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I ns t i t ut eo fMa na g e me nt & Te c hni c a lSt udi e s

PRODUCTI ON & MATERI AL MANAGEMENT Be c he l orofBus i ne s sAdmi ni s t r at i on

www. i mt s i ns t i t ut e . c o m


IMTS (ISO 9001-2008 Internationally Certified) BBA-PRODUCTION & MATERIAL MANAGEMENT

PRODUCTION & MATERIAL MANAGEMENT

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PRODUCTION & MATERIAL MANAGEMENT

CONTENTS:

Unit –I

01-21

Meaning and definition of Production Management – brief history of Production Management - Production Management and its impact on information technology and globalization - Production strategy and competitiveness – developing business strategy – competitive priorities – world class manufacturing.

Unit –II

22-54

Plant Location - plant lay out –objectives and types of plant layout.

Unit- III

55-77

Production planning and control – functions – scheduling – routing.

Unit- IV

78-90

Maintenance – importance – types of maintenance – material handling – importance – objectives – material handling equipments.

Unit- V

91-113

Work Study – time study – Calculation of standard time – Methods study – Steps in methods study – motion study.

Unit- II

114-156

Material management and maintenance vividly.

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UNIT – I PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT MEANING AND DEFINITION OF PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT Introduction: According to the Peter Drucker on the practices of management, “Production is not the application of tools to materials but is the application of logic to work” Production is the process by which the goods and services are produced. Production consists of a series of operations that transforms materials from a given form to the desired form. Production is an organized process of manufacturing/ producing goods and services through the use of inputs resources of men, materials, money, machines, minutes and methods.

Production is the foundation on which every organisation is built. The organisation may be a manufacturing unit or a service organisation. In a manufacturing unit, production involves producing something (goods) in an organised manner.

Similarly, in a service organisation, production means

providing some function which has some utility eg. Hospitals, hotels, banks etc. Hence it is to be noted that after the inclusion of services into the scope of production, it is broadly known as “Operations Management”.

Thus it is clear that production includes creation of both tangible goods as well as

intangible services.

In simple terms, Production is transformation of a set of inputs into goods and services (output).

Production process as a System Production system receives inputs in the form of material, labour, capital, utilities, information etc. These inputs are transformed or changed Into designed products and services which are called the output.

TRANSFORMATION INPUT

MEN MATERIALS MONEY MACHINE LAND CAPITAL etc

OUTPUT

LAYOUT TOOLS MATERIALS HANDLING

GOODS & SERVICES

FEEDBACK

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Thus, the basic objective of production is to make the products/services to satisfy the needs of the customers by giving right quality products at right place at right time and at right price.

In simpler terms, Objective of Production is -

Maximising the value of the product

-

Minimizing the cost involved

(Note: If the management activities are extended to services, then it is called as Operations management.) Examples: For Production: Standardised products like car, bus, motor-cycle, radio etc And Customised products like Flats, Apparels etc For Operations: Medical facilities, travels, hotels, bank services etc

. What is the meaning of Production? Production is a process which transforms a set of inputs into a set of output to achieve the objectives of an enterprise. . Define Production. E. S. Buffa, defines production as “a process by which goods and services are created�. . Explain about the Production system. Production as a System: A system is understood as a whole which cannot be taken apart. It must be studied as such. Looking from this perspective, three systems emerge. Production System Conversion Sub-System Control Sub-System Production System: Production system is a system whose function is to convert a set of inputs into a set of designed outputs.

Input

Men, Materials, Money, Machines, Methods, Market, Matter, Minute, Milieu

Transformation

Layout Tools Materials Handling

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Output

Goods Services


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Conversion Sub-System: Conversion Sub-System is a sub-system of the larger production system where inputs are converted into outputs. Control Sub-System: Control Sub-System is a sub-system of the larger production system where a portion of the output is monitored for feedback to provide remedial action, if required.

. What is the meaning of Production Management? Production management is the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling production activities of an organizing for the actual transformation of elements of inputs in to finished goods.

Production Management Meaning: Production management refers to the application of management principles to the production function in a factory. In other words, production management involves application of planning, organizing, directing and controlling to the production process, Definition: “Production Management deals with decision making related to production processes so that the resulting goods or service is produced according to specifications, in the amounts and by the schedule demanded and at minimum cost”

- E.S. Buffa

According to this definition, design (planning) and control of production system are the two main characteristics of production management. The definition given by E.S.Buffa is simple, clear and exhaustive. It explains the following important aspects of production management. •

It is a decision making managerial function

The decisions are made regarding the production processes required for converting the raw material into finished products used

The production or output should be according to specifications, in the specified quantities, as per the schedule and at minimum cost.

Define Production Management. In the words of E.L. Brech “Production management is a process of effective planning and regulating the operations of that section of an enterprise which is responsible for the actual transformation of materials in to finished products”. E.S. Buffa defines “Production management deals with decision making related to the production process so that the resulting goods and services are produced according to specifications in amounts and by the schedules demanded and at a minimum cost”.

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H.A. Harding “production management is concerned with those processes which convert the inputs into outputs. The inputs are various resources like Raw Materials, Men, Methods etc., and outputs are the goods and services�.

. Explain the types of production. Or Explain the Manufacturing system. There are fundamentally three types of production system. Continuous Production System. Intermittent Production System. Combined or Mixed Production System.

Production Systems

Continuous or Flow Production

Intermittent Production

Combined Or

Mixed Mass Production

Process

Assembly

Production

Production

Analytical

Job

Batch

Production

Production Production

Synthetic

Continuous Production: Involves continues or almost continuous physical flow of materials using special purpose machines and produces the standardized items in large quantities. Example: Petrochemical, Sugar, Fertilizer Industries, Assembly lines, chemical plants, cement manufacturing, bottling plants of liquors. The continuous production can be further divided in to two more categories as Mass and Flow line production Process Production and Assembly Production.

Mass and Flow line production: o

In this types of continuous production, only one type of product or a maximum of two or three

types are manufactured in large quantities. o

In mass production, the factory is tuned to large scale and continuous production where the

machineries are also designed for range of products. Process Production: o

In these methods of production, the entire factory is completely integrated at all stages without

any isolated items of equipments to produce a certain rate of a specific product, the flow which is continuous through the factory.

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o

This system is used for the manufacture of those items whose demand is continuous and high.

o

Here single raw material can be transformed into different kinds of products at different stages of

the production process. o

Example: Processing of Crude oil in refinery- we get kerosene, gasoline etc., at different stages

of production. Assembly Production: o

In assembly process, two or more components are combined to manufacture a finished product.

o

Manufactured parts are joined into sub-assemblies or final assemblies. Such process is employed

in assembling automobiles, radio sets, television sets, bicycles, watches and cameras etc., o

Assembly line is a flow production which was developed in the automobile industry in the U.S.A. a

manufacturing unit prefers to develop and employ the assembly line because it helps to improve the efficiency of production. Advantages: •

Reduce the labour cost

Reduced material handling

Minimum wastage

Higher return on investments

High accuracy

Simple control process.

Heavy loss during slack demand period

Rigid maintenance and upkeep of machines

Customers’ tastes cannot be met as only one standard product is

Disadvantages:

manufactured. •

Difficult to adjust to new situations and specification

Special purpose machine tools are required.

Intermittent Production: In this system the goods are manufactured specially to fulfill orders placed by customers rather than to stock. Here the flow of materials is intermittent. Facilities are flexible enough to handle a wide variety of product and sizes Example: Manufacture of large turbo-generators, turbines, boilers, construction of bridges etc., Job Production or Unit Production: o

Job production is the production of single complete unit by pne operator or a group of operators.

o

In this type, project is considered as one operation and work is complete on each product before proceeding on to next.

o

Example: Dam Construction, Ship Building etc.,

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Batch Production: o

In batch production, items are processed in lots or batches and a new batch is undertaken for production only when the work on all items of a previous batch is completed.

o

In fact, batch type production can be considered as an extension of the job production.

o

Best example for batch production is Chemical industry, Printing press etc.,

Advantages: •

Demand can be discontinuous

All operational stages may not be balanced

Adjusting to new situations and specifications is possible

Item can be manufactured according to order.

Cost per unit of production is more

Elaborate sequencing and scheduling is required

High investment is required.

Disadvantages:

Combined or Mixed Production: The high volume multiple product situations are likely to employ a mixed production strategy that combines both continuous and intermittent production systems. Example: In manufacturing parts fabrication is often organized on line or continuous basis.

Define Productivity. Productivity is the efficiency in industrial production to be measured by some relationship between outputs and inputs. Relationship between the results and means employed or to be more specific, between the product and the factors used for obtaining it P=O/I Where, P= Productivity, I=Input, O=Output Productivity is also defined as the ration between O/P and I/P.

. Explain about the function of production management. Or Explain the components of Production function in detail. Production management is essentially Planning, Controlling of production function. The functions of a production management even though vary with the nature of the products can typically have following commodities. Management of production can be described in terms of eleven components as follows. Production Planning: It is the main concern of the production manager. It facilities the supply of goods at the appropriate time to execute orders received by the company. It also helps to control over the production process.

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The function of production planning involves the decision when, what, how and why to produce the goods. Production Control: After planning, the next responsibility of the production managers is to control the Manufacturing After production Planning and Control, the next important function of a production manger is to ensure manufacturing or production of finished goods in conformity with the plans.

Plant Layout and Material Handling: The physical arrangement of manufacturing components and the equipments of handling the materials during production process have considerable effect on cost of production. Plant layout pertains to the arrangements of the machines and the equipments in such a manner so as to maintain the smooth flow of production without any interruption. An effective plant layout aims at efficient material handling which in turn reduces wastages of men and materials. Industrial engineering: Production manager is also responsible to carry out the periodic work study, following method study or work measurement technique for systematic investigation of activities in order to ensure effective use of human and materials resources. Manufacturing or production activity also needed to be supported by design and development, which not only includes designing tools, Jugs, Fixtures (this is done by independent tool department in large organization) but also involves R & D activities for innovative product design and changes. Inter department coordination: A production manager is also required to maintain contacts with other departments like marketing department with regards to production plan, personal department for man power availability and training and material department for procurement of raw materials and other components. Maintenance and Replacement: Production manager is also responsible for time maintenance of plant and machineries to minimize machines down time and consequent loss of the production. Instead of break down maintenance i.e. to attend plant and machineries only, when they become functional, we presently use modern concept “total productive maintenance� i.e. present breakdown totally. Maintenance and replacement involves selection of optimal maintenance policy to ensure higher equipment availability at minimum maintenance and repair cost. Material Management: A production department is responsible for the control over the cost of production which he achieves through reducing wastage of materials.

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To achieve this, he is to determine the economic lot size, EOQ, Order Level, so that the problems of over and under stock of materials may not arise. Productivity Improvement: It is one of the important functions of production management. It has to apply various productivity tools focusing on men, machines and materials or even on a combination of these so as to enable him to study, analyze and improve their (man, machine, materials) productivity. To achieve the excellence in manufacturing: To achieve excellence in manufacturing to gain competitive edge over the others, production managers should keep in mind then follow the five goals.

1. Through amount of work to be done in a particular time 2. Inventory should come down 3. Cycle time should come down 4. Yield should go up 5. Operating expenses should come down. . Explain the scope of Production Management. The scope of Production Management includes Activities relating to analysis and controlling of product system Activities relating to analysis and controlling of production operations after the production system has been activated.

Activities related to the production system designing: The activity concerns the production of tools and designs, development and installation of the equipments and the selection and optimization of the size of the firm. Selection of plant location, Plant Layout, Materials Handling System are the functions of production engineering. Besides, the human factor problems and research and development are also considered. The scope of production management is very wide. It companies all activities right from design and layout of production facilities till finishing the product for dispatch to ware house or customers. Production management looks after each and every step in the process of production. Also it establishes a harmonious relation ship between the products, the plant the conversion process and the people so as to achieve predetermined targets. The scope of product management can be explained thorough production decision also. An efficient and successful production manager has to make important decisions in the following areas. Plant location and layout Product design and development

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Plant engineering-equipment and tool design, manufacturing techniques and process design. Industrial engineering-work study, job design, methods engineering etc., Capacity management demand forecasting, delivery schedule, resources allocation Production planning and control input planning, scheduling, dispatching and expediting. Quality control-specifications, standards, inspection and testing. Inventory management – purchasing, store keeping, recording, and inventory control. Maintenance, servicing, replacement, preventive checking. Activities relating to analysis and control of production: The main activities related to analysis and control of production system is production planning and control. Production planning: It includes preparation of short tem production schedules, a plan for manufacturing the finished and semi finished stock, specifying hoe the production resources of the concern are to be employed over some future time in response to the predicted demand for the products and services. Production control: After planning, the next managerial production function is to control the production according to the production plan, because production plan cannot be activated unless they are promptly guided and controlled. The production manager has to assign work review work progress and check and remove discrepancies, if any, in the actual and planned performances. The production manager has to look after the control activities at three levels. Control of static inventory such as raw materials, purchased parts, finished goods and supplies through the inventory control techniques. Control flow of work in progress through production control. Importance of Productions and Operations Management In the past, the motive behind the production/operations was only ‘profit’. But, the scenario has changed slowly. The customers, now enjoys a good position and is said to be the ‘king’. This change can be attributed to the following factors: -

Growth of technology

-

Availability of variety of products

-

Quality consciousness

-

Globalisation

These factors have made the manufacturers to frame careful policies and procedures to add value to the product at lower cost. Production Function Production Management is essentially planning, organizing, and controlling of Production function. The production function depends on various factors affecting production namely Land and natural resources, labour, capital and enterprise.

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The Production function establishes relationship between the quantity of various inputs and the quantity of the output. Algebraically, a production function can be represented as Y = f (C1, C2, C3, ……Cn) where Y = Output which depends on C1, C2, C3…….Cn = Quanitities of inputs Thus, Production function involves a wide range of activities from plant location to the packing of products to be distributed by the marketing divisions. Following are the components/activities of production function: Planning Product selection and design Process selection and Planning process Facility location Factory layout and Material handling Capacity Planning Forecasting Production Planning Organising (viii) Work study and job design Controlling (ix) Production Control (x) Inventory control (xi) Quality control (xii) Maintenance and replacement (xiii) Stores and Maintenance 1. The Product: The Organisation must be capable of producing the product to

customers satisfaction

with quality. 2. The Plant: Plant means both buildings & equipment required to manufacture a product 3. The Process: Process includes the technical, Organisational needs of the product and the people within the organization. 4. The Programme: Programme means scheduling the entire process of production like setting timetable 5. The people: Production depends upon people. Production Manger should socially try to bring better communication in organization, Workers participation, work conditions, environment, motivation, training etc. 6. The Policy: Production is an integral part of Corporate Policy that deals with framing production policies. The 14 Components/Functions of Production in detail 1. Product selection and design: Right kind of product should be selected and proper designing is very essential for the success of an organization. Techniques like value analysis can be used in achieving good design.

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PRODUCTION & MATE. MANG. 2. Process Selection and Planning:

11 Process selection includes decisions regarding choice of

technology, equipment, machines, materials handling systems, mechanization, automation etc. Process planning involves detailing of processes of conversion of resources and their sequences. 3. Facilities Location: Suitable plant location will result in continuous production. 4. Capacity Planning: Capacity planning means assessing the availability of resources and environment in order to meet/match future demand. Inadequate capacity will lead to poor service while excess capacity results in low productivity. Both these situations should be avoided. 5. Production Planning: Production planning involves the decision of when, what, how and why to produce the goods. Production planning will direct the organization to achieve its predetermined goals. 6. Production control: Planning is to be followed by control. While planning helps to achieve the goal, control helps to achieve the same in an efficient manner. Production control is accomplished by scheduling, routing, dispatching, inspection, checking, Maintenance etc. 7. Quality control: Quality control is responsible for producing goods as per specification by preventing defects. It relies on feedback and corrective measures. 8. Method Analysis: It is the study of various methods (Ways of doing works), analyzing them and choosing the best one.

Method analysis helps to improve productivity by minimizing cost of

production. 9. Inventory control: Inventory control means the control over the stock (raw materials, work-inprogress and finished products). It involves determination of Economic ordering quantity (EOQ) , reorder levels, stock issues etc. 10. Plant Layout and Materials Handling: Plant Layout deals with arrangement of facilities ( Personnel, equipment, machines) in a manner to encourage smooth flow of production without any interruption. Materials handling deals with proper handling of materials during movement, Packaging and storing. 11.Work Measurement: Work measurement is the application of techniques like Time Study and Motion study to establish standard time required to carry out a Specific job at a defined level of performance by a qualified worker. 12.Maintenance and Replacement: Maintenance means the act of retaining the

plant/items in

good operating conditions. It may be preventive maintenance or Breakdown maintenance. Replacement means replacing the worn-out items/machineries so that production is carried out efficiently & Smoothly 13. Cost reduction and Cost control: Production management should aim to reduce cost of production at all times. 14. Stores and Warehousing: Production Management also deals with the physical storage of goods called as storage Maintenance which is vital for achieving the goals of the organization. Stores may be centralized or decentralized. Warehousing performs both physical storing and distribution functions. It also maintains goods in proper condition until it is delivered to customers. Production Management also deals with other functions like Industrial Engineering, Safety Measures, and Incentive Plans to workers, Codification of products etc.

Thus, the functions of

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Production Management are varied in nature and it represents all the purposeful/valuable activities in the organization. Scope of Production Production Management, in the earlier days was associated only with factory related activities. But as Competition arose, the scope of Production Management extended to Quality Control, Maintenance and Replacement, Mechanization, Automation and so on. The various activities that form scope of Production function can be studied in two broad areas – (i) designing or formulation of production system and (ii) analyzing and controlling of production operation after production system has been activated. I) Activities relating to designing of Production

This includes activities like designing of tools,

development and installation of equipment, selection of optimum size of the firm, use of techniques concerned with work environment, motion study process analysis, layout of plant, material handling and time study. Also importance has to be provided to two main factors (i) human factors and (ii) Research and development activities. II) Activities relating to Analysis and control of activities: This includes all decisions regarding production administration. The activities are (i)

Production Planning:

Production Planning includes preparation of short-term production

schedules, plan for raw materials, deciding as to how the resources are employed etc. (ii)

Production Control:

Production plans have to be properly guided and controlled.

For this

purpose, there is some review of work, checking of deviations and rectifying mistakes. Production control activity is done at three levels (i) Inventory control (ii) Control of flow of materials (control over purchasing) (iii) Control of work –in- progress (iii)

Quality control: Quality Control can be ensured through techniques of

inspection and

control.

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statistical


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Brief history of Production management The Histo-Map: A Timeline of OM Developments

In the same time zone: The U.S. is supplier to the world and the leader in batch production systems in France, Servan-Schreiber wrote that American managerial dominance was a serious threat.12 Quality control standards were established by the U.S. government for military acquisitions. Management Science (MS)-Solving complex problems-1950s-1990s: Operations Research (OR) and Management Science (MS) quantitative methods for solving resource allocation problems: OR and MS introduce major extensions of scientific management. The methods include linear programming, queuing theory, and inventory theory.

International linkages for sourcing, fabrication, assembly and marketing, as well as managing currencies; information systems based on networks of computers and global telecommunications alter the way that work is done. The systems approach is extended to all functions within the fIrm and to all partners along the supply chain, including suppliers and customers.

THE HISTORY OF P/OM (P/OM - Production and operations management) The capability of P/OM processes to deliver goods and services has changed in steps or - stages over time. The study of the history of OM production transformation processes allows us to determine which events triggered these stages of production theory. The ultimate goal is to learn the theory, understand it, and possess the advantages that accrue for being literate.

THE HISTORY: OF THE IMPROVEMENT '-- OF P/OM TRANSFORMATIONS

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Literacy in OM requires an understanding of how the OM field has developed with respect to the transformation process and, thereby, productivity, quality, and variety. The stages of history have moved production and operations capabilities from custom work through high-speed continuous output systems. Attention shifts from custom crafts, which are art-based, to the theory of production, which has evolved over time. This theory consists of six steps and a potential seventh one. There is an emphasis on manufacturing because the theory evolved from the production of goods, but it lends itself to service operations. Figure 2-3 depicts OM history in a timeline chart. Dates mentioned are approximate because it is not possible to pinpoint exactly when each contribution was made.

The flexibility concept joins computers and equipment in the bank, plant, pr plane. This revises the way that machines operate.

Overview of Production Management Production management Strategies For sustained growth and maintaining market leadership, long-range production plans and strategies

are essential. Competition ITom abroad has upgraded the status of manufacturing as a strategic weapon to achieve comparative ;ompetitiveness in India. There is a significant development in this regard since 1980s. The key result areas identified in manufacturing are those of flexibility, quality, rapid changeover by core standardisation alld process trade-offs. Advancement made in electronics and information technologies have introduced new capabilities in the manufacturing operations. This has also altered the traditional meaning of concepts such as learning curve, etc. The success stories of several small but high-technology firms in less advanced countries like Sweden, Holland and Switzerland have shown that these firms neither depended on traditional strategic planning staff nor on huge Research & Development. Japan, Taiwan and Korea have exhibited the

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importance of entrepreneurship in business strategy. Koreans have also shown the advantage of mobilising institutional support. The Japanese experience I has clearly highlighted the necessity of innovation not only in Research & I Development but also in production management.

PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT AND ITS IMPACT ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND GLOBALIZATION – INFORMATION SYSTEMS Information systems provide the necessary data about customer needs so that operations management can supply the required services. Both services and manufacturing are increasingly responsive to-and controlled by information systems.

Therefore,

knowledge

of

computers,

computer

programming,

networking,

and

telecommunications is essential in both the manufacturing and service environment. Schools of business include both goods and services under the term operations, whereas industrial engineering departments are still inclined to teach "production" courses. Nevertheless, there is inevitable convergence of both to an information dominated workplace. Operations is the familiar management term for an information systems environment, so the word "operations" fits nicely. Programming and maintenance (both service functions) have become increasingly important to manufacturing. Further. distinguished service industries as transportation, banking, entertainment, education, and health care. In that regard, note the following trends for manufacturing: 1. The labor component (the input of blue-collar workers) has been decreasing as a per cent of the cost of goods at an accelerating rate for over 50 years. 2. The technological component as a percent of the cost of goods has been increasing for many years. In the past 20 years, this effect has become multiplicative, with computers controlling sophisticated and costly equipment across vast distances via satellites and networks. programmers (sometimes called gold-collar workers) and white-collar supervisors add to growing sales and administrative (overhead) costs, which have to be partitioned into the cost of goods. These costs are an increasing percent of the cost of goods. Traditional methods for assigningthese-c6sts can lead to detrimental OM decisions. New accounting methods, called activity-based costing (ABC), should be used to improve overhead accounting. 4. The systems approach requires communication between functions and the sharing of what used to be (and still are, in many traditional firms) mutually exclusive databases. 5. The technology of the twentieth century is moving rapidly into retirement along with a lot of executives who grew up with its characteristics. It's a neW ball game with new players who feel free to deal with the distinction between services and manufacturing as well as between operations and production in their own way. lTm:ritioners now have stepped into the twenty-first century, but they have yet to get accustomed to it. It is a good bet that the taxonomy of the twenty-first century will categorize production as a subheading under operations, and services will be an integral part of manufacturing. When a discussion applies equally well to both manufacturing and services, it is often referred to as P/OM. As explained earlier, it is increasingly common to call it OM. In this text, OM will be used to

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describe both manufacturing and services. P/OM will be used only in situations where the manufacturing component is critical and conclusions are

The databases of marketing and sales, OM, R & D, engineering, and finance are cross linked when advantageous. That sharing is crucial to enabling the systems approach to work. There are many examples of both manufacturing and service industries where shared databases have been installed and utilized successfully.

PRODUCTION STRATEGY AND COMPETITIVENESS - DEVELOPING BUSINESS STRATEGY – COMPETITIVE PRIORITIES LONG RANGE STRATEGIES •

An imaginative and pragmatic national policy

A strategic goal of manufacturing with emphasis on flexibility, quality,

rapid change-over and process trade offs

An effective leadership to give quick response to changing market

conditions.

Emphasis on technological excellence and entrepreneurial skills.

Innovation in production management and process technology.

Globalisation of industry.

Effective management of technology

An aggressive marketing strategy and risk-taking ability

Goodwill inside and outside the organisation.

MEDIUM RANGE STRATEGIES •

1. Location and layout

2. Product selection and technology

3. Capital selected and investment

4. Capital investment and planning

5. Flexible strategy overproduction

6. Standardisation of design

7. Rationalisation of product line

8. Economy of size and variety

9. Aggregate production planning

10. Inventory policy and planning

Production and Materials Management 1. Codification and standardisation of components 2. Work study and ergonomics

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3. Value analysis and cost controls 4. Indigenisation and self reliance 5. Organisation development 6. Performance budgeting 7. Flexible organisation structure and effective co-ordination

Short range Tactics 1. Production scheduling 2. Make or buy decisions 3. Purchase, stock control and verification 4. Quality control and audit 5. Value analysis and cost reduction steps 6. Maintenance, safety and replacement 7. Vendor rating and evaluation 8. Stress and time management 9. Incentive and motivation

WORLD CLASS MANUFACTURING Artisans, Apprentices, and Trainees - The Beginning The Renaissance 'period (1300s-1600s) signaled a surge of intellectual and productive vitality in Europe, That surge swept away the dark ages and fostered accomplishments in the arts and sciences centered around artisans, apprentices, and craft guilds. Production transformations were by hand, and output volumes were very small. Before the Industrial Revolution began (around 1770), craft guilds emphasized pride of workmanship and training for basic manual operations with appropriate hand tools. The shoemakers' children learned from their fathers and mothers. Process techniques were handed down from generation to generation. From a transformation point of view, this was good management of the labor inputs. The use of apprentices improved productivity in the artisans' shops because the less skilled (and lower paid) apprentices did much of the preliminary work. This freed the master craftsmen to devote their time to the activities requiring higher skills. On-the-job training produced a continuous stream of greater skills. Apprenticeship still has significance for many service functions. Great chefs almost always are the pupils of great chefs. The formula would seem to reside in the balance of art and science. When the important knowledge resides in the minds and hands of skilled workers, then the percent of art is high and the percent of science is low. Over time, this percentage has shifted in manufacturing so that engineering, technology, and computer programming play an increasing role. The art element is disappearing, which means d at the valuable know-how now resides mostly in the minds, not in the hands, of the critical workers. It used to be that the tool and die department was crucial to the success of metal-working companies, and the best die makers were considered artists. (Tools and dies are the shape formers in the Metal working businesses.)

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Now, computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) are primarily science, and the old industrial arts are giving way to the new programming arts. This Also is happening in service industries and is an effect that can be expected to accelerate in the future. )

Interchangeable Parts (lP) - Production Theory's First Step Eli Whitney invented the concept of interchangeable parts fot the fabrication of rifles around 1780, which coincides with the dates usually given forrhe beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The notion of interchangeable parts was the catalyst around which new methods for production transformation began to develop. These methods spawned and supported the Industrial Revolution. Whitney was not the sole inventor of interchangeable parts. In France, Nicolas LeBlanc had invented the same OM concept. Neither Whitney nor LeBlanc knew about each other's ideas. Whitney obtained government contract for "ten thousand stand of arms." The contract was awarded because of his newly developed production capabilities. The concept of interchangeable parts is defined as follows: It allows batches of parts to be made, anyone of which will fit into the assembled product. For example, headlights, fenders, tires, and windshield wiper blades are not specially made for each car. One 60watt bulb is like another and does not have to be fitted to each socket. The reason that the parts are interchangeable is that each one falls within the design tolerances. Machines that could produce parts to conform to the designer's tolerances were the keystone. Hand labor, better suited to custom work, began to be replaced by machinery. The effects of this change hastened the Industrial Revolution. Within a short time, IP was I an accepted part of the production transformation process being applied to the manufacture of rifles, sewing machines, clocks, and other products. 1776, Adam Smith saw that the use of the division of labor as a means of increasing productivity was market volume dependent. The pin factory that he studied had sufficient production volume to warrant specialization. The production transformation process was revolutionized-combining worker specialization with interchangeable parts changed all of the productivity standards. Expectations were raised to new levels.

Scientific Management (SM) - Production Theory's Second Step Frederick Winslow Taylor (1865-1915) introduced scientific management, the numerical measurement and analysis of the way work should be done. One of his landmark studies dealt with the speed and feed rates of tools and materials for metal cutting. Other studies focused on how to lay bricks and how to move iron castings. Taylor's testimony at hearings concerning the setting of rational railroad fees for shipments in interstate commerce brought national prominence to his analytic methodology. This step in production theory added the idea that the transformation processes could be improved by studying and simplifying operations. This view required rationalizing the job, the workplace, and the workers. Strangely, it had been overlooked until the turn of the twentieth century. Finding economies of motion and putting materials near at hand

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These industrial engineering ideas, often called methods engineering, have proved to be as useful for service applications as for manufacturing. Called the father of "scientific management,"

Sequenced Assembly (SA) Production Theory's Third Step In 1912, Henry Ford developed sequenced assembly, which allows assembly to tenuous flow shop process. Timing must be perfect so that what is needed for a arrives on time. Ford developed the sequenced assembly process as a continuous function line for automobiles, changing the pace from batch to continuous set assembly. he serialized flow shop was born. The key was learning to achieve synchronal control of the process flows. The moving assembly line required a high level potent interchangeability. Ford succeeded in achieving complete synchronization process flows. By means of the principles of interchangeability, division of labor, and flow synchronization, Ford altered the production transformation process. He changed the perception of productivity standards and goals in a conclusive way. In so doing, he built an industrial emptive that helped the United States become the world leader in productivity. The United States continues to maintain its lead,12 although other nations-especially those considered to be less developed countries-have been improving their productivity consistently. Ford's contribution to production theory and to the revision of the transformation process had a major impact on the Japanese automobile industry. It also affected other industries of many kinds all over the world. There was a new rhythm to the transformation process. Contrast U.S. and Japanese production processes in the 1980s. The major portion of production and operations activities in the United States utilized batch processes. Batch the small lots does not lend itself to the kind of synchronization that applies to the automobile industry or the continuous flows of chemical processes. When the Japanese export industry began to compete aggressively in global markets, they chose to shun batch-type production systems. Instead they elected to specialize in high-volume, serialized flow shops, which extended the concept and application of assembly synchronization to manufacturing and assembly systems.

Statistical Quality Control (SQC) - Production Theory's Fourth Step Interchangeable parts required manufacturing methods bat made batches of parts conforming to tolerance limits. Shewhart developed the theory of statistical quality control (SQC) that enabled manufacturing to design and control processes that could achieve these objectives. SQC was focused on the producer's ability to control the variability of the process that was making the parts that had to fit within the specified tolerance limits. For the first time, the output of the transformation process could be stabilized and controlled. This was a major contribution to production theory. Walter Shewhart's major work, which was published in 1930, described his concepts about why SQC works and how to apply it.13 Deming and Juran also participated in the development of SQC theory and later on played a crucial role in its implementation and dissemination. 14 The United States was the first country that consistently used SQC, which it did through the 1940s and the early 1950s., but by 1960 the majority of SQC users were in Japan. U.S. organizations reported that they had dropped SQC to make cost reductions. Quality was considered good enough to replace

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costly staff departments with inspectors at the end of the production line. By the 1980s, however, under great competitive pressure from quality-driven Japanese organizations, many U.S. companies restored SQC and enhanced it with broader concepts into total quality management (TQM) activities. Organizations like Motorola and Xerox are considered to be pioneers leading the development of TQM within the framework of the systems approach. The total quality management approach applied to the production transformation system integrates the goals of productivity and quality. It represents a major step forward in the theory of production and an organizational feat to have gained broad acceptance at all levels. The next three steps are in formative stages, and their impact on productivity cannot be fully evaluated at this time.

Lean Production Systems (LPS) - Production Theory's Fifth Step Outing the 1970s~1990s, Japanese organizations spearheaded by Toyota, Mazda, Nissan, Honda, and Mitsubishi developed a new kind of production methodology called lean provocation systems. These systems combine a deep understanding of quality with a desire to be fastest and a fanatical distaste for all kinds of waste. The flexibility concept joins computers and equipment of many other kinds, including assembly-line processes and office machines. It also is possible and often desirable to include human beings in the network. Flexibility can be applied to information systems’ flexible information systems (PIS) and to flexible office systems (FOS) as well as to FMS. The capability to produce small numbers of many varieties includes extensive application of systems thinking to integrate marketing needs and OM scheduling abilities. Using marketing forecasts, OM managers decide what to make, but the decisions are constrained by the FMS menu, which was predetermined at the planning stage. The need to produce increased variety is market-driven. The transformation process has to be able to change over from making one thing to another, quickly and inexpensively. A great deal of effort is going into altering the transformation process so it can deal with the goal of increased variety. Technology and methodology must enable nearly instant setups and changeovers from one model to another to satisfy market demands. The payoff will be increased productivity of the joint production-marketing system, as exemplified by customized jeans. Levi Strauss has put the customer directly in touch with the factory. "Sales clerks at an original Levi's store can use a personal computer and the customer's vital statistics to create what amounts to a digital blue jeans blueprint. When transmitted electronically to a Levi's factory in Tennessee, this computer file instructs a robotic tailor to cut a bolt of denim precisely to the customer's measurements.

Global Competition: Year 2007 Plus-Production Theory's Seventh Step It is conjectured that in the future the transformation process will continue increasing in complexity and productivity. On a worldwide scale, a broad range of goods should be within the spending capabilities of more people. More management will be needed to plan and control the systems. More operations

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managers will be required with far fewer workers on the prouction line. More people will be sharing services-such as education and health care-that are mutually rewarding. Onerous service tasks will be relegated to service robots. Hopefully, people will have more time to spend their money as they wish. The input-output production transformation model will be internationalized. The costs of the inputs and the values of the outputs will be affected by dozens, if not hundreds, of different currencies. Managing currencies will be part of the transformation process. The euro is a good model for other regional currencies.

.

Information systems will be based on international networks of computers. Global telecommunication systems will transmit conversations. that are spoken in 80 different languages. Translation will be accomplished by language-capable computers with voice language recognition. Voice response in the appropriate language will be the norm. The systems approach will extend to all functions within the organization and all partners along the supply chain, including suppliers and customers. Production transformation processes will require the best of management while decreasing burdensome labor components. Substantial productivity increases will be required. CAD (computer-aided design) terminals communicate design specifications for the construction of planes and ships to an integrated computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) network that reaches throughout the manufacturing system. Time wasted was singled out. Every effort was made to use pre-engineering of products and process design to maximize quality achievements, minimize variability, and do it all as rapidly as possible. Part of being lean was being fast-in production. The Japanese were not fast in reaching decisions. For the most part, the export industries became lean producers with high-output volume targets, minimum cycle times, and rapid new product development. The Japanese auto industry has been leading in the development of bin and fast production systems. Toyota's production planners, who were architects of the revised production system, stated that Toyota's ideas were a continuation of the concepts that Henry Ford

Flexible Production Systems {FPS} Computer technology and production machinery technology are two distinct areas of technological development. There developments were quite primitive in the 1960s and 1970s. The step is predicted by many; rejected by few. The real issue is how long it will take to co The initial thrust was in manufacturing. Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) designed to produce a high variety of outputs at low cost. CAD/CAM technology is used to design and manufacture many different such as semiconductors, automobile grills, and aircraft parts. John Deere has invent lions of dollars in the creation of CAD/CAM systems for the manufacture of tract

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UNIT – II PLANT LOCATION Introduction: Proper and well planned industrial location and plant layout is an important managerial decision. It is a long term decision making it almost impossible to consider any changes in the location later on. As such, the performance of an enterprise is considerably affected by its location. The location of an industry is as important as the choice for the location of an office or a shop in a city or locality.

. Define Plant. Plant is any factory or workshop where a company manufactures its products.

. Define Plant Location. It is generally concerned with comparison, evaluation and selection of a suitable physical place for setting up a suitable factory or workshop to carry out manufacturing activities to produce goods and services.

. Explain about the importance of the Plant Location. Plant location is of paramount importance, both for a new enterprise as well as for the existing ones. The fundamental objectives of an organization are to maximize its profits. Profits can be increased either by increased sales or by decreasing cost of production is possible. When the firm is of optimum size and when the industry is located at an appropriate site where all kinds of production economics are available. Selection of the suitable location is very important due to the following reasons. Location of plant partially determines the operating and capacity cost. It determines the nature of investment costs to be incurred and also the level of many operating costs. Each prospective location implies a new allocation of capacity to respective market area. Location fixes some of the physical factors of the overall plant design etc., heating and ventilation requirements, storage capacity for raw materials, taking into consideration their local availability, transportation needs for raw materials and finished goods, power needs, cost of labour, taxes, land construction, fuel etc., Location helps to deliver the product at a cheaper price and thus helps to combat competition. The existing firms seek new locations in order to expand their capacity or to replace the existing facilities. The increase in demand for the company’s products can given rise to the following decisions. Whether to expand the existing capacity and facilities. Whether to look for new locations for additional facilities Whether to close down the existing facilities to take advantages of new location.

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Location of Plant of an organization is an important Operations management decision.

Plant location means “deciding a suitable location, area, place etc where the Plant or factory will start functioning”

A Plant is a place, where men, materials, money, equipment, machinery etc are brought together for manufacturing products.

It is a long-term decision making and it is almost impossible to consider any changes in the location later on. Also the performance of an enterprise is considerably affected by its location.

The degree of significance for the selection of location for any enterprise mainly depends on its size and nature.

Plant location involves three major activities (iii)

Selection of proper geographic region (regional factors)

(iv)

Selection of appropriate locality within the region (community factors)

(v)

Selection of specific site within the locality (Site factors)

. Write about the objective of the Plant Location. Reduced capital investment and operating cost: o

An ideal location should have the objective of reducing capital investment. For instance, if location is at a place where raw, materials are readily and conveniently available in the quantity.

o

So desired, the plant can operate with minimum inventories on hand, requiring lesser investment in storage buildings and lesser amount of investment in inventories.

Ensuring effective plant layout: o

Plant layout and plant location are interdependent and influence each other. The facilities available in the near by areas, the topography of the land, the climate and geographical conditions and several other factors influence the plant location.

o

An ideal location should reduce the inconvenience and cost. For instance, if the subcontracting and repair facilities are readily and cheaply available in the area, the managers may decide to get some of the parts manufactured by these sub-contracts and may not establish any elaborate repair shop, resulting in lesser investment in buildings and equipment and causing lesser problems in plant layout.

Coordination with government policies: o

While selecting location managers should first consider whether the government will issue license to start a factory at proposed location.

o

Moreover, what will be the policy of the government regarding establishment of factories in a particular region should also be considered.

Employee welfare and public needs: o

The non-economic objectives of enhancing employee welfare and catering to public needs should also be served by plant location.

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If a place is selected, where educational, recreational, medical, and religious and such other needs of employees are met properly, the employees will be contended and will have high morale.

o

If an area is selected for plant location, it will throw open employment opportunities to the local public who will welcome such a decision.

o

Selection of the site, in a highly congested area will be resented by the public.

Security: o

It is one of the important objectives. The plant should be free from the foreign attack, anti social elements and should not be prone to floods, earth quakes etc.,

o

A location with any one of the above factors will be regarded as extremely poor, even though other social and economic factors may be very favourable in establishing a factory there.

Concept of Facility Location •

Traditionally, location theorists have dealt with industrial plant/factory location.

However, the concept of plant location has now been generalized into that of facility location, since the facility could include a production activity or service system.

The term ‘plant’ has been traditionally used as synonymous to a factory, manufacturing or assembly unit. This could include fertilizer, steel, cement, rice milling plants, textiles, sugar mills, rubber factories, breweries, refineries, thermal or hydro-electric nuclear power stations etc

However, with the enlarged scope of a facility, this term can now be used to refer to banks, hospitals, blood banks, fire stations, police stations, warehouses, godown, depot, recreation centers, central repair workshop etc.

At a lower level order, facility would mean machines, equipment, desks, workshop, canteen, emergency etc

Thus, it can be stated that a facility could mean almost any physical object relevant to location analysis.

FACTORS INFLUENCING/AFFECTING PLANT LOCATION •

Hardly any location can be ideal or perfect. Hence one has to strike a balance between various factors affecting plant location which are discussed below:

These factors can be qualitative as well as quantitative.

Qualitative factors can be measured in terms of some qualitative criteria namely adequate, good, significant etc.

Quantitative factors can be measured on cost or some other quantitative basis like labour, material, housing, land, transport etc.

In general, “a plant should be located at a place where the inhabitants are interested in its success, the product can be sold profitable and the production cost is minimum”

In particular, the choice of plant location should be based on following considerations.

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. Explain about the factors influencing Industry or Plant location. One of the early decision that an entrepreneur has to make is the choice of a location fro his/her business. The governing principle is that the organization should sell goods most profitably and manufacturing them with the least expenses. The various types of factors associated with the location of an enterprise have a significant impact on the operations of an enterprise and its costs structure. These factors can be qualitative as well as quantitative. Quantitative factors can be measured in terms of some qualitative criteria namely, adequate, good, significantly viz, types of labour, Union activity, recreation facilities, climate etc., Quantitative factors can be measured on cost or some other quantitative basis viz, labour, materials, housing, land, transport etc., The fundamental factors which have to be considered in deciding the location of a plant for functioning profitably are given below. Factors relating to Buying: Nearness to the raw materials: o

The cost of obtaining raw materials is an influencing factor on location. The importance of nearness to raw materials varies greatly wit the nature of the business. Two sub-divisions of this factor are to be considered in this regard. One is the assurance of a constant and immediate supply, with out dependence on transport or weather conditions. The other is the fact that the cost of transporting bulky raw materials from a long distance may add so much to the cost of production as to make the business unprofitable.

o

For example, the location of the cotton textile industry in Mumbai, jute in Calcutta, iron and steel in Jamshedpur, was influenced by this factor.

Accessibility to raw materials: o

The presence in abundance of any material is not sufficient in itself for finalizing the location.

o

The location must also be easily accessible. The climate should be moderate and adequate transport facilities should be available. The workers who are engaged in getting the raw materials should have sufficient supplies of food and water.

Factors related to manufacturing: Availability of labours: o

Labour supply refers to the number of skilled and unskilled person who are available for the kind of work to be done. Labour supply is perhaps the most important of all the factors, especially the supply of the skilled labour.

o

The important points under this heading can be summarized as follows. What kinds of skills are required? Will a large number of people be needed? What are the likely levels of competition with others firms in the vicinity?

