked to state his reaction in one of the 5-degree scale. They are as follows: i) strongly agree ii) Agree iii) undecided iv) disagree v) strongly disagree 4) Thurstone Attitude Scale: To develop an attitude scale, the first step is to write out a large number of statements, each of which expresses a viewpoint of some kind towards the company. Each of these statement is typed on a separate slip of paper and the judge is asked to place each statement in one of several piles (usually 7,9, or 11) ranging from statements judged to express the most favourable view points (7,9 or 11). Statements judged to express the varying degrees of favourableness in between these extremes are placed in the piles that are judged best to characterize their relative degree of favourableness. The purpose of allocation is to determine the scale values of various statements. If all judges tend to place a statement in piles towards the favorable and of the series, then we can conclude that the statement expresses a favorable attitude towards the company. If the statement is placed by the judges in piles towards the unfavorable attitude is expressed by that particular statement, so we can determine the average location of the statement by the judge. Why we study attitude in the O.B.? Employee attitude are important to management because of their influence on behaviour, attitudinal influence on perception, job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational commitment. 1. Attitude influences on behaviour: Attitudes affect employee behaviour. However a direct relationship between attitude and action is agreeable to some, since attitude does not lead to any specific action. Example: A manager may dislike certain person people in minority groups, but he may treat them fairly and pleasantly in his office. This inconsistency occurs because the manager does not allow his attitude to interfere with his professions judgment. However, their attitude may manifest themselves in other behaviour. Example: The manager may treat the minority workers fairly on the job but not invite them to his son’s marriage.

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2. Attitudinal influence on perception: Perceptual outcomes are derived from past experiences and perceptions, but they also influence the way we perceive stimuli. Such saying as “Beauty is altogether in the eye of the beholder” emphasizes the importance of attitudes in perceiving the world around us. If our attitudes are positive, things will look brighter to us.

3. Job satisfaction: One of the tasks of managers is to provide satisfaction to employees from their respective jobs. A person with high job satisfaction holds a positive attitude towards his job; while a person who is dissatisfied with his job holds a negative attitude about his job. In fact, the two terms are used interchangeably.

4. Job involvement: The term job involvement refers to the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his job and considers his perceived performances level important to his self worth. A person with a high degree of involvement will identify with his job and will care about the kind of work he does on his job. Besides such involvement in the job results in reduced absenteeism and minimized absenteeism. Needless to say that attitude is an important variable in developing job involvement.

5.Organisational commitment: If job involvement refers to one’s identification with particular job, organisation commitment means one’s involvement with his organization.

Being another name for

organizational loyalty, organizational commitment results in a stable work force. As with job involvement, attitude is an important variable in determining organizational commitment

CHANGING ATTITUDE ATTITUDE CHANGE There is often a paradox of attitudes in that people need them to provide stability to social world yet world is a changing one and people must change their attitudes appropriate to the situation. The attitude change appropriate to organisational requirement is more important because attitudes affect behaviour and only a certain behaviour is desirable from organisational point of view. Organisations adopt a number of techniques for changing attitudes of their membcI"S- so that their behaviour corresponds to the organisational requirement. However, whatever the techniques for attitudes change are adopted, they can be effective only if basic characteristics of attitudes and their nature are kept in consideration. Though various theories of attitude formation and chang-e have been presented earlier which help in understanding attitudes and the techniques through which they can be changed, the change techniques can be more effective, if three basic factors are considered adequately:

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1. the characteristics of attiudes. 2. the personality of attitude holder; and 3. the group affiliation of the attitude holder. These factors have been derived from two sources: theory of attitude formation and the factors affecting attitude formation. Another characteristic involved in changeahility of attitudes is their simplicity. The number offacts involved in the cognition and the number offacts of which it is related make the attitude simple or complex one. The degree of interconnectedness determines the changeability of attitudes. Usually, attitudes which are strongly supported by other attitudes are more resistant to change. Similarly, depending on how many social wants support them and the strength of these wants, the attitudes may be more or less changeable. Attitudes which reflect the core or principal,component of an individual's personality would most likely be very resistant to change Personality of Attitudes Holder Characteristics of Attitudes In understanding attitude change, the analysis of attitude characteristics is an important element. Theories of attitudes suggest numerous types of their characteristics. Such characteristics may be: (i) extremeness of the attitude, (ii) multiplexity, (iii) consistency, (iv) interconnectedness, (v) consonance ofthe attitude cluster of which the focal attitude is a part, (vi) the number and strength ofthe needs which are served by the attitude, and (vii) centrality of related values. Taking these characteristics of attitudes, there may be two types of attitude change: congruen t and incongruent. The congruent change involves an increase in the strength of an existing attitude, either to make a positive attitude even more favourable or to make a negative attitude more strongly negative. An incongTuent change is one in which the direction of change is opposite to the originally held attitude. Congruent change is easier to produce than incongTuent one-specially when the attitude system is interconnected with supporting attitudes. The personality factors of attitude holder are also important in attitude change in the sense that some persons are more persuable as compared to others. This is so because of personality differences. Such differences change the nature of attitudes because attitudes are subjective qualities. Persuasibility is the tendency of a person to accept a persuasive communication. It commonly refers to a response to a direct influence attempt. Several personality factors suggest different types ofpersuasibility. First is level of self-esteem ofthe person. The more inadequate a person feels and the more social inhibition he has, the more likely is he to be persuasible. People with great deal of confidence in their own intellectual ability are not only more resistant to change but more willing to expose themselves to discrepant information. Related to the personality factors, there is a style of thinking referred to as close minded or dogmatis. Dogmatism is a form of authoritarianism where there is

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admiration of those in authority and hatred for those opposed to authority. There is a strong belief in the cause and a decreasing tendency to admit that other causes might be valid. Dogmatism is a relatively closed system in which the beliefs and disbel iefs are isolated from one another. It tends to be organised around some central authority theme which must be protected at all costs. In dogmatism, there is high degyee of rejection of opposing beliefs, a relatively low level of interconnection among belief systems, and complex cognitions about positively valued objects as against cognitions about negatively valued objects. In such cases attitude change is often resisted. However, personality factors should not be overemphasised in attitude change because the change makes more sense in the context of total attempt situation.

Group affiliation

Individuals often express their attitudes in terms of gYoup. This is more so in the case ofless extreme attitudes. This is so because membership in the group prevents existing attitudes from being disturbed by filtering the information. As will be discussed later, one of the powerful bonds which holds the gYOUp together is the fact that members think alike. Information likely to cause dissonance or inconsistency is either omitted or perceived according to group norms with some modification or is rejected or considered irrelevant. Though people are not always exposed to information in the concept or groups and information which may change their attitudes impinges upon them from many sources, even outside the group, their membership still influences the way the new information is perceived. This is particularly true of primary groups, such as family, friendship group, etc.

Methods of attitude change

There are various methods through which a positive change in attitudes may be brought. In the social context, Cohen has suggested four methods for attitude change. These are: 1. communication of additional information, 2. approval and disapproval of a particular attitude, 3. gYOUp influence, and 4. inducing engagement in discrepant behaviour.28 In some or the other, all these methods involve introducing discrepancies among the elements making up the individual's attitudes in the hope that the elements will be rebalanced through the effective component of the attitudes. Thus, in actual practice, the central variable in attitude change is the feeling component with the attitude object. From organisation's point of view, manager can take following actions in bringing change in attitudes of organisational members.

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1. group action, 2. persuasion through leadership, 3. persuasion through communication 4. influence of total situation

What do you understand by individual behaviour? Discuss the various factors influencing the individual behaviour.(OR) What are the causes for human behaviour? Introduction: All organizations are composed of individuals. No organization can exist without individuals. The organizational performance is largely affected by the way individuals behave at work. The individuals with different characteristics behave differently in the similar and different characteristics behave differently in the similar and different situations. Thus there is a need for managers to understand individual behaviour at work so as to extract the best and maximum contribution from them. Meaning: Individual behaviour means some concrete action by a person. For E.g. how a teacher behaves in the class reflects his behaviour. The behaviour of an individuals his behaviour. The behaviour of an individual is influenced by various factors. Some factors lie within himself i.e. instincts, personality traits, internal feelings etc. While some factors lie outside him i.e. weather conditions, other people behaviour etc. Factors influencing individual behaviour The following factors influence the individual behaviour: 1.Personality: Personality refers to personal traits such as dominance, aggressiveness, persistence and other qualities reflected through a person’s behaviour. An individual’s personality determines the type of activities for that he is suited for and the likelihood that the person would be able to perform the task effectively. 2. Economic factors: All work is performed within economic framework that both directly and indirectly influence the individual behaviour. Economic factors that influence individual behaviour are i) Wage rates: Wages satisfy various individual needs. Money is a complex variable and its effects on behaviour, varies tremendously. It is well known that wages attract people to certain organizations and determine their satisfaction on jobs.

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ii) Technological change: Technological changes are includes as an economic factor because of its potential effects upon individual job opportunities. Technological change has its strongest impact at lower level jobs, although increased automation, robotics, computerization and more ‘sophisticated’ production. iii) The job: the job an individual holds, itself has significant influence on his behaviour. The behaviour of a worker in a factory will not be the same as the behaviour of a rickshaw pillar in the street. iv) Economic outlook: the general economic outlook also influences individual expectations, especially of those employed in industries severely affected by economic cycles. Individuals who experience frequent layoff are more likely to be motivated by factors that affect job security, other individuals would consider job security to be relatively unimportant and would be motivated by other factors. v) Employment opportunities: Fewer job opportunities create fear of losing the present job and increase the emphasis on job security and can change the base motivation pattern of the individual. 3. Socio-cultural factors: The social environment of an individual includes relationship with family members, friends, co-workers, supervisors and subordinates. The socio-cultural factors moderate the effect of other factors to determine the behaviour of individual. 4. Cultural factors: The following cultural factors, which have behavioral implications. i) Work ethics is tinged with moral. In the context of job ethics, it implies handwork and commitment to work. Strong work ethic ensures motivated employees, and the opposite is true when work ethic is weak ii) Achievement need has influence on employee behaviour. A person with a high need to achieve trends to see a high degree of personal responsibility, set realistic goals, take moderate risks and use personal performance feedback in satisfying his need to achieve. iii) A perfect match between effort and reward produce better performance from an individual when the individual perceives he has been treated unfairly, the performance suffers. iv) Value is tinged with moral favour involving an individual’s judgement of what is right good and desirable. Values influence one’s perception, attitudes and through these behaviour. 5. Organisational Factors: Systems such as the Organisational structure and hierarchy strongly influence and constrain both what individuals do and how they do.

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6. Motivation: Motivation refers to all the forces operating with in a person to cause them to engage in certain kinds of behaviour rather than others. A person’s motivation is influenced by his attitudes beliefs values and goals. 7. Attitudes: Attitude is apperception with a frame of reference. It is a way of organizing a perception. For e.g. we say that Ramesh like his ‘job’ means that Ramesh is expressing his attitude about work. 8. Values: Value- behaviour connections have been documented for a wide variety of behaviours, ranging from weight loss to shopping selections to political party affliction to religious involvement, to choose a college etc. 9. Abilities: Ability refers to the actual skills and capabilities that people possess and are required for the effective performance of activities. 10. Perception: Perception is process by which an individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environments”. 11. Personal Factors: Every individual brings to the work place a variety of following characteristics i) Age: Performance depends on age. As age advances, performance is likely to decline. ii) Sex: Man is expected to be tough while a woman is expected to gentle and are highly emotional, are some of the stereo typed assumptions that have no basis in genetic influences. iii) Education: Education has its effect upon individual behaviour largely through the level and type of education received. Increased levels of education serve to increase an individual’s expectations about positives outcomes. iv) Intelligence: Intelligence is primarily an inherited trait even though children of some very intelligent parents have turned out to be less intelligent and vice-versa. v) Marital status: Marital Status has influence on absenteeism, turnover and satisfaction. Marriage imposes additional responsibility hence the need for steady job and steady income. vi) Religion: Highly religious people have high moral standards and usually do not tell lies or talk in determining some aspects of individual; behaviour

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PERSONALITY Define the term personality. Discuss the various determinates of Individual personality (or) “People are similar yet they are different comment. Introduction: Personality of an individual also affects human behaviour. Personality is the sum total of an individuals psychophysical systems that determine his or her behaviour in a given situation

environment.

Therefore,

understanding

human/employees

behaviour

in

organizations in a better way under lines the need to understand personality in its various aspects. Meaning: The word ‘personality’ is used by same to refer to the physical attributes of a person – body structure, skin, color, hairstyle, etc.

The physical characteristics of an individual, no doubt, are important. But there are a number of intellectual and psychological qualities that reveal the true personality of a person. The intellectual qualities include among others, communication skills, intelligence (IQ), capacity to judge, tactfulness and inquisitiveness. Important among the psychological qualities are a person’s attitude, level of motivations and capacity to overcome stress.

DEFINE PERSONALITY:According to FLOYD L.RUCH:“Personality can be described as how a person affects others, how he understands and views himself and his pattern of inner and outer measurable traits”.

According to Gordon .W. Allport:“Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those Psychological systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment”.

According to Thomson and hasten:“Development results in a man acquiring distinctiveness or uniqueness which gives him identity and which enables him and us to recognize him apart from others. These distinguishing characteristics are summarized by the term personality”.

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Personality means different things to different people. To some, it means one’s char5m, dress and attractiveness, to others, it means a unitary mode of response to life situations. The term personality has been derived from Latin word ‘personnare’. Which means to speak through. Personality traditionally refers to how people influence others through their external appearances more precisely. Definition: According to Hilgardetat, “personality may be understood as the characteristics patterns of behaviour and modes pf thinking that determine a person’s adjustment to the environment”

NATURE OF PERSONALITY 1. Personality has both internal and external elements. The external traits are the observable behavioral that we notice in an individual personality. For example sociability the internal states represent the thoughts. Values and genetic characteristics that we infer form the observable Behaviours. 2. An individual personality is relatively stable. If it changes at all it is only after a very long time or as the result of traumatic events. 3. An individual’s personality is both inherited as well as shaped by the environment. Our personality is partly inherited genetically from our parents. However these genetic personality characteristics are altered some what by life experiences. 4. Each individual is unique in Behaviour. There are striking differences among individuals.

Determinants of individual personality: The personality is influenced by the following major factors 1) Cultural factors: Culture largely determines what a person is and what a person will learn. The culture within a person is brought up, is very important determinant of behaviour of person. Culture is the complex of these beliefs, values and techniques for dealing with the environment, which are shared among contemporaries and transmitted by one generation to the next. 2) Family and social factors: Family and social factors are important in shaping personality of andindividual. The impact of these factors on personality can be understood by socialization process and identification process.

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i) Socialization process: The contribution of family and social group in combination with the culture is known as socialization. It initially starts with the contact with the mother and later on the other members of the family. The social group plays influential role in shaping and individual’s personality. ii) Identification process Identification starts when a person begins to identify himself with some other members of the family. Normally child tries to behave as father or mother. He tries to emulate certain actions of his parents.

3) Situational factors: The effect of environment is quite string. Knowledge, skill and language are acquired and represent important modifications of the behaviour, learned modification in behaviour are not passed on to the children they acquired by them through their own personal experience. Through interaction with the environment. 4) Biological factors: These can be discussed into three broad heads; i) Physical Features: Physical stature is the most important factor that contributes to personality. For instance, the fact that person is short or tall, fat or skinny, hansome or ugly. Black or whitish will undoubtedly influence the person’s effect on the others and in turn, will affect the self-concept. ii) Brain: It is another biological factor that influence the personality. Research in this field has given indication that better understanding of human personality and behaviour might come from the study of the brain. iii) Heredity: Certain characteristics, primarily physical in nature, are inherited from one’s parents, transmitted by genes in the chromosomes contributed by each parent. For instance, heredity is generally more important in determining a person’s temperament than values and ideas.

EXPLAIN THE IMPORTANT DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY:

Personality Determinants

The various factors that determine the personality of a person may be grouped

Hereditary Factors under three categories.

Social Factors

Situational Factors

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Hereditary/ Genetic factors

Social factors

Situational factors

Biological factors

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HEREDITARY/ GENETIC FUNCTIONS:A number of physical, mental and psychological qualities of a person are determined by his heredity. Heredity is the biological transmission of physical and mental characteristics from parents to children. •

The physical structure of a person – his height and weight.

Other physical features –color of skin, hair and eyes.

The capacity to learn and respond

Temperament

Levels of enthusiasm.

Social factors: Apart from the biological or heredity factors mentioned above certain social factors also play a crucial role in shaping the personality of an individual. Important among these are the influence of family, teachers and the peer group.

Parents play a significant role in the personality development of a child. Home is the first school of every child. The child learns basic manners and also acquires certain habits from its parents. It is appropriate to mention here that if the parents themselves are not disciplined. Apart from parents the other members of the family, particularly, brothers and sisters also shape a person’s personality.