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Nearness to the potential market: o

Marketing of its product efficiently is also an important of an enterprise. If the plant is located near the market then the management can be keep close touch with the changes in market environment and formulate its production policies accordingly. But the reduction in marketing costs still remains an important consideration for location to be near the market.

o

Also in case of factory being nearer to the market the risk of damage in transportation, loss of the demand due to change in fashion etc., is also reduced. Example: Glass, Chemical and Drug factories are mainly affected by this consideration.

Near to the source of power: o

The source of energy for turning the wheels of industry has a decisive influence in plant location and the development of industrial centers.

Transport and communication facilities: o

Transport is very important for bringing raw materials, fuel from different places. Also transport is required to supply the finished products to markets.

o

The region well connected with rail, road, water and air transport system is considered to be more appropriate.

o

The economic factors governing plant location, transport costs are very important. It is possible to obtain the materials and market finished goods only with the help of an effective transport net work.

Availability of services: o

Service includes (a)Gas, (b)Electricity, (c)Water (d)Drainage (e)Disposal of wastes (f) Communication.

o

Certain industries use considerable quantity of water, e.g. industries of food preparations, laundry, chemical and metal plating etc.,

Ready accessibility to repair shop: o

This factor is important mainly in the case of small-scale industries with plenty of orders on hand and a breakdown of its machinery will incur loss in business and bring down its image.

o

Hence, repairs have to be carried out immediately and work completed at the stipulated time.

Availability of amenities: o

A location which provides good extern amenities – housing, shops, community services, communication services, communication system- is often more attractive than one which is more

Safety requirements: o

Some important production units may present or may be believed to present potential dangers to the surrounding neighbourhood.

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For example, nuclear power stations, chemical and explosives factories are often considered dangerous. Location of such palnts in remote areas is desirable.

Adequate fire fighting facilities: o

Fire may originate from within or outsider the plant. Internal fire can be controlled with fire fighting appliances but it is difficult to control agencies causing fire from outside. A site with adequate fire fighting facilities is, therefore desirable.

Availability of educated personnel and research facilities: o

New industries as well as the development and expansion of those already established hinge on research and investigation to develop products and improve methods.

o

More over, the profitable operation of industry is dependent on a constant supply of educated and trained personnel.

o

To provide both, existence of educational institutions and research agencies is essential.

Integration with other group of companies: o

New enterprise owned or operated by a single group of companies should be located that its work can be integrated with the work of the associated establishments.

Suitability of land and climate: o

Soil and climate have direct bearing upon the type of activity that can be undertaken in any area in its early development. Climate has a great influence on the industry activity.

o

A cool invigorating climate develops the best type of industrial workers. Inhabitants of very hot climate are less efficient as industrial workers.

Labour building and planning regulations: o

A plant has to build in such a way that the manufacturing processes are carried on with minimum expenditure of time and material.

o

Also, there must be ample scope for addition or rearrangement, so that they can be carried out without stoppage of work. Availability of low cost land is most desirable for putting up a factory.

Specific plant site-selection factors: o

The specific site cannot be selected until both region and community have already been chosen.

o

Only then can management turn to selecting a specific site. The following factors should be considered in this respect. Plot of land: •

Must be large enough to hold the present plant.

Leasing- long term lease must be available

Cost price is very important

Topography, soil mixture and drainage must be suited.

Transportation facilities Proximity to police and fire stations Adequacy of water and power supply.

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Primary Factors i) Availability of Raw Materials: An ideal location is one where the main raw materials required to manufacture the product is adequately available. This will ensure regular supply of raw materials and also reduce transportation costs. Also some industries by nature will be forced to locate themselves near raw materials sources. Ex. Iron & Steel industries at Jamshedpur have been located close to coal fields since it uses coal in large quantities. Sugar industries are located near to sugar cane growing places as sugarcane loses its weight during transportation. ii) Nearness to the Potential Market: All producers wanted to sell their products in the market. If the plant is located very close/near to the potential market, it can reduce transportation cost and also reduce damages and wastages. Also it can ensure prompt supply of finished products to consumers. Nearness to market is thus an important factor in the case of industries producing light, delicate and perishable goods:- ex. Glass, chemicals, drug factories, food products, fashionable goods having changing demand etc. iii) Transport Facilities: Transport is very important for bringing raw materials, fuel from different places and for distributing finished products etc. Hence any region, which is well connected with rail, roadways, waterways and air transport system, should be selected for plant location. The producer has to choose a speedy and cost effective means of transportation. It should be remembered that transportation cost should remain fairly small in proportion to the total cost. Also if the raw materials are bulky and their value is low, then greater importance has to be given to transportation. In such cases plant should be located near to raw materials. Ex. Bricks, cement, wood etc. An industry tends to be alive located at places which have developed means of transport. Faridabad in Haryana is an excellent example. It is well served by both rail and road transport. It lies on the mainline between Mumbai and Delhi. iv) Supply of Labour: Location depends on availability of productive labour force also because it is one of the most important inputs in an industrial enterprise. Stable labour force of right kind, of adequate size (number) and at reasonable rates (cheap labour) are few factors which govern plant location. If the supply of labour is not regular, manhours and machine hours are lost forever. The importance of labour supply has been reduced due to mechanization. But still machines cannot do anything without the skilled labourers.

Hence producers should try to regularize the supply of

rawmaterials by reducing strikes or lockouts, absenteeism, labour turnover etc. They should try to achieve lower labour cost per unit of production. Ex. Crackers industries at Sivakasi Glass industries at Firozabad v) Power: Power is an essential for the process of production. Coal, electricity, oil and natural gas are the sources of power. All industries must have sufficient and regular supply of power if continuity in production is to be maintained. Usually heavy industries like machine tools, coal mining, iron & steel are located near sources of power.

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Ex. Iron & Steel industries at Jamshedpur are located near to coalfields. Aluminium extraction industries are located where electric power is available. vi) Supply of capital:

Industries require capital for initial promotion and expansion.

Therefore

capital market must be well developed in industrial centers. The capital market mobilizes small savings of the people for the purpose of industrialization. Hence developmental banks and financial institutions must be looked for near industries Secondary Factors vii) Facilities/Services/Amenities: Availability of the following services will also influence location: Gas, Water, Drainage, Disposal of Waste, Communication, Good Housing Facility, Theatres, Restaurants etc. viii) Natural Factors: land, water, climate, source of raw materials are some of the natural factors to be considered for some industries like cotton textiles, sugar and jute. The climatic conditions (humidity, temperature and atmosphere) play a vital role in location of certain industries like cotton, jute which requires humid climate. Likewise agricultural products like tea, coffee, rubber, jute etc requires a particular type of soil and climate. Topography also exercises an important influence on location. For instance, mountains and plateaus have a retarding influence on industrial development ix) Political Factors: Government influence the development of industry by providing political stability and also subsidies. Lack of political stability affects location of industries. The government may give such facilities as development rebate, tax exemptions, price subsidies, banking, insurance etc. By giving these facilities, the government may bring about development of industries in backward areas. x) Government Support: The Government of India has been influencing plant location in a number of ways. Some of these are licensing policy, Freight Rate policy, establishing a unit in the public sector in a remote area and developing it to attract other industries, institutional finance and government subsidies xi) Historical and Religious Facilities /Factors: Some industrial cities are of historical importance. Some capital cities have religious importance – ex. Benares, Prayar, Kolhapur, Nasik etc. Industries grow at these regions due to their historical importance. xii) Initial Start and Goodwill: Some industries get located at that place at their earlier stages. Ex. Jamshedpur – has now developed into industrial city (iron & steel industry) xiii) Personal Factors: There are entrepreneurs specially small industrialist, who locate their plants purely on personal grounds disregarding other factor. For ex. Mr.Ford started manufacturing cars at Detroit because it was his native town and at present it is the biggest car manufacturing center in India. xiv) Other Factors: The following factors also affect the location of industrial unit: -

strategic factors like dangers of air attacks

-

availability of free fire fighting facilities

-

availability of recreational, medical & educational facilities

-

Quality of life because of facilities like schools, hospitals, post office etc enjoyed by the community

-

Community attitudes.

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-

Ecological and environmental considerations

-

Regional aspirations of people and their political satisfaction

-

Integration with other group of companies

-

Regional restrictions

-

Competition between states

-

Research facilities

Factors Influencing Industry Or Plant Location A) Selection of Region - Availability of Raw materials

B) Selection of Community - Availability of Labour

- Nearness to Market - Availability of power

- Civic amenities to workers

C) Selection of Site - Soil, Size & Topography - Disposal of Waste

- Existence of complementary

- Transport facilities

& competing industries

- Suitability of Climate

- Finance & Research facilities

- Government policy

- Availability of water & fire

- Competition among states

fighting facilities - Local taxes & restrictions - Momentum of early start - Personal Factors

SELECTION OF SITE (URBAN, RURAL OR SUB URBAN) There are broadly three possible alternatives for the selection of site in a locality. (i)

City/Urban area (ii) Rural area (iii) Sub urban area

City/Urban area: Urban area enjoys some typical advantages against rural/suburban areas. Advantages: 1. Good transportation facilities available for movement of raw materials and finished products by rail, road, air & water 2. Good communication facilities 3. Banking, credit, insurance facilites are available 4. Sufficient storage facilities like cold-storage are available 5. Ample availability of skilled and unskilled workers 6. Facility of ancillary and service units around industrial areas. 7. Availability of potential market 8. Developed training institutes 9. Educational, medical & recreational institutes 10. Availability of several research institutes 11. Certain specific municipal service facilities are available only in city areas like water supply, drainage, fire fighting facilities etc Disadvantages: 1. Cost of land is very high when compared to rural areas

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2. even at high cost, sufficient land is not available 3. Cost of labour is relatively high due to high standard of living 4. Rate of labour turnover is very high due to more number of competitors in the urban area 5. Trade union movement is very strong in city area. Hence there are sre more strikes, lockouts in urban areas. 6. Various types of taxes are levied in city areas. Also the rates are relatively high. For ex. Octroi is only levied in urban area. 7. Certain municipal restrictions put constraints and they involve extra costs due to height of building, waste disposal, elimination of air pollution etc 8. The industrialization in the city area gives birth to slums and dirty residences that creates the typical problems of sanitation and health. Rural area: some industrialist also prefers rural area. Advantages: 1. Comparing to city area, the land is available at cheaper rates 2. Large plots of land are available which can be developed for factory site, office building etc 3. Horizontal arrangement of plant is possible 4. Provisions can be made for further expansion 5. Due to lower standard of living, the rates of labour are relatively lower 6. The industrial relations between labour and management are relatively amicable 7. The local taxes found in city areas are practically non-existent in rural areas 8. Slums and dirty residences are not found in rural areas. Rural are offers good healthy work environment to workers. 9. Due to lack of congestion, there is no danger of fire caused by surrounding units. 10. Rural area does not become a target area for attacks during war time. Disadvantages: 1. Transportation facilities are not good. 2. Better means of communication like post & telegraph, internet, fax etc are not available 3. Banking, credit, insurance facilities are not available 4. Storing & warehouse facilities are also not available 5. Advantage of ancillary & service units is not available 6. Rural areas are far from market areas. So distribution cost is high. 7. Absence of developed training institute 8. Not easy to get skilled workers in rural areas 9. Municipal facilities like water supply, drainage, fire fighting facilities not available 10. Absence of recreation facilities, good educational institution, medical facilities etc.

Suburban area: Both city and rural area are the two extremes for location. The better choice in such circumstances may be suburban area that is in the outskirts of City area. Advantages: 1. Land is available at cheaper rates as compared to urban areas

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2. Adequate land area is available 3. Infrastructure facilities like transport, banking, water supply are developed 4. As city and rural areas are nearby, both skilled and unskilled labour is available. 5. It is possible to tap the advantages of training institutes, research institutes etc which are available in nearby area 6. Nearby city area provides market for the goods produced. Also the ancillary facilities can be made use of from city area 7. Educational institutions, medical, recreational facilities are available in suburban area itself. Disadvantages: Suburban area may be converted into city area in the development process with all the merits and demerits of city area.

PLANT LOCATION TRENDS Presently, the traditional factors like nearness to Raw material, labour supply etc have no significant say in the location of industries. This change in location trend is due to the following •

Substitution of raw materials

Network of electrification

Development in transportation & communicaton

Mobility of labour

Persuasive policies of government for balanced regional development The recent trends in the selection of industrial location can be described as follows:

(1) Priority for the suburban areas: Sub-urban areas are preferred for industrial location nowadays because sufficient land will be available at cheaper rates when compared to cities. Also industrial policy of the government does not permit the establishment of a new unit or expansion of existing unit in city area. Moreover transportation, communication and other infrastructural facilities are developed in the suburban areas. (2) Establishment of Industrial Estates: Several factories are concentrated in one area for sharing a common benefit and is known as industrial estates. The government of India has planned National policies separately for development of industrial estates. The development of industrial estates is the responsibility of state government. In each state, the State industrial development corporation (SIDCO) has developed many industrial estates. Also private entrepreneurs and chamber of commerce also developed many industrial estates. The state government offers so many facilities to industries that start in such areas and hence industrial estates also affect location (3) Industrial development in Backward areas: Both the central government and state government have notified certain areas as backward areas. In order to develop these areas, both the governments offer various assistance like tax holidays, financial support, cheaper land and power, cash subsidies etc., in order to improve these areas. Such developmental activities will also affect the location of industry. (4) Decentralisation of industries:

The industrial policy of the government does not support

concentration of industrial units in one area. Hence location has to be decentralized thereby reducing congested industrial environment.

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(5) Increased role of government in the decision of location of industries: Presently both state and central government concentrates in regional & backward area development. OBJECTIVES IN PLANT LOCATION •

Reduced capital investment and operating costs

Ensuring effective plant layout

Coordination with government policies

Employee welfare and public needs

Security

When a Location Decision arise? The existing firms seek new locations inorder to expand their capacity or to replace existing facilities. The increase in demand for company’s product may give rise to the following factors: -

whether to expand the existing capacity and facilities

-

whether to look for new locations for additional facilities

-

whether to close down the existing facilities to take advantage of new locations.

Relocation: The shift of the location of plant to some other place is known as relocation.

TYPES OF LOCATIONAL DECISIONS 1. Location of production units or plants for the conversion of inputs into finished products 2. Location of service units which provides assistance to production units 3. Location of distribution and retail units for dispersion of production to market 4. Location of procurement centers to assemble necessary inputs in the selected site 5. Location of ware house facilities.

COST FACTOR IN LOCATIONAL ANALYSIS The fundamental objective of locational analysis is to maximize the profits by minimizing the total cost of production associated with production process. Total cost = Fixed costs + Operational costs Fixed cost = Land, Building, Machines etc Operational cost = Expenditures on inputs, transformation process and distribution of output

The total cost of location will vary from place to place.

Selection of Lowest Cost Site R1 M

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R1, R2 = Two available sources of raw material supply M = One place of Market or Consumption L = Location of Factory

Suppose if L is at M, only freight on raw materials will be paid If L is at R1,R2 there will be distribution charges If intermediate place is selected for location , both incoming & outgoing freight will be paid.

Hence in actual practice, a comparison should be made of each element of total cost as if location is done at each of these alternative places. Then, site which gives minimum total cost per unit, in the absence of any other important consideration should be chosen.

The location analysis can be divided into two categories I)

Involving Quantitative factors a) Comparitive cost chart b) Least cost center analysis c) Break Even Analysis d) Dimensional Analysis

II) Comparison of Qualitative factors I)

QUANTITATIVE FACTORS The economic objective of locational analysis can be summarized as follows Profits = Revenue – Total costs a) Comparitive cost chart: A comparitive chart of total costs involved in setting up a plant of desired size is prepared.

Total cost

A

B

C

D

Locations

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Consider 4 locations A,B,C,D and five factors 1,2,3,4,5 on which choice of location depends. Some unit of output is chosen and cost per unit of output associated with various factors at each location is listed. The total cost for each location is then added and is represented by the height of the column for each location. The location for which the total cost is minimum is selected. The cost summary chart has the advantage of clarity in presentation and comprehensibility. However, the analysis is restricted to certain specified factors only. b) Least cost center analysis:

Here we consider the transport costs associated with

various locational alternatives. The limitations of this analysis is that -

the choice of plant location is assumed to be entirely dependent upon the minimization of transport cost.

-

transport costs are assumed to be linearly related to distance involved.

C) Break even analysis: this analysis can be done numerically as well as graphically. The procedure for lcoational breakeven analysis graphically involves the following: i)Determination of fixed costs and the variable costs associated with each locational alternative ii) plotting the total cost lines for all locational alternatives on the same graph. iii) Determining which location has the lowest total cost for the expected level of output. Assumptions of this Analysis: a) Fixed cost remains constant for a range of probable output b) The required level of output can be closely estimated and c) Only one product is involved

Mathematically, BEP = Fixed

Cost / contribution per unit

d) Dimensional Analysis: Dimensional analysis is a technique for comparing the merits of several available locations. It does this comparison by assigning them rating from 1 to 100 as per the desirability For ex.

Factors

Location A

Location B

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Land

20

Building

30

50

30

Labour

25

40

Community Relations

60

30

Cost of Transportation

80

40

------------

---------

215

170

Location B is better than A as it scores are less meaning less cost (from cost point of view) If costs and relative weightages are given the analysis can be done as given below: Factor

Costs

Weight WLA

WLB

Location A Location B Land

20000

30000

1

20000

30000 Building 50000 Labour

40000

2

100000

150000 30000

2

30000

80000 60000

----------

----

-----150000 170000 Here location A is attractive than location B

Let us consider n factors in our analysis and two sites A and B. Dimensional analysis is then comparision of alternatives sites on the basis of both tangible and intangible costs. Thus if

CA1,CA2,CA3,……….., CAn are the different cost associated with site A CB1,CB2,CB3,………..,CBn are the different cost associated with site B W1,W2,W3,……..,Wn are weightages given to cost items

Then the relative merit is given by

CA1

CA2

CA3

CAn

CB1

CB2

CB3

CBn

If relative merit is greater than unity (one), then location B is better than A.

II)

COMPARISION OF QUALITATIVE FACTORS Qualitative factors related to location analysis are also known as intangible factors. These are factors for which cost cannot be assigned ex. Lack of good schools, union activity, community attitude etc. These factors can be injected values like adequate or inadequate, significant or insignificant, good, excellent etc. However, it assumes a good deal of knowledge about each site and so it is not useful in all situations. This can be done by a) Drawing a comparitive chart for various locations

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Factors

Location A

Location B

Labour supply

Adequate

Excellent

Recreation

Good

Very Good

Union Activity

Significant

Not Significant

Education

Good

Very Good

Here location C appears to be attractive. b) Ranking and Weight Method: here various factors are assigned weights according to their importance in locational analysis. Also ranking are given. Then weights are multiplied with the corresponding rank and total of these products over all the factors for each location is calculated. The location having maximum total is considered to be most suitable. (Note: It is observed that location selected on the basis of quantitative factors may not tally with that based on comparison of qualitative factors. In case both the choices agree then the final selection is made otherwise the management may make a subjective choice. Generally cost criterion is given preference.)

MULTI PLANT LOCATION ANALYSIS: In a single plant location problem we are concerned with the selection of location with minimum cost. Whereas in the multi-plant-location problem, we must select the location which, when added to existing locations, should minimize the cost of entire system. Each of the potential must be assessed not on its own merits alone but in the context of a multiplant situation.

PLANT LAYOUT INTRODUCTION: Plant layout is one of the most important factors for a new industrial enterprise, after deciding the location of the plant. It pertains to planning of the space available for all the activities and facilities associated with manufacturing with a view to enable the plant to function effectively. •

The word layout is used to indicate the physical disposition of the facilities of plant and of the various parts of the plant.

Proper arrangement of facilities is necessary to achieve a smooth flow of products.

Once location of plant is decided, the next step is to design the layout.

Layout pertains to planning of the space available for all activities and facilities associated with manufacturing with a view to enable the plant to function effectively.

Definition: In the words of James Lundy, “It identically involves the allocation of space and the arrangement of equipment in such a manner that overall operating costs are minimized”

Development of proper layout requires proper planning.

Plant layout is a joint work of both disciplines, namely engineering and management.

Planning the layout is a continuous process

A good layout results in comforts, convenience, safety, efficiency, compactness and profits.

A poor layout results in congestion, waste, frustration and efficiency.

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Development of good layout depends on a series of decisions taken on location, capacity, facility, manufacturing methods and material handling.

Layout begins with location and continues through three further levels, namely i)

layout of departments within the site

ii)

layout of items within the department

layout of individual work places

Write do you mean by Plant Layout? The word ‘Plant Layout’ is an amalgam of two words: Plant and Layout. The term ‘Plant’ refers to machinery, equipments, and physical facilities for production. The term ‘layout’ denotes the arrangement of facilities in a particular work station.

. Definition of Plant Layout. In the words of James Lundy, “It identically involves the allocation of the space and the arrangement of equipment in such a manner that overall operating costs are minimized”. “Any arrangement of machines and facilities is a layout. Just as any house plan is a plan.” “Plant layout involves the arrangements development of physical relationship among building, equipment and production operations which will enable the manufacturing process to be carried on efficiently”. “Plant layout the arrangement of machines work areas and service area with in a factory”

WRITE ABOUT THE OBJECTIVES OF THE PLANT LAYOUT. The principle of the objectives of a proper plant layout is to maximize the production at the minimum cost. The objectives should be kept in mind while designing a layout for a new plant as well as while making necessary changes in the existing layout it should be planned with the following objectives in mind. Economy in materials handling: o

Economy in handing of materials work-in-progress and finished stock.