Situational factors: The particular situation in which one is placed also puts pressure on him to behave in a particular fashion. A person who appears to be quiet may perform well in a crisis. On the other hand, there may be another person who may look aggressive always but may fail miserably in a critical situation. That is why it is often said, “Appearance is always deceptive”. Measurement of personality Explain the measurement of personality (or) Discuss the various techniques and test by which personality can be measured (or) Can personality be measured? Explain. Psychologists have devised a number of tests to measure the various aspects of personality, these are: 1) Projective techniques:

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These techniques are based on the assumptions that responses to unstructured stimuli are likely to indicated and individuals underlying motives, attitudes and aspirations. These include inkblots, incomplete sentences, ambiguous pictures, etc. It is called projective attributes his own traits or feeling to other persons or to inanimate objects. They reveal the crucial aspects of personality. The two widely used projective test are. a) Thematic which an individual sees in a picture, indicates something of his past experience, feelings, attitudes of motives. Apperceiving relates to perception of a situation largely in terms of pat experience rather than the immediate present. Here, the individual is exposed to ambiguous pictures and requested to make up a story for each. The themes in these stories may involve conflict, affection for contentment or achievements. b) Rorschach Test: It involves ten cards containing inkblots. These inkblots are shown to the individual at a time, in a prescribed way, with a request to state whatever comes to their mind in response to them. It is assumed that individual tends to project the predominating aspects of his personality through these cards. c) The California test of personality: the basic principle underlying the theory is life adjustment, which is thought of as a balance between personal and social adjustments. Personal adjustment cab be with regard to self-reliance, sense of personal worth, sense of personal freedom, feelking of belongingness. Social adjustment can be with regard to social standards, social skills, anti-social skills, anti-social tendencies, family relation’s etc, under this method, questions are asked in yes or no type based on the qualities. 2) Situational tests: This test involves studying the individual in daily situations when he is interacting with others, solving a problem or exploring a new environment. The purpose of this study is to which is similar to the one for which he is under review. This facilitates the prediction as to how he will reget in a specific situation. 3) Personality inventories: These inventories are printed forms containing questions, adjectives or statements about human behaviour. They can be used to evaluate both normal and psychiatric characteristics. The individual is required to indicate his reactions to different items. The inventories are scored and assessed in terms of percentiles or statistical norms. Initially, they involve merely single trait such as introversion-extroversion subsequently, they have been replaced by multiple trait inventories. Relatively the inventories are less time consuming and easy to administer. In certain cases, the individuals can give false impression about themselves if they desire to do so. 4) Case history method: In the case history method the facts concerning life of the subjects are collected. This case history supplies all the facts related to man’s environment and work 5) Interview method:

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Interview method is widest used in the selection of people for government, semi government, semi government and private services. In this subject and the tester sit facing each other and the former answers the questions asked by the latter. 6) Performance method: The performance method was developed by May and Hawthorne. In this method the subject is given a variety of specific job to be performed and the particular trait of his personality is examined. State the various types of Personalities. Or What are the different kinds of personality or Write Short notes on the following: Introvert personalities, Extrovert personalities, Type A, B personalities: The main types of personalities are: 1) Introvert personalities: Introvert is one of the two basic orientations people have. Such people look inward and experience and process their thoughts and ideas within themselves. They also avoid social contracts and avoid initiating interaction with other group mates. They are quiet and enjoy solitude. People with introvert personality are found more inclined to excel at tasks that require thought and analytical skill 2) Extrovert personalities: Extroverts are just contrary to the introverts. Extroverts are friendly, social, lively, gregarious, and aggressive and express their feeling and ideas openly. So, they are more suitable and successful for the positions that require considerable interaction with others. Sales activities, publicity departments, personal relations unit etc are the examples of activities suitable for extroverts 3) Type A personalities: Type A people are characterized by hard-working, highly achievement oriented, impatient, aggressive, etc. Such people tend to be very productive and work very hard. 4) Type B personalities: Easy going, social, free from urgency of time, non-competitive are the characteristics of Type B personalities such people do better on tasks involving judgements, accuracy rather than speed and team work. 5) Judging personalities: People with judging personality types like to follow a plan, make decisions and need only that what is essential for their work 6) Perceptive personalities: These are the people who adapt well to change, want to know all about a job and at times may get over committed.

Theories of personality Explain the various theories of personality. or Explain the Trait theory of personality.

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Trait theory: Some psychologists have tried to understand personality on the basis of individual’s traits. A personality trait can be defined as “and enduring attribute of a person that appears constantly in a variety of situations. Popular human characteristics include shy, aggressive submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal and timid. In practice, the more consistent then characteristics and more frequently these occur in diverse situations, the more important traits become in describing a person. Thus traits can be described as individual variables or dimensions. Trait theory is based on the following three assumptions 1. Traits are common to many individuals but vary in absolute amounts between the individuals. 2. Traits are relatively stable. Their consistent occurrence influences the human behaviour. 3) One’s trait can be inferred by measuring his /her behavioural indicators. Allport and Cattell have been among the early psychologists who made efforts to isolate individual traits. Allport, in his study, identifies as many as 17,953 traits. Obviously, predicting human behaviour based on such a large number becomes virtually impossible. Realising the need for reducing such large number to a manageable one, Cattell first isolated 171 traits and then, the same reduced to 16 traits, which he termed as source or primary traits. Thus, trait theory attempts to understand how a set of personality variables exerts on one’s behaviour. However, this theory suffers from one limitations i.e it is very descriptive rather than analytical. In fact, no hard evidence supports trait theory as a valid measure of personality S.No

S.No Primary Traits

Primary Traits

1. Reserved Vs Outgoing

2.

Practical Vs Imaginative

3. Less intelligent Vs More

4.

Affected by feeling Vs Emotionally

Intelligent

stable

5. Submissive Vs Dominant

6.

Forthright Vs shrewd

7. Serious

8.

Self-assured Vs

Vs

Happy-go-lucky

Apprensive

9. Expedient Vs Conscientious

10. Conservative Vs Experimenting

11. Timid

12. Group-dependent Vs Self-sufficient

Vs Venturesome

13. Tough-minded Vs Sensitive

14. Uncontrolled Vs Controlled

15. Trusting Vs Suspicious

16. Relaxed Vs Tense

2) Freud Theory: Fixed Contributed significantly towards the understanding of human behaviour through his concept of unconsciousness. Freud developed and organization of personality

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consisting of three structures within the human mind- the id, the ego and the super ego. These parts of the mind are primarily responsible for originating human actions and reactions of modifications. 1) Id. Id is the original and the most basic system of human personality. It consists of everything psychologically that is inherited and present at the time of the birth. Id represents a storehouse of all instincts, containing in its dark depths all wishes, desires and unconsciously directs and determines our behaviour. Id is largely childish, irrational, never satisfied, demanding and destructive of others. 2) Ego: The id is unconscious part while the ego is conscious part of human personality. The ego is associated with reality. It checks the id through logic and intellect. The ego can best be described as controlling id through realities. A starving man cannot control, but by really having

food.

Thus here lies the role of ego i.e. reality in satisfying hunger or reducing tension created by hunger. 3) The super ego: The super ego represents system of values, norms and ethic that guide and govern a person to behave properly in the society. In one sense, the super ego can be described as conscience. It provides norms and values to ego to determine what is wrong or right at given time in given situation or society. The super ego judges whether an action/ Behaviour is right or wrong as per the set norms and standards of the society. In total it can be concluded that id seeks pleasure, the ego verifies reality and the super ego strives for perfection. Freud theory is hypothetical and based on theoretical conception. But it does not provide any measure for its scientific verification and validity. It provides the idea of unconscious motivation, which adds to the understanding of human behaviour in a better manner. Social learning Theory: The theory considers the situation as an important determinant of behaviour as against trait theories, which assume that personality is characterized by the enduring traits of an individual. Learning can be defined as any change in one’s behaviour that occurs as a result of experience in a manner different from the way he or she formerly behaved. Learning occurs through 2 ways: i) Reinforcement ii) Observing others is called vicarious learning. The social learning theory emphasis as on how an individual behaves or acts in a given situation determine how an individual will behave in such situation evokes and

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individual’s behavioural pattern. An Individual’s behaviour also at times influences the situational conditions. The reinforcement that controls the expression of learned behaviour may be Explain Self-Theory of Personality? Carl Rogers is credited with self-theory of personality. This theory is also described as’ phenomenological’ which studies individual’s subjective experience, feelings and his concept of world self. The following four factors are included in self theory: 1.Self Image: By nature, every person has certain beliefs about what or who be/she is. Selfimage is one’s image of oneself. This is how one sees oneself. 2. Ideal-Self: The ideal-self refers to what one should like to look like. The basic line of difference between self Image and ideal-self is that the former indicates the reality of a person whereas the latter implies the ideality of the person. The latter one, i.e., ideal self stands more important to motivate an individual to behave in a particular manner. 3. Looking Glass-self: This refers to how others we perceiving the individual. In other words, this means the way an individual thinks people perceive about him and not the way people actually see him. This indicates that one’s belief about self is a reflection of others perception about the person. 4. Real-Self: The real - self is what one actually is. The first three self -concepts relate to an individual’s perception about himself/herself. They may be the same or differ from the real self. People perceive the same situation differently depending upon their conception of the situation. This, in turn, influences them to behave differently. Thus, in any attempt of analysing and understanding organizational behaviour, the self-concept plays a significant role in reacting/ behaving in a particular manner. Write a Brief note on personality traits. Personality traits are the enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behaviour. Popular characteristics include shyness, aggressive, submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal and timid. Efforts to isolate traits have been hindered because there are so many of them. The following are the sixteen traits, which are generally steady, and constant source of behaviour, allowing prediction of and individual’s behaviour in specific situations by weighting the characteristics for their situational relevance.

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Primary Traits Traits can additionally be grouped to form personality types. Instead of looking at specific characteristics, we can group these qualities that go together into a single category. For eg. Ambition and aggression tend to be highly correlated. Efforts to reduce the number of traits into common groups tends to isolate introversion-extroversion and something approximating high anxiety and extro version would be tense, excitable, unstable warm, sociable and dependent. As a result, personality traits tend to be more valuable as predictors with individuals who hold a trait at its extreme.

PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT:-

Explain what is personality development? What is personality? Classify in to Freudian and new- Freudian stages in personality? How man’s personality is shaped. Explain its development?

EXPLAIN ERILCSON’S EIGHT STAGE APPROACH TO PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT?

The term ‘personality’ is derived from Latin word ‘per sonar’ which means “to speak through” personality thus traditionally referred to how people influence others through their external appearances actions. Personality includes:•

External appearances and behaviour

The inner awareness of self as a permanent organizing force and

The particular organization of measurable traits, both inner and outer

To most psychologists of behaviour, this term refers to the study of characteristics traits of individual, relationships between these traits of individual, relationship between these traits, and the way in which a person adjusts to other people and situations.

PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT:- Human personality development is a continuous process. At each stage, a person develops different aspects of personality. This stage has been described by different personality theorists. •

Freudian stages

Neo- Freudian stages- Erickson’s

Psychological stages

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FREUDIAN STAGES:- According to Freud, personality develops as a result of interaction of four min sources of stress. These are physical growth process, frustration, conflicts and threats.

ORAL STYLE:- Oral stage covers the period from birth to 18 months of age.

ORAL STAGE

ORAL SUCKING ORAL BITING

Oral sucking period is from birth to 8 months in which satisfies his sexual instinct by sucking from mouth, lips, and tongue.

Oral biting starts at the age of 8 month and lasts up to 18 months. This stage consists of the earlier character and other specialties of personality also develop.

ANAL STAGE:- This stage is from 18 months to 3 years. Ego is developed at this stage and the child understands that he is from a part. Sex, however , if proper attention is “paid to the child, he experiences stress which affect his personality.

PHALLIC STAGE:- This stage extends from 3-7 years. At this stage, the child is prove to develop many types of complexes sees the differences in his brothers and sisters or other children.

LATENCY STAGE:- This stage interests grow and enjoys playing and talking with his friends. It is only during this phase the child acquires the knowledge and skill necessary to progress.

GENITAL AGE:- This stage is from 12 to 20 years phallic stage is again aroused. This phase occurs during adolescence to adulthood. The individual revives his sexual desire. The interest in the opposite sex increases. Freudian approach to personality development is mainly based on sexual instincts right from childhood. His ideas have been criticized by many psychologists.

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Freud’s Approach to Personality Development Stage

Age

Happenings

Oral

Upto 1 Year

Biological desires fulfilled

by

thumb sucking, biting etc. Anal

1 to 3 Years

Stimulation by regulating bowel movements.

Phallic

3 to 4 years

Examining and fondling sex

organs

result

in

stimulation. Latency

Genital

4 to 6 Years

Social

to

needs

Adolescence.

priority.

Adolescence

Revival

to Adulthood.

sexual

get

of

desires.

ERIKSON’S EIGHT STAGES ERICKSON’S PSYCHOLOGICAL STAGES:- Erickson has felt that relatively more attention should be given to the social rather than the sexual adoptions of the individuals. (i)

Infancy The period covered by this stage is birth to one year. During this stage the infant who is well taken care of develops trust in others and in case it does not receive the love and affection of the people around it develops mistrust. Whatever happens during this stage has a lasting impact on one’s personality.

(ii)

Early Childhood This stage covers the period from one to three years. During this phase the child, whose activities get the approval of the parents and other people around, develops a sense of autonomy. In case his activities are disapproved, he develops a sense of doubt and shame.

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Play Age This stage covers children in the group of 4 and 5 years. The child, during this phase, develops a sense of initiative if he is encouraged to experiment to attain certain goals. On thee other hand, if he is discouraged and made to feel inadequate or incapable, he feels guilty.

(iv)

School Age The age group covered by this stage is 6 to 12 years. The child becomes enterprising if he makes progress in proportion to his abilities. If he does not he feels inferior.

(v)

Adolescence Teenagers fall in this category. The individual, at this stage, tries to establish his own identity in the society. Failure to achieve result in confusion.

(vi)

Early Adulthood People in their early 20’s fall in this category. During this phase the individual tries to develop intimate relationship with others. Failure to achieve results in isolation

(vii)

Middle Adulthood Adults who are in their 40’s and 50’s face a situation of either generativity or stagnation. They are generative if they are productive and creative, able to give parental care and guidance. If the individuals, during this stage, is unable to look beyond himself, if result in stagnation.

(viii)

Last Adulthood People in their old age face the crisis of integrity versus despair. If the individual is fully satisfied and does not have feat of death, he has integrity and will have the wisdom of old age. On the other hand, if he sees no meaning in life, lacks faith in others or fears death, it results in despair or no hope situation.

Erikson’s Approach at a glance

Stage

Age Group

Positive Effect

Negative Effect

Infancy

Birth to one year

Trust

Mistrust

Early Childhood

1 to 3 years

Autonomy

Doubt and shame

Play Age

4 to 5 years

Initiative

Guilty

School Age

6 to 12 years

Enterprising

Inferior

Adolescence

Teenage

Self identity

Confusion

Early Adulthood

20 plus

Intimacy

Isolation

Middle Adulthood

40 plus

Generativity

Stagnation

Late Adulthood

Old Age

Integrity

Despair

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PERSONALITY FACTORS Personality refers to personal traits such as dominance, aggressiveness, persistence and other qualities reflected through a person’s behaviour. An individual’s personality determines the type of activities for that he is suited for and the likelihood that the person would be able to perform the task effectively. a. Motivation: Motivation refers to all the forces operating within a person to cause them to engage in certain kinds of behaviour rather than others. A person’s motivation is influenced by his attitudes beliefs values and goals. b. Attitudes: Attitude is predetermined state of mind. It is a way of organizing a perception. For e.g. we say that Ramesh like his ‘job’ means that Ramesh is expressing his attitude about work. c. Values: Value- behaviour connections have been documented for a wide variety of behaviors, ranging from weight loss to shopping selections to political party affliction to religious involvement, to choose a college etc. d. Abilities: Ability refers to the actual skills and capabilities that people possess and are required for the effective performance of activities. e. Perception: Perception is process by which an individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environments”.

PERSONAL FACTORS: Every individual brings to the work place a variety of following characteristics Age: Performance depends on age. As age advances, performance is likely to decline. Sex: Man is expected to be tough while a woman is expected to gentle and are highly emotional, are some of the stereo typed assumptions that have no basis in genetic influences. Education: Education has its effect upon individual behaviour largely through the level and type of education received. Increased levels of education serve to increase an individual’s expectations about positives outcomes. Intelligence: The abilities required to perform mental work are known as mental abilities. This also makes influence on individual behaviour. Marital status: Marital Status has influence on absenteeism, turnover and satisfaction. Marriage imposes additional responsibility hence the need for steady job and steady income. Religion: Highly religious people have high moral standards and usually do not tell lies or talk in determining some aspects of individual; behaviour

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PERSONALITY AND INTELLIGENCE TESTS What is a test? It is a systematic procedure of comparing two or more persons. According to Blum, “a test is a sample of individuals’ behaviour, performance or attitude.” A psychological test is an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behaviour from which inferences about future behaviour and performance of candidate is drawn. Characteristics: 1. Assumption: The use of test is based on the assumption that “no two persons are equal so far as skills, aptitude and personality is concerned.” 2. Validity It means the degree to which a test measures what it is designed to measure. A test cannot be called valid unless it measures with reasonable accuracy the future job performance of the candidate. 3. Reliability It implies the ability of a test to give consistent results. If a person scores significantly different on the same test at two different points of time, then the test cannot be considered reliable. 4. Standardization. The test must be standardized so that scores become comparable. In other words test should be administered in the standard conditions. 5. Objectivity A test must be constructed in such a way that two or more persons can score the responses in the same way. Role And Importance Of Test: 1. Guidelines It helps the employer to identify the nature and behaviour of the candidates. 2. Appropriate appointment. It has the beneficial effect of securing proper and desirable jobs for individuals according to their interest, intelligence and abilities as well as ensuring that highest level of efficiency is achieved by right man being in the right job. 3. Prediction INTELLIGENCE TESTS Intelligence: Intelligence is the ability to adjust oneself to a new situation. -William sterns Intelligence is the ability to make profitable use of past experience. In other words, intelligence is the ability of learning Intelligence is the ability to think abstractly.

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An important definition by husband states “ a intelligent person uses past experience effectively, is able to concentrate and keep his attention focused for longer periods of time, adjusts himself to a new situation rapidly, with less confusion and with fewer false moves, shows variability and versatility of response is able to see distinct relationships, can carry on abstract thinking.� Intelligence tests: Intelligence tests are used to judge the mental capacity of the candidate. They indicate the individual learning ability i.e., the ability to understand instructions and to exercise judgment. The level of intelligence is measured interms of intelligent quotient. TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE TESTS. A. VERBAL INTELLIGENCE TESTS: These are to test the intelligence of individuals and language finds adequate use in them. The higher age groups use language to considerable extent and its use gradually declines with the age group. For e.g. the two years group include the following activities. 1. Recognition of objects by name. 2. Recognizing the organs of the body 3. Making a tower of blocks 4. Naming an object from its picture. For adult group it include 1. Vocabulary 2. Logical reasoning 3. Sense of direction 4. Repeating nine digits B.NON-VERBAL INTELLIGENCE TESTS These tests involve the complete absence of linguistic ability and are similarly almost unaffected by knowledge derived from books. i. Pinter pattern performance tests. In this scale there are 15 types of tests, which includes form boards, picture puzzles and imitation etc. ii. Porteus maze tests: Porteus created mazes for the children 3 to 14 years and it gets difficult corresponding to the ages. The subject is allowed two chances and if he fails in the attempt then the conclusion is that his intelligence is not of that age level. iii. Form board tests In this form board test, there are numerous blocks and an aboard in which there are holes corresponding to the blocks. The subjects have to fit the blocks in these corresponding holes

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in the board. The time taken and the mistakes committed being noted from which the scores of the tests are calculated. C.VERBAL GROUP INTELLIGENCE TESTS. They examine the reasoning power, power of comparing and contrasting, sense of direction, ability in numerals and language of the individuals who constitute the group. 1. Army alpha and beta tests: These tests were evolved during World War 1 in order to test the American soldiers. It revealed separately men capable of becoming skilled specialists, officers, men needing some training etc. 2. Dr. Sohan lal intelligence test: These tests were developed for 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 years old children and for adults, Find the odd one: - dog, hen, bull, horse D.NON VERBAL GROUP INTELLIGENCE: There are some performance tests in the group intelligence tests, in which the examinee draws some lines according to his abilities, fills in some empty spaces, draws some simple figures or performs some simple activities. Peculiarities pf non-verbal group intelligence tests: 1. Used to compare various human groups, breaking the language barrier. 2. The testing of illiterate soldiers 3. Helps in testing of children low in linguistic ability.

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UNIT – IV MOTIVATION What do you mean by motivation? or Define Motivation? Introduction •

Management is the art of getting things done through other people. ? When other individuals work together in groups, a proper environment should be created and maintained to achieve the cherished goals of the organisation.

The personnel shall work up to the satisfied and expectations of the management only when a interest in their job is created. Inspiring this interest in the minds of workers is known as motivation.

Meaning •

Motivation originally comes from the Latin word ‘movere’, which means to ‘move’. It is derived from the w0ord ‘motive’.

o

Motive may be defined as an inner state of our mind that activates and directs our behaviour. It makes us move to exert efforts towards the accomplishment of his /her goal.

Definition •

According to Fred Luthans “Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive.

According to Gray and Starke motivation is the result of processes, internal or external to the individual that arouses enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action

Explain the process of motivation? OR Explain the steps involved in motivation? Motivation is a six-phased process beginning from the inner state or need deficiency and ending with need fulfillment. The following figure illustrates the motivation model.

Need deficiency

Search and choice of strategy

Goal directed behaviour

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The model can be explained with an example. Let us assume that an employee desires to have a promotion.

Stage - 1 •

This desire for promotion represents need deficiency also called inner state of disequilibrium, tension or urge, which is the starting point in the motivation model.

Stage - 2 •

The employee is expected to search for strategies to get promotion and make a choice among them.

Stage - 3 •

Let us say, there are two way of getting promotion – putting better performance and pleasing boss.

Then he puts in regular attendance, completes allotted work on schedule and work hard.

Stage - 4 •

The fourth stage is assessment of employee performance by his boss. In the last stage evaluation of performance, the employee is either promoted (Reward) or promotion is denied to him (punishment). If he promoted, he feels encouraged to repeat better performance.

Stage - 5 •

If promotion is denied to the employee, the employee feels discouraged and he may not repeat better performance. And he may give up the idea of striving for promotion.

EXPLAIN THE KINDS OR TYPES OF MOTIVATION OR EXPLAIN THE TECHNIQUES OF MOTIVATION: POSITIVE MOTIVATION – •

Reward, co-operation of employee’s happiness, praise, participation, indecision making process etc.

NEGATIVE MOTIVATION – •

Fear and force, fails to complete the work then punished, demoted, dismissed, layoff, pay cut etc.

EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION –

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Available only after completion of job wages, retirement benefits, holidays, health wages, health insurances.

INTRINSIC MOTIVATION – •

Available at the time of performing job, recognition, power, delegation of authority and responsibility etc.

FINANCIAL MOTIVATION – •

Pay and monetary allowance.

NON – FINANCIAL MOTIVATION – •

Job rotating, participation, recognition, counseling etc.

FRINGE BENEFITS

In addition to the salary these perks are provided to motivate a particular set of consumers (some times it is non monetary in nature). Providing bus facilities, washing allowances, staff quarters. Etc., Monetary incentives like cash emoluments, cash awards, and cash bags. Etc., Creating sense of security of jobs – job security or permanent job Offering better conditions to work – good premises, good canteen facilities, all other environmental facilities like parking of vehicles. Etc., Dealing fairly with them – patient behaviour, respective and kind talk with the employees. Make adequate provision for progress and development – career courses arrangement, future oriented development programmes. Giving due recognition to the individual ability and skill of the workers – right appreciation

NATURE OR CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTIVATION: 1. Motivation Produces Goal Directed Behaviour Motivation has got profound influence on human behaviour, it harnesses human energy to organizational requirements. 2. Motivation Means Bargaining Behaviour is what people do. Motivation is ‘why’ they do it. Barnard explained motivation in the form of inducements- contribution theory. It focuses on workers and organization endeavoring to find what inducements to workers in exchange for what degree of contribution from workers will be satisfactory to both parties.. 3. Motivation Is Personal And Individual Feeling. Motivation is a psychological concept. It is an inducement of inner feeling of an individual. It cannot be forced upon from outsider.

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4. Motivation Is Total A motivation device which promises fulfillment of some needs of workers and not other will fall short of its objectives of producing total commitment of workers. 5. Motivation is determined by human needs. A worker will perform the desired activities only so long as he sees his actions as a means of continued fulfillment of his strongly felt needs. 6. Motivation Can Be Either Positive Or Negative. Positive motivation or the carrot approach offers something precious to the person in the form of additional pay, incentives, recognition etc,. Negative

motivation

or

stick

approach

emphasizes

penalties

while

controlling

performance. 7. Motivation May Be Financial Or Non-Financial. Financial motivation seeks to satisfy physiological and security needs and it is by way of wages, allowances, bonus etc. Non-financial motivation seeks to satisfy the social recognition and creative needs and it is by way of appreciation, higher status, participation etc. 8. Motivation Is A Constant Process Human needs are infinite. As soon as a person has satisfied one need, he seeks to satisfy another. Motivation cannot be time bound process. 9. Motivation Changes. Motivation of each individual changes from time to time. For e.g. A temporary worker may produce more in the beginning to become permanent, when made permanent he may continue to produce more, this time to gain promotion and so on.

EXPLAIN THE ELEMENTS OF MOTIVATION: •

THE JOB

:

Based on the category of the job, the motivation will differ.

Example the welding worker requires some glasses for the work. They require physical improvement facilities like physical exercise center. •

THE INDIVIDUAL

:

Based on the behaviour, characteristics, attitude, psychology

of an individual the motivation will differ. Example money minded behaviour always aim money, those peoples are motivates only by financial incentives. •

THE WORK CONDITION

:

The work atmosphere, work climate and work

conditions differ the motivation. The critical and executor work requires some type of motivation and others require other type of motivation. • •

TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS: Life positions or psychological positions refer to the dominant philosophy of an individual. Such philosophy is developed in early life on the basis of continuous experience.

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It is tied to an individual’s identity, sense of worth and his perceptions of other people. The life positions are four types as shown: ~ I AM OK

I AM NOT OK

YOU ARE OK

YOU ARE OK

I AM OK

I AM NOT OK

YOU ARE NOT OK

YOU ARE NOT OK

EXPLAIN THE IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION (OR) EXPLAIN THE ADVANTAGES OF MOTIVATION (OR) POSITIVE OUTCOME OF MOTIVATION (OR) WHY MOTIVATION EMPHASIZED IN THE ORGANIZATION? The increasing attention paid towards motivation is justified because of several reasons. 1. Motivated employees come out with new ways of doing job. 2. Motivated employees are quality oriented. 3. Motivated employees are more productive. 4. Every organization requires human resources in addition to the need for financial and physical resources for it to function. For an organization to be effective, it must come to grips with the motivational problems of stimulating both the decision to participate and the decision to produce at work. 5. A comprehensive understanding of the way in which organization function require that increasing attention is directed towards the question of why people behave as they do on their jobs. 6. Any technology needs motivated employees to adopt it successfully. Example: The secret behind the success of ISRO has been its employees who are both capable of using and willing to use the advanced technology to reach the goal. 7. Inspire and get the attraction of the employees we require motivation. 8. Improve production, productivity and performance of the workers. 9. Create cool and positive atmosphere. 10. Increase the job satisfaction and morale of the workers. 11. Create the group and team sprit. 12. To achieve the goal of the organization. 13. To get the psychological satisfaction of the workers the motivation is very important.

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14. To increase the good will or brand image in the personnel area the motivation is very important factor. 15. Motivation very important to attract the general public in to our organization.

THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Critically examine the need hierarchy theory of motivation. (Or) Describe Maslow theory of motivation. The behaviour of an individual at a particular moment is usually determined by his strongest need. Psychologist claims that needs have certain priority.

As the more basic

needs are satisfied and individual seek to satisfy the higher order needs. Maslow’s theory is one of the most popular theories of motivation in the management and organizational behaviour literature. Features: 1. The urge to fulfill the needs is the prime factor in motivation of people at work. 2.

Human needs form a particular hierarchy. Physiological needs are at the base while self-actualization is at the top.

3. As soon as one need is satisfied another need emerges. 4. A satisfied need is not a motivator; only unsatisfied needs regulate an individual. THEORY NO I. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEED THEORY: •

MASLOW’S THEORY IS BASED ON THE NEED OF THE PEOPLE.

The psychologists recognize that needs have a certain priority. Only when the move basic needs are satisfied, persons seek to fulfill the higher land needs.

If one’s basic needs are not met, they claim priority and effort to satisfy, and the high level needs must be postponed.

Factors – need and satisfaction. Any thing satisfies a particular person - called need.

1. Physiological needs or basic needs: The basic needs are required to preserve human life such as food, shelter and clothing ect, They exert a tremendous influence on behaviour as point out by Maslow “Man live by bread alone, where there is no bread”. Basic needs are satisfied to a certain degree. 2. Safety or security needs: Once basic needs are satisfied, safety or security needs emerge and become dominant. These needs concerned with the physical and financial security. These include. a. Protection from physiological damage.

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b.

Economic security

c.

Fringe benefit, insurance programmes ect,

d. Desire for orderly predictable environment. 3. Social needs (or) Love needs: Man is social animal and wants to belong, to associates, to gain acceptance to give and receive friendship and affection. 4. Esteem needs: Esteem needs include both self-esteem and public esteem. People want a high self esteem as well as the respect and admiration of others. These needs take two different forms. First we have need for competency, confidence and independence. We also want the prestige, status, recognition and appreciation that other bestow on us. Satisfying the esteem needs produce feeling of self worth. 5. Self actualization needs: Self-actualization is the desire to become what is capable of becoming, “what a man can be he must be”. Self fulfilling people are rare individual one who comes close to living up to these full potential for being realistic, accomplishing things enjoying life and generally exemplifying classic human virtue. Criticism: a. Little empirical support is available. b. Only a theoretical statement rather than an abstraction from field theory. c.

The same need would not lead to the same response in all individual. :~ NEED

EXAMPLE

:~

MOTIVATIONAL TECHINIQUERW OR TOOL

PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

Financial and negative motivation

SAFETY NEEDS

Non financial and financial negative motivation

SOCIAL NEEDS

ESTEEM NEEDS

SELF ACTUALIZATION NEEDS THEORY: ~II

Non financial motivation like housing, recreation facilities, cultural and art programmes Non-financial motivation, advancement, promotion, career development programmes, status recognition.

-

HERBERG’S MOTIVATION: ~ : HYGIENE THEORY :

HOW HYGIENE FACTOR AND MOTIVATIONAL FACTOR MOTIVATE A PERSON? OR CRITICALLY ANALYZE HERZBERG’S TWO-FACTOR THEORY? •

BY FREDRICK HERGBERG ~ 1957 ~ BIG PSYCHOLOGIST

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HERBERG’S, Maintenance or hygiene factors are necessary to maintain reasonable level of satisfaction among employees. These factors do not provide satisfaction to the employees but their absence will dissatisfy them. Therefore, these factors are called dissatisfies.

In the late 50’s Fredric Herzberg and his associate conducted interview of 200 engineers and accountants in the Pits berg area in US. The persons were asked to relate elements of their jobs, which made them happy or unhappy.

Herzberg named the factors that are related to job satisfaction as motivational factors that are intrinsic in nature and the factors related to their dissatisfaction towards job as hygiene factors.

Hygiene factors: Like physical hygiene these factors do not lead to growth but only prevent deterioration. They are environment related factors. Hygiene when absent they increases dissatisfaction with job. When present, they help in preventing dissatisfaction but do not increase satisfaction or motivation. Set a Job condition which operates primarily to build strong motivational factors. Two factors 1. Satisfier 2. Dissatisfies Motivational factors: Motivations are associate with positive feelings of employees about the job. They make people satisfied with their job. When absent, they prevent both satisfaction and motivation. When present they lead to satisfaction and motivation. Absent

Hygiene factors

Job dissatisfaction

present

Absent

No job dissatisfaction

Motivators

present

No job satisfaction

job

satisfaction COMPARISONS BETWEEN MASLOW’S AND HERZBERG MODEL Herzberg theory is an extension of Maslow’s need priority model Maslow formulated the theory in terms of needs and Herzberg in terms of goals and rewards. Hygiene factors are roughly equivalent to Mallow’s lower order needs and motivational factors are somewhat equivalent to higher order needs. Both models assume that specific needs energize behaviour. Differences Issue

Maslow’s model

Herzberg model

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1.

Order of needs

Sequential arrangement of

No such hierarchical arrangements

2.

Emphasis

needs

Prescriptive

3.

Essence

Descriptive

Satisfied need causes performance

of

theory

Unsatisfied needs influence

4. 5.

performance

Only higher order needs serve as

Motivator

Any unsatisfied need is an

motivators.

Applicability

motivator

Takes a micro view and deals with

Take a general view of the

motivational

motivational problems of all

professional workers.

workers.

Relevant for white collar workers.

6. Worker level

problems

of

Relevant for all the workers

Transcendence helping others to selfactualise Selfactualisation personal growth and Aesthetic needs beauty, balance, form, etc Cognitive needs knowledge, meaning, self-awareness

Adapted 8 level Hierarchy of Needs diagram based on Maslow's theory

Esteem needs achievement, status, responsibility, reputation Belongingness and Love needs family, affection, relationships, work group, etc Safety needs protection, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc Biological and Physiological needs basic life needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.

MOTIVATION

= PERFORMANCE X ABILITY

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Criticisms: a. This theory provides an explanation of job satisfaction. It is not a theory of motivation. b.

Tremendous emphasis on motivational factors and importance of hygiene factors

has been ignored. Compare and contrast Maslow ‘s need hierarchy theory with two-factor theory of motivation. 1.

Herzberg theory is an extension of Maslow need priority model.

2.

Maslow formulated the theory in terms of needs and herzberg in terms of goal

and reward. 3.

Hygiene factors are roughly equivalent to Maslow’s lower order needs and

motivational factors are somewhat equivalent to higher order needs. 4.

Both models assume that specific needs energize behaviour.

____________________________________________________________________ DIFFERENCES: ISSUE

MASLOW’S MODEL

HERZBERG MODEL

Order of needs

Sequential arrangement of needs

No such arrangements

Emphasis

Descriptive

Prescriptive

Essence of theory

Unsatisfied

Motivator

needs

influence

Satisfied needs cause

performance.

performance.

Any unsatisfied needs is motivators.

Only higher order needs serve as a motivator.

Applicability

Take

a

general

view

of

the

Take a micro view and deals

motivational

with motivational

Problems of all workers.

Problems of professional workers.

Workers level

Relevant for all workers

Relevant for white-collar workers.

Motivational factors: ~ Hygiene factores – maintenance factors –

Motivating factors - intrinsic

extrinsic

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Company policy and administration Technical supervision Inter personal relationship with peers Inter personal relationship with supervisors Inter personal relationship with subordinates Salary Job security

Achievement Recognition Advancement Possibilities for growth Responsibility Work itself Challenging work

Personal life Working conditions Status THEORY NO 3 Theory ‘X’ and ‘Y’: •

Prof. Dog Mc. Gregore. o

Theory ‘X’ is said to be pessimistic one and

o

Theory “Y” is said to be optimistic.

:

THEORY ‘X’ IS BASED ON THE FOLLOWING ASSUMPTIONS :

1. Workers do not like to work 2. Finds a way to post pond due to laziness 3. Do the job half heartily 4. Fear of punishment motivate the worker into action 5. Are not ready to accept responsibility 6. Not interested in achievement 7. Prefer some position 8. Prefers to be diverted by others 9. Hate improve their efficiency 10. Avoids taking decision when even necessary. Theory ‘X’: •

Is to supervise and control the workers.

Workers are allowed to exposed their suggestions and emotions. :

ASSUMPTIONS OF THEORY ‘Y’

:

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1. Average human being has the to work once the worker understands the purpose of the job 2. He may co-operate to complete the job 3. Have self direction 4. Discipline and control 5. Right motion tends them to accept extra responsibility 6. Take right decision 7. Competence to work 8. Wants to be recognized for accomplishing his responsibility 9. Potentiality of human beings are not fully utilized in any independent 10. Work efficiently even for non-financial rewards like recognition, participation, and imagination. •

‘Y’ a work is ready to work hard, shows a sense of creativity and imagination.

Positive and non-financial motivation is preferred.

Mc Gregor is credited as being the initiator of one of the most widely used and highly popular classification schemes for both the acceptable and unacceptable styles of today. Actually theory x and theory y are attitudes or predispositions toward people. Theory x is negative, traditional and autocratic style while theory y is participatory, positive and democratic. Employees are not basically sluggish, indifferent, not co-operative and unproductive but they learn this behavior as response to the directing behaviour of managers. People behave exactly as we predict. Thus managers are caught in a web of their own making. Theory x The set of assumption that man is by nature lacks ambition, dislikes responsibility and prefers to be led. In order to accomplish objectives, therefore management must employ coercive techniques and tight external constraints over behaviour. Theory y It assumes that people are not by nature lazy and reliable. It proposes that people can be basically self directed and creative at work if properly motivated. Theory y emphasizes creating opportunities, removing obstacles, encouraging growth and providing guidance. Theory X

Theory Y

1. Inherent dislike for work 2. Unambiguous

and

necked by others

prefer

1. Work is natural like play or rest to

be

2. Ambitious and capable of directing their own behavior.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

137 3. Accept and seek responsibility and

3. Avoid responsibility.

under proper conditions 4. Creativity

4. Lack creativity and resist change

is

widely

spread.

No

resistance to change.

5. Focus on lower level needs to

5. Both lower order and higher order

motivate workers

needs like social, esteem and selfactualization needs are sources of

6. External

control

supervision

and

require

to

close

motivation.

achieve

6. Self control and self motivation

organizational objectives 7. Centralization

of

authority

and

7. Decentralization

autocratic leadership

THEORY 4 -

and

democratic

leadership.

VROOMS EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION:

Variable 1. Attractiveness: •

The importance which the individual worker has place on the potential outcome ore reward that con be achieved on the job. This considers the unsatisfied needs of the individuals. Variable 2. Programme:

Reward linkage the degree to which the individual worker believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome. Variable 3. Effort Performance Linkage:

The perceived probability by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance.

On the basis of these variables, Vrooms work that an individual places on a goal and the changes he sees in achieving these goals. FORCE I.E. PERFORMANCE

= VALANCE X EXPECTANCY = ATTRACTIVENESS X EFFORTS.