Optimum utilization of resources: o

Ensuring optimum utilization of men, materials, equipment and space available.

Better inventory control: o

Minimizing work-in-progress and maximizing inventory turnover. The material should move rapidly through the plant and the points of congestion should be eliminated to have low levels f inventory.

Good work flow: o

Minimizing changes of delay and eliminating bottle necks in the production system. Ensure a good work flow avoiding accumulation of work at vital points.

Efficient control: o

Ensuring efficient supervision and production control.

Avoidance of changes:

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Avoiding frequent changes so that production programme is not upset, causing the cost of production to rise.

Safety: o

Ensuring safety for the workers by eliminating or atleast minimizing the chances of accidents.

Better services: o

Providing adequate services centers at convenient locations.

Higher morale: o

Boosting up of the employees morale by providing incentives and also comforts while at work.

Flexibility: o

Ensuring flexibility of the layout for future changes and requirements. To achieve these objectives, a close co-ordination between him/her with the production manager is very important.

Write about the characteristics of an efficient Plant Layout. The designing of a plant layout should be such that it should maximize the return and minimize the cost of production. The following are the characteristics of plant layout. Smooth flow of production: o

There must be a smooth flow of production. Raw materials and workers must have access to each machine with out any difficulty and delay.

Maximum utilization of available space: o

An efficient plant layout, such that may utilize the maximum of the space available.

Facilities the movement of men, materials and machines etc., o

There must be sufficient space left in between different machine so that raw materials, workers and machines move very easily from one place to another, with out the fear of accident.

Involves minimum handling: o

The various machines in a good layout must be arranged in such a manner that the product of one operation may pass in to the next operation with a minimum of handling. It will reduce wastage of raw materials and labour hours.

Provides better working conditions: o

A good plant layout must have facilities such as water, ventilation, retiring room etc, in the plant. It should also safe guard the health of the workers.

Flexibility: o

A good layout must be flexible enough so as to incorporate any change in the management policies. It must be capable of incorporating, with out major changes, new equipment to meet technological progress or increase the production requirements or to eliminate waste.

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Location of stores: o

Te stores in a plant must be located in such a place from where raw materials, tools, equipment and other materials may be supplied to the departments concerned easily, with out and delay.

Facilities supervision and control: o

The position of the workers must be arranged in such a way that it facilities supervision, coordination and control.

Provision of safety: o

There must be complete safety for workers engaged on a machine. Necessary instruction must be given to them about the risks involved while working in certain type of machines. Provisions of factories act must be followed in real spirit.

Coordination and Integration: o

There must be an efficient coordination and integration among men, materials and machines, so that their maximum could become a possibility.

. Write about the characteristics of poor Layout. Or Write about the symptoms of poor layout. The symptoms of bad or poor layout are as follows. Congestion of the machines, materials, part assemblies and even workers. Excessive number of work-in-process Poor utilization of space Long material flow lines Excessive handling by skilled workers and increased handling costs Increase in maintenance time Long production cycles Delay in delivery schedules Increase in handling costs Difficulty experienced in supervision and control Increase in breakage of materials and products.

Write about the advantages of good layout. The advantages of a good layout can be studied from the stand point of the worker, labour cost, other manufacturing costs, production control, supervision and capital investment. To the worker: o

Reduction in the effort of the worker.

o

Fewer material handing operations

o

Extension of the process of specialization

o

Ensuring maximum efficiency

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Better working condition and reduction in the number of accidents.

In labour cost: o

Reduction in the number of workers

o

Increase in production per man-hour.

o

Reduction in the length of haul

o

Minimum lost motion between operations

In other manufacturing costs: o

Maintenance and tool replacement costs are reduced

o

Spoilage and scrap is minimized

o

Greater saving in the waste of raw materials consumption

o

Saving motive power

o

Effective cost control

In production control: o

Provision of adequate and convenient storage facilities

o

Increased pace for production

o

Achievement of production targets unfailingly

In supervision: o

Helps in easing the burden of supervision

o

Reduces the level of inspection and this minimizing the cost of inspection.

In capital investment: o

Investment in machinery and equipment is reduced because of Increase in production per machine Utilization of idle machine time Reduction in the number of operation per machine.

o

Permanent investment is kept at the minimum

o

Floor space and shop areas required for manufacturing are reduced.

OBJECTIVES OF GOOD LAYOUT i)

Facilitates the manufacturing process

ii)

Reduce material handling

iii)

Maintain flexibility of operations

iv)

Maintain high turnover of work in process

v)

Improves productivity

vi)

Make economical use of floor area

vii)

Efficient control (supervision)

viii)

To provide safety from accidents

ix)

Better services

x)

Better Inventory control

xi)

Optimum utilization

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minimization of waste

PRINCIPLES /CRITERIA/FACTORS AFFECTING PLANT LAYOUT The main objective of an enterprise is to maximize the production. What exactly is an efficient or perfect layout cannot be defined precisely. However, the following criteria should be satisfied for an effective plant layout. •

Maximum Flexibility: A good layout is one which is flexible (i.e) it can be modified to meet the changing circumstances. It must be capable of alteration without much cost, time or wastages.

Maximum Co-ordination: layout should co-ordinate all operations (i.e) it should integrate men, materials, machines etc to achieve effectiveness.

Maximum use of volume(cubical space): A good layout should use the space effectively (i.e) horizontal, vertical space should be used. Also third dimensional (height) has to be used. For ex. Conveyors can be made run on top (height above personnel) to use space effectively.

Maximum Visibility: There should not be any hiding places in the layout. Visibility of raw materials and finished goods will account for good supervision and control.

Maximum Accessibility: All servicing and maintenance points should be easily accessible without causing any difficult to production process. Machines and workers should move easily from one place to another.

Minimum distance) movement: (The layout should be planned in such a way that there must be least movement of goods and workers. Movement which add to the cost of the product without adding to its value should be avoided

Minimum Discomfort: The layout must be designed in such a manner that it causes minimum discomfort to the working force. Poor lighting, excessive sunlight, heat, noise, bad odour(smell) etc to be avoided. The statutory (legal) requirements of Factories Act, 1948 should be followed.

Minimum Handling: Handling should be minimized by using conveyors, lifts, trucks etc. Materials being worked on should be kept at working height.

Efficient Process Flow: Efforts should be taken to ensure that materials flow in one direction only. The use of gravitational force in certain type of processing can lead to substantial savings in energy and time.

Safety, Security and Satisfaction: A good layout should give due considerations to worker’s safety, security and should provide him better satisfaction

Identification:

Wherever possible, working groups should be provided with their ‘own’ working

space. The need for a defined space with which a person can identify himself can enhance one’s morale and job satisfaction •

Sequence: Machinery and operations should be arranged in a sequential order.

Minimum Investment: The layout should result in savings in fixed capital investment, not by avoiding installation of necessary facilities but by proper use of available facilities

Write about the principle and criteria of plant layout.

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The main objective of an enterprise is to maximize the production and minimize the cost. The process of plant layout may be said to be an effective one in so far as to help minimize movement of machine and personnel, facilities the manufacturing process and reduces the cost of production. Maximum flexibility: o

A good layout will be one which can be modified to meet the changing circumstances. It must be capable of incorporating with out major changes, new equipment to meet technological requirements or to eliminate waste.

Maximum coordination o

Layout must be considered as a whole and not in parts. It should be the bluest print for coordinating all operations.

Maximum use of volume: o

Maximum use f volume available should be made. For an example, converters can be run above the height of personnel at work and tools and equipment can be suspended from the ceiling. This principle is particularly true in stores where goods can be stocked at considerable height without any inconvenience.

Maximum visibility: o

The position of workers should be so arranged that there is no difficulty in supervision, coordination and control. There should not be any no ‘hiding places’ in to which goods can be mislaid. Raw materials and finished goods must be visible at all times, which will help in reducing pilferage.

Maximum accessibility: o

All servicing and maintenance points should be readily accessible without causing any hindrance to the production process. There must be sufficient space between different machines and workers should move easily and comfortably from one place to another.

Minimum (Distance) Movement: o

The layout should be so planned that there must be the least movement of goods and workers. Movements which add to the cost of the product with out adding to its value should be avoided.

Minimum Discomfort: o

The layout must be designed in such a manner that may causes minimum discomfort to the working force. Poor light, excess sunlight, heat, noise, vibration and bad odour should be avoided or minimized. The statutory requirements of eth Factories Act 1948 should be followed.

Minimum handling: o

The best handling is no handling but however, it should be reduced to minimum by the use of the conveyors, lifts, chute, hoists and truck.

Safety aspects: o

A layout should be free from causing any danger to machine operators working on the machines. Care must also be taken for the safety of passers-by. Adequate precaution

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against fire, moisture, theft and general deterioration should be taken in the original layout. Efficient process flow: o

Work flow and transport flow should not cross. Every effort must be made to ensure that materials flows in now directions only and a layout which does not conform to this will experience considerable difficulties.

Identification: o

Where ever possible, working groups should be provided with their ‘own’ working space. The need for a defined ‘territory ‘ i.e., provision of a space with which a person can identify himself/herself enhances ones morale.

. Explain about the steps or the procedures involved in planning layout. The following steps are necessary for developing a layout plan for a new enterprise. Fixing of objectives: o

The first step in designing a layout plan is to set the goals with regard to capacity, production, flexibility and plan for future expansion.

Collection and compilation of data: o

The second step is collection of necessary data regarding operations to be carried out to make a product, space available, dimensions of the space, the machines to be used or processes to be employed, nature of manufacturing operations and the sequence to be followed.

o

Collection of data must be followed by the preparation of operation process chart, machine data cards and templates of production machinery and materials handling equipment.

Formulation of an over all plan: o

The next step in the development of layout will be to prepare an overall plan, including the flow of production, arrangement of service activities and the most suitable type of building.

o

A floor plan may be prepared for grouping the machines either on the basis of product or line pattern or on functional pattern.

o

Then the type of building needed must be considered keeping in view of the layout plan and the location of the plant.

o

This should be followed by a tentative plot plan arrangement suited to the plant layout of the building and long run utilization of the sites should be prepared.

Service activities: o

The next step in planning a layout is to decide the location of service activities keeping in view the facility of the manufacturing process and the convenience of workers.

o

This includes decisions about development of material handling system, location of shipping and receiving areas, the maintenance shop, power plant, office and facilities for employee and convenience.

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Building specification: o

The next step will be to fix the building specification i.e floor space required, load capacity of the floor, ceiling heights, location of partitions, size and location of doors and windows.

Layout for individual machines: o

The planning for individual machine work stations or plans should also be prepared in relation to the access or work in process for repair and maintenance of plant and for services such as electricity, gas, high pressure air etc

Preparation of layout Drawings and Test run: o

The last step in designing a layout plan is to prepare layout drawings and necessary supporting charts developed by the engineer should be submitted to the management.

o

If the plan id approved by the management, the preparation for trial production should be made on acquiring or constructing the building and after installing the plant and a machinery.

o

If the management does not approve the plan, it should be revised in the light of suggestions made by the management or if the test run requires certain modifications in the model, necessary adjustments should be made in it.

. Explain about the factors influencing the plant layout. The following are some important factors which influence the planning of an effective layout to a significant level. Nature of the product: o

The nature of the products to be manufactured will significantly affect the layout of the plant.

o

Stationary layout will be most suitable for heavy products while a line layout will be best for the manufacture of light products because small and light products can be moved from one machine to mother very easily and therefore, more attention can be paid to machine locations and handling of materials.

Volume of the production: o

Volume of production and the standardization of the product also affect the type of layout.

o

If standardized commodities are to be manufactured on a large scale, line type of layout may be adopted.

o

If the production is made on the order of the customers, the functional layout is a better option.

Basic Managerial policies and decision: o

The type of layout depends very much on the decision and policies of the management to be followed in producing a commodity with regard to size of the plant, type and quality of the product, scope for expansion to be provided for the extent to which the plant is to be integrated, amount of stocks to be carried at any time, type of facilities to be provided for employees, etc.

Nature of the plant location:

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The size, shape and topography of the site at which plant is located will naturally affect the type of layout to be followed in view of the minimum utilization of space available.

Type of Industry Process: o

This is one of the most important factors influencing the choice of type of plant layout. Generally, the type of layout, particularly the arrangement of machines and work centre and the location of workmen vary according to the nature of the industry to which the plant belongs.

o

For the purpose of layout, industries may be classified in to two broad categories: Intermittent Continuous.

Types or methods of production: o

Layout plans may be different according to the methods of production proposed to be adopted. Any of the following three methods may be adopted for production. Job order production Batch production Mass production.

o

In job production, goods are produced according to the orders of the customer and the production cannot be standardized. The machines and equipment can be arranged in a manner to suit the need of all types of customer.

o

Batch production carries the production of goods in batches or groups at intervals. In this type of manufacturing, the product is standardized and production is made generally in anticipation of sales.

o

In mass production of standardized goods line layout is the most suitable form of plant layout.

Nature of the machines: o

Design and specifications of materials, physical and chemical properties of materials, quantity and quality of materials and combination of the materials are probably the most important factors to be considered in planning a layout.

Climate: o

Sometimes, temperature, illumination and air are the deciding factors in deciding the location of machines and their establishment.

Nature of materials: o

Design and specification of materials, physical and chemical properties of materials, quantity and quality of materials and combination of the materials are probably the most important factors to be considered in planning a layout.

Type of machine and equipment: o

Machines and the equipment may be either general purpose or special purpose. In addition, certain tools are used. The requirements of each machine and equipment are quite different in terms of their space, speed and material handling process and these factors should be given proper consideration.

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Human factor and working conditions: o

Man is the most important factor of production and therefore special consideration for his safety and comforts should be given while planning a layout.

o

Specific safety aspects such as obstruction-free floor, not exposing workmen to hazards, emergency exit points etc., should be provided for.

o

The layout should also provide for the comforts to the workers such as provision of rest rooms drinking water, lavatory, and other services etc.

o

Sufficient space is also to be provided for free movement of workers.

Service centers: o

Every layout must have a provision for the men and equipment to lubricate, repair or even replace the parts of the machine to avoid plant deterioration.

o

Other service facilities which require attention includes steam lines, water pipelines, electricity wires, sewage and waste disposal.

Characteristics of the building: o

Shape of a building, covered and open areas, number of stores, facilities of elevators, storing place, parking area and so on also influence the layout plan.

o

In most of the cases, where a building is hired, layout is to be adjusted with in the space available in the building.

EXPLAIN ABOUT THE TYPES OF PLANT LAYOUT. Or What are the types of plant layout? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each plant layout? There are three basic types of plant layout. Product or Line Layout. Functional or Process Layout Stationary Layout and Combined or Mixed Layout (Group Layout). Plant Layout

Product or

Functional or

Line Layout

Process Layout

Stationary Layout

Combined or Mixed Layout

Product or Line Layout: Product or Line layout is the arrangement of machines and equipment in a line or a sequence in which they would be used in the process of manufacture of the product or group of related product or group of related products. In this layout, materials are worked out in to finished stock through a series of integrated operations that is arranged in a line. The machines under this plan may be arranged either in ‘U’ shape or in shape of a line.

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Suitability: This layout is best suited to manufacturing carrying out continuous mass production where raw materials are fed at one end and the finished products are taken out at the other end. There may be a separate product line for each type of product using different types of machines or using machines of the same type. Advantages: The advantages of product layout may be summarized as follows: Smooth flow of production: o

This plan ensures steady flow of production with economy because bottlenecks or stoppage of work at different points of production is eliminated.

Mechanization of material handling: o

Since machines are arranged in sequence of operations, the continues flow of materials in a line through mechanical devices like conveyors is ensured.

Economy in manufacturing time: o

Since materials are fed at one end of the machines and finished product is collected at the other end, there is no transportation of raw materials backward and forward.

Saving in material handling: o

Since machines are arranged in sequence of operations, materials move from one machine to another automatically and hence no transportation costs for machine to another automatically and hence no transportation costs for movement of materials are involved till the process of manufacture is completed.

Lesser work-in-progress: o

The work-in-progress is minimum and negligible under this type of layout because the process of production is direct and uninterrupted.

Easy inspection: o

Because the production process is integrated and continuous.

Introduction of production control: o

The continuous nature of production enables the management to introduce and enforce production process of production is direct and uninterrupted.

Maximum utilization of available space: o

Under this type of layout, machines are arranged in sequence of operations and it makes the maximum utilization of men, machines and materials.

Effective utilization of available resources: o

This type of layout provides for effective utilization of men, materials, machines because of (i) Minimum possible movement of workers from one place to another

o

(ii) lesser work in progress

o

Mechanization of materials handling.

Production control greatly simplified: o

Visual control replaces much of paper work because of which fewer forms and records are used. As the work is checked on and off the production line, fewer work orders, inspection tickets, time tickets are issued, reducing clerical costs.

Disadvantages:

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Expensive: this type of layout is costly because machines under this system are arranged in sequence of operations and not according to functions.

o

Inflexible: This system is quite inflexible as the operations are performed in sequence; adjustment in the course of production cannot be made with out much difficulty.

o

Difficulty in Supervision: Since there are no separate department for various types of work, specialization in supervision is also difficult.

o

Stoppage of work through breakdown: Any break down in any of the machines along the line can disrupt the entire operations.

o

High labour cost: under this system, labour cost is high as: Absenteeism may create problems because every worker is a specialist of his/her own work or specialists on a particular machine. By performing activities of repetitive nature along assembly line. As machine play a dominant role in production under this system.

o

product layout involves the arrangement of machines in one line, depending upon the sequence of operations.

o

Materials are fed into first machine and finished product comes out of the other end.

o

Ex. Motor –Car production Sugar cane production

o

This layout is in shape of straight line or U

Machine A

o

Machine B

Machine C

Once a machine is in line, it cannot perform any operation which is not designated in the sequence of operations.

o

All machines required to balance the particular product line are arranged in a sequential line but not necessarily in the straight line.

o

To make this layout successful, the work-load on various machines must be balanced

o

This process of getting even loading at each stage of production is called line balancing

o

In this type of layout, product is dominating over the process

Suitability o

continuous flow of production with few items of production

o

items should not require frequent changes

o

for standardized products

o

operation time for different process are almost equal

o

Uninterrupted supply of materials

o

Reasonably stable product demand

Advantages:

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o

reduced material handling cost

o

mechanization of material handling is possible due to handling between fixed points.

o

Line balancing may eliminate idle capacity

o

Facilitates better production control

o

Requires less floor area per unit of production

o

Shorter operating cycle due to shorter and speedier movement of materials

o

Effective quality control’

o

Facilitates implementation of group incentive scheme for workers

Disadvantages o

highly inflexible

o

breakdown of one single machine in the line interrupt the entire production flow

o

expansion is difficult

o

benefits of specialized supervision is not possible

o

it is difficult to implement individual incentive schemes

o

expensive layout.

Functional or Process Layout: o

This system is based on the functions performed by a department. Under this system of layout, machines or equipment of the same functions are grouped together in a separate department.

o

In other words, separate department is established for each specialized operation of production and machines relating to such functions are assembled there.

o

The specialized department works for all the lines of production. For example, welding equipment may be placed in one place.

o

All machines performing similar type of operations are grouped at one location. For ex. All lathes, all drilling, all welding etc., in the shop will be clustered in their like groups.

o

In this layout, the process rather than the product has the dominating role

o

Separate department is established for each specialized operation of production and machines relating to such functions are assembled there.

These specialized

departments works for all the lines of production. Suitability o

Continuous type of production

o

Products are not standard ones

o

Machines are expensive

o

Job order type of production

o

Small quantities are to be produced

Advantages: o

Flexibility: The process layout is known foe its flexibility. Changes in operations as well as their order can be made at any time without distributing the existing layout.

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Scope for expansion: the capacities of different lines can be expanded under this type of layout

o

by adding new machines and labour. Maximum utilization of equipment: Process layout necessitates fuller utilization of machines

o

and equipment because general purpose machines are used commonly for all departments. Lower financial investment: this type of layout requires lesser financial investment in machines

o

and equipment because the general purpose machines, which are usually of low costs, are used. Better working conditions: Process layout facilities installation of machines and equipment in

o

different areas without any dependence on other operations sequences. High output rate: Process layouts are less vulnerable to breakdown. Machine breakdown in a

o

process layout holds up production only on that particular machine and the whole process does not come to a standstill. Enhances the over all skill of workers: workers are highly skilled as they are aware of

o

operating all machines – small or big in the group. Disadvantages: Inefficient materials handling: Efficient material handling is difficult to practice in process layout

o

because fixed path material handling equipment such as conveyer belts, chutes etc., cannot be put to use. Dis-economy to floor space: This type of layout requires more floor space than the product

o

layout because a distinct department is established for each operations. High inventory investment: Compared to line layout, inventory investments are usually higher in

o

case of process layout. High cost of Supervision: Under process layout, cost of supervision is high because

o

The number of employees per supervision is less which results in reduced supervisory span of control. The work is checked only after each operation is completed. Other disadvantages: The manufacturing process has a longer duration under process layout

o

because of strict inspection after each operation. Stationary Layout: o

Under this type of layout, materials remain at a fixed place and the complete job is done at a fixed station.

o

Men and machines are moved to the place of materials for the necessary operations. This type of layout is suitable for big industrial machines, ship buildings etc.,

Advantages: o

Flexible: This layout is fully flexible and is capable of absorbing any sort of changes in product and process. The project can be completed according to the needs of the customers and as per their specifications.

o

Lower labour cost: People are drawn from functional departments. They move back top their respective departments as soon as the work is over.

o

Saving time: The sequence of operations can be changed if some materials do not arrive or if some workers are absent, since the job assignment is so long,

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Different sets of people can operate simultaneously on the same assignment performing different operations.

o

Occupation of lesser floor space: it requires less floor space because machines and equipment are in moving positions and there is no need of fixing them. This arrangement is the most suitable way of assembling large and heavy products.