Expectancy theory represents a comprehensive, valid and useful approach to understanding motivation. 1. It is one of the most complete theories for detailing not only how people feel and behave but also why they react as they do. 2. It is a cognitive model i.e., it is based on conscious thoughts about the situation. When people are faced with a number of behavioral options leading to satisfaction, they will evaluate the potential outcomes of these options and select the one that promises the optimum result.

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Motivation= V x E x I ( valence, expectancy, instrumentality) 3. This theory is based on self- interest wherein each individual seeks to maximize his expected satisfaction. It is a form of calculative psychological hedonism in which the ultimate motive of every human act is asserted to be the maximization of pleasure or the minimization of pain. VALENCE: people have preferences for various outcomes or incentives that are potentially available to them. Valence is the strength of the individual’s desire for a particular outcome. It is the subjective value attached to a incentive or reward. For e.g., an individual desires promotion and feels that the superior performance is a strong factor in achieving that goal. His first level outcomes are them superior, average and poor performance. His second level outcome is promotion. The superior performance (first level outcome) is being seen as instrumental in getting promotion(second level outcome) EXPECTANCY: expectancy refers to the perceived relationship between a given level of effort and given level of performance. It refers to the extent to which the person believes that his efforts will lead to the first level outcome, that is, performance. Competent and secure individuals tend to perceive expectancy more positively than incompetent and pessimistic individuals. INSTRUMENTALITY: it refers to the relationship between performance and reward. It refers to the degree to which first level outcome will lead to a desire second level outcome. If people perceive that their performance is adequately rewarded instrumentality will be positive. The more likely people feel that a performance level will lead to desired outcomes, the more likely they will be to expend effort to perform at that level. Expectancy theory stresses -

it emphasizes payoffs

-

rewards should be tied to performance.

-

Rewards should be equitable and it should Emphasis expected behaviour Theory - 5 CARROT AND STICK THEORY:

Behaviour Good standard

Treatments performance, production,

above

Reward, praise, participation, in

Extra

decision-making process, Pay and

Motivation

POSITIVE MOTIVATION

Ordinary Out put. Etc.,

monetary allowance.

Poor performance, Below standard

Fear and force, fails to complete

NEGATIVE

production, lazy work behavior.

the work then punished, demoted,

MOTIVATION

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Etc.,

139

dismissed, layoff, pay cut etc.

Theory - 6 MC. CLEEANDS THEORY: The theory was framed after the second world war MC. CLEEANDS –basically from Harvard university Factors: ~ o

POWER MOTIVE – one who is having an ability to influence others and induce others is called power.

o

AFFILIATION MOTIVE – association and relationship between others. Peoples belongs to the motive of affiliation are come sunder this category.

o

EFFORT AND PERFORMANCE MOTIVE –

ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION MODEL Achievement motivation theory has been advocated by David McClelland and his associates. They identified three needs that motivate human behaviour. 1. Need For Achievement 2. Need For Affiliation 3. Need For Power Need For Achievement(Nach) Employees with high need for achievement derive satisfaction from achieving goals. Succeeding a task is important to the high achievers. Some of the main characteristics of achievement seeders are, -

They are not motivated by money. They use money as score of their achievements.

-

They prefer immediate feedback in their performance

-

They prefer tasks of moderate difficulty rather that those that are either very easy or very difficult.

-

They prefer to work independently.

McClelland believes that the need for achievement can be learned.

Need for power(nPOW) Employees with High (nPOW) derive satisfaction from the ability to control others. satisfaction is derived from being in positions of influence and control. It is the ability to manipulate or control the activities of other to find ones own objective. Actual achievement of goals

is less important than the means by which the goals are

achieved. Need for affiliation(nAFF)

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Individuals with high need for affiliation derive satisfaction from social and interpersonal activities. They derive pleasure from being loved tend to avoid the pain of being rejected. They are concerned with maintaining pleasant social relationship. Developing achievement motivation: McClelland has conducted achievement courses in India in the state of Andhra Pradesh. His achievement development courses contained following important points, 1. the individual should strive to attain concrete and frequent feedback. 2. they should seed models of achievement. 3. the individuals would imagine himself as one who needs success and set realistic goals. 4. he has to think & talk to himself in positive terms.

Developing achievement motivation: Mc Cleland has conducted achievement courses in the state of Andhra parades. His achievement development courses contained with following points. 1. Individual should strive to attain concrete and frequent feedback. 2. They should seed model of achievement. 3. The individuals would imagine him as one who needs success and set realistic goals. 4. He has to think and talk to himself in positive terms. State the characteristics of motivation or Bring out the Nature of motivation 1. Motivation is internal to man: Motivation cannot be seen because it is internal to man. It is externalized via behaviour. It activates the man towards goal. 2. A single motive can cause different behaviour A person with a single desire to earn prestige in the society may move towards to join politics, attain additional education and training, join identical groups and change his outward appearance. 3. Different motive may result in single behaviour The same or single behaviour may be caused by many motives. If a person buy a care for example. This buying behaviour may be caused by different motives. Such as to look attractive, be respectable, gain acceptance from similar group of persons, differentiate the status and so on. 4. Motives come and go Like tides, motives can emerge and disappear. Motives emerged at a point of time may not remain with the same intensity at other point of time. For instance, a boy overly

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concerned about his hair and stress styles during his adolescence age may turn his concern toward other thing like health and education once he grows up an attains youth. 5. Motives interact with the environment. The environment in which we are at a point of time may either trigger or suppress our motives. INCENTIVES OF TECHNIQUES OF MOTIVATION Incentive: The objects, which are perceived to satisfy employee’s needs, are called incentive. Individuals have varied types of needs; some of them can be satisfied by money while others cannot be satisfied by money alone. On the basis of this the various incentives may be classified into two parts viz., financial incentives and non-financial incentives. Financial incentives: Those incentives that are given in the form of money are called financial incentives. This can be classified into two parts. Individual financial incentives: this group of incentives includes all such plans, which induce an individual to achieve higher output. Taylor’s piece rate system, Halsey’s efficiency plan and Rowan plan are examples of such incentives. The basic assumptions behind these are that an individual will be motivated for higher output to earn money, which satisfies his needs. Collective financial incentives. This group of incentives tries to motivate individuals collectively, the basic idea of these incentives are the same as the individual incentives, however the employees are given these collectively. Eg. Bonus, profit sharing, pension plan Non-financial incentives: Individuals have various needs, which they want to satisfy while working in the organization. People at comparatively higher level of managerial hierarchy attach more importance to socio-psychological needs, which cannot be satisfied by money alone. This management in addition to financial incentive provides non-financial incentives to motivate people in the organization. The emphasis of non-financial incentives is to provide psychological and emotional satisfaction rather than financial satisfaction. For e.g., if an individual gets promotion in the organization, it satisfies him psychologically more, i.e., he gets better status, more challenging job, authority etc than financially. Non- financial incentives can be grouped under a. Individual non-financial incentives b. Collective non-financial incentives c.

Institutional non-financial incentives.

Individual Non-Financial Incentives. These incentives motivate people in individual tasks. The various forms of individual nonfinancial incentives are as follows.

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Status: It means the ranking of position, rights and duties in the formal organization structure. It is an instrument of motivation because it is extremely important for most of the people. Promotion: It is a movement to a position in which responsibilities and prestige are increased, promotion satisfies the need of human beings in the organization. Responsibility. Most of the people prefer challenging and responsible jobs rather than monotonous and routine types of job. If the job os responsible, it satisfies peoples natural and inherent characteristics and they put more efforts for completing the job. Making a job pleasant and interesting: The work can be made enjoyable and pleasant if it is so designed that it allows the employees to satisfy their natural instincts, this creates interest in the work and employee take it as natural as play. Recognition of work Recognition means acknowledgement with a show of appreciation is given to work performed by the employer. They feel motivated to perform work at similar or higher level. Collective Incentives: People may be motivated in groups also. They perform their duties in groups and are affected by the group. Some of the collective non-financial incentives are as follows. 1. Social importance of work People generally prefer a work, which is socially acceptable. If the society gives importance and praise to work people, like to perform. 2. Team spirit. The management should encourage team spirit i.e., to work in co-operation and coordination. 3. Competition: Sometimes for providing incentives to employees competition is organized between different individuals of different groups. Human Relations In Industry. It is related with policies to be adopted in the organization to develop a sense of belongingness in the employees, improve their efficiency and treat them as human beings and not merely a factor of production. 1. Participation; It is related with superior sub-ordinate relationship in the subordinate participate in decision-making process. 2. Communication Communication is the process of passing ideas and understanding from one person or group to another person or group. A free and adequate flow of communication becomes good motivation.

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3. Building morale Morale is the attitude of individuals and group toward work environment and towards voluntary co-operation to the full extent of their abilities in the best interest of the organization ________________________________________________________________ JOB SATISFACTION What do you mean by Job satisfaction? What are the factors influencing job satisfaction? Or what are the determinants of Job satisfaction? Meaning Job Satisfaction is asset of favourable or unfavourable feelings with which the employees view their work. Job satisfaction is a feeling of relative pleasure or pain. It typically refers to the attitude of a single employee. Definition According to Feldman and Arnold “ job satisfaction will be defined as the amount of overall positive affect that individuals have towards their jobs. Concept Job satisfaction means good or positive attitude or feeling towards one’s job. It is important to mention that an individual may hold different attitudes towards various aspects of the job. For example, a university professor may like his job responsibilities but be dissatisfied with the opportunities for promotion. Characteristics of individuals also influence job satisfaction. There are three important dimensions of job satisfaction 1. Job satisfaction being an emotional response to a job cannot be seen. As such, it can only be inferred. 2. Job Satisfaction is often determined by how satisfactorily outcomes meet or exceed one’s expectations. 3. Job satisfaction represents an employee’s attitudes towards five specific dimensions of the job pay, the work itself, promotion opportunities, supervision and co-workers.

CAUSES OR EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION Job satisfaction has a variety of effects. These effects may be seen in the context of an individual's physical and mental health. productivity. absenteeism. and turnover.

1. Physical and Mental Health. The degree of job satisfaction affects an individual's physical and mental health. Since job satisfaction is a type of mental, its favorableness or unfavourableness affects the individual psychologically which ultimately affects his physical

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health. For example. Lawler has pointed out that drug abuse. alcoholism. and mental and physical health result from psychologically harmful jobs.Further, since a job is an important part of life, job satisfaction influences general life satisfaction. The result is that there is spillover effect which occurs in both directions between job and life satisfaction.

2. Productivity. There are two views about the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity: 1. a happy worker is a productive worker, 2. a happy worker is not necessarily a productive worker. The first view establishes a direct cause-effect relationship between job satisfaction and productivity; whenjob satisfaction increases, productivity increases; when job satisfaction decreases, productivity decreases. The basic logic behind this is that a happy worker will put more efforts for job performance. However, this may not be true in all cases. For example, a worker having low expectations from his jobs may feel satisfied but he may not put his efforts more vigorously because of his low expectations from the job. Therefore, this view does not explain fully the complex relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. The another view: that isa satisfied worker is not necessarily a productive worker explains the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. Various research studies also support this view. This relationship may be explained in terms of the operation oftwo factors: effe.ct of job performance on satisfaction and organisational expectations from individuals for job performance. 1. Job performance leads to job satisfaction and not the other way round. 38 The basic factor for this phenomenon is the rewards (a source of satisfaction) attached with performance. There are two types of rewards-intrinsic and extrinsic. The intrinsic reward stems from the job itselfwhich may be in the form of growth potential, challengingjob, etc. The satisfaction on such a type of reward may help to increase productivity. The extrinsic reward is subject to control by management such as salary, bonus, etc. Any increase in these factors does not help to increase productivity though these factors increase job satisfaction. 2. A happy worker does not necessarily contribute to higher productivity because he has to operate under certain technological constraints and, therefore, he cannot go beyond certain output. Further, this constraint affects the management's expectations from the individual in the form oflower output. Thus, the work situation is pegged to minimally acceptable level of performance. However, it does not mean that the job satisfaction has no impact on productivity. A satisfied worker may not necessarily lead to increased productivity but a dissatisfied worker leads to lower productivity.

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3. Absenteeism. Absenteeism refers to the frequency of absence ofajob holder from the workplace either unexcused absence due to some avoidable reasons or long absence due to some unavoidable reasons. It is the former type of absence which is a matter of concern. This absence is due to lack of satisfaction from the job which produces a 'lack of will to work' and alienate a worker from work as far as possible. Thus, job satisfaction is related to absenteeism.

4. Employee Turnover. Turnover of employees is the rate at which employees leave the organisation within a given period of time. As discussed earlier in this chapter under. defence mechanism, when an individual feels dissatisfaction in the organisation, he tries to overcome this through the various ways of defence mechanism. If he is not able to do so, he opts to leave the organisation. Thus, in general case, employee turnover is related to job satisfaction. However, job satisfaction is not the only cause of employee turnover. the other cause being better opportunity elsewhere. For example, in the present context. the rate of turnover of computer software professionals is very high in India. However, these professionals leave their organisations not simply because they are not satisfied but because of the opportunities offered from other sources particularly from foreign companies located abroad.

Improving Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction plays significant role in the organisation. Therefore. managers should take concrete steps to improve the level of job satisfaction. These steps may be in the form of job redesighing to make the job more interesting and challenging, improving quality of work life, linking rewards with performance. and improving overall organisational climate~) MEASURING JOB SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT AND DETERMINANTS OF JOB SATISFACTION Job satisfaction is a positive attitude towards one’s job. The evidence from research studies indicates that the more important elements that contribute to job satisfaction are as follows: 1. Nature of work:

Most employees crave intellectual challenges on their jobs. Therefore

they prefer to jobs, which offer them challenges and an opportunity to use their skills and abilities. However, while too much challenge in job created frustration and feelings of failure, too little challenge causes boredom. It is the conditions of moderate challenge in which employees experience pleasure and satisfaction 2. Attending & solving problems:

It is desirable that complaints of the workers be

heard patiently and the problems solved as far as possible. Factories in which the worker’s demands are not needed suffer because the workers lose confidence because the workers lose confidence in the management, and become frustrated. 3. Pay and promotion

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Employees want their pay systems and promotions polices as unambiguous and in line with their expectations. Accordingly, if they see pay as fair, based on job demands and employees skill and as per community pay standards, it results in job satisfaction. 4. Testing the workers ability and progress Organisations in which the management keeps an eye on the ability ability and progress of its workers normally have high degree of job satisfaction among their employees. 5. Respect for creative suggestions If workers are encouraged to suggest ways and means of improving the condition of work, they often come up with valuable ideas. This helps in increasing job satisfaction because when work is praised he tends to pay more attention to his work. 6. Proper quantum of work If job satisfaction is to be maintained it is essential that quantity of work does not exceed the individual’s ability to complete it. 7. Praise for good performance If workers are not praised for exceptional performance in their work they lose interest in it and as result, the organisation suffers. If he is encouraged in his work by and occasional word of praise and respect, he is further motivated to maintain a high level of efficiency. 8. Freedom to seek help in solving problems Very often the worker is faced by problems in his work that he cannot solve alone. In such a case he should be free to seek help and guidance from other worker or even from the managers. 9. Absence of unnecessary Intervention and criticism No individual wants to sacrifice his self-respect. If the worker is unnecessarily shown disrespect or abused he quickly becomes dissatisfied. Hence he should be protected from useless interruption and criticism. 10. Satisfactory future In the factory, rules regarding condition of promotion and advancement must be laid down and if the worker gets the expected promotion, he feels satisfied and becomes confident of his future otherwise he becomes confident of his future. Otherwise he becomes frustrated and slack in his work. 11. Quality supervision Quality or supportive supervision establishes cordial and supportive personal relationship with subordinates. These characteristics of supervision create satisfaction for employees on their jobs.

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12. Satisfactory hours of work The hours of work in any factory or offices should be convenient and so arranged as to offer the least possible inconvenience to the largest number of employees. If this is not looked into the workers becomes dissatisfied. 13. Availability of leaves and rest In every industrial organisation the workers should be given the proper amount of rest and holidays on festivals and other occasions of social celebration. It is generally seen that workers feel satisfied if the management in any organisation follows a liberal policy towards leave for workers. 14. Supportive colleagues Experience shows that employees get more out of work than only money or tangible achievements. It happens so primarily by having opportunities for interaction with colleagues. Thus work teams fill the need for social interaction. Thus having supportive colleagues also leads to employees’ job satisfaction ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS WHAT ARE THE VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS THAT DETERMINES THE JOB SATISFACTION IN AN ORGANIZATION?

Factors determining job satisfaction:

PERSONAL FACTORS

ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS

Age Educational qualification Experience Ability Perception

Nature of work assigned Pay and other benefits Superior – subordinates relationship Interpersonal relationship Opportunities for advancement Personal Factors

Age: The age of a person does have its influence on his level of job satisfaction people who are young usually have a higher level of job satisfaction provided they rightly choose their career. Those in their twenties or thirties we energetic and have the stamina to work hard and derive pleasure out of their work. As a person gets older, he gets tired physically and mentally.

SEX: There is a feeling among many employers that women employees are much more committed to work than men. Such employers prefer to appoint women in their concerns. A women employee who is able to show greater commitment to work naturally should derive higher level of job satisfaction.

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EDUCATIONAL QUALIFACTION: The job satisfaction level of people with higher educational qualification is generally found to be low. This happens, because, such people always look for better employment opportunities. A person deriving pleasure out of his present job, which is also remunerative, need not look for better employment prospects.

EXPERIENCE: The experience of an employee gives him explosive to many difficult work situations. This enables him to learn the art of managing crisis. Such persons, in view of their ability to tackle any critical work situation, should naturally have greater job satisfaction than these who are inexperienced. It may be mentioned here that the age and experience of a parson need not go together.

ABILITY: An employee who lacks the capability to perform his job, obliviously, cannot derive job satisfaction. Performance is vital for job satisfaction. Only those who have the ability will be able to perform. It may be mentioned have that the satisfaction accruing to a person out of the monetary benefits he gets from his employment is temporary.

PERCEPTION: Job expectations differ from person to person. This is in view of difference in one’s perception. Some individuals may be interested in challenging jobs while others may be interested in routine work. Organizational factors: NATURE OF WORK ASSIGNED: The work assigned to an employee should be of interest to him. What appears to be an interesting job to one may appear to uninteresting to another and so says the proverb, ‘one man’s food is another man’s poison’. It is therefore, important that the employer understands the capabilities and preferences of his employees before assigning them work.

PAY AND OTHER BENEFITS: Pay and other tangible benefits offered to employees, although cannot determine job satisfaction in all cases, are not unimportant. An employee who derives pleasure out his job cannot be indifferent to pay and other benefits to which he is entitled.

SUPERIOR – SUBORDINATE RELATIONSHIP: Sometimes, an employee may be fully satisfied with his job. But if his superior tries to find fault with him unnecessarily, the employee gets disturbed mentally. This affects satisfaction.

INTERPERSONEL RELATIONSHIPS: When the relationship between the employees working as a group is not cordial, it will affect individual performance. This happens because of two reasons.

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OPPURTINUTIES FOR ADVANCEMENT: Where in an organization , there rare no opportunities for promotion, the employee may have to remain in the same job till their retirement. WHAT ARE ALL THE STEPS INVOLVED IN JOB SATISFACTION? The following measures may be adopted to have a higher level of job satisfaction among employees.

1. Selection of right man for the right job. 2. Payment commensurate with the employee’s credentials. 3. Conducive working environment. 4. Cardinal superior – subordinate relationship 5. Better inter –person relationship 6. Provision of suitable promotion opportunities. 7. Creation of facilities for training. 8. Provision of suitable incentives and social security benefits. 9. Job rotation where desirable. 10. Encouraging employee’s participation in decision making. The two factor theory the need fulfillment theory and the expectancy theory discussed in the chapter motivation has relevance to job satisfaction as well. DETERMINANTS/ FACTORS AFFECTING JOB SATISFACTION Supervision: Generally, employee – centered leadership enhances a great amount of job satisfaction as the leader looks after the subordinates carefully displays friendship, respect and warmth etc towards employees. The work group It has been proved that isolated workers dislike their jobs. In other words the work group exerts a tremendous influence on the satisfaction of employees at workplaces. The amount of satisfaction an individual derives from his on the relationship with the group members and his own need for affiliation. Job content: Job content refers to the factors such as recognition, responsibility, and advancement in the jobs employees performs. In a study it was found that at least one job content factor is very important for job satisfaction. Occupational level: High-level jobs are satisfying for many reasons The needs for power and autonomy They reduce financial stringency They offer task diversity and job enrichment It was found that that at each successive lower level the managers were less satisfied.

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Specialization: The relationship between job specialization and job satisfaction is complex. Based on specialization job satisfaction increases up to certain point and after

JOB SATISFACTION

a certain point specialization leads to dissatisfaction.

JOB SPECIALISATION Age: Job satisfaction usually tends to be high when people enter the work force; it plummets and the plateaus for several years up to age of roughly thirty years, after which there will be gradual increase in satisfaction. Race and sex: It has been found that job satisfaction among minority group has been lower compared to majority group. Likewise, females are dissatisfied that males because females have less job and pay opportunities than males Educational level: Keeping the occupational level as constant, there found a negative correlation between the level of education of employees and their satisfaction.

Job enrichment:It refers to the vertical expansion of job. It includes the degree to which the workers control planning, execution & evaluation of his or her work. Job enrichment can be defined as designing job that includes a greater variety of work contents; requires a higher level of knowledge and kill; give workers more autonomy and responsibility in terms of planning, directing & controlling their own performance; and provide the opportunity for personal growth and a meaningful work experience. It involves increasing the depth of job. Depth is the degree to which individual can plan and control the work involved in their jobs.

Characteristics f job enrichment:1. Skill Variety:- Extended to which the job has a number of activities that require different skills. 2. Task Identify: It is the degree to which the job allows the completion of he major identifiable piece work. 3.Task significance: It is the extent to which the workers sees the job output as having an important impact on others.

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4.Autonomy: It is the amount of discretion allowed in determining schedule and work methods for achieving the requires output. 5. Feed back:- The degree to which jobs provide for clear , timely information. Job enlargement:Job enlargement involves variety of jobs or operation at the same time. Simply it is the horizontal loading of job. Argryis feels that both enlargement avoids monotony which is the result of high degree of specialization and division of labour. An enlarges job can motivate an individual for 2 reasons. 1. Increasing the number of task to be performed can reduce the level of boredom. 2. It tends to increase satisfactory by allowing workers to appreciate their contribution.

Dis advantages:1. The testing costs tend to rise. 2. Even after enlargement, many jobs may still be routine & boring.

Job enrichment Vs Job enlargement -diagram1. Nature of job:- Enlargement involves a horizontal loading ore expansion or addition of task of the same nature. Enrichment involves vertical loading of tasks and responsibility of the jobholder; it improves the quality of job in terms of its intrinsic worth. 2. Objectives:- The basic objectives of enlargement is to reduce the antonym in performing certain repetitive jobs by lengthening the cycle of operations. The objective of enrichment is to make the job more lively and challenging thereby satisfying the needs of the jobholders. Particularly the higher order needs which he seeks from the job. 3. Skill requirement:- Job enlargement does not asks for additional skills of the job holder due to similarity of additional tasks. Enrichment calls for development & utilization of higher skills, initiative and innovation on the fact of job holder. Direction & control: Job enlargement requires direction and control from external sources, say supervisor enrichment does not require external direction and control as they come from the job holder himself . He requires only feedback from his superiors.

WHAT IS STRESS? MEANING and definition: A person under goes stress when he feels that he is ill equipped to carry out the tasks assigned to him. Not every one undergoes stress in a work place. It is also not possible to explain precisely the situation that would give scope for stress because, many individuals are capable of performing their tasks irrespective of the work situation.

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WHY DOES STRESS ARISE? The various factors that cause stress can be grouped under:

Stress arise of two factors

Personal Factors I

Organizational Factors II •

Ability: They have the necessary mental and physical stamina to overcome any kind of a pressure. On the other hand, there are people who do not have the capability to face critical situations.

Perception: Whether a problematic has arise in the organization or not depends upon the perception of the people who are employed in it. Some people cannot perform any out-ofroutine work because they perceive into be difficult while there are people who are always prepared to accept any challenge.

Manner of approaching crisis: Hoe a person approaches his task when there is a crisis is yet another cause of stress. In a critical situation some become nervous and as a result they are unable to perform well.

Level of Self-confidence: Some people basically lack self-confidence. Needless to say, in a crisis for such people the level of self-confidence deteriorates further and affects performance. People who have supreme self-confidence are not likely to undergo stress.

Experience: Well- experienced employees would have come across difficult situations several times in their career and therefore are aware of the tactics to be used.

Desire for work: The desire of an employee for work is another important personal factors. An employee with a desire for work is always keen on performing his task and only completion of the task will give him peace and happiness.

Beliefs: An employee who firmly believes that systematic work will pay rich dividends does not feel the work pressure and therefore is not likely to experience stress.

Organizational Factors •

Nature of job: An employee who has to face challenges in his job, almost on a daily basis, undergoes stress often.

Superior- Subordinate relationships: Cordial superior-subordinate relationships is essential for the smooth functioning of any organization.

Inter-personal relationships: Such strained relationships affect co-operation and teamwork and also make the work environment unpleasant. The unpleasant environment affects the moral of the employees and finally leads to stress conditions.

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Target to be reached: An employee who is not able to attain the target set for him either because the target is unreasonable or he is ill-equipped or the internal and external forces are not conducive the develops frustration.

Time pressure: This is an extension of the previous point. The target to be attained by an employee is always with reference to a time-frame.

Physical Working conditions: The existence of improper working conditions may also contribute to job stress.

Opportunities for advancement: When an employee is deprived of the opportunities to move to higher positions due to politics in the workplace, he is sure to get disappointed.

House of work: If the hours of work are too long and or the employee is made to work continuously without the required interval breaks he is sure to become tried physically as well as mentally.

Disparity in pay and other benefits: In some organizations there is often disparity in the payment of remuneration among employees. For a same type of job some employees may be paid more while others may be paid less.

Biased assessment of performance: Evaluating the performance of the human resource is an integral part of HR management. A number of crucial decision pertaining to an employs-pay fixation, payment of allowances, training, promotion, transfer and even termination of service.

Greater responsibilities: Some superiors expect too much out of their subordinates. They give their subordinates responsibilities without the requisite authority.

Consequences of Stress: Explain the consequences of stress. Having discuss its consequences. An employee undergoing excessive stress may face certain phychological problems as stated below.

Physical Problems: •

Headache

Hyper-tension

Lack of appetite

Sleeplessness

Indigestion

Psychological Problems: •

Frustration

Emotional instability

Nervousness and tension

Anxiety

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR •

Irritable mood

Depression

Behavioral Changes: Certain behavioral changes may also take place in the individual undergoing excessive stress. •

Excessive smoking

Abuse of alcohol or drugs

Late coming

Absenteeism

Tendency to Neglect safety precautions

Problems faced by the Enterprise: The enterprise may have to face several problems in view of the stress conditions of its employees. •

Low productivity

Low quality output

Loss of man-hours

Excessive complaints and grievances

High rate of absenteeism

High rate of lab our turnover

Increase in conflicts

Strained inter-personal relationships

EXPLAIN HOW TO MANAGE THE STRESS? DISCUSS THE IMPORTANCE OF MANAGING STRESS?

There are basically three approaches to stress management. •

Present, Escape, Cope

Presentation of stress involves the adoption of certain measures as mentioned below: •

Assignment of work according to each individuals capabilities

Provision of better working conditions

Better superior – subordinate relationship

Better inter – personal relationships

Unbiased evaluation of employee performance

Maintaining equality and equity in the distribution of workload

THE EMPLOYEES CAN ESCAPE STRESS BY ANY OF THE FOLLOWING MEANS: 1) Seeking transfer 2) Opting for voluntary retirement 3) Finding alternative employment, etc

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Morale What is morale? What are the benefits of morale? What are the advantages of high morale? Introduction Generally, the term morale is used to describe and overall tone or climate prevailing among members of group, society and association. It is the by-product pf Motivation. If they appear to feel, good, happy, optimistic and friendly, there may be said to exist good or high morale. If they are quarrelsome, irritated critical and restless, the condition is called poor or low morale. Meaning Morale is the employee’s attitude towards his firm. It is the sum of satisfaction experienced by an employee on account of his job and a member of a work team. It is described as group attitude such as persistence, determination and cohesiveness. Good employee is the mental attitude of individual or of the group, which enables the employee to realize that the maximum satisfaction of his drives coincides with the fulfillment of the objective of the concern. 1. What is it? - An attitude of mind, a state of well or unwell being and an emotional force. 2. What it does? It affects outputs, quality, cost discipline, enthusiasm, co-operation etc. 3. Where it resides? In the minds, attitudes and emotions of individuals and groups 4. Whom it affects? Immediately the employees, executives and ultimately the consumers. 5. What it affects? Willingness to work and to co-operate in the best interest of the enterprise.

According to Dale s. Beach “Morale is the total satisfaction a person derives from his job, his work group, his boss, his organization and his environment. Morale is defined as “ a composite of feelings, attitudes, and sentiments that contribute to general feelings of satisfaction.” Definition According to Keith Davis “Morale can be defined as attitudes of individuals and groups towards their work environment and toward voluntary cooperation to the full extent of their ability in the best interest of the organisation” Advantages 1. High morale retains good employees 2. It helps in minimizing labour turnover, absenteeism and disciplinary problems. 3. It results in increased job performance and consequent increase in job satisfaction

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4. It improves cooperation and brings unity among the employees. 5. It creates favourable climate among customers, outsiders and the employees 6. It makes the work the enterprise healthy 7. It makes the work pleasant for employees. 8. It is a pride in the organisation What are the effects of high morale? Effects of Low morale 1. Reduced productivity 2. Excessive tardiness and absenteeism 3. Excessive complaints and grievances 4. High employee turnover 5. Friction among employees 6. Alcoholism 7. High Accident Explain various methods on measuring morale? Measurement of morale The measurement of moral4e is a very difficult task because it is basically a psychological question and it is made up of several individual tendencies. Hence in order to measure the level of morale in a worker, the management must obtain characteristic of low morale in the behaviour of a particular employee. 1. Common worker’s opinion analysis: In this method opinions of the average worker are collected and analysed. For this certain scientific questionnaires are prepared. It reveals the worker’s opinions regarding various aspects of the industry as well as towards the authorities. The worker does not have to reveal his name in answering these questionnaires assuring the worker of secrecy regarding his views. When the questionnaires are duly completed by workers it is received back and it becomes possible to see the various scores on which the workers have complained. If some particular object or subject is a matter of complaint in a large majority of cases, efforts can be made to rectify it. Success in this method depends upon the degree to which the questionnaire is scientific, and upon the degree of truth in worker’s responses. 2. Interview method: In this method, those individual are directly interviewed who have departed from the unit in question for various reasons. One main advantages of this method is that is reveals the

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reasons whereby the workers feel compelled to seek jobs elsewhere, so that future desertion on the part of present employees cab be discouraged part of present employees can be discouraged. Another advantage of this method is the views of departed employees cannot result in any harm to the administration. But if many workers level their jobs on the same pretext than evidently, it is necessary to put an end to the source of complaint in order to maintain a high level or morale. This method is useful in measuring the existing level of morale, and suggesting methods of improvements. It also locates the cause of falling morale, and suggesting methods of improvements 3.Attitude Measurement Morale is an expression of the work towards their work, the authorities and general administration or organisation. Hence the workers attitudes can be known to evaluate their morale. For example if the answer to the following queries where supplied by workers, their attitudes in these respect could be known: i)

I work in the company under compulsion’

ii)

I have no respect for faith in those in authority above me

iii)

I find no freedom, pleasure of satisfaction in my work.

The workers attitudes can be discovered by requiring him to mark the above queries right or wrong. 4. Sociological Method: Sociological Method can be used to discover characteristics of the worker’s group organisation where by the level of morale can be discovered. The worker is given a questionnaire containing certain questions intended to throw light on the characteristics of group organisation. For example, the workers are asked to name and enumerate the individuals with whom they would like to work or under whom they would prefer to work If the answer of many individuals to this question seem to speak favourably of any one individuals, and the answer seem to show respect, love and confidence for the individual, it is fairly evident that he is capable of becoming a good administrator. 5. Company Records & Reports The records and reports of the company prepared for other reasons and purposes can be used to measure the morale of employees. These records can be analysed in the following manners change of labour ratio, man-hour lost, absence and slackness, number of grievances reported by workers and resolved by the management, number and value of accidents occurred in factory etc. ______ Concept of morale 1. Morale is a fundamental psychological concept.

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2. Morale is a multi dimensional concept. It is a complex mixture of several elements. 3. Morale is a group phenomenon consisting of pattern of attitudes of the members of the group. It refers to the spirit of the organization. 4. Morale is different from teamwork. Morale is the capacity of group of people to pull together persistently and consistently in the pursuit of common purpose. 5. Rising morale to a high level and maintaining it there is a long term and continuous process, which cannot be achieved through short-run devices. 6. Morale may be ‘high’ or ‘low’. High morale is hallmark of sound behavioral climate in the organization. 7. Morale is different from motivation. Difference between morale and motivation Basis

Morale

Motivation

Composition

It is composite of feelings, attitudes and

It is something that moves a person

sentiments

to action

Group phenomenon

It

Scope

is

basically

an

individual’s

willingness to work Sources

Functions

of

freedom

or

restraint

It is a function of drives and needs.

towards some goals Concern

Mobilization of sentiments

Concerned

with

mobilization

energy Relationship between morale and productivity It is contended by human relations school that morale and productivity are positively correlated, i.e., they go hand in hand. High productivity results from the fact that people experiencing high morale do not skip their duty are least tardy, take keen interest in their work, show good team spirit and contribute their best to the attainment of organizational goals. Conversely, poor morale and low productivity go together. People with low morale show tendencies like absenteeism, tardiness, casual in interest coupled with apathy, anxiety, tension and even arrogance. But some recent studies have proved that there is no consistent, positive and casual relationship between morale and productivity, some studies though showed positive correlation, some other showed negative correlation. In other words, several other factors, apart from morale, influence productivity and if their factors are strong enough, they may pull down the influence of morale. There are four possible combinations of morale and productivity a. High morale and high productivity b. Low morale and low productivity c.

High morale and low productivity

d. Low morale and high productivity

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High productivity goes with high morale when the workers are highly motivated, the supervision is considerate of workers and the workers are highly trained, this is the ideal state. High morale is associated with low productivity when the employees are merely happy and they are not properly motivated to do their wok. Other reasons may be inefficient supervision, faulty technology, and low degree of skills. High productivity is associated with low morale when management uses strict supervision and punishment against low productivity. But high productivity with low morale cannot be sustained for long since will to work is a very important factor. High morale only High morale and high productivity

Morale High productivity only

Productivity

Measurement of morale 1. Observation methods: a manager can measure the morale of his subordinates by observing their attitudes and behavior towards the management, co-workers and the work. 2. Morale survey: this is the formal method of knowing the morale of the employees. A questionnaire may be drafted and the employees may be asked to provide answers about their attitudes toward supervision, peers, management and work. 3. Study of morale indicators a. Productivity – generally, low level of productivity is associated with low degree of morale. b. Absenteeism- greater degree of absenteeism is associated with low morale. c.

Job satisfaction - if the workers are satisfied with their jobs their morale will be higher.

d. Relations with other employees - the morale of the workers is high, if they feel belongingness and togetherness among themselves. e. Number of accidents - generally, low morale leads to more accidents f.

Number of grievances - if the number of grievances increases, there will be low morale of the workers

g. Employees’ turnover—if there is higher employee turnover due to avoidable causes, there will be lower morale.

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Building morale It is very complex job to build and maintain high morale in a work group. It is a continuous process, which cannot be stopped even for a moment. The management can use the following techniques to achieve and maintain high morale of workforce. Incentive system: there should be a proper incentive system in the organization to ensure monetary and non-monetary rewards to the employees to motivate them. Welfare measures: management must provide for employees welfare measures like canteens, credit facilities, sports clubs, education facilities for their children, etc. Management’s concern for workers’ welfare will increase the goodwill of the management in the eyes of the workers. Effective communication system:

there should be two-way communication

between the management and the workers as it exercises a profound influence on morale. The workers should be kept informed about the organization’s policies and programmes through conference bulletins and informal discussion with the workers. Social activities: management should encourage social group activities by the workers. This will help to develop greater group cohesiveness, which can be used by the management for building high morale. Workers participation: Management should allow workers participation in management. Whenever a change is to be introduces which will affect the workers they must be consulted and taken into confidence. Workers must be allowed to put forward their suggestion and grievances to the top management. Features of low morale: Antagonistic attitude towards those in the authorities Lack of obedience or forced obedience Feelings of hatred, jealousy, doubt, disrespect and lack of confidence towards those in authority. Disappointed and unenthusiastic. Lack of collective administration, unity, belief in effort. Mental turmoil and unhappiness Lack of system and productivity in work Tendency to circulate all kind of rumor. Mutual conflict and non co-operation Features of high morale Positive attitude towards those in authority Voluntary obedience and discipline Feeling of proud, uncouthness, respect, confidence towards authority Satisfied, enthusiastic, motivated to all. Collective administration, unity and belief in-group effort.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Mental peace and happiness Systematic activity in work and productivity Do not spread unnecessary rumour.