Disadvantages: o

Nature of product: Compared to product or process layout, capital investment is higher in this type of layout. Since a number of assignments are taken, investment is heavy in materials, men and machines.

o

Preliminary investment: Higher initial amount for investment in machines and equipment is required in product or line type of layout whereas in process layout, comparatively, lower initial investment is sufficient.

o

Volume of production: Process layout is used for a large number of products where similar machines and equipment are used for the manufacturing of each product, so the volume per product is low.

o

Flexibility: Process layout is flexible because necessary alteration or change in sequence of operations can easily be made as and when required without upsetting the existing layout plan. Effect of breakdown Floor space Manufacturing time Materials handlings equipment and costs Supervision Control and coordination

Combined or Mixed Layout (Group Layout): o

A mixed layout is a combination of process and product layout. Mixed layout is generally used When the company’s product contains a lot of components and parts When the product requires to be produced in different types and sizes.

o

In mixed type of layout, the parts are produced on facilities arranged in process type of layout and they are assembled using the product type of layout.

o

Another concept of mixed type of layout is called cellular in which the facilities are clubbed together in to cells to utilize the concepts, principles and approaches of group technology.

o

The layout makes it possible to adopt high degree of automation even if the product demands are not stable. In this layout, the facilities are grouped into cells which are able to perform similar type of operations for a group of products.

o

Group technology: concept of group technology is the replacement of traditional job shop practice. In group technology, operations of the job and the sequence are analyzed to form certain families of jobs.

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Group technology is the out come of the realization that many problems are similar and that by grouping them, a single solution can be found to a set of problems, thus saving time and effort.

iii) Fixed Layout -

Also called as Stationary/static/project layout

-

In this type of layout, the material or major components remains in a fixed location and tools, machinery, men are brought to this location.

-

Complete job is done at fixed station.

-

Generally few input tends to be static (fixed) while others are moving.

Suitability -

big industrial machines

-

Hydro electric turbines

-

Ship building

-

Locomotive industry

-

Aircraft/spacecraft assembly etc

Raw materials

Aircraft Assembly

Advantages -

men and machines can be used for a wide variety of operations

-

lower labour cost

-

least movement of materials

-

flexible

-

saves time

-

occupies less floor space

-

worker identifies himself with the product & takes pride in it when the work is completed.

Disadvantages -

higher capital investment

-

not suitable for small products in large quantities

. Explain about the importance of Plant Layout. The following are the importance of the plant layout Maximum utilization of the available space. Facilities the movement of men, materials and machines etc., Location of stores. Provision of safety.

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Facilities supervision and control Coordination and integration. Provides better working conditions. Better inventory control etc., SPACE REQUIREMENTS/ AREA ALLOCATION Plant layout deals with the allocation of the total floor area for various facilities and departments. Space is required in each work station for equipment, tools, loading work, machines, temporary material storage etc According to James Lundy, “overall plant areas are generally about 150 to 200 sq.ft per employee for light/small manufacturing operations, 500 sq.feet for medium manufacturing and as high as 1000 sq.ft for process industries�. This is just a guideline. In fact modern production systems require separate solutions with regard to space requirements. There are a number of factors/guidelines that should be considered for area allocation: i)

Area should be allocated after considering the need for future expansion and required flexibility.

ii)

Maximum use of 3-D space to allocate area

iii)

Area allocation is done for point of use storage and centralized storage

iv)

Area should be allocated for aisles

v)

Also provision has to be done for column spacing

Space Determination/Space Calculation In the layout planning process the space is allocated to different activities. The requirement of space by a facility has a close relationship to equipment, material, personnel and activites. Two major methods that are being used for space calculations (i) Space based on present layout and (ii) production center method. i) Space based on present layout:

This approach is suitable when the proposed layout is to be

developed for an existing product. While determining the space consideration has to be given for * Operating equipment * Storage * Service facilities

*Operators

Allowance must be made for space between machines for operator movement, work-in-process, maintenance etc. ii) Production Centre Method: The space for each production center is determined including the space for machines, tools, access to aisle, maintenance etc. In this method, actual arrangement of equipment is considered for space calculation. The departmental space is then calculated by multiplying it with the number of production centers in that department.

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UNIT –III PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL (PPC) . Define Planning: Planning may be defined as the determination of a course of action to achieve the desired result. It involves the determination of objectives and planning of operations in terms of policies, plans and budgets, which will establish the most advantageous course for the organization.

. Define Control. Control may be defined as the monitoring of performance through a feed back by comparing the result achieved with the planned targets so that performance can be improved through proper corrective action.

. Define Planning. Production planning is a predetermined activity. It is predetermination of manufacturing requirements such as manpower, materials, machines and Manufacturing process.

. Define Product Planning. Ray wild defines “Production planning is the determination, acquisition and arrangement of all facilities necessary for future production of products. It represents the design of production system. Apart from planning the resources, it is going to organize production based on the estimated demand for company’s products and establish the production programme to meet the targets set using the various resources”.

. What are the characteristics of the production planning? Production planning is a universal production activity. Production planning is the basis and pre requisite of production control. Production planning includes routing of a production activities and layout production facilities such as building, machines etc., Production planning may be short term or medium term or long term Production planning can be done t three levels viz., factory planning, process planning and operation planning. . What are the importances of planning for production process? The necessity for careful planning of production operations arises from importance factors: o

Modern production has become increasingly complex, requesting systematic “thinking through” of the process in advance.

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Production processes always involve the element of time in varying degrees. In the initiation of production anticipation of probable future utilizes and calculation of probable future costs of probable changes must always be taken in to account.

o

Successful production aims at the most economical combination of resources, which requires planning as a means of effecting cost control.

. Write the meaning of Production Control. The production control is the function of management which plans, directs and controls the materials supply and processing activities of an enterprise. So that specified products are produced by specified methods to meet an approved sales programme. . Define Production Control. The British standards institute defines the term production control to include the following: o

The production plan or planning and Scheduling

o

Machine or labour utilization or dispatching

o

Stock control

o

Manufacturing control or routing and

o

Progress

. Write about the objectives of production control. Issuing the necessary orders to the proper personnel through the prescribed channels for affecting the plan. To ensure availability of the means of carrying out the orders- the materials, machines, tools, equipments and manpower in the required quality at the required time. To ensure carrying out of the orders by the personnel so that goods are produced in the required quantities of the specified quality at the predetermined time. FUNCTIONS . What are the functions involved in production control? The following factors are involved in the practice of production control. Control activities: o

This is done by releasing manufacturing orders through dispatching. Thus, plans are set in motion at the assigned time.

Control of materials movement: o

The time at which material is received from the supplier, and issued to the plant is observed and a close watch is kept on its movement from one plant to another to ensure that this movement is in accordance with the production cost.

Availability of tools in controlled: o

Steps are to be taken to ensure that tools specified in the production plan are available as and when required.

Quantity produced is controlled:

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Work-in-process at pre determined stages of production is observed to determine that right quantity of specified quality work is processed.

Control of replacement: o

Quantity of raw materials and work-in-process which fails to pass each stage of inspection is observed. Provision is made to issue replacement orders for each material for work.

Labour efficiency and control: o

Time taken on each unit of work-in-process is observed and recorded. Comparison of time is made with the time allowed in scheduling.

. Define Production Planning and Control. According to Gordon B. Carson, “Production planning and control consists of the organization and the planning of the manufacturing processes routing, scheduling, dispatching and inspection, coordination and the control of materials, methods machines, tooling and operating time. The ultimate objective is the organization of the supply and movement of materials and labour, machine utilization and related activities in order to bring about the desired manufacturing results in the term of quality, time and price”.

. Write the Production Planning and Control. Production planning and control is the direction of the coordination of the firm’s materials and physical facilities towards the attainment of pre-specific production goals in the most efficient available way. . What are the main elements of Production Planning and Control? Or Explain about the functions of production planning and control. During the course of planning and controlling the production process, the following elements or techniques should be followed in phased manner. We may also call them production planning and control functions. These are Routing Loading Scheduling Dispatching Follow up or expediting

. Write about the objectives of Production Planning and Control The principal objectives of the production planning and control are as follows: Quality of the output: o

The most important objectives of production planning and control is to ensure the safe and economical manufacture of desired products in required quantity and in quality.

Plant utilization:

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To ensure maximum plant utilization so that productivity of highest degree can be achieved.

Process efficiency: o

To maintain maximum process efficiency by proper coordination

Delivery of goods: o

To deliver the products to the customers whenever they are needed.

Maintenance of inventories: o

To maintain an adequate supply of finished goods and having sufficient work in progress ensure that deliveries are made to the customers who may want the product in less than the manufacturing time.

Flexibility: o

To maintain flexibility in manufacturing operations so that an occasional rush job can be taken care of.

Effectiveness of work: o

Production planning and control ensures the right man for the right job, at the right place, at the right time on right wages and salaries so that maximum effectiveness is obtained.

Absenteeism: o

Production planning and control can be introduced to minimize and regulate the absenteeism.

Team spirit: o

To develop the team spirit and feeling of brother hood among workers is another aim of production planning and control.

Ideas for new methods: o

Production planning and control aims at giving encouragement to the workers for new idea and new methods.

Reduced Supervision: o

The other objectives of Production planning and control is to reduce supervision by creating interest in work amongst workforce.

Reduced Waiting time: o

Production planning and control aims at reducing waiting time arising due to want of materials, tools, equipment, supervision, inspection deliveries etc.,

Planning and Control are two basic interrelated managerial functions.

Planning is pre-operation activity while control is post-operation function.

Planning sets the objectives, goals, targets on the basis of available resources and constraints.

For translation of these objectives, goals and targets into reality, it is necessary to install control.

Such assessment can be made effectively only when some standards of performance are set in advance while planning.

Controlling is made by comparing the actual performance with these preset standards and deviations are ascertained and analysed.

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Effective control presupposes some sort of planning.

Thus planning and controlling are intimately related. Both of them are so closely related that they are treated as Siamese twins.

Production Planning: Production planning is an essential prerequisite to production control. It involves management decisions on the resources that the firm requires and the selection of these resources. This sort of planning is necessary so that the goods are produced at the appropriate time and at least possible cost.

Production Control: Production control is a facilitating service to manufacturing. It co-ordinates all the production operations by collecting the relevant information about various types of inputs and outputs and by making necessary adjustments in them. It directs and checks the progress of work.

Production Planning and Control ( PPC ) •

PPC may be defined as the direction and co-ordination of the firm’s material and physical facilities towards the attainment of pre-specific production goals in the most efficient available way.

According to Gordon B. Carson, “PPC consists of the organization and the planning of the manufacturing processes, routing, scheduling, dispatching and inspection, co-ordination and the control of materials, methods, machines, tooling and operating time. The ultimate objective is the organization of the supply and movement of materials and labour, machine utilization and related activities inorder to bring about the desired manufacturing results in the terms of quality, time and price”

Objectives of PPC •

Determine the nature and magnitude of various inputs to manufacture the desired output

To ensure safe and economical manufacture of desired products

To ensure maximum plant utilization so high productivity is achieved.

To maintain maximum process efficiency by proper co-ordination.

To deliver products to customers whenever needed

To maintain sufficient inventory

To maintain flexibility in manufacturing operations

To minimize and regulate absenteeism

To develop team spirit among workers

To reduce supervision

To reduce waiting time

To ensure smooth production by removing bottlenecks(problems) in production process

To minimize cost of production

To ensure maximum utilization of all resources

To establish routes and schedules for all work

The ultimate objective is to ensure profit for the enterprise

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PPC Functions /Elements of PPC

Routing Product development & design

Dispatching

Materials

Inspection

Sales forecasting & Estimating

Estimating

Methods Factory layout, Equipment policy

Expediting Pre-planning production

Machines & Equipment Manpower

Loading & Scheduling

Evaluation

Pre planning

Planning

Control

1) MATERIALS: Planning for the procurement of raw materials, components and spare parts in the right quantities and at right time. The function includes specification of materials, delivery dates, standardization, procurement and make or buy decisions. 2) METHODS: Choosing the best method of processing from several alternatives.

It also includes

determining the best sequence of operations (process plans). 3) MACHINES & EQUIPMENTS:

This function involves analysis of available production facilities,

equipment down time, maintenance policy, maintenance schedules, tools, maintenance of tools etc 4) MANPOWER: Planning for appropriate manpower having appropriate skills and expertise.

5) ROUTING (PROCESS PLANNING) : -

Routing means determining the selection of path route through which raw material should follow to get transferred into finished product.

-

Routing will also provide the sequence of operations to be adopted while manufacturing

-

In other words, routing means determination of most advantageous path to be followed from department to department and from machine to machine till raw material gets its final shape.

-

Thus routing determines, what work must be done, where and how the work has to be done.

-

Definition: Kimball and Kimball defines routing as “the selection of paths or route over which each piece is to travel is being transformed from raw material into finished product�

-

The practice of routing rose out of the demand for a more systematic method to carry out the work.

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The objective of routing is to determine the best and cheapest sequence of operations and to ensure that the sequence is followed

-

To be successful, routing requires that Route Clerk should have thorough knowledge of the product and the manufacturing equipment. He should also have complete knowledge of capacity and characteristics of every machines and process.

Routing Function: The routing function includes -

fixation of path to travel, giving due consideration to appropriate layout

-

Temporary storage locations for raw materials, components, semi finished goods etc

-

Breaking down operations into small jobs

-

Deciding set up time and process time for each operation.

Routing Procedure i)

The finished products are analysed from manufacturing view in order to decide how many components can be made in the plant and how many can be purchased from outside ( Make Or Buy decision)

ii)

Parts list and Bill of Materials are prepared showing the name of the part, quantity, material specifications, amount of material required etc. The necessary materials can thus be preserved.

iii)

Machine’s capacities, their characteristics and operations that must be performed at each stage of manufacturing are established. Then they are listed in proper sequence on the Operations Sheet and Route Sheet.

Route Sheet -

A Route sheet is a document providing information and instructions for converting the raw materials into finished products.

-

A route sheet contains complete description of the item to be manufactured, the details of each operation required in the manufacturing process, the set up time and standard operation time etc.

-

The route sheet also specifies the machines to be used and the possible alternatives also.

-

It also indicates stage wise inspection to be performed

-

It specifies tools requires for operation

-

It gives detailed drawings of parts, sub parts and final assemblies

-

It contains specifications of raw materials to be used

-

It also gives cutting speed, depth of cut etc

-

More precise specifications of manufacturing methods are given in the Operations Sheet which tells in greater detail about how the operation has to be accomplished.

Advantages of Routing -

Efficient use of available resources

-

Reduction in manufacturing cost

-

Improvement in quantity and quality of the output

-

Provides a basis of scheduling and loading

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6) ESTIMATING: Once the overall method and sequence of operations are fixed and process sheet for each operation is available, then the operation times are estimated. Establishing operation times leads to fixation of performance standards both for workers and machines.

7)LOADING AND SCHEDULING Loading: -

Loading is the process of assigning specific jobs to men, machines and work stations on the basis of their capacities

-

Loading requires the following information : Total work load, capacity of each worker and machines, availability of raw materials, labour and machines, due date specified by customers

-

A loading chart is prepared showing the planned utilization of men and machines.

-

The purpose of loading is to achieve maximum possible utilization of productive features and to avoid bottlenecks in production.

-

Overloading and underutilization of capacity are to be avoided

-

Machine loading is the assignment of specific jobs to specific machines keeping in view the priorities and machine utilization.

-

Loading also helps to complete each operation by the specified date.

EXPLAIN THE FUNCTIONS OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL. The main functions of production planning and control are explained below. Materials: o

Raw materials, finished parts and bought out components should be made available in required quantities and at required time to ensure the correct beginning and end for each operation resulting in uninterrupted production.

Methods: o

This function is concerned with the analysis of alternatives and selection of the best method with due consideration to constraints imposed.

o

Developing specification and determination of sequence of operations for the processes are important aspects of production planning and control.

Machines and Equipment: o

This function is related with the detailed analysis of available production facilities, equipment down time, maintenance policy, procedure and schedule.

Manpower: o

To maintain the availability of appropriate man power on appropriate machines at the right time.

Process Planning (Routing): o

It is concerned with selection of path route which the raw materials should follow to get transferred into finished product.

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Estimating: o

Once the overall method and sequence of operations are fixed and process sheet for each operation is available, then the operations times are estimated.

Loading and Scheduling: o

Scheduling is concerned with preparation of machine loads and fixation of starting and completion date for each of the operations. Machines have to be loaded according to their capability of performing the given task and their capacity.

Dispatching: o

This is the execution phase of planning. It is the process of setting production activities in motion through release of orders and instructions. It authorizes the start of production activities by releasing materials, components, tools, fixtures and instruction sheets to the operators.

Expediting: o

This is the control tool that keeps a close observation on the progress of the work. It is a logical step after dispatching which is called follow up or progress.

Inspection: o

It is a major control tool. Though the aspects of quality control are elements of a separate function, it is important to production planning and control, both for the execution of the current plans and its scope for future planning.

Evaluation: o

This stage is crucial to the improvement of production efficiency. A thorough analysis of all the factors influencing the production planning and control helps to identify the weak spots and the corrective actions with respect to pre planning and planning will be effected by a feedback.

. Explain the principles of production planning and control. Type of production determines the kind of production planning and control system needed. Number of parts involved in the product affects expenses of operating production planning and control department. Complexity of production planning control functions varies with the number of assemblies involved. Time is a common denominator for all scheduling activities. Size of the plant has relatively little to do with the type of the production planning control system needed. Production planning control permits “Management by Exception�. Cost control should be a by product of the production planning and control function. The highest efficiency in production is obtained by manufacturing the required quantity of the product, at the required time by the best and cheapest method. Production planning and control is a tool to coordinate all manufacturing activities in a production system.

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. Explain the steps or process in production planning and control. The steps or process in production planning and control are Routing: o

Routing determines in advance what will be done on product part as well as where and how it will be done. It establishes the paths sequence of operations. It gives us the list of operations. It gives us the list of operations required to manufacturer each item.

Routing process: o

The article is analyzed to find out which parts or components can be made or bought.

o

The article is analyzed to find out what materials are needed.

o

The manufacturing operations and their sequence will be determined.

o

The quantity to be manufactured in any one lot or order will be found out.

o

Production control forms e.g.: production order, route sheets, job cards, inspection cards, tool tickets etc., will be prepared.

Scheduling: o

Involves fixing priorities for each job and determining the starting and finishing time for each operation, the starting and finishing dates for each part.

Objectives of scheduling: o

Ensure maximum utilization of the plant at minimum cost.

o

Ensure that requirement of power and its distribution.

o

Possess up to date information regarding availability of materials expected date of delivery.

Dispatching: o

The previous two steps, namely – routing and scheduling represents the planning activities. The real production starts when permission is granted to commence the operations. The dispatching function involves the actual granting of permission to proceed according to plans already laid down. In dispatching, order are issued in term of their priority a determined in scheduling and work is assigned to operations.

The dispatch section of the production planning and control department is responsible for the following. o

Checking the availability of materials and then taking appropriate action to have it transferred from the man stores to the point at which it is first needed.

o

Ensuring that all production aids are ready when required and then having them issued to the manufacturing department.

o

Informing the process section that production is commencing.

o

Informing the production supervision when manufacture is to be started.

Expediting: o Once production has been set in motion. It is necessary to check that is it proceeding according to the plan.

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The follow up function of the production planning and control ensures that production proceeds along expected lines.

o Follow-up might be considered either that this is unnecessary or that it is a admission of inefficiency. o Generally speaking, production is assumed to progress as expected. But there may be a difference between what is expected and what has happened. o The difference may be due t o any of the following reasons: Materials may be delivered late or may not be delivered at all. Associated departments may have fallen behind in their own production Strike and acts of god may completely hold up the manufacturing process. Machine and tool break down be more frequent or more extensive than anticipated. There may be errors in drawings. . Explain about the objective s of the plant maintenance. 1. The objective of plant maintenance is to achieve minimum breakdown and to keep the plant in good working conditions at lowest possible cost. 2. Machines and other facilities should be kept in such a condition which permits them to be used at their optimum capacity without any interruption. 3. Maintenance division of the factory ensures the availability of the machine, buildings and services required by other section of the factory for the performance of their function at optimum return on investment. 4. To ensure that the there is no interruption between or in the work flow process.

. Explain about the functions of plant maintenance: 1. Inspect buildings and fixed equipment at such intervals that will insure detection of deterioration and the need for repairs. 2. Keep systematic records of inspection and records. 3. Inspect machinery and equipment in such intervals. 4. Make sure the repairs, renewals or replacements. 5. Making emergency repairs. 6. Suggest the updates, changes and improvements, etc.