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UNIT – V GROUP DYNAMICS WHAT IS GROUP DYNAMICS? The term group dynamics contains two terms: Group and dynamics. Group is basically a collectively of two or more persons. Dynamics comes from Greek word meaning force. Theory of dynamics is used in physical sciences and engineering which explains the phenomena of universe by some immanent energy. Operation force: Thus group dynamics refers to the Interaction of forces between group members in a social situation. However, the term group dynamics is defined in different ways. One view is that group dynamics describes how a group should be organized and operated. This includes democratic leadership, participation, and co-operation. Another view takes group dynamics as a set of techniques

such as role playing brain

storming, leaderless group, group therapy, sensitivity training etc. According to the third view, group dynamics is viewed from the internal nature of groups, their formation, structure and processes and the way they affect individual members, other groups, and the organization. This view is more prevalent. For example, group dynamics has been defined as follows.

“The social process by which people interact fuse in small groups is called group dynamics”

The group dynamics encompasses the dynamic of interaction patterns within the group, the subtle and non- subtle pressures exerted by group members, the manner in which decisions are made in the group, how member’s needs are satisfied. Understanding of all these will enable managers to manage groups effectively leading to organizational effectiveness.

The term group dynamics contain two terms: group and dynamics. Group is basically a collectivity of two or more persons. Dynamics came from Greek word meaning force. Group dynamics refers to the interaction of forces between group members in a social situation. It is also defined as the social process by which people interact face to face in small groups is called group dynamics. Group A group is a collection of two or more people have a common goal or interest and interact with each other to accomplish their objective, are aware of one another and perceive themselves to be a part of the group. The above definition stresses the following thing

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Interaction: A group would be quite static without interactions. Some form of communication and ability to communicate is vital for a group to exist. Size: For a group to exist, it must have at least two members. Shared goal interest: The shared goal identifies a common concern of all group members. Collective identity: Members of the group must be aware about their membership of the group. FORMAL AND INFORMAL GROUPS Formal groups are created and maintained to fulfill specific needs or tasks, which are related to the total organizational mission. Informal groups are created in the organization because of operation of social and psychological forces operating at the workplace.

Origin

Formal

Informal

Are created deliberately and consciously by

Are created because of the operation of

the framers

socio-psychological

forces

at

work

place. Purpose

Created

for

achieving

the

legitimate

objectives of the organization

Created by organizational members for their

social

and

psychological

satisfaction. Size

Are quite large in size. Efficiency is the

Small in size so as to maintain the

criterion for the size of the formal groups.

group cohesiveness.

The formal groups are stable and may

The informal groups are quite unstable

continue for a long period

in nature.

Number of formal groups depends on

Large number of informal groups may

groups

organizational pattern

be formed

Authority

The member of formal groups derive

In the informal groups, all members are

authority through formal position

equal, however, some may command

Nature

of

groups

Number

of

more

authority

by

virtue

of

their

personal qualification Behavior

of

members

Behaviour of members is governed by

Behaviour of member is governed by

formal rules and regulations.

norms, beliefs

and values

of

the

groups. Communication

It is normally through chain of command

Communication pass through informal channels.

Abolition

Formal groups can be abolished at any time

Informal groups are difficult to abolish

through organizational process when the

by organizational

intended purpose is over.

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Introduction: In any organization, the work of an individual is influenced by that of another. The employees, therefore, have to work together in a coordinated manner to complete any task. In other words, it is teamwork that makes goal attainment possible.

There are a number of groups that one can find in a work place. These groups contribute either directly or indirectly to the success of the organization. The behavior of an individual is significantly influenced by the group to which he belongs. It is, therefore, more appropriate to discuss group behavior in the context of organizational behavior.

This chapter deals with the role of groups in influencing organizational behavior.

DEFINE A GROUP AND DISCUSS THE CHARESTERISTICS OF GROUP:MEANING OF GROUP: A group is a cluster of persons who have come together to pursue activities of common interest. A group may consist of any number of persons. But the group members have continued interaction with and must be psychologically aware of one another.

Group is basically a collectively of two or more persons or it may be defined as aggregation of small members of persons who work for common goals, develop a shared attitude and are aware that they are part of a group.

CHARESTERISTICS OF A GROUP BEHAVIOR:The following are the basis characteristics of a group. •

A group is always a conglomeration of persons.

The members know and interact with one another.

The members come together to pursue certain activities of common interest.

Each member perceives that he is part of the group.

NATURE / CHARACTERISTICS OF A GROUP 1. Two or more persons: A single individual can’t form a group. For group formation, at least two persons are must. There is no specific limit on the maximum number of persons to form a group. 2. Collective Identity: Each group member knows one another. Each member of the group perceives that he/she is a part of group. 3. Interaction:

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There is an interaction among the members of the group. Each member shares his ideas with others through different communication methods such as face-to-face, in writing, over the telephone, and across a computer network. 4. Common purpose: The Members of the group work to achieve some common objective or purpose. In fact, it is the common purpose that binds the group members together.

EXPLAIN THE NATURE OF GROUP BEHAVIOR:•

Two or more persons to form a group, there should be at least two persons because a single individual cannot interact.

However, there cannot be any specific limit on the maximum number of persons in a group but size of the group will be determined by rules and regulations of the organization in this context, or meaningful interaction among the members in the case of informal groups.

Collective identity member of the group must be aware about their membership of the group. Each member of the group must believe that he is a member of, is a participant in, some specific group.

INTERECTION:- Interaction means that each member share his ideas with others through communication can take place face to face in writing, over the telephone, across a computer network, or in any manner which allows communication among group members.

SHARED GOAL INTEREST:- Member of the group should subscribe to the attainment of some common objectives. If a group has a variety of objective or interest, each member of the group must share at least one of the group is concerns. The shared goal interest binds the group members together.

WHY ARE GROUPS FORMED? People come together to join and form groups for a variety of reasons important among these are.

REASONS FOR THE FORMATION OF GROUP: Nearness and interaction. Capacity to influence Need for security. Common interests. Recognition Power To get rid of delay.

NEARNESS AND INTERECTION:- In the work place the employees work close to each other. During the course of their work, they may have to interact with one another. Such an

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environmental may induce them to form groups. CAPACITY TO INTERFERENCE:- The capacity of each individual in the organization to influence another by reason of work or work related issues is another factor that results in the formation of groups. NEEDS FOR SECURITY:-

One of the main reason for the formation of groups in

organizations is the need for security. If the employer creates an environment in which employees feel insecure, they have to come together as a group, namely. The union to safeguard their interests. COMMON INTERESTS:- People with common interest likes often come together. This happens in an organization too. The subject matter of interest may be something connected with their work or it can be anything like politics, sports, hobbies, etc. RECOGNITION:- The recognition that is not normally available to a person, when he is alone becomes available to him once he becomes a member of a certain group. A person who feels that all his endeavors must be recognized and appreciated will identify himself with some group in the organization. POWER:- Employees derive much greater power collectively, as members of union, than as individuals. In an organization where trade unions are absent or are not powerful, belonging to a mall informal group gives an individual a feeling that the group will not let him down when he faces a crisis. TO GET A RID OF DELAY:- Formal organization promotes delay in view of hierarchy and longer channels of communication. To get rid of the delay in the completion of certain specific taste, executives, sometimes, may have to meet and interact with employees casually and informally.

Factors Influencing Group Formation 1. Group provides warmth and support for individuals. When individuals are “solitaries� lacking that warmth and support, they suffer. Aloneness leads to a degree of insecurity. In fact, the harshest punishment that can be given to a prisoner in the US penal system is to be put in solitary confinement for a given period of time. 2. Groups help employees satisfy the security needs or their need for power. Under conditions of an oppressive boss Or a very difficult and demanding job, people join together t o share sentiments and develop implicit or explicit tactics for dealing with the environment. 3. It is a source of recognition and esteem. Joining a higher status group can help an individual acquire esteem in the eyes of persons outside the group. 4. Proximity of people: It offers an excellent opportunity to exchange thoughts, ideas and attitudes regarding on and off the job activities.

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5. Economic reasons: Individual believe that they can derive greater economic benefits in their jobs if they form in to groups.

What Do Groups Do For Organizations? Socialization of new employees: The work group teaches the new employee the work norms, that is, how to behave at work. It orients and educates the new employees in to the enterprise work rules and norms and helps him under control. Getting the job done: The work group teaches the employees how to cope with the job. It helps the employees learn how to interact with the rest of the organization and how to get the job done. Decision making: Well-established groups can come out with better decisions. Two heads are better than one. GROUP COHESIVENESS It is defined as the degree to which members are attracted to one another and share the group’s goals. A cohesive group is able to act as one body to achieve its goals. According to Shaw, “Members of highly cohesive groups are more energetic in group activities, are less likely to be absent from group meetings and are happy when the group succeeds and sad when it fails”. Factors Determining Group Cohesiveness Size: Small groups offer frequent interaction opportunities leading to better understanding between members. Therefore small groups have a greater probability of being cohesive than larger one. Location: People who work closely together in the same geographical location have numerous opportunities to interact and exchange ideas resulting in highly effective and cohesive groups than do people who are geographically separated. Outside pressure: External threats create higher bonds between members. When the members perceive that the group is threatened by an external force, they strive together to combat the collective threat. Status of the group: A high status group that is successfully in achieving its goals tends to have greater cohesiveness. Membership in such a group is highly rated than membership in such a group widely denounced by all. It is better to a “big fish in a small pond” or “ a little fish in a big pond”

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Success: There is nothing like success to increase group spirit and cohesiveness. A universal finding is that cohesiveness generally increases with success Attractive leader: A good leader can build a cohesive group through his exclusive leadership skills

PROCESS OF GROUP FORMATION DISCUSS THE STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT? WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT STAGES IN THE PROCESS OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT?

Adjourning

Performing •

Forming

Storming

Norming

Performing

Adjourning

Norming Storming Forming

FORMING STAGE:- The initial information of group and bringing together of a number of individuals who identify, tentatively, the purpose of the group, its composition and terms of reference. At this stage consideration is given to hierarchical structure of the group, pattern of leadership, individual roles and responsibilities and codes of conduct.

There is likely to be considerable anxiety as members attempt to create an impression, to test each other and to establish their personal identity within the group.

NORMING STAGE:- As conflict and hostility start to be controlled members of the group will establish guide lines and standards, and develop their own norms of acceptable behavior. The norming stage is important in the establishing the needs for members to cooperate in order to plan, agree standard and develop their own norms of acceptable behavior. The cooperation and adherence to group norms can work against effective organizational performance. STORMING STAGE:- As members of the group get to know each other better they will put forward their views more openly and forcefully. Disagreements will be expressed and

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challenges offered on the nature of the task and arrangements made in earlier stage of development. This may lead to conflict and hostility.

PERFORMING STAGE:- When the group has progressed successfully through three stages of development it would have created structured cohesiveness to work effectively as team. At this stage the group can concentrate on the attainment of its purpose and performance of their common task is likely to be at its most effective.

ADJOURNING STAGE:- This stage is relevant or work teams , task forces and such similar groups that have only a limited task to perform. As soon as the task is completed, the activities of the group are wrapped up.

WHAT ARE THE VARIOUS TYPES OF GROUP BEHAVIOR IN AN ORGANIZATION? EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF GROUP BEHAVIOR? BRING ABOUT THE ANALYTICAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF GROUPS? Types of Group Formation: Groups can be classified into different types. The basis of differentiation may be purpose, extent of structuring, process of information, size of the group membership. However, an analytical classification of group may be. •

Formal, Informal group

Primary or secondary group

Membership and reference group

Command group

In- group and out group.

FORMAL AND INFORMAL GROUP:•

It is created and maintained to fulfill specific needs or tasks, which are related to the total organizational mission. They are consciously and deliberately created.

Example: Committees board of directors teams, work units, staff groups.

INFORMAL GROUP:•

It is created in the organization because of operation and social and psychological factor in the organization.

Members create this group for their satisfaction. The general organizational frame work of rules and regulations does not regulate the working of the group.

Example: Political groups, friendship groups, common interest groups.

PRIMARY OR SECONDARY GROUP:- A primary group is characterized by intimate face – to- face association and cooperation. The membership of such a group is small and Is based on intimate relationship. Examples of such group may be family, friendship groups, and

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neighborhood groups.

Secondary group is more formal, general and remote. The members of secondary group may not have any interest in problems and pleasure of others. They do not have continuous interaction. Intimacy, face-to-face interaction.

Membership and reference:- A membership group is one to which the individual really belongs while a reference group is one with which the individual identifies or to which he belongs. In the membership group the individual may be of many groups but need not be an active participant. Here the individual actively participate in only those groups norm he feels is more attractive.

COMMAND AND TASK GROUP:- Composed of subordinates who report directly to a common superior. This type of group is determined by organization chart. Example:- Production manager subordinates in his department, a college principle, and teacher. TASK GROUP:- Formed to solve a problem an activity that involves a number of organization units. Thus membership of the task group extends beyond the hierarchical command of a superior. IN- GROUP AND OUT GROUP:•

The in-group represents a clustering of the individuals holding prevailing values in a society or at least having a dominant place in social functioning.

Out group is the conglomerate looked up as subordinates or marginal in the society. It is referred as minority group.

Group Norms Group members tend to form & conform Norms. Norms are rules of behaviors or proper ways of action which are accepted or legitimate by group members. This kinds of behaviors that are expected of group members are specified by these norms. Features:1. Norms apply only to behaviors and not to private thoughts and feelings. 2. They summarize and high light those things that the groups feels important to control . 3. Norms usually develop gradually. 4. Not all norms apply to everyone in the group in the same manner. High status members enjoy more freedom to deviate from the “letter of the law” than do other members.

Factors affecting conformity to group Norms.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR 1. Cohesive Group:-

The more stable

171 & cohesive a group is the more likely it is to

exercise conformity to its norms. 2. Compatible Goals:- It group goals mesh with individual goals, members are quite willing to adhere norms. 3. Situational factors:- Situational factors in group processes affect the degree of conformity. Thus the pressure for conformity increased for an individual as the number of personal agreeing to group norms increases. 4. Personality factors:- more intelligent members are likely to show lesser degree of conformity as compared to less intelligent members.

Enforcing group Norms:Group norms may vary from a very simple rule to very complex set of prescriptions and prohibitions. The leaders can derive certain actions for the adherence of group norms.

1 Education:Adherence to group norms can be increased through educating the group members about how the group norms contribute to the achievement of group goals. 2. Surveillance:Surveillance of adherence to group norms provides clue to measure the degree to which the group members adhere to norms. Such as clue helps mangers to derive suitable actions for ensuring conformity to norms. 3. Warning:Deviant members can be warned of the consequences of non-adherence to group norms. 4.Sanctions:This is the stage of taking actions against deviant members. Sanctions should be used only if means of persuading deviant members are exhausted .

THEORIES OF GROUP FORMATION 1. Balance theory 2. Propinquity theory 3. Exchange theory 4. Interaction theory Balance theory: Newcomb has advocated that persons get attracted towards each other on the basis of similar attitudes towards commonly relevant objectives and goals. Once the relationship is

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forged, it will continue to maintain symmetrical balance between attraction and the common attitudes. Propinquity theory This theory believes that geographical proximity enables people to come together and form groups. In the organizations people work together at the same place, come in contact of each other, interact and pass time with each other company. This proximity derives them to form groups. Exchange theory This theory suggests that people are attracted towards group when they find that rewards are more than the cost of joining the group. Rewards may be interpreted in terms of satisfied of needs and costs may be calculated in terms of fatigue, anxiety and frustration. Interaction theory Human has propounded this theory. According to him, activities, interactions, sentiments are the basic elements of group formation. Interaction and participation in organisation tend to result in a powerful group formation.

GROUP COHESIVENESS

WHAT IS GROUP COHESIVENESS? EXPLAIN ITS FEATURES? WHAT ARE THE FEATURES OF GROUP COHESIVENESS? EXPLAIN THE FACTORS AFFECTING GROUP COHESIVENESS?

Group cohesiveness means the degree of attachment of the members to their group. If group cohesion is high, the interaction between members of the group is high and the degree of agreement in group opinion is high. A cohesive group usually has the following features. •

The members share the group goals and norms and have common interests and backgrounds.

The number of members is small.

The members interact among themselves quite frequently and interpersonal communication is very effective.

Group loyalty among the members is high because the group enjoys high status.

The members stand united against perceived external threats to the group.

The members keep themselves glued to the group as they feel that their needs would be satisfied by the group.

The group has a history of past success.

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FACTORS DETERRMINING GROUP COHESIVENESS:DETERMINING OF GROUP COHESIVENESS:

DETERMINATIONS OF GROUP COHESIVENESS

Status of the Group Depending on Outside Pressure The Group

Autonomy

Size Communication

Leadership styles

Management Behaviour Degree of depending on the group:- The more highly dependent a person is on a group for some result or effect, the greater will be the group’s attractiveness and consequently greater is its cohesiveness. Size: - The effective group is relatively small. Small groups are more closely knitted than the large ones. Status of the group: - A high status group receives loyalty from its members which in turns make the group stronger. Communication: - Group whose members are located close together and can interact frequently and easily are likely to be more effective than those whose members are scattered. Autonomy: - When each member of a group by independent and different activities, the cohesiveness among members of these group will be less as compared to the group whose members are dependent on each other. Leadership styles: The different styles of leadership influence the group cohesiveness differently. An effective leader keeps the members of the group close by helping them satisfy their social needs. Outside pressure: -Group provides a sense of security for the individual members from pressures from other groups. The group members work together when they are threatened by a common danger e.g. a group of employees may forget their personal differences and also ranks against a new supervisor who is regarded as a threat to the group. Management behavior: - By creating competition among employees and by constantly comparing one employee with another, a manager may make close relations difficult. He can utilize the group cohesiveness for achieving the goals of the enterprise it he can provide good leadership to the group.

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Discuss the measures that can be taken to increase group cohesiveness. Measures of agreement group cohesiveness I Inducing agreement on group goals •

As mentioned earlier, the work of every employee influences and is influenced by the work of others. In the workplace the employees, therefore, have to work as a team. If only they work in a co-ordinated manner, it will be possible for them to carry out any task.

There must be consensus among the members on the goal for the accomplishment of which they work together. The manager has to play a vital role in this regard.