. Explain about the types of Maintenance: Maintenance can be classified into the following categories 1. Planned maintenance 2. Predictive maintenance 3. Routine maintenance 4. Breakdown maintenance 5. Preventive maintenance

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1. Planned Maintenance: In planned maintenance work can be well planned in advance. It undertakes maintenance of all machineries, equipments, tools in a plant in a systematic manner. Planned maintenance can be undertaken when the operations are running or after the operations are stopped. In general planned maintenance forecast the work contained in future job, determines the best method to be adopted and skills required for its execution. Estimate the time, material and cost involved in jobs and programmes the specific time periods on basis of priority.

2. Predictive Maintenance: Predictive maintenance is a new type of preventive maintenance. It involves the use of sensitive instruments to predict trouble. It goes by the principle prevention is better than cure. Some of the sensitive instruments are vibration analysis, amplitude meters, audio gauge, pressure temperature and resistance gauge are used to predict trouble. Protective maintenance is used to measure condition periodically and this enables maintenance people determine the need for and time for over all.

Maintenance system

Planned Maintenance

Unplanned maintenance

Preventive maintenance Corrective maintenance

Running Maintenance

Shutdown maintenance

Breakdown maintenance

Emergencey maintenance

Shutdown maintenance

2. Predictive Maintenance: Predictive maintenance is a new type of preventive maintenance. It involves the use of sensitive instruments to predict trouble. It goes by the principle prevention is better than cure. Some of the sensitive instruments are vibration analysis, amplitude meters, audio gauge, pressure temperature and resistance gauge are used to predict trouble. Protective maintenance is used to measure condition periodically and this enables maintenance people determine the need for and time for over all.

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3. Routine Maintenance: Routine maintenance can be also called as scheduled maintenance. This includes activities such as periodic inspection, cleaning, lubrication and repairs of production equipments after their service life. Routine maintenance can also be classified as a) Running maintenance b) Shutdown maintenance a) Running maintenance: Here the maintenance work carried out while the equipment is in the operating condition. Eg. Greasing, lubrication, the bearings cleaning the dust accumulated in the machinery, etc. b) Shutdown maintenance: Here the maintenance work is carried out only when the machine is out of service. Eg. In sugar manufacturing industries, the maintenance will be done only when the machines are shutdown due to non-availability of raw material during some seasons.

4. Breakdown or corrective maintenance: The repair work undertaken after the failure of machine or equipment. Eg. An electric motor will not start; a belt is broken, etc. The replacement of the torn belt in case of breakdown maintenance, we call the technicians to correct the problem. It includes, 1. Failure of lubrication 2. Minor faults 3. Sounds, heating 4. Failure to replace worn out parts 5. Neglected cooling systems

Preventive maintenance: . Definition preventive maintenance. Preventive maintenance consists of routine actions taken in a planned manner to prevent breakdowns. Lubrication and inspection are the two constituents of preventive maintenance. Lubrication ensures long and safe working of the equipment without mishaps.

Preventive maintenance activities

Direct activities

Indirect activities

1) Cleaning of the equipment 1) Condition monitoring 2) Lubrication to prevent water 2) Failure statistics 3) Programmed replacement

3) Adjustment to limit wear

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. Explain about the functions and forms of preventive maintenance. The functions of the preventive maintenance is sub-divided as i)

Preventive maintenance of production department

ii)

Preventive maintenance of plant services

Forms of preventive maintenance: a) Time based preventive maintenance: It refers to conducting maintenance at regular intervals. b) Eg. Every two months, etc. c) Work based preventive maintenance: Maintenance performed after a set number of operating hours of volume of work produced. d) Opportunity based preventive maintenance e) Condition based preventive maintenance

. Explain about the objectives and limitations of preventive maintenance: 1. To minimize the possibility of unanticipated production interruptions by locating or uncovering any condition which may lead to it. 2. To make plant equipment and machines always available and ready for use. 3. To maintain the value of the equipment and machinery by conducting periodic inspection repairs, over hauling, etc. 4. To reduce the work content of maintenance jobs 5. To ensure safety of life and limbs of the workmen. 6. It may appear to be expensive. 7. But it is highly beneficial 8. The data for preventive maintenance will have to be built up gradually and the system should be refined depending on the data collected.

Scheduling: -

Scheduling may be called as the time phase of loading

-

Scheduling determines the programme for the operations.

-

In scheduling, order of sequence of each operation and their starting time and finished time is decided so the required materials, machines etc may be kept ready as personnel schedule.

-

Scheduling is the process of prescribing ‘when’ each operation in a production process is to be executed.

-

In other words it involves designing the timetable of manufacturing activities indicating the time required for the production of units at each stage.

-

Definition: In the words of Kimball & Kimball “Scheduling is the determination of the time that should be required to perform each operation and also the time necessary to perform the entire series as routed making allowance for all factors concerned”

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Scheduling depends upon a number of factors ex. Routing, the method of production, quantity of production, transportation of raw materials, production capacity, probable date of delivery specified by customers etc.

SCHEDULING Routing and Scheduling can be easily understood by the example on Railways: A railway map shows the route for passengers that the trains follow and the stations on that route. This is what is known as ‘Routing’. Similarly, railway timetable gives the exact timing at which all the trains start and the time they take to reach at various stations and how long they halt there. It is known as ‘scheduling’.

Information required to draw production schedules: a) Date of delivery as mentioned by customers in his order b) Past production records c) Production capacity of the plant and d) Availability of equipment, materials and specialized skills.

Procedure for Scheduling i)

Preparation of job schedules which specify the time required for each operation

ii)

Assign ‘start’ and ‘finish’ dates to each of the operation on the job schedule.

iii)

Post each schedule into the load chart

iv)

Setting delivery date for an item

Kinds of Scheduling: There are three types of Scheduling: a) Master Schedule b) Operation Schedule c) Detailed operation schedule

Master Schedule shows the dates on which production items are to be completed. It is a weekly or monthly break-up of production requirements for each product. Whenever any order is received, it is accommodated first in the master schedule considering the availability of the machines and labour. Thus, it helps production manager for advance planning and to have check over the production rate and efficiency.

After preparing the master schedule, Operation schedule is prepared which assigns definite time period to a particular operation.

Detailed operation scheduling is still an elaborate operation schedule breaking the operation into various processes and specifying the time required for each operation.

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Techniques used in scheduling: The scheduling uses various techniques like Gantt chart, CPM & PERT techniques etc Maintenance scheduling . Definition Maintenance scheduling: Scheduling refers to the timings and sequence of operations. It is an important segment of production planning and control activity (about which we have studied already). Scheduling of a maintenance job basically deals with answering the following two questions: 1) Who should do the job 2) When the job is to be done or started.

. Explain about the reasons for scheduling of maintenance: The scheduling of the plant maintenance is desirable for the following reasons. 1) Scheduling facilities the optimum use of the highly paid maintenance staff. Proper scheduling reduces the illness of maintenance crew. 2) The plant maintenance equipment can be utilized effectively through scheduling their use. 3) It eliminated undue interruptions in the production flow. 4) Maintenance works scheduled during night, week-end day, holiday, etc can ensure smooth flow of production operations. 5) Proper scheduling of maintenance services eliminates the chances of abrupt breakdowns and equipment failure. 6) It is sometimes necessary to maintain the sequence in providing the plant maintenance service. 7) Eg. Clearance of clogged pipes and waste disposal, scheduling of activities in the proper sequence in the maintenance schedule.

. Explain about Information required for scheduling: The schedule must obtain the knowledge about the following aspects. i.

Man power availability

ii.

Man hour backlog on current and unfinished jobs

iii.

Availability of the equipment or area where the work has to be performed.

iv.

Availability of special tool, special equipments, jobs and fixtures, special facilities and handling or lifting equipments and cranes.

v.

Availability of external manpower and their capabilities.

vi.

Date of commencement and expected date of completion of the job.

vii.

Past schedules and charts for reference.

. Explain about Principles of scheduling: a)

Scheduling should be based upon pre-planned methods and scientifically determined time standards

b)

Scheduling system should be clear, precise and simple

c)

Maintenance schedules should have the concurrence of production staff

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Scheduling should be prepared in two stages, master schedule and production schedule. The major schedules are prepared much in advance to intimate all the departments concerned and to meet the production targets. The production schedules are maintained to record day –to-day events.

e)

Schedule should be kept flexible by incorporating sufficient non-priority jobs.

ROUTING ROUTING (PROCESS PLANNING) : -

Routing means determining the selection of path route through which raw material should follow to get transferred into finished product.

-

Routing will also provide the sequence of operations to be adopted while manufacturing

-

In other words, routing means determination of most advantageous path to be followed from department to department and from machine to machine till raw material gets its final shape.

-

Thus routing determines, what work must be done, where and how the work has to be done.

-

Definition: Kimball and Kimball defines routing as “the selection of paths or route over which each piece is to travel is being transformed from raw material into finished product”

-

The practice of routing rose out of the demand for a more systematic method to carry out the work.

-

The objective of routing is to determine the best and cheapest sequence of operations and to ensure that the sequence is followed

-

To be successful, routing requires that Route Clerk should have thorough knowledge of the product and the manufacturing equipment. He should also have complete knowledge of capacity and characteristics of every machines and process.

Routing Function: The routing function includes -

fixation of path to travel, giving due consideration to appropriate layout

-

Temporary storage locations for raw materials, components, semi finished goods etc

-

Breaking down operations into small jobs

-

Deciding set up time and process time for each operation.

Routing Procedure i)

The finished products are analysed from manufacturing view in order to decide how many components can be made in the plant and how many can be purchased from outside ( Make Or Buy decision)

ii)

Parts list and Bill of Materials are prepared showing the name of the part, quantity, material specifications, amount of material required etc. The necessary materials can thus be preserved.

iii)

Machine’s capacities, their characteristics and operations that must be performed at each stage of manufacturing are established. Then they are listed in proper sequence on the Operations Sheet and Route Sheet.

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Route Sheet -

A Route sheet is a document providing information and instructions for converting the raw materials into finished products.

-

A route sheet contains complete description of the item to be manufactured, the details of each operation required in the manufacturing process, the set up time and standard operation time etc.

-

The route sheet also specifies the machines to be used and the possible alternatives also.

-

It also indicates stage wise inspection to be performed

-

It specifies tools requires for operation

-

It gives detailed drawings of parts, sub parts and final assemblies

-

It contains specifications of raw materials to be used

-

It also gives cutting speed, depth of cut etc

-

More precise specifications of manufacturing methods are given in the Operations Sheet which tells in greater detail about how the operation has to be accomplished.

Advantages of Routing -

Efficient use of available resources

-

Reduction in manufacturing cost

-

Improvement in quantity and quality of the output

-

Provides a basis of scheduling and loading

Routing and Scheduling can be easily understood by the example on Railways: A railway map shows the route for passengers that the trains follow and the stations on that route. This is what is known as ‘Routing’. Similarly, railway timetable gives the exact timing at which all the trains start and the time they take to reach at various stations and how long they halt there. It is known as ‘scheduling’.

Information required to draw production schedules: e) Date of delivery as mentioned by customers in his order f)

Past production records

g) Production capacity of the plant and h) Availability of equipment, materials and specialized skills.

Procedure for Scheduling v)

Preparation of job schedules which specify the time required for each operation

vi)

Assign ‘start’ and ‘finish’ dates to each of the operation on the job schedule.

vii)

Post each schedule into the load chart

viii)

Setting delivery date for an item

Kinds of Scheduling: There are three types of Scheduling: a) Master Schedule b) Operation Schedule c) Detailed operation schedule

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Master Schedule shows the dates on which production items are to be completed. It is a weekly or monthly break-up of production requirements for each product. Whenever any order is received, it is accommodated first in the master schedule considering the availability of the machines and labour. Thus, it helps production manager for advance planning and to have check over the production rate and efficiency. After preparing the master schedule, Operation schedule is prepared which assigns definite time period to a particular operation.

Detailed operation scheduling is still an elaborate operation schedule breaking the operation into various processes and specifying the time required for each operation.

Techniques used in scheduling: The scheduling uses various techniques like Gantt chart, CPM & PERT techniques etc

7) Dispatching: This is the execution phase of planning. Dispatching is the process of setting production activities in motion through release of orders and instructions that are already planned under routing and scheduling.

Definition: Dispatching is “release of orders and instructions for the starting of production or any item in accordance with the route sheet and schedule charts� Functions of Dispatching i)

To check the immediate availability of materials

ii)

To ensure that all production and inspection aids are available

iii)

To assign different work to particular machines, work centers and men

iv)

To issue required material from stores

v)

Release necessary work order, time tickets etc to authorize timely start of operation

vi)

To record start and finish time of each job on each machine or by each manufacturer

vii)

To obtain the appropriate drawing, specification or material list

viii)

Processing information or inspection schedule

ix)

To return the acquired materials and other aids to the correct location

x)

Maintain all production records

xi)

To issue inspection orders

Forms used in Dispatching

a) Work Order: While starting the production, work orders are issued to departments to commence the desired lot of products. The work order consist of the following i)

Name of the product: code number, quantity to be produced

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Description of various operations: machine to be used, special instructions in operating the machine

iii)

Departments involved

b) Time cards: Each operator is supplied with this card in which he mentions the time taken by each operation c) Inspection tickets: These tickets are sent to the inspection departments which shows the quality of work required and stages at which inspection is to be carried out. Afterwards these are returned with the inspection report and the quantity rejected. d) Move tickets: These tickets are used for authorizing over the movement of the material from store to shops and from operation to operation. e) Tools and Equipment ticket: It authorizes the tool department that new tools, gauges etc and other equipments may be issued to shops. f)

Material Requisition form: This form is used to request for materials from stores.

8) Expediting/Follow up/Progressing: After dispatching, it is necessary to have a close observation on the progress of the work. It is called as follow up or progress. The function of follow up section is to report daily the progress of work in each shop in a prescribed proforma and to investigate the causes of deviation from the planned performance. This section sees that production is being performed as personnel schedule. It also rectifies errors. Progressing function can be divided into three parts (i.e) follow up of materials, follow up of workin-progress and follow up of assembly. Functions of Expediting: i)

Follow up of materials: Material should reach to shops in required time so that production could be started as per the schedule.

ii)

Follow up of Work in progress: For this follow up section sees that a particular product is passing through all its operations from raw materials to final shape as personnel schedule

iii)

Follow up of Assembly: Assembly shops are responsible for assembling the various components. Follow up section sees that all the parts should remain ready for assembling purpose in actual quantities at required time.

9) Inspection: it is a major control tool. It is carried out for confirming that quality is as personnel predetermined standard. During inspection, defective parts are rejected so that only products of good quality should reach to the customers. To reduce rejections, inspection is done at various stages starting from raw materials to final shape (called quality control). To produce products of good quality, machines and tools are also inspected.

10) Evaluation: This stage is crucial to the improvement of productive efficiency. A thorough analysis of all the factors influencing the PPC helps to identify the weak spots. Then the corrective actions with

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respect to pre planning and planning will be effected by a feedback. The success of this step depends on the communication, data and information gathering and analysis.

Information Requirements of PPC

* The effectiveness of PPC depends to a greater extent upon the accuracy of information it gets from other departments *The following information is vital to the success of PPC function in any organization. Information 1) Production Programme: - Quantity to be produced,

Sources of Information

Department

Sales orders or any order

Marketing

accepted by the marketing department

- Delivery date, -Variety, models, features etc 2) Quality Standards:

Engineering, design who

Engineering, purchase

Specifications and tolerance

translates customers needs

and stores

into specifications 3) Production Materials:

Drawing and Bill of Material

- Type of materials,

(BOM),

- Quality and quantity,

Material stock cards

PPC / prodcution

- Procurement lead time, - Stock position 4) Tool

Standard and special tools

PPC/ Prodcution

5) Operation Details:

Process sheets,

Industrial

- Sequence of operations,

Load charts,

engineering/production

- Process capability of

Process capability studies

machines and equipments, - Process parameters 6) Standard time for

Work measurement data

PPC/Production

Machine load charts

Production

operation and set up time 7) Starting and finishing date

Schedule charts 8) Progress of work (status

Production reports

Production

of work) Re-engineering: . Definition Re-engineering: Michael Hammer defines re-engineering as the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of the business process to achieve dramatic improvement in critical contemporary measures of performance such as cost, quality, service and speed.

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. Write about the characteristics of Re-engineering: i) It is a process: Re-engineering offers process based approach to strategy rather than market based approach. The tool concentrates on process activities that convert inputs to output for the customer. ii) It is Redesign Governed: It will not believe in minor improvement through modification. It is going to strike the very few aspect of design. iii) It is Radical: The entire form of the process management change during the re-engineering and this process may not resemble the old one. iv) It is dramatic: The tool is not most useful for marginal improvement of business programme. v) It is customer oriented: The entire process of re-engineering revolves around how to give the customers what they want at the right time and in most efficient manner. . Explain about the needs of Re-engineering: There is universal need to subject all the process of re-engineering. At the macro level, because of the environmental situations and globalization of the economies, the following factors become crucial for survival and development of economies. a. Crisis of energy b. Crisis of conflict c.

Crisis of confusion

d. Crisis of stress e. Crisis of culture At the organization level or micro the factors the re-engineering that process are 1. Intense competition 2. Environmental demands 3. Technological advancement 4. Sinking profitability and market share 5. Declining share prices . Explain about the process of re-engineering: The following procedural can be followed for re-engineering process: 1) Developing a process vision and determining process objectives 2) Defining process to be re-engineered 3) Understanding the current process and critically examining the current process for all aspects 4) Designing the prototype and implementing the new process 5) Stabilization of the new process . Explain about the benefits of re-engineering: 1. Improvements in entire organization as a whole. 2. Better systems and management improvement in the areas or production and service

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3. Taxes advantages of improved technology 4. Improved application of industrial engineering in the areas of a. Organization strategy b. Management functions c.

Plant utilization

d. Quality improvement e. Confidence in competition f.

Creativity in innovation

g. Improvement in customer satisfaction

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UNIT – IV MAINTENANCE INTRODUCTION Machines, buildings and other assets depreciate due to their use and exposure to environmental conditions. Hence it is necessary to maintain them with care. Proper maintenance leads to better capacity utilization of the same asset, thus avoiding investment in additional facilities.

Maintenance is not just a repair function, but is a combination of any actions carried out to retain an item in, or restore it to acceptable conditions. This function keeps an eye on the entire production system and facilities.

Maintenance helps in increasing the operational efficiency of plant facilities and thus contributes to the revenue by reducing the operating cost and increasing the quality and quantity of the production.

Maintenance System: Both maintenance system and operation system are the sub-systems of production system and revolve around the production equipment.

INPUT

MAINTENANCE

Maintenance management:

PROCESSING

OUTPUT

ACCUMULATED MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENT

MAINTENANCE

MM is concerned with planning and controlling routine, planned and preventive maintenance activities of RESOURCES an organisation. The following diagram describes the components of Maintenance Management cycle.

What How Resource

Resource Requirement of Time

Manpower

Balancing of Resource Requirements against availability

Machines Equipment Materials Money

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Completion target

Plan

Evaluation of Achievement

Action

Measurement of output

Objectives Of Maintenance 1) The main objective of maintenance is to maximize the availability and reliability of all assets 2) To extend the useful life of assets by reducing wear and tear. 3) To keep all equipments in good working condition 4) To ensure a great deal of safety of personnel using the facilities 5) To prevent wastages of spares, tools and materials 6) To ensure specified accuracy to products and time schedule of delivery to customers 7) To keep the production cycle within the stipulated range 8) To help management in taking decisions on replacement or new investment and to actively participate in specification, equipment selection, its erection and commissioning etc 9) To keep equipments safe and to prevent accidents 10) To help management in implementation of suitable procedure for procurement, storage and consumption of spares, tools, consumables etc 11) To reduce the maintenance cost as far as possible 12) To help in training and development of skilled workmen and executives

Scope Of Maintenance Maintenance covers a wide area viz., Plant, Building & surrounding areas, Machines and equipment, supporting facilities & services and house keeping and safety, waste disposal and recycling, environmental protection and pollution control etc.

The major areas of maintenance are Civil, Mechanical and electrical.

Functional Elements Of Maintenance Programme Following are some of the important elements and functions of the maintenance programme Inspection or check ups Lubrication

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Planning and scheduling Records and analysis Training to maintenance staff Storage of spare parts Miscellaneous functions like generation of power & distribution of power Importance Of Maintenance i.

Proper maintenance of plant and equipment is essential for keeping them in good working condition. This would ensure optimum utilization of production facilities and resources.

ii.

The objective of predetermined quantity and quality from various production equipment can be realized only when the equipment is supported by proper maintenance.

iii.

Regular use of equipments over a period of time would cause wear and tear. The gears may become loose, pipes may leak, and lubricant may get dried and so on. Therefore regular inspection, lubrication, repair etc must be undertaken to maintain the reliability and efficiency of equipment.

iv.

Proper maintenance helps to maximize production performance by reducing breakdowns and minimizing loss caused by breakdown

v.

Also, the natural condition like tropical climate and extreme humidity require special upkeep of equipment.

vi.

Proper maintenance results in longer life of machinery

vii.

Maintenance helps to improve reliability of plant and machinery.