II Increasing the membership of like minded persons •

Every organization has a unique culture that is reflected in the beliefs and attitudes of the personnel and also in the work methods and practices. The behaviour of the employees, therefore, must reflect its culture. While recruitment new employees, it must be ensured that they are in

a position to understand and appreciate the

organization’s culture. •

If some members behave in an altogether different manner without bothering about the customer and values of the organization, it is sure to affect group cohesiveness. Steps must, therefore, be taken to induct and retain only those thinking coincides with that of the key persons in the organization.

III Increasing interactions among members •

Any issue has be discussed in a forum and no attempt shall be made to thrust one’s views on others.

Before evolving decisions on any important matter, the manager must provide opportunities for all his subordinates to discusses the same and arrive at

a

consensus. •

Group cohesiveness depends to a greater extent on how often and how effectively the members interact before reaching an agreement on any issue.

IV Taking care of the group size •

If the group is unwieldy, securing consensus among the members is sure to become difficult.

It is therefore, necessary to take care of the group size.

V Encouraging competition among groups •

Another measure to increase group cohesiveness is to encourage healthy competition among the different groups in the organization.

For Example: The salesman deployed in the southern region may compete with those deployed in the northern region. This will induce the salesmen in both the groups to evolve some strategy and work with better understanding. VI Rewarding the group instead of the individuals •

If any group performs well, it is important to reward the group as a whole instead of rewarding a few although they have made a significant contribution when compared

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to others. •

They may be help to avoid ill-feelings among the group members and may in fact bring them closer.

V Isolating the group members from rival groups •

When there are rival groups, rival trade unions, it may sometimes be necessary to isolate the group members from the rival groups.

This purpose, the leader of the group may caution his members always so that they do not get carried away by the claims of the rivals and continue to be loyal to their group.

WHAT IS GROUP DECESION MAKING? EXPLAIN ITS PROCESS? It permits many persons simultaneously to interact and to arrive at a decision. In group decision – making there can be either consensus among the members of the group or the decision can be arrived at through simple majority. I Decision – making process: - Every decision is the outcome of a dynamic process which is influenced by multiple forces. They are (i) Specific objectives: - Objective setting is the initial stage of decision – making. It provides the frame work for the decision. (ii) Problem identification: -It is the real beginning of decision – making process.

II DIAGNOSIS:- It means identifying the symptoms and then judging the real problem. For e.g. If there is high employee turnover, then that is the symptom which indicates some problem in the organization. Diagnosing the real problem implies knowing the gap between what is end what ought to be, identifying the reason for the gap and understanding the problem in relation to higher objective of the organization. Analysis:- The analysis of the problem requires to find out who would make a decision , what information would be needed and from where the information is available.

Search for alternatives:- Once the problem is identified, the decision maker tries to find out the various alternatives available in order to get the most satisfactory result of a decision. Identification of several alternatives helps in selecting the most satisfactory one and also helps in avoiding bottlenecks if a particular decision goes wrong.

III EVALUTION OF ALTERNATIVES:- After the various alternatives are identified each one is evaluated to select the one that will meet the choice criteria. Two approaches can be followed.

(i)

The decision make develops a list of limits that must be met by the satisfactory solution. On this basis the number if alternatives are narrowed down.

(ii)

The alternatives are grouped on the basis of some important criteria and the alternatives falling in this group are analyzed further.

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Choice of alternation:- In choosing the alternative the following approaches can be followed. (i)

Experience:- It involves relaying on past experience, if a similar problem has been solved in the past.

(ii)

Experimentation:- The alternatives are put to test the result is observed and the best is selected.

ACTION: Once the alternative is selected, it is put into action.

IV RESULT: The results of the alternatives are compared via – a –via the objectives, the entire process is repeated. V FEEDBACK: Feedback is given to top management.

GROUP DECISION MAKING

Identification Of Problems

Specific Objectives

Search For Alternatives

Evaluation Of

Feed Backs

Results

Action

Choice of alternative

WHAT ARE THE KINDS OF BEHAVIOR EMERGES IN GROUP DECISION- MAKING?

I Conformity to group norms: The norms of behavior established in a group becomes the standard code of conduct over a period of time. Every member in the group decision- making process adheres to these norms.

II Influence processes:- Some members are able to exert more pressure on the decisionmaking process, Therefore, decision- making process adheres to these norms.

III Role of leader: In coordinating the group processes the leader has to perform task role and social role.

(i) Task role: The leader defines the problem or goal for the group, requests for ideas and opinions from the members, provides facts and his own ideas and opinions, clarifies the confusing situations, summarizes discussions and determines

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weather agreement has been reaches on the under discussion.

(ii)Social Role: The leader tries to restore and maintain group relationship by recognizing contributions, reconciling agreements, and playing supporting role.

USEFUL BEHAVIOR FOR CONSENSUS: Group decisions can be made either on the basis of majority votes on by consensus. Behavior for consensus decision – making are •

Members present their position logically and listen to the comments of others.

They should not yield to others viewpoint merely to avoid conflict.

All the members participate wholeheartedly.

Members should not adopt win- lose strategy.

They should not suppress the feelings of any members.

Why do people join in groups? (Or) Discuss the factors influencing group formation. One of the major purposes for the group formation is “fulfillment the members needs”. 1.Safety and security needs: Groups provide protection to their members from outside pressures. That is why workers join trade unions to deal safe and secure. Even in the nursery class when the teacher asks the small kids who broke the toy, he seldom gets an answer. What happens is all the kids keep mum or quiet. Although young they protected their member by not disclosing anybody’s name or pointing out at any one in group. 2.Relatedness or belongingness needs: People being social beings, belonging to or relating to groups satisfies a number of social needs. In every organisation, there are many persons who are very isolated or who prefer to be absent from work most of the times, studies show, such phenomena occur more where people are unable to belong to groups.

3. Esteem needs: When others praise you, you get a sense of recognition, which fulfils your esteem need and also brings a sense of fulfillment of your need for growth towards further achievement of good work and career prospects. 4. Power: One of the appealing aspects of groups is that they represent power and also offer power to their members. Workers enjoy much greater power by joining groups than they do as individuals. This is because of at least two reasons i) There is strength in numbers and ii) United we stand, divided we fall.

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5. Identity: As a member of a group, an individual gets identity who am I? In practices we understand ourselves through the behaviour of others towards us. For example when others praise us, we feel we are great, if others laugh at us, we see ourselves as funny ones. 6. Combined efforts: Certain tasks can be performed only through the combined efforts of a number of individuals working together. The variety of experience and expertise among members of the group provides a synergetic effect, which can be applied to the increasingly complex problems of modern organisations. 7. Groups encourage collusion (agreement) between members: Groups encourage collusion between members in order to modify formal working arrangements more to their liking, for example by sharing or rotating unpopular tasks. Group membership provides the individual with opportunities for initiative and creativity. 8. Groups offer friendship and a source of mutual understanding: This can help in solving work problems, and also to mitigate against stressful or demanding working conditions.

TYPES OF GROUP What do you understand by groups? Discuss the various types of groups. Through the general distinction they can classify into two types, Formal groups and informal groups. Formal groups: Groups established by the organisation to achieve organizational goals are called formal groups. In formal groups, the behaviors that a member should exhibit to subclassify formal groups into the following: 1) Command group: The organisation chart specifies command group. The subordinates, who report directly to a given supervisor, make up a command group. The relationship between the department managers and the foreman at the machine shop is spelled out in the organisation chart. 2) Task group: A number of employees that work together to complete a project or a job are considered a task group. They communicate and coordinate with each other if the process is to handle properly. 3) Project groups: Project groups are formed to complete a specific project. The life of the project normally coincides with the length of the project. Assigning a research project to a University Professor by the University Grants Commission is an example of project group 4) Committees:

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Committees are usually created outside the usual command group structure to solve recurring problems. The life of a committee may be relatively long or short. An example is a University’s Examination Discipline Committee created to solve disciplinary problems relating to examination Informal groups: Groups are not formal are informal. These groups which are neither formally created nor controlled by the organisation, these groups are natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contract. 1) Friendship Groups: Friendship groups are associations of people who like each other and who like to be together. Such groups are formed because members have one or more common characteristics, such as age or ethnic heritage, political beliefs, religious values and other levels of attraction. 2) Interest groups: Interest groups are composed of individual’s who may not be members of the same organisation, but they are unities by their interest in a common issue. Example of interest group may include a group of University Professors who organize a seminar on Law and Order Problems in the North Eastern Region of India. 3) Reference Group: A reference group is a special type of informal group that people use to evaluate themselves. It may not be an actual one that meets together it can be an imaginary group. The reference group for a new University Lectures for e.g. may be other scholars in the same discipline at other universities.

Differentiate formal groups with informal groups? Formal groups are created and maintained to fulfill specific needs or tasks, which are related to the total organization mission. Informal groups are created in the organization because of operation of social and psychological force operating at the workplace.

Origin

Formal

Informal

Are created deliberately and

Are created because of the

consciously by the framers.

operation

of

socio-

Psychological forces at work place. Purpose

Created for achieving the

Created

by

organizational

legitimate objectives of the

members for their social and

organization

psychological satisfaction.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Size

Are

Nature of groups

180 quite

large

in

Size.

Small

in

size

so

as

the

to

Efficiency is the criterion for

maintain

group

the size of the formal groups.

cohesiveness.

The formal groups are stable

The informal groups are quite

& may continue for a long

unstable in nature.

period. Number of group

Number of formal groups

Large number of informal

depends on Organizational

groups may be formed.

pattern. Authority

The

members

groups

derive

of

formal

In the informal groups, all

authority

members are equal; some

through formal position.

may derive more authority by virtue

of

their

personal

qualification. Behaviors of member

Communication

Abolition

Behaviors of members are

Behaviors of member are

governed by formal rules &

governed by norms, beliefs

regulations.

and values of the groups.

It is normally through chain of

Communication

commend.

through informal channels.

Formal abolished through

groups at

can any

be time

passes

Informal groups are difficult to abolish by organization.

organizational

process when the intended purpose is over.

What is Sociometry? Sociometry is an analytical tool for studying group interactions Shirley Goldman, Manager Branch bank has used this technique to know the informal groups leaders, members and their communication barriers. Sociometry helps to find out the person who is liked and disliked by other members. This information is gathered with the help of Questionnaire method or interview method. The gathered information is used to create a sociogram. Sociogram is a diagram that graphically maps the preferred social interactions obtained from the interview.

What do you understand by group decision-making? Discuss the various techniques of group decision-making? (Or) Write brief notes on the following a) Delphi Technique b) Brainstorming c) Nominal technique d) Consensus Mapping (or) How to improve Group decisionmaking 1. Brainstorming:

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Alex Osborn originally adopted brainstorming technique in 1938 in an American Company for encouraging creative thinking in groups of six to eight people. According to Osborn, Brainstorming means using the brain to storm the problem. In it, the participants should be connected to the problem directly or closely. It is based on the following basic guidelines. i)

Generate as many ideas as possible

ii)

Be creative, freewheeling, and imaginative

iii)

Build upon piggyback, extend, or combine earlier ide4as.

iv)

Withhold criticism of other ideas.

The following are the principles, which underline brainstorming i). Deferred judgement, by which all ideas are encouraged without criticism and evaluation. ii) Quantity breeds Quality: It facilitates to develop higher quality ones. The success of brainstorming depends on each member’s capacity and willingness to listen to others thoughts, to use these thoughts as a stimulus to spark new ideas of their own, and then feel free to express tem. Brainstorming sessions last from ten minutes to one hour and do now require must preparation. Although brainstorming technique is found for all types of decisions, it is particularly useful for simple and well-defined problems. It stimulates members to generate new ideas for solving a particular problem.

2) Nominal Group technique (NGT) The two disadvantages of group decision-making are it is time consuming and the dominant members influence the decisions. The nominal group technique minimizes these problems. In this technique, a nominal group exists in name only. The members have minimal interaction prior to making a decision. The NGT follows the following process. 1. Members are brought together and presented a problem. 2. Each member develops solution or ideas independently and writes tem on cards. 3. Each member presents his/her ideas to the group in a round-robbin procedure. 4. When the presentation of ideas by each member is over, brief time is allotted to c clarifications of ideas or solutions. 5. Group members individually rank their preferences for the best alternatives by secret ballot. 6. Based on above, the group decision is announced. Advantages: 1. The integration of both group creativity and individual creativity. 2. Equal integration by all members in-group decision-making. Disadvantages: 1. Members do not have the opportunity to benefit from cross-fertilization of ideas.

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3. Delphi technique: The name Delphi indicates a shrine at which the ancient Greeks used to pray for information about the future. In Delphi technique of decision making, members are scattered over large distances and do not have face to face interaction for decision making First, a small group of members designs a questionnaire, which is administered in a larger group. The results so obtained are the tabulated and used in developing a revised questionnaire. The larger group then completes the questionnaire. The results of the first round are fed back to the respondent group to use these in their subsequent respondent group to use these in their subsequent responses. The process is repeated several times until the response converse satisfactorily or a consensus is reached. The effectiveness of this technique depends on adequate time participant’s expertise, communication skill, and motivation of the members to immerse themselves in the task. Advantages: 1. Elimination of interpersonal problems among panelist 2. Efficient use of expert’s time. 3. Adequate time for reflection and analysis by respondents. 4. Diversity and quantity of ideas generated. Disadvantage 1. The technique is complex and involves high cost in administering the series of questionnaires.

5. Consensus mapping: Consensus mapping is yet another technique of group decision-making. In this technique, an attempt is made to arrive at a decision by pooling the ideas. It begins with developing ideas by a task sub-group. The facilitators encourage participants to further develop clusters of ideas. The ideas so generated by the task sub-groups are developed and narrowed in smaller number of ideas. Then, all ideas are consolidated into a representative structure called ‘strawman map’ for all ideas generated by the sub groups. Straw man map is further narrowed down to arrive at mutually acceptable solution. Consensus mapping Technique is found best suited for problems that are multidimensional, have interconnected relationships, and involve many sequential steps in problem solving

LEADERSHIP Leadership is the process of influencing the behaviour of others to work willingly and enthusiastically for achieving predetermined goals. According to terry “ Leadership is essentially a continuous process of influencing behaviour. A leader breathes life into the group and motivates it towards goals. The lukewarm desires for achievement are transformed into a burning passion for accomplished.”

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“Leadership is the process of influencing and supporting others to work enthusiastically toward achieving objectives� Features: Leadership is a continuous process of behaviour, it is not one- shot activity. Leadership may be seen in terms of relationship between a leader and his followers. By exercising his leadership, the leader tries to influence the behaviour of individuals or group of individuals around him to achieve common goals. The followers work willingly and enthusiastically to achieve those goals. Leadership gives and experience of help to followers to attain common goals. It happens when the leader feels the importance of individuals, gives them recognition and conveys them about the importance of activities performed by them. Leadership is exercised in a particular situation, at a given point of time and under specific set of circumstances. Characteristics: 1) The leaders should have followers. 2) Leadership considers deeply inter personal influence. It is rooted in feelings and attitudes that have grown out of reactions of individual personalities to each other. 3) A manager must lead continuously. 4) Dynamic. 5) Leadership involves directing, guiding, and influencing the behaviour individuals and groups. 6) There must be working relationship between the leader and his followers. 7) The leader must set an ideal before his subordinates. 8) Leadership involves motivation. 9) Leadership involves community of interest too. Qualities of a successful leader: 01) Energy 02) Emotional stability 03) Knowledge of hr 04) Empathy 05) Objectivity 06) Personal motivation 07) Communication skills 08) Teaching ability 09) Social skills 10) Technical competence.

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR :

FUNCTIONS OF A LEADER

184 :

1) Taking the initiative 2) Representing the enterprise 3) Interpreting 4) Guiding and directing the organisation 5) Encouraging teamwork. Difference between Managing And Leading Bennis had once commented “ there are many institutions I know are very well managed but very poorly led”. This statement crystal clearly demonstrated that the difference between managing and leading is indeed a lot.x 1. Relationship: managerial behaviour implies the existence of manager- managed relationships. This relationship arises with in organisational context. Whereas, leadership can occur anywhere, it does not have to originate in the organisation context. 2. Sources of influence: authority is attached to the managerial position in the case of a manger; whereas a leader may not have authority but can receive powers directly from his followers. 3. Sanctions: manager has control over the positive sanctions such as promotion and awards for high task performance or negative sanctions such as withholding promotions

or

demotion

in

some

cases

of

extreme

default.

Leader has altogether different types of sanctions to exercise and grant. He can grant or withhold access to satisfying the very purpose of joining the groupssocial satisfaction and related task rewards. 4. Role continuance: a manager may continue in office as long as his performance is satisfactory and acceptable to the organisation. A leader maintains his position only through the day-to-day wish of the followers. 5. Reasons for following: people follow managers because their job description, supported by a system of rewards and sanctions, requires them to follow. Whereas, people follow leaders on voluntary basis, if there are no followers, leader no more exists. 6. Accountability Managers are accountable for the job behaviours of those managed as well as their own behaviour. Leaders are not accountable for the behaviour of their followers in the similar fashion of the manager’s accountability.

Importance of Leadership Leadership is an important factor for making any type of organizations successful. Throughout the history, it has been recognized that the difference between success and

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failure, whether in a war, a political movement, a business, or a team game, can be attributed largely to leadership. Here we are more concerned about manager as a leader. Without a good leader, organization cannot function efficiently and effectively. Since the organization is basically a deliberate creation of human beings for certain specified objectives. the activities of its members need to be directed in a certain way. Any departure from this way will lead to inefficiency in the organisation. Direction of activities in the organisation is effected by the leader. The importance of good leadership can be discussed as follows:

1. Motivating employees. As discussed earlier. motivation is necessary for work performance. Higher the motivation, better would be the performance. Agood leader by exercising his leadership motivates the employees for high performance. Good leadership in the organisation itself is a motivating factor for the individuals. 2. Creating confidence. A good leader may create confidence in his followers by directing them. giving them advice and getting through them good results in the organisation. Once an individual with the help of a leader puts high efficiency. he tries to maintain it as he acquires certain level of confidence towards his capacity. Sometimes. individuals fail to recognise their qualities and capabilities to work in the absence of good direction.

3. Building morale. Morale is expressed as attitudes of employees towards organisation. management and voluntary co-operation to offer their ability to the organisation. High morale leads to high productivity and organisational stability. Through providing good leadership in the organisation. employees' morale can be raised high ensuring high productivity and stability in the organisation. Thus. good leadership is essential in all aspects of managerial functions whether it be motivation. communication or direction. Good leadership ensures success in the organisation. and unsatisfactory human performance in any organisation can be primarily attributed to poor leadership. LEADERSHIP STYLES Leadership styles are the patterns of behaviour, which a leader adopts in influencing the behaviour of his followers. There are probably as many different styles of leadership as there are leaders. Autocratic leadership/ authoritative/ directive leadership In autocratic leadership style, a manager centralizes decision-making power himself. He exercises complete control over the subordinates. The leader gives orders and the subordinates are to follow them unquestioningly. There are 3 categories of autocratic leaders.

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1. Strict autocrat: he follows autocratic styles in a very strict sense. Hid method of influencing subordinates behaviour is through negative motivation that is by criticizing subordinates, imposing penalty etc. 2. Benevolent autocrat: he also centralizes decision-making power in him, but his motivation style is positive. 3. Incompetent autocrat: sometimes, superior adopt autocratic leadership style just to hide their incompetence, because in other styles they may be exposed before their subordinates. Advantages: 1.This style is suitable when Subordinates lack knowledge of company goals Subordinates are inexperience’s or lack in training. There should be no error in accomplishment 2. It provides strong motivation and reward to a manager exercising this style. 4. It permits very quick decision. Disadvantages: 1. Employees usually dislike this style since it relies on negative motivation. 2. Employees lack motivation, frustration, low morale and conflicts develop and reduces organisational efficiency. 3. There is more dependence and less individuality in the organisation. Participative leadership/democratic/ consultative Democratic leader practices leadership by consultation. He is like a theory y leader and invites decision sharing. They arrive at decisions after consultation with followers and participation. The participative leader attaches high importance to both work and people. Participative leadership is suitable where The organisation had communicated the goals to the subordinates and the subordinates have accepted them. Rewards and involvement are used as primary means of motivation. The leader truly desires employee’s ideas for making decisions. The workers are reasonably knowledgeable and experienced. The time for task completion allows for the participation. Disadvantages: Participative leadership is not always bed of rosesIt is a misleading term; there is always a danger of misinterpretation of decision sharing. Participative leadership is time consuming It is an effective way of passing the buck.

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Free rein leadership It is rather a complete delegation of authority into the hands of the subordinates so that they must plan, motivate, control and otherwise be responsible for their own actions. Here the leader perceives that the costs associated with leading are greater that the benefits. More specifically the reasons may be lack of self-confidence, fear of failure, etc.

This style will be appropriate under the conditions where, The organizational goals have been communicated well and are acceptable to the subordinates The subordinates themselves are well trained and highly knowledgeable. When the leader is ready to delegate the authority fully.

Use of authority by the manager Managers

Manager presents

take

ideas and invites Sells decisions

Area of freedom for subordinates Presents

Manager permits

problems, get

subordinates on

limits, asks function within suggestionsDefines and Presents tentative decision subject to groups to make decision change

THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Trait theory Trait is defined as relatively enduring quality of an individual. The trait approach seeks to determine what makes a successful leader from the leader’s own personal characteristics. The various traits can be classified in to Innate and Acquirable traits Innate qualities are those, which are possessed by various individuals since their birth. These qualities are natural and often known as god-gifted. On the basis of such qualities, it is said that leaders are born and not made. The individuals cannot acquire these qualities Physical features: They are determined by heredity factors. Heredity is the transmission of the qualities from ancestor to descendant through chromosomes. To some extent, height, weight, physique, health and appearance are important for leadership.

Intelligence: Intelligence is generally expressed in terms of mental ability. It is a natural quality in the individuals because it is directly related with brain.

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Acquirable qualities of leadership are those, which can be acquired and can bed increased through training programmes. Following are the major qualities essential or leadership 1. Emotional stability: he should be free from bias, is consistent in action, and refrains from anger. He is self-confident and believes that he can meet most situations successfully. 2. Human relations: a successful leader should have adequate knowledge of human relations that is, how he should deal with human beings. 3. Empathy. Empathy refers to observing the things or situations from others’ point of view. The ability to look at things objectively and understanding from others point of view is an important aspect of successful leadership. 4. Objectivity: objectivity implies that what a leader does should be based on relevant facts and information. He must assess these without any bias or prejudice. 5. Motivation skills: not only a leader is self-motivated but he has requisite quality to motivate his followers. Though there are many external forces, which motivate a person for higher performance. 6. Technical skills. The various technical competence of leader may win support from the followers. 7. Communicative skills: a skillful leader knows how to communicate effectively. A leader used communication skillfully for persuasive, informative and stimulating purposes 8. Social skills: a successful leader has social skills. He understands people and knows their strengths and weaknesses. He has the ability to work with people and people co-operative willingly with him. Implication: This theory emphasizes that a leader requires some traits and qualities to be effective. Many of these qualities may be developed in individuals through training and development. Limitation: No evidence has been given about the degree of the various traits There is a problem of measuring the traits.

BEHAVIOURAL THEORY: This theory emphasizes that strong leadership is the result of effective role behaviour. Leadership is shown by a person’s acts more than by his traits. Here a leader should perform two major functions. TASK RELATED FUNCTIONS OR

PROBLEM SOLVING FUNCTIONS

This stresses the importance of providing solutions to the problems faced by the groups.

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GROUP MAINTENANCE FUNCTIONS OR SOCIAL FUNCTIONS This stresses the actions of mediating disputes and ensuring that individuals feel valued by the group. An individual who is able to perform both roles successfully would be an effective leader. Here leadership behaviour may be viewed in two ways. Functional and Dysfunctional Functional behaviour influences followers positively and includes such functions as setting clear goals, motivating employees for achieving goals, raising morale, building team spirit, effective two way communication. Dysfunctional leadership denotes ineffective leadership. Such a behaviour may be inability to accept employees ideas, display of emotional immaturity, poor human relations etc. Situational Theory The prime attention of this theory is given to the situation in which leadership is exercised. Therefore effectiveness of leadership will be affected by Factors associated with the leader Factors associated with the fitration.

Leaders behaviors:It is affected by 1. Leaders characteristics 2. Hierarchical position.

Leaders characteristics:An

individual

behavior

is

influenced

by intelligence

&

ability,

personality

characteristics, attitude, interest, motivation & physical characteristics. All these factors are internal to the leaders.

Leaders hierarchical Position:Managers at higher levels are

more concerned with long-run complex problems

which require more participation in decision makings. Managers at lower levels are concerned with short-term problems involving the daily operations which may not require high level of participation.

Situational factors:The various situational factors may be grouped into four categories. 1. Subordinate characteristics. 2. Leaders situation 3. Group factors

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4. Organizational factors.

Sub- ordinates characteristics:An individual behavior is influenced by intelligence, ability , personality characteristics, attitude, interest, motivation & physical characteristics.

Leaders situation:There are two main variables which determine leader’s situation, leaders position power and leader-subordinate relationship. High position power simplified the leader’s task of influencing others. While position power makes the leader’s task more difficult.

Group factors:Various group factors like task design group composition, group norms, group cohesiveness & peer-group relationship affect leadership effectiveness.

Organizational Factors:Organizational factor like organizational climate and organizational culture effect leadership effectiveness.

Fielder’s contingency Model The contingency model attempts to rectify the inherent deficiencies of Behavioral theories. Fielder’s model is called a contingency model because the leader’s effectiveness is partially contingent upon three major situational variables. They are 1. Leader member relations 2. The task structure 3. The Leader’s position power. Leader member relations: It refers to the degree of confidence trust and respect followers have in the leader. If the followers are willing to follow the leader because of chairsma, expertise, competence or mutual respect, the leader has little need to depend on task structure or position power. If the leader is not twisted & viewed negatively the situation is considered less favorable.

Task Structure:- it measure the extent to which the task performed by subordinates is routine or non-routine.

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Leader ship position power:Positional power in the contingency model refers to the power inherent in the leaders organizational position. It refers to the leaders authority over group members, the rewards & sanctions at his disposal etc.,

Favorableness of the situation:A favorable situation is where the leader members relation are good, the task is highly structured and the leader has enormous power to exert influence on the subordinates. Fielder stress that relationship-oriented style is best when the situation is moderately favorable when the situation is highly favorable, a task – oriented style produces the desired performance. -Diagram-

Path goal Theory The path goal theory, proposed by Robel. J. house is an important landmark in the development of leadership theory. The term path goal is employed because the leader smooth the path to work goals and provide lendars for achieving them. This path goal model proposes that individual are satisfied with their jobs if they believe it leads to desirable outcomes, and they work hard if they believe that this effort will result in desirable outcome. According to the path goal theory leaders should motivate sub ordinate by clarifying the path of personal regards that results from attaining work goals. The path is classified by eliminating confusion or conflicting ideas that the subordinated may hold. The leader should also increase the number and kinds of rewards available to sub ordinates. He should provide concept & guidance to clarify the way in which these rewards can be obtained. Leaders should 1. Clear paths 2. Clarify goals 3. Provide support. 4. Provide rewards 5. Analyses the situation , task & employees needs. Leaders can perform these functions by adopting following styled of behavior. A. supportive: Leaders is friendly and approachable to the employee; shows concern for status, well-being and needs of the employees and treat the as his equals. B. Directive: Leaders hare focuses on planning, organizing & co-ordination the activities of sub-ordinate. He defined what is expected of them. C. Participate: Leader here consults the employees solicits their suggestion, incoyoreter the good decisions.

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D. Achievement-oriented: Leader adopting this style sets challenging goals, expects the workers to perform at their best, he continuously seeks increments in their performance.

SUPERVISION Supervision is Latin wors in which super denote “ from the above” and the cision “ t see” simply it is called overseeing activity. In maangement supervision means overseeing the subordinates at work with authority and with an aim to correct the employees if they are going wrong. According to vitals supervision refers to the direct and immediate guidance and control of sub ordinates on the performance to their task.

Function/role of the supervisor:1. Planning the work:The supervisor lays down the procedure targets for each workers and prepares production schedules for this sub ordinates. He also determines the methods and procedures of doing the work. 2. Organizing the resources:A supervisor defines the duty & authority of each worker for work. Under this he makes systematic arrangement of activities and resources for his group. He spells out the tasks to be performed by which subordinates and delegates proper authority to workers. 3. Stafting the units(Selector):He is actively involved in the selection & orientation of workers. He tasks part in interviewing candidates and familiarizes new employees with their jobs and work environment. 4. Maintaining Discipline:Discipline refers to the state of orderliness, which sub ordinates willingly conform to the standards of acceptable behavior prescribed by rules and practices.

The

supervisor uses leadership, authority and other techniques to maintain discipline among his sub ordinates. 5. Enforcing safety Measures:One of the main function of a supervisor is to ensure proper safety in the work. He creates safety conscience among workers and takes action against breech of safety regulation. 6. handling grievance:The supervisor listens to the grievance and complains of his sub ordinates. He helps to solve these at the work place & brings these grievances to the notice of management.

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7. Appraising performance:A supervisor evaluates the work performance of his sub ordinates in the light of perdetermined standards. By measuring actual performance the supervisor identifies the weakness if any and suggest corrective measures to overcome them. Training:It is the act of sharpening the skills an improving the knowledge of the employees towards the job. Supervisor training is the process whereby people

learn the skills, knowledge ,

attitude and behavior . IT is the process of learning a sequence if programmed behavior.

Methods of training:-

1. On the job training:It involves learning by doing. The trainee is motivates to learn because the training takes place in the real job situation. Following are the types of on the job training. a. Orientation / Induction Training:It is meant for the new employees under it the new employee is given a description of his job. At the same time he is provided with set o policies, rules and procured to guide his performance & behavior. b. Apprenticeship:It is most common for training the draughts men, machinist, printers, mechanics, carpenters, training time is spent on the productive work and the period of training may vary between one year to 3 years.

Merits:1. Immediate returns can be expected from training 2. IT combines theory & practice

Demerits:1. It is time consuming & expensive 2. Many personal leaves the training program as the training period is very high.

C. Understanding/Attachment method:When a person is promoted to higher level he is given training in the job to which has is the be appointed. He is chosen as the successor to the current incumbent, who is going to retire or resign.

Merits:1.Here the trainee is not over burdened at the same time participants is running the work unit. 2. He gets continuos guidance from the senior.

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3. Training takes place in real life situation.

Demerits:1. The senior has no direct responsibilities for training and not take adequate interest in training the successor. 2. The deficiencies in the senior is likely to be shown out.

a. Position. Job rotation:It is the process of training people by rotation through a series of related job or position. The trainee levels several different jobs with in a work unit or department. He performs each job for a specified and limited period. Merits 1. It helps to reduce monotony 2. Best utilization can be made of each employees skills. 3. It facilitation can be made each employees. Demerits:1. Frequent changes created disruption of work. 2. Different coaches within various jobs suggest conflicting view point and approach.

b. Committee assignment:Under this method, trainee managers maybe appointed as member if a committee. A committee is a specific type of meeting in which a member as a group are delegated authority with regard to any particular problem. Committee provides an opportunity to know when it happening in the rest of the organization. Off the job training:These are formal management training programmme which can be run within the organization by training institution or by consultants to provide specific type of training . In recent years formal training and management development programmes have become very popular.

1. Selected reading:This is a self improvement programme under which the executives acquire knowledge by leading professional journals and advanced books on management.

Many

organization maintain their own library for this purpose.

2. Conference and seminars:In conference , participants are required to bring out ideas, view points and suggestions.

The conference provides a common platform for intensive group

discussion and allows the participants to look at the problem from different angles. The participants may prepare and present papers.

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3. Case study method:A case is a written description of any organization containing information about its numerous aspects, its history about its history external environment etc., a case study enables a person to a. To pin point the problem. b. To identify and analyse the causes c.

To suggest alternative solutions.

d. To indicate which of the alternative world to be the best under prevailing conditions.

4. Role playing:Under this method, two or more trainees spontaneously act or play role in an artificially created situation. They act out the given role, as they would be playing in real life situation. They are informed of the situation and roles they are expected to play.

5. Brain storming:Under this method a problem is put before a group of trainees and they are encouraged to offer ideas or suggestions. Critisisms of any ideas are not allowed.

6. Sensitivity training.

Status symbols:There can be several types of status symbols. 1. Insignia:Places or peoples having different status can be distinguished on the basis f insignia marks of identification differentiating things or people of different status. 2. Title & designation:People are also differential on the basis of various titles or designature they carry with them. For example Professor, Reader, or lecturers. 3. pay & Perquisites:Every organization designs some rarely structure and people are place in various grades. Naturally persons placed in higher grade has higher status. 4. Physical facilities:-

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR It is quite common to

196

provide rooms of different sizes, tables of different size,

furniture of different types, or even name plates of different size and design, exclusive packing places to distinguish among different status.

Problems of status system:1. Status as a end:Because of the status differentials the gulf between superior & sub ordinate become so wide. Some may become status hound. 2. Emphasis on position:Status emphasis the position rather than the man & his acts. The status system requires the maintenance of prequistiter compensation and other symbols of offices for the position holder, irrespective of this ability & working forge an engineer may be a poor mechanic vide president may be chairman son-in-law. 3. Problems of Equity:The status holder may be pre-occupied too much in taking care for the maintenance of his status & its symbols.

Thus he may not contribute meaningfully for the

achievement of organizational objectives.

Those who do not have status maybe

dissatisfied & Jealous of those who have. 4. Financial Burden:Maintenance of status system is financially difficult and burden on the pact of the organization.

5. Status inconsistency creates anxiety:For instance the title of the position may be right & but the incumbent may lack of ricate office that is appropriate for the particular level.

Organizational Conflict. “ Conflict is a process in which an effort is purposely made by one person unit to block another that result in flultrating the attainment of the other goals or the furthering of his or her interests. Positive Aspects of conflict:1. Major stimulant for changes:- Conflict, spotlight the problems that demand attention, forces classification toward finding better solution. 2. Conflict fosters creatively and innovation:- A climate of challenge compels individual to which through their own ideas before arriving them out. Conflict can help individual to tst their capacities to learn & develop. 3. Conflict bring cohesiveness:- This happens more in case of intergroup conflict.

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4. A minimum level of conflict is optimal:- It also helps individual in reducing accumulated infeeling and tensions between them.

Negative aspect f conflict:1. Conflict created steps in people:- Intense conflict & generate feeling of anxiety, quite frustration & hostility. 2. Diversion of energy:- It leads to diversion of groups time & effort towards winning the conflict rather than forward achieving organizational goals. 3. Instability & Choar:- The normal work flows is disturbed; the moral fabric of the group form apart. -Diagram-

1. Intra personal or Intra individual conflict:Individual faces conflict with in himself. An individual experience two type of conflict in himself . God conflict & role conflict. a. God Conflict:- It occurs when a goal that an individual is attempting to achieve has both positive and negative features or when two or more competing goals exist:i.

Approach – Approach conflict:- A person wants two positive situation but can have only one.

ii.

Approach – Avoidance conflict:- In this form if goal conflict the person attempts to achieve a goal that both positive & negative aspect. For obtaining first rank in the university, student must make personal sacrifices.

iii.

Avoidance-Avoidance conflict:- Here a person faced with two negative goals may not choose either of them and may simply leave the situation.

B. Role Conflict:A role is a set of expectations people have above the behavior of a person in a position. It is an expected mode of behavior. Role conflict is the result of divergent role expectations. Different forms of role conflict are a. Person-role conflict:- This arises when expected behavior is incompatible with a persons own basic values and attitudes. b. Inter role conflict:- This arrise because of multiple role c.

Intrasender role conflict:- this happens when a person is called upon to perform a work within specified limit but cannot be possible to do the work within that limit.

d. Inter sender role conflict:- This happens when the expected send by one sender are in conflict with those from one or more other sender. Reasons for role conflict:1. Role contiguity 2. Personal Characteristics

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3. Organizational position

Interpersonal conflict:Vertical conflict:- Vertical relationship result into vertical conflict which usually arise because supervise attempts to control the behavior of his sub ordinates and sub ordinates resists such control.

Horizontal Conflict:Conflict among personal at the same hieracrchial level in the same function or in different functions. Causal of Interpersonal conflict:Nature of persons:- The type of person determine whether the interaction maybe cooperative or conflicting. 1. ego States:- Lack of complementary ego stages maybe ultimately leads t interpersonal conflict. 2. Socio cultural factors 3. Value systems

Situational variables 1. interest conflict 2. Role ambiguity

2.Group level conflict:Every group is in atleast partial conflict with every other group interacts with Following are the reasons for intergroup conflict. 1. Incompatible goals(difference in group goals) 2. Task interdependence 3. Resource allocation 4. Line & staff conflict 5. Differences in value & perceptions.

3. Organizational level conflict:Conflict at organizational level maybe intra organizational and inter organizational conflict.

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ORGANI ZATI ON BEHAVI OUR

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IMTS PGDM (Organization Behaviour)  

IMTS PGDM (Organization Behaviour)

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