Loss Due To Poor Maintenance In the absence of proper repairs and maintenance, the following types of loss may arise: •

Lower Productivity

Higher costs

Poor Product Quality

Destruction of equipment

Poor customer relations

Poor staff morale

Maintenance Cost Maintenance cost can be classified into direct and indirect costs: Direct Cost: i)

Labour

ii)

Material

iii)

Depreciation on capital equipments and tools used in maintenance

iv)

Inventory carrying cost of spares

v)

Direct external cost for repairs, inspection, testing etc

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Indirect cost i)

Loss in production

ii)

Idle time expenses

iii)

Accident cost

iv)

Overhead expenses chargeable to maintenance operations etc

TYPES OF MAINTENANCE Maintenance can be classified into the following categories: 1) Planned Maintenance 2) Predictive maintenance 3) Routine Maintenance 4) Breakdown maintenance 5) Preventive maintenance 1) Planned Maintenance: In planned maintenance, the maintenance work can be well planned in advance.

Planned

maintenance undertakes maintenance of all machineries, equipments, tools in a plant in a systematic manner.

Planned maintenance can be undertaken when the operations are running or after the

operations are stopped.

In general planned maintenance forecast the work contained in future job,

determines the best method to be adopted and skills required for its execution, estimates the time, material and cost involved in jobs and programmes the specific time periods on basis of priority. 2) Predictive Maintenance: Predictive maintenance is a new type of preventive maintenance. It involves the use of sensitive instruments to predict trouble.

It goes by the principle ‘prevention is better than cure’. Some of the

sensitive instruments are vibration analysers, amplitude meters, audio – gauges, pressure and temperature and resistance gauges are used to predict trouble.

Predictive maintenance is used to

measure conditions periodically and this enables maintenance people determine the need for and time for overhaul.

3) Routine Maintenance: Routine maintenance can also be called as scheduled maintenance.

This includes activities

such as periodic inspection, cleaning, lubrication and repairs of production equipments after their service life. Routine maintenance can be classified as i)

Running Maintenance: Here, the maintenance work is carried out while the equipment is in the operating condition Ex. Greasing, lubrication the bearings, cleaning the dust accumulated in the machinery etc.

ii)

Shut down Maintenance: Here, the maintenance work is carried out only when the machine is out of service (i.e.) after shutting down the equipment or machine Ex. In sugar manufacturing industries, the maintenance will be done only the machines are shut down due to non availability of raw material during some seasons.

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4)Breakdown Maintenance (Also known as Corrective maintenance) -

Breakdown maintenance means the maintenance or repairs are made only after the machine or equipment breaks down.

-

Breakdown maintenance implies that the repairs are made after the machine or equipment is out of order and they cannot perform the normal operation

-

Ex. An electric motor will not start, belt is broken etc

-

Under such conditions, production department calls on the maintenance department to rectify the defect. The maintenance department checks into the difficulty and makes the necessary repairs immediately.

-

After removing the fault, maintenance engineers do not attend the equipment again until another breakdown occurs.

Objectives of Breakdown Maintenance: -

To get the equipment back into operation as quickly as possible in order to minimize interruption to production.

-

To control the cost of repair, including regular time and overtime labour cost

-

To control the cost of operation of repair shops

-

To control the investment in replacement spare parts that is used when machines are repaired.

-

To control the investment in replacement spare machine, which are also called as standby or back-up machines (such backup machines replace the manufacturing machines until the needed repairs are completed)

Causes of Breakdowns: i)

Failure to replace worn out parts

ii)

Lack of lubrication

iii)

Neglected cooling systems

iv)

Indifference towards minor faults

v)

External factors like too low or too high line voltage, wrong fuel etc

vi)

Indifference towards equipment vibrations, unusual sounds coming out of the machinery, equipment getting too much heated up etc

Advantages Of Breakdown Maintenance; i)

It is economical way of maintenance for certain non-critical items whose repair and down time cost are less.

ii)

Breakdown

maintenance

involves

little

administrative

work,

few

records

and

comparatively less number of staff. iii)

There is no planned interference with production programmes

Disadvantages Of Breakdown Maintenance: i)

Breakdowns generally occur at inappropriate time. This might lead to poor, hurried maintenance causing excessive delay in production.

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ii)

Reduction of output

iii)

Faster plant deterioration

iv)

Increased chances of accidents and less safety to both workers and machines

v)

More spoilt material and wastages

vi)

Direct loss of profit

vii)

Breakdown maintenance cannot be employed for those plant items which are regulated by statutory provisions, for example cranes, and lifts, hoists and pressure vessels.

6) Preventive Maintenance: Preventive maintenance goes by the principle “Prevention is better than cure�. Preventive maintenance is basically undertaken to minimize breakdowns. Preventive maintenance can be made while the machines are running or when they are shut down. Two aspects of preventive maintenance being Inspection and Servicing.

Preventive maintenance consists of: i. Proper design and installation of equipment ii. Periodic inspection of plant and equipment to prevent breakdown before they occur iii. Repetitive servicing, upkeep and overhaul of equipments and iv. Adequate lubrication, cleaning and painting of buildings and equipments

Objectives Of Preventive Maintenance: i)

To minimize the possibility of breakdowns by location defaults well in advance

ii)

To make plant, equipment and machinery always available in good working condition.

iii)

To maintain the value of the equipment by periodic inspections, repairs, cleaning, overhauling, lubricating etc

iv)

To maintain the operational accuracy of the machineries and equipments

v)

To minimize accidents and to ensure safety of life to workmen

vi)

To ensure smooth flow of production

vii)

To meet the delivery schedules promptly without any interruptions

viii)

To minimize investment in standby machine

Functional Elements Of Preventive Maintenance: Following are the functions of preventive maintenance program: i)

An inventory of all spare parts needed for the machinery/equipments need to be maintained

ii)

Categorise equipments into critical and non-critical so that the equipments requiring preventive maintenance can be identified

iii)

A well designed inspection system

iv)

A good lubrication system

v)

Maintenance of adequate records and analysis of the same

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Planning of maintenance work

vii)

Control of maintenance stores and spares

viii)

Replacement of worn out parts before they fail to operate

ix)

Provision of standby machines of critical equipments

84

Forms Of Preventive Maintenance: Preventive maintenance generally takes four forms [i] Time based, (ii) work based, (iii) opportunity based, (iv) condition based

Time based: It means that maintenance is carried at regular intervals. It is time based rather than work based. Ex. Once in a month, once in a week etc Work based: It means that maintenance is carried out after specified volume of work or after a set of operating hours. Ex. In case of automobiles, maintenance will be done after 500 kms, maintenance after 10000 copies in photocopiers etc Opportunity based: Here the repair and replacement takes place only when the equipment and machinery is available for maintenance. Ex. During night times or during holidays Condition based:

Here maintenance is planned and is based on certain conditions Ex.

Replacement of belt when the thickness is reduced to 20 mm

Advantages Of Preventive Maintenance: i)

Reduced break downs

ii)

Less chances of accidents

iii)

Extension of useful life of asset

iv)

Provides greater safety to workers

v)

Low maintenance and repair cost

vi)

Less investment in standby equipment

vii)

Lower unit cost of maintenance

viii)

Better product quality

ix)

Few rejections

x)

Higher productivity

xi)

Improved customer satisfaction

xii)

Improved staff morale

Disadvantages Of Preventive Maintenance; i)

Very expensive during the initial stages

ii)

Administrative work is more with well organized records.

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Difference Between Breakdown Maintenance And Preventive Maintenance. 1) Concept & Meaning:

Breakdown maintenance is the emergency repair which will be

undertaken only when the machine/equipment fails. Preventive maintenance is the routine inspection and service activity carried out before any breakdown occurs in the machine/equipment 2) Primary Objective:

In Breakdown maintenance, immediate repairs is the major focus

whereas in preventive maintenance, the objective is to minimize breakdowns and to ensure that machines/equipment are in good working condition. 3) Cost of Repairs:

Cost of repairs is very high in breakdown maintenance whereas it is

comparatively less in preventive maintenance as there in planned and routine maintenance 4) Accidents & safety to workers: More chances of accidents in breakdown maintenance while accidents are highly minimized in preventive maintenance. 5) Provision of standby maintenance: Provision has to make for standby machines/equipment so that production flow is not disturbed in case of breakdown maintenance. In preventive maintenance there is very minimum need for standby machine 6) Investment in spares: Investment in spares inventory is less in breakdown maintenance as repair work is done only when machines fail. In preventive maintenance huge inventory of spares have to be maintained to enable repair work to be carried during routine inspection. 7) Suitability: Breakdown maintenance is suitable for non-critical machines/equipments while preventive maintenance can be employed for critical and statutory provisions like lifts, cranes etc 8) Unit cost of Production: The unit cost of production is high in breakdown maintenance whereas it is comparatively less in preventive maintenance 9) Administrative work: Very less administrative work in case of breakdown maintenance while record keeping and analysis is more in preventive maintenance 10) Flow of production:

Breakdown maintenance stops the normal work and hence interrupts

production flow whereas preventive maintenance will not disturb the operations Maintenance cost Balance or Optimum Degree of Preventive Maintenance: Preventive maintenance cannot be adopted for all machines/equipments in the shop floor as it incurs huge cost. Hence the decision regarding the appropriate level of preventive maintenance rests on the balance between breakdown & repair cost and Preventive maintenance cost.

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In the above figure, the curve A represents the preventive maintenance cost increases with higher level of preventive maintenance Curve B (Downtime & repair cost) represents the declining cost of breakdown & repairs as the level of preventive maintenance increases. The total cost curve is the sum of the curves A & B.

The optimum level of preventive

maintenance is determined at the minimum of the total cost curve say Point X. Beyond this minimum point, preventive maintenance is not advisable as the total cost increases.

Maintenance Scheduling: Scheduling refers to the timings and sequence of operations. It is an important segment of PPC activity. Scheduling of a maintenance job basically deals with answering the following two questions who should do the job? When the job is to be done or started? Reasons for scheduling of maintenance: Scheduling of plant maintenance is desirable for ht following reasons: i)

Scheduling facilitates the optimum use of the highly paid maintenance staff. Proper scheduling reduces the idleness of maintenance crew.

ii)

Plant maintenance equipments can be utilized effectively through scheduling their uses.

iii)

It eliminates undue interruptions in the production flow. Maintenance works scheduled on night, week-end day, holiday etc. can ensure smooth flow of production operations.

iv)

Proper scheduling of the maintenance service eliminates the chances of abrupt breakdowns and equipment failure.

v)

It is sometimes necessary to maintain the sequence in providing the plant maintenance service. Eg. Clearance of clogged pipes and waste disposal scheduling facilitates the proper sequence in the maintenance service. Maintenance schedules lead us to work/job specifications. It is a link between the engineer and

the trade man. It gives guidance in respect of method, and presents a work-load. Information Required for Scheduling: The scheduler should have knowledge about the following: -

Man power ability.

-

Man hour backlog on current & unfinished jobs.

-

Availability of the equipment or area where the work has to be performed.

-

Availability of proper tools, tackles, spares, consumables, structural and other required materials.

-

Availability of special tools, special equipments, jobs and fixtures, special facilities and handling/lifting equipments and cranes. This should also include labour and time saving devices like use of excavators instead of manual labours for digging etc.

-

Availability of external manpower and their capabilities.

-

Date of commencement and expected data for completion of the job.

-

Past schedules and charts for reference.

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Scheduling Techniques: The first step in job scheduling is to break the total job into smaller measurable elements called activities and to arrange these activities in logical sequence to determine preceding, concurrent and succeeding activities. Concurrent activities can be started together and a succeeding activity can start only when its preceding activity is completed. Further steps of scheduling depending on techniques to be adopted. Bar charts / Gantt charts and network techniques are commonly used in industries / plants. Principles Of Scheduling: i.

Scheduling should be based upon preplanned methods and scientifically determined time standards.

ii.

Scheduling system should be clear, precise and simple.

iii.

Maintenance schedules should have the concurrence of production staff.

iv.

Scheduling should be prepared much in advance to intimate all the departments concerned and to meet the production targets. The production schedules are maintained to record day-to-day events.

v.

Schedules should be kept flexible by incorporating sufficient non-priority jobs.

Scheduling of Work to Specific Time Periods: Scheduling of maintenance requires concurrence of production personnel to release the machine during the specified time. Scheduling of maintenance work can be done on the basis of the importance of work in relation to production requirements and the duration of machine breakdown and its consequent effects on production and sales programme. The maintenance department should schedule the work in terms of a long-term scheduled and a short term schedule each of these schedules would include the following activities on the basis of he information provided by the indicated source. Time of Schedule

Activities

Sources of Information.

Long-term

Lubrication

Manufacturer’s recommendations.

Inspection

Technical Experience.

Over hauling

History of Machine.

Cleaning

Analysis of Lifespan.

Replacement of

Techno-Economic evaluation.

Machine Short term

Repairs

Inspection reports Complaints of breakdown Analysis or history Techno-economic evaluation

Problems of Maintenance Management: The problems that occur / faced in the maintenance department are as follows:

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1. Determining the optimum degree of preventive maintenance effort for the machine is very difficult. 2. Determining and categorizing the critical equipment is another problem faced by the maintenance department. 3. Scheduling the maintenance work is also a difficult process. Scheduling of maintenance should be in such a way that it is not affecting the production schedule. 4. Rectifying emergency repair in the case of break down is also a difficult task for maintenance department. In the case of product layout the maintenance department personnel’s role is more difficult. They have to make sure that all the machines are available for production all the time. 5. The problems faced by the maintenance department can be summarized in such a way that they have to find answers for the following questions: a. Who should do maintenance? b. What to inspect in preventive maintenance? c.

Where to start maintenance?

d. What to inspect for? e. How often to inspect frequency? f.

When to inspect schedules?

g. Maintenance records. h. Storage of spare parts. i.

Control and evaluation of maintenance.

Re-Engineering or Business Process Re-Engineering (BPR): Definition: Michael Hammer defines BPR as, “The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of the business process to achieve dramatic improvement in critical contemporary measures of performance such as cost, quality, service and speed”.

Characteristics of Re-Engineering: 1. It is process centered: BPR offers process based approach to strategy rather than market based approach. The tool concentrates on process activities that convert inputs to output for the customer.

2. It is redesign governed: It will not believe in minor improvement through modification. It is going to strike the very aspect of design.

3. It is radical: The entire form of structure of the process management change during the ReEngineering and the Re-Engineering process may not resemble the old one.

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4. It is dramatic: The tool is not much useful for marginal improvement of business performance.

5. It is customer oriented: The entire process of Re-Engineering revolves around how to give the customers what they wants at the right time and in the most efficient manner. Need for Re-Engineering: There is an universal need to subject all the process of Re-Engineering. At the macro level, because of the environmental situations and internationalization or globalization of the economies the following factors become crucial for survival and development of economies. They are: 1. Crisis of energy 2. Crisis of conflict 3. Crisis of confusion 4. Crisis of stress 5. Crisis of culture At the organizational level or micro level the factors the favors the Re-Engineering that processes are: 1. Intense severe competition 2. Environmental demands 3. Technological advancement 4. Sinking profitability and market share 5. Declining share prices Steps in Re-Engineering or Process of Re-Engineering: The following procedural steps can be followed for Re-Engineering process: 1. Developing a process vision and determining process objectives. 2. Defining process to be Re-Engineered. 3. Understanding the current process and critically examining the current process for all aspects. 4. Identifying information technology leverage. 5. Designing the prototype and implementing the new process. 6. Stabilization of the new process. Advantage or benefits of Re-Engineering: 1. Improvements in entire organization as a whole. 2. Better systems and management improvement in the areas or production and services. Design and operations and improved systems of operation. 3. Takes advantage of improved technology. 4. Improved application of industrial engineering in the areas of: a. Organisational strategy b. Management functions

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Plant utilization

d. Quality improvement e. Creativity & innovation f.

Confidence in competition

g. Improvement in customer satisfaction.

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UNIT – V Work Study Industry everywhere has been striving hard to discover new work methods and techniques which could help produce goods of required quality at reasonable costs. The search has resulted in finding techniques such as work simplification, job design, value analysis and the like. All these are collectively called methods engineering or industrial engineering. The other names used are 'work design', work study, methods analysis and operation analysis. Methods engineering is closely affiliated with the functions of work measurement (or time study) and method study. This chapter is devoted to a detailed discussion of these approaches. For the sake of simplicity, we use the term work study which comprises two techniques known as method study and work measurement, throughout is cheaper.

Definition of Work Study Work study is defined as that body of knowledge concerned with the analysis of the work methods and the equipment used in performing a job, the design of an optimum work method and the standardisation of proposed work methods. Work study has contributed immeasurably to the search for better methods, and the effective utilization of this management tool has helped in the accomplishment of higher productivity. Work study is a management tool to achieve higher productivity in any organisation, whether manufacturing tangible products or offering services to its customers. British Standards Institution defines work-study as "a generic tenn for those techniques particularly method study and work measurement which are used in the examination of human work in all its contexts, and which lead ,systematically to the investigation of all the factors which affect the efficiency land economy of the situation being reviewed in order to effect improvements". Work study is also understood as a systematic, objective and critical examination of the factors, affecting productivity for the purpose of Improvement. It makes use of techniques of method study and work measurement to ensure the best possible use of human and material resource in carrying out a specific activity.

Objectives of Work Study The prime function of a work study department is to submit proposals and implement schemes to increase productivity and reduce waste. i.

To recommend and implement the desired improvements in work methods by establishing the most economical way of doing the work.

ii.

Investigation and analysis of existing situation.

iii.

Examination of weaknesses, if any, in the production process.

iv.

Most effective use of the existing or proposed plant.

v.

Efficient use of human efforts.

vi.

Ensuring proper predominance of those employed in production process. vii. Measurement of

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work values. vii.

Initiating and awarding incentive bonus schemes. ix. Setting standards for labour cost and labour cost control documentation

viii.

To standardise the method, material and equipment used in the production process.

ix.

To determine the time required by an ideal (a qualified and properly trained)

operator

to

perform a task at some desired level of performance.

Major Components of Work Study The scope of work study is very wide. Mainly, it incorporates the following: 1. Work simplification or method study, widely known as motion study. 2. Work measurement which is popularly known as time study)

Importance and Significance of Work Study i. It is a means of raising productivity of a factory by reorganization of the work involving little or no capital expenditure on plant and equipment. ii. It is a systematic study where no factor of productions is overlooked. iii. It is a most accurate method of determining the standards of performance on which effective planning and control depend. iv. It results in savings and efficient use of resources by increasing output and reducing scrap. v. Results in improved safety. vi. Reduction in training time. vii. It is a tool which can be applied everywhere.

Basic Procedure of Work Study There are eight steps in performing a complete work-study. They are: 1. Select the job or process to be studied 2. Record from direct observation everything that happens, using the most suitable recording technique so that data will be in the most convenient form for analysis. 3. Examine the recorded fact critically and challenge everything that it contains, considering in turn, the purpose of activity, the place where it is performed, the sequence in which it is done, the person who is doing it the means by which it i!> done. 4. Develop the most economical method, taking into account all the factors. 5. Measure the quantity of work involved in the method selected and calculate a standard time for performing it. 6. Define the new method and the related time so that it can always be identified. 7. Install the new method as agreed standard practice with the time allowed. 8. Maintain the new standard practice by proper control procedure

Position of Work Study in the Organisation Work study department must be given a high position in the factory, so that fue persons working in the

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department may not be influenced by the supervisors working on the floor and their suggestions should be accepted with respect and . acted upon. Work study department generally works as a part of the Industrial Engineering. Department. Since, the Industrial Engineering Department is for fue service of ~e management of an enterprise, therefore, it must be a staff and not a line activity. The position of the head of the industrial engineering department in relation 10 his/her fellow members of the staff depends upon the following important factors: •

Size of the organisation.

Type of organisation and whether managed by the owner himself / herselfor by

professionals.

Nature of work carried out in the factory.

Qualifications, experience, personality, etc., of the chief industrial engineer and those of other department heads.

Looking at the above factors, there cannot be any standard chart for organizational structure. A typical organisation chart showing the position of Industrial engineering department is given hereunder:

Production and Materials Management Occasionally, chief industrial engineer is given a place under general manager works. It is due to the reason that general manager works is responsible to increase the overall productivity and by placing the industrial engineering department under him, he can give more importance to the suggestions placed before him. In such case, the organizational structure will be similar to that shown in the chart.

Work Study Expert Certain qualities are expected of a work study expert, however they vary from work to work. Given below are some of the qualities of work study expert. (A) Qualification (i) Good knowledge of work study techniques. (ii) Good knowledge of different manufacturing processes. (iii) Well qualified and sufficiently trained. (iv) Objective approach to shop floor problems. (v) A strong believer of improvement of works methods tl>.rough work study. (B) Mental Abilities (i) Mentally prepared and interested to do that work. (ii) Exceptionally good observation power. (iii) Ability to explain very clearly possessing effective communication skill.

Work Study (C) Personal Qualities (i) Being sincere and honest, so as to gain the confidence and respect of those he/she is working

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with. (ii) Tactful in handling all types of situations. (iii) Self-confident, strong will-power and courage. (iv) Leadership capabilities.

Human Considerations in Work Study, Work study will become the powerful management tool to improve productivity only if a good relationship is established between the managers, supervisors and workers. Due consideration should be given to everyone concerned as an individual, and ensure that no one should perceive a threat to his her job security and self-respect. Thus, it is essential to consider the relationship between work study and workers, supervisors and the management as work study is a participative tool for investigation of the work being performed. Work Simplification and Work Study The process management is key to the success of the product and company. Method study aims to identify the key processes and process parameters. A detailed investigation is carried out to get all the necessary details in order to analyze the existing process and break the process into parts (operations) which helps to plan and control. A detailed analysis with respect to process inputs (men, material, money) and also the process parameters is carried out to improve the process and to get the desired level of output both in terms of quality and quantity. The work simplification starts with the analysis of the product and a detailed evaluation with regards to whether it can be changed in such a way as to make it easier to produce by reducing waste, eliminating non-value adding operations, design modification, etc. Thus, work study is a powerful tool to make work simplification. Benefits of Work Study 1. Increased productivity and operational efficiency. 2. Reduced manufacturing costs. 3. Improved work place layout. 4. Better manpower planning and capacity planning. 5. Fair wages to employees. 6. Better working conations 7. Improved work flow. 8. Reduced material

Work Study and Workers As stated earlier, workers' confidence in the sincerity of the management is absolutely essential in the application of work study by an organisation. During the course of application of work study, following factors have to be taken into consideration. (I) Management must take initiative for holding frequent discussions with workers before commencing work study. (2) If work study is applied, then workers and their representatives are kept fully informed of the management's intention. All the records of work study must also be made available before them to

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instill confidence. (3) Work study improves the flow of work and supply of materials. This improves the efficiency of the workers and also their earnings. This aspect will be welcomed by all, especially if they are paid on piece work basis. (4) Generally, there is a fear of redundancy arising out of the result of work study. There must be definite policy in respect of their retrenchment or transfer to another department. This is a very important factor and must be discussed by the management with the trade unions (5) There may be a strong resistance to changes in methods of work as a result of method study. The workers must be explained about the new methods and their advantages. Sometimes, experienced and old workers may not be satisfied at all, then as a solution, if the output of this old worker is reasonably satisfactory, they will have to be left alone and the changes are taught to others. (6) Sometimes, workers hesitate in being timed, because the nearness of someone standing and observing their work disturbs them. In such cases, the position of work study expert must be such that he/she disturbs the worker as least as possible, work study expert must also ensure that before attempting to record time, a worker should become accustomed to his/her presence. (7) Workers' representatives should be trained in the techniques of increasing the productivity. This will help in their understanding of the importance of work study and they will also be able to explain it to their fellow workers. This will also help them in ensuring that no steps are being taken which may harm them. Work Study and Supervisor The work study man is going to face difficult problems because of supervisor or foreman's attitude. Foreman is an authority on the shop floor to all workers and the success of work study in all its phases depends on him totally as it is he who has to cooperate with the work study expert. Before the work study begins, the whole purpose of work study and the procedures involved in the work study must be carefully explained to the foreman so that he understands exactly what is being done. This facilities the work of work study expert as he/she is going to convey and convince the workers regarding the purpose and benefits of work study. Thus, it helps to establish trust and gains the acceptability for foreman.

Work Study and Management Two types of difficulties are generally experienced by the management. First, any change in the existing method is an interruption of a comfortable routine way of doing work. Second, the main difficulty is that when work study experts are active in the ~Ian~ managers may feel that their role in the organisation has been taken up Dythe work study experts and their position has been illegally seized. Sometimes, supervisory staff like, foreman, etc., do not co-operate with these experts which will also results in workers not caring for them and do not make any effort to carry out their suggestions. We must also note that their will not be any obstruction at all, if all concerned are clear that the work study department is a tool of the management for improving the productivity.

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Relationship of Time and Motion Study to Work Study Both time study and motion study which resulted from the integration of concepts and practices developed by F. W. Taylor and by B. Frank and Lilian M. Gilbreth, are concerned with the systematic analysis and improvement of manually controlled work situations. However, time study is ~. quantitative analysis leading to the establishment of a time standard whereas motion study is a qualitative analysis of a work station leading to the design or improvement of an operation/activity.

WORK MEASUREMENT OR TIME STUDY Definition: Work measurement is the application of techniques designed to establish the time for a quantified workers so carry out a specified job at a defined level of performance. PROCEDURAL STEPS FOR CONDUCTING TIME STUDY For conducting time study, average workers and average machines are selected. This study is conducted by the time study expert, who should be familiar with all information related to the job and the conditions in which it is being done. The location of the expert should be such that he/she can watch all the operations and movements of the workers without distributing them a suitable distance. He/she performs time study in the following stages: (a) Analysis of Work: The complete job and its operations are split into various elements as discussed in the motion study. These elements are finalized after conducting motion study. In the end, time required for the job preparation, cleaning of machine, and oiling, etc., should also be included. Thus, time study includes all the tasks performed by the workers and not only the effective work. (b) Standardisation of Methods: Before conducting time-study, all the constituents of the job such as materials, equipment, tools, working conditions and methods are standardised. The method should be easy, safe and quickest in the given conditions, so that it can be accepted by workers. (c) Conducting Time study: Time study is done on a printed time study record sheet which is fixed on a board known as Time Study Board. In one corner (generally right hand top comer) a stop watch is placed. This stop watch should have a decimal scale dial so that it can read up to 0.001 minute.

Objectives of Work Measurement (or Time Study): 1. Comparing alternative methods. 2. Assessing the correct initial manpower. 3. Planning and control. 4. Realistic costing for the product. 5. Deriving and fixing incentives schemes. 6. Finding the delivery date of goods. 7. The cost reduction and cost control. 8. Identifying substandard workers. 9. Training new and weak employees.

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Work Measurement (Time Study) Procedure: The basic steps to be followed sequentially for work measurement are: 1. Select:

The work to be studied after having made a preliminary survey.

2. Record: All the relevant data pertaining to the circumstances in which the work is being done, the methods and the elements of activity in them. 3. Measure:

Each element in measured terms of time over. A sufficient number of cycles of

activity to ensure that a representative picture has been obtained. 4. Examine: The recorded data and time elements critically to ensure that unproductive or random elements are separated from productive elements also examine the recorded times of each element and determine a representative time for each. 5. Compile: A time for the operation which will provide a realistic standard of performance and will include time allowances to cover suitable rest, personnel needs, contingencies etc. 6. Define:

Precisely the series of activities and method of operation for which the time has been

allowed and issued the standard time for the activities and methods specified.

Standard Time: Is the time allowed to and operation to carry out the specified task under specified conditions and at a defined level of performance. Techniques of Work Measurement: Various techniques of work measurements are: 1. Time Study (Stop watch time study) 2. Work sampling 3. Synthesis 4. Analytical estimating 5. Predetermined Motion Time System (PMTS)

i. Time study or Stop watch time study:

Time study is a work measurement technique for

recording the time and rates of working for the elements of a specified job carried out under specified conditions. It is also used for analyzing the data so as to obtain the time necessary for carrying out the job at a defined level of performance.

ii. Work sampling or Activity sampling or Ratio delay study:

A technique in which a large

number of observations are made over a period of time of one or group of machines, processes, or workers. Each operation records what is happening at that instant and the percentage of observations recorded for a particular activity or delay is a measure of the percentage of time during which that activity or delay occurs.

iii. Synthesis or Synthetic data or The synthesis: A work measurement technique for building up the time for a job or parts of the job at a defined level of performance by totaling element times

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obtained previously from time studies on other jobs containing the elements concerned or from synthetic data.

iv. Analytical estimating:

A work measurement technique, being a development of estimating,

where by the time required to carry out elements of a job at a defined level of performance is partly from knowledge and practical experience of the elements concerned and partly from synthetic data.

v. Predetermined motion time system (PMTS):

A work measurement technique, where by times

established for basic human motions (Classified according to the nature of the motion and condition under which it is made) are used to build up the time for a job at the defined level of performance. The most commonly used PMTS is known as Method Time Measurement (MTM) and work factor (WF) system.

Note: 1. In olden days we call method study as motion study. The reason is, in olden days only the motion

( or movement) of the operator alone is studied.

Where as now the scope is

broadened and we are analyzing various other aspects, apart from motion, hence we are calling motion study as method study. Motion study and method study are now interchangeably used. 2. In olden days we call work measurement as time study. The reason is in olden days we used to develop the time required to complete the job with the help of the stop watch. Later various other techniques are developed hence now we are using the term work measurement rather than time study.

Procedure for time study or Steps in making stop watch time study: Stop watch time study is the basic technique for determining accurate time standards. They may be economical for repetitive type of work steps in taking the time study are:

1. Select the work to be studied. 2. Obtain and record all the information available about the job. 3. Breakdown the operation into elements. 4. Measure the time by means of a stop watch. 5. At the same time, assess the operators effective speed of work relative to the observer’s concept of “normal” speed. This is called Performance Rating. 6. Adjust the observed time by rating factor to obtain normal time for each element. Observed Time x Rating Normal time = 100 7. Add the suitable allowances to compensate for fatigue, personal needs, contingencies etc, to give standard time for each element.

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8. Compute allowed time for the entire job by adding elemental standard times considering frequency of occurance for each element.

STANDARD TIME AND ALLOWANCES – CALCULATION OF STANDARD TIMES Allowances are added to the normal time in order to arrive at standard title. Various allowances and the reasons for which they are provided are : (i) Process allowance, (ii) Relaxation allowance, (iii) Special allowance Periodic activity allowance and Interference allowance, and (iv) Contingency allowance and (v) Policy allowance. (i) Process Allowance (unoccupied allowance): It is meant to compensate workers for the enforced idleness due to the character or nature of a process or an operation. If idleness had not been enforced, the workers would have earned more. Such idleness is unavoidable when a worker handles a machine which works automatically for a part of the total working time or where a number of workers perform independent operations on the same job and it is not possible to completely balance production line. A worker generally feels discouraged if the idle time becomes a major portion of the total cycle time because even if he/she works at a faster pace rate during the non-idle time, he/she can hardly boost his / her low earnings. (ii) Relaxation Allowance: A worker cannot work continuously like a machine and hence such allowances are provided to him / her in order to satisfy his / her personal needs (like drinking water or having tea, etc.,) and to recover from the physiological and psychological effects of energy spent while performing an operation under exacting working conditions. Rest allowance is a relaxation allowance to a worker to overcome fatigue incurred during working. Excessive fatigue affects badly the performance of a worker. Fatigue is the result of unhealthy working conditions, physical exertion, inconvenient posture, intense concentration, etc. Relaxation allowance may vary from 12% to 20% (or even more) of the normal time them light to heavy work. Relaxation allowance has two components: (i) Personal needs allowance and (ii)fatigue allowance. Personal needs allowance is intended to compensate the operator for the time necessary to go away them place of work to attend to personal needs, namely, getting a glass of water, washing hands, etc. Women require longer personal needs allowance than men. Allowance of 5% for men and .7% for women is considered fair. This represents, out of an eighthour working day, 24 minutes for men and 34 minutes for women respectively. Fatigue allowance is intended to provide a workman an opportunity to recover from physiological and psychological effects of fatigue caused by carrying out a specified task under specified conditions. Fatigue allowance for the purpose of assessment may be split into two parts - a constant portion called basic fatigue allowance and a variable portion called variable fatigue allowance. (a) Basic fatigue allowance is allowed to an operator who performs a job seated, who is engaged on light work in good working conditions, and who is called upon to make normal use of his body. An allowance of 4% is considered a fair figure of basic fatigue allowance by experts. (b) Variable fatigue allowance is allowed to an operator who is engaged. on medium and heavy work, who performance work in a posture other than sitting, and who is called upon to work in working

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conditions which are abnormal and' cannot be improved upon. Variable fatigue allowance, therefore, varies according to the conditions under which a work is performed.

The reasons for the cause of additional fatigue is given below: 1. performing work in a posture which is other than sitting (Posture). 2.

making restricted movements in cramped surroundings (Motions).

3. Lifting or carrying heavy-weight objects or using force (Weight or using force). 4. performing work in hot and damp surroundings (Thermal conditions). 5. Working in conditions which are affected by presence of non-toxic and or toxic fumes (Atmospheric conditions). 6. Working under unsatisfactory light conditions (Light conditions). 7. Paying close attention to the instruments being used (Visual strain). viii. Working in noisy surroundings (Aural strain) 8. making repeated use of certain parts of the body, hands, arms and legs, etc. (Physical monotony). 9. making repeated use of mental faculties for example performing mental arithmetic (Mental monotony). Note: Tea breaks should be treated as part of the relaxation allowance. (iii) Special Allowance: They may be temporary are given for activities which are not generally the part of work cycle but are considered essential for performing the work satisfactorily. Special allowances can be classified as periodic activity allowance and interference allowance. (a) Periodic activity allowance: It is for the activities to be carried out periodically during work cycle, for example , setting up a plant, regrinding a lathe too I, etc.

(b) Interference allowance: Machine interference allowances are provided when a worker is looking after two or more machines and stops operating one machine at random or cyclically while he is attending to another (machine). The result of machine stoppages or machine interference, is loss in production or total output. Thus, for no fault of his, the worker suffers because of low output. Interference allowance compensates this aspect. Machine stoppage may be cyclic or random and thus cyclic interference allowances or random interference allowances are specified. Cyclic interferences allowances are generally given to a worker handling more than one automatic machine which have different automatic cycle times. If the worker is attending machine Band the automatic cycle time of machine A is over, naturally machine A will start and the worker is not in a position to attend the same until he makes machine B to start. Random interference allowances are given on machines which stop or have to be stopped due to certain causes occurring at random (e.g., when a yarn breaks in winding). Factors Influencing Interference Allowance (a) Number of machines per operator: The more the number of machines

assigned per operator,

the greater is the interference allowance. (b) Machine running time: The longer the machine running time, the lesser

is

the

allowance.

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interference


PRODUCTION & MATE. MANG. (c) Ratio of machine time to outside work: The higher the ratio of machine

101 time to outside work,

the lesser is the interference allowance. (d) Inside work: Higher inside work causes greater loss due to interference.

Methods of Measuring

Interference Allowance: They are - work sampling, production study, queuing theory and interference theory. (iv) Contingency Allowance: It is a small allowance of time included into the work content of the job to compensate the operator for the time lost due to legitimate interruption and delay which are uneconomical to measure because of their infrequent and irregular (Jccurrences. Some of these occurrences are: a. Total breakage involving removal of tool from its holder, trip to tool crib, filling up breakage report, replacing tool at tool crib, installing tool in its holder, effecting adjustments, etc. b. Obtaining necessary gauges from central pool. c. Filling coolant reservoir from time to time. d. Removal of turning, boring, drilling, etc., by helpers. e. Daily oiling and cleaning by maintenance department. f. Machine stoppages due to untimely movement of parts from previous machine. g. Operator's waiting time for helper or mechanical handling facility. Method Study – Introduction Methods study

involves critical examination and systematic recording of an existing and

proposed way of doing a job so as to find a better and more efficient method. It investigates how jobs are done and how the method of doing them can be improved.

Definition: “ A procedure for examining the various activities of problem which ensures a systematic, objectives and critical evaluation of the existing facts and in addition, an imaginative approach when developing improvements.”

Objects of method study: Better design of plant equipment and buildings. Improved layout of factory and offices. Better working conditions and environment. High standards of safety and health. Improved flow of work. Better quality. Greater job satisfaction. High earnings. Improved utilization of resources. Effective material handling. Efficient processes and procedures. Optimum Inventory. Optimum output.

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Improved administration. Waste reduction. Standardization and rationalization.

Analytical approach of method study / method study procedure: Method study has six steps: SELECT

-

Analyse of the job.

RECORD

-

Record by means of charts and diagrams all relevant facts about the present method.

EXAMINE

-

Critical examination of all facts.

DEVELOP

-

Develop an efficient and economical method.

DEFINE

-

The new method to be introduced.

INSTALL

-

Installation of new method as a standard practice.

MAINTAIN

-

Maintaining the standard practice.

Asters Method Study Procedure: 1.SELECT:

The work which is worth studying has to be selected and the objectives have to be defined.

The objective may be reduce manufacturing cost, to reduce tiredness to workers etc. 2. RECORD: All the relevant information about the existing method is recorded in detaikl in a chart form. 3. EXAMINE: Critcally examine the recorded events in sequence, This step answers several questions like What is done?, Who does it?, Where it is done?, How it is done?, When is it done? Etc. 4. DEVELOP: Develop the best method as resulting from critical examination and record it.

The

developed method should be practical and feasible, safe and effective, economical and acceptable to all departments. 5. DEFINE: Once a method is developed it is necessary to define the method in proper terms, its advantages etc. 6. INSTALL :

The best method has to be installed.

Installation involves three phases: Planning,

Arranging, and implementing. Installation is complete as soon as new method starts working smoothly. 7.MAINTAIN: Maintain the new method, i.e ensure the proper functioning of the installed method by periodic checks and verifications. Method Study Method study involves critical examination and systematic recording of an existing and proposed way of doing a job so as to find a better and more efficient method. Method study is known by different names. They are methods analysis, method engineering and work improvement.

Definition of Method Study Method Study is defmed as "A procedure for examining the various activities of problem which ensures a systematic, objective and critical evaluation of the existing facts and in addition, an imaginative approach when developing improvements". I Method study is a systematic and scientific evaluation of existing and proposed plans and performance of any work system and the evaluation of improvement, through analytical process of critical examination.

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There are three different levels and aspects of the application of method , study. a. Method study proper: Method study proper is the broad investigation and improvement of a total department or section, the layout of machines and equipment, working conditions, etc., the flow of materials, the movement of men. b. Motion study: Motion study is a more detailed investigation of individual operator, the layout of his bench or machines, his tools, jigs and fixtures, the movements of his body as he performs his work. The study of his environment, body posture, the temperature and noise level of his surroundings. c. Micromotion study: Micro motion study is a much more detailed investigation of rapid movements of the hands and arms. It requires the use of a camera and the analysis of filmed records of hand movements. More details about micromotion study are given in page number 23.8. Aims (Objects) of Method Study (or Motion Study) i. Better design of plant equipment and buildings ii. Improved layout offactory and offices iii. Better working conditions and environment iv. High standards of safety and health v. Improved flow of work vi. Better quality vii. Greater job satisfaction viii. High earnings ix. Improved utilisation of resources x. Effective material handling xi. Efficient processes and procedures xii. Optimum inventory xiii. Optimum output xiv. Improved administration xv. Waste reduction xvi. Standardisation and rationalisation

Scope of Method Study It can be applied to layout, working conditions, movement, quality standards, design, tools and equipment, material handling, etc. Possible improvements of method study can be: (i) Short-term Improvements.' These are improvements which can be introduced quickly and economically, could be made trom the existing resources and also for which the management and workmen are prepared. (ii) Long-term Improvement: Improvements that require planning, investment and which that cannot be acceptable at present.

Steps or Procedure for Method Study 1. Break up of Operation of the Job: Make a detailed list of all operations in the present method of manufacturing a job. All the material handling, machine work, and hand work are also included in this detail. 2. Questioning every detail of the Job: The method study expert poses several questions to himself

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/herself regarding the way in which various operations are to be perfonned and the tools and equipment needed for the game. This is also known as critical examination, that' probes into the following: i. Purpose: What is the purpose of this operation? Does this fulfill the requirements and whether the operation can be eliminated? ii. Place: Where is the best place to do this operation? iii. Sequence: When is the best time to do this operation and whether it can be done at the same time as before or is there any other better time? When will it be more suitable and economical? IV. Person: Who will do this operation? Who can do it in a better way? v. Means: How this operation can be perfonned i.e., which machines and tools are to be used? Can we make the work easier and safer both for the worker and equipment? 3. Develop a New Met/wd: After considering the above questions, a new and better method is developed. Apart from the above considerations, before finalizing the new method, the following aspects should be taken into accounting the method study. i. Elimination: Every operation or detail of the job should be thought out, i.e., whether an operation can be eliminated without any hann. ii. Combination: In this aspect, it is to be observed that whether two or more operations can be combined without any adverse effect to save operation time. iii. Rearrangement: If rearrangement in the sequence of operation helps in improvisation or in any other aspect, then it should be done. For example, in a factory, the main sequence of operation for a product is given below: (a) assembling,

(b) storage,

(c) inspection and

(d) despatching

In the sequence given above, inspection was carried out before despatching Iwd defective components were being sent back to department for correction. 'After sometime, it is felt that storage before inspection yields unnecessarily more material handling and internal transport of defective components. It can re avoided if inspection is carried out before sending the products for storage. Then this sequence of operations is rearranged as follows: (a) assembling,

(b) inspection

(c) storage and

(d) despatching

J

iv. Simplicity: If it is found that an operation can be performed in a simple, easy and economical method. (a) Placing the materials, tools and equipment at proper working areas. (b) Using gravity feed hoppers and other material handling equipment. (c) Taking useful work by both hands. (d) Using special jigs and fixtures.

v. Installation of the New Method: After having developed the method~ is necessary to install the new method. The new method must be accept~ or approved by management, supervisors and workers. Then the worker must be trained to work, according to this new method and their habit must be

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retained and developed to follow the new method. For sometime, close contact must be maintained (i.e., continuous monitoring) wit~ the progress of the job until it runs satisfactorily. 4. Maintaining the New Method: Once a method is installed, it should ~ maintained il1 its specified form, and not allowed to slip back to its old foreman introduction of any other unauthorized changes. For proper maintenance following steps are advised. i. Copies of the job instruction sheets should be distributed to all concerned. These sheets must supply the details for setting up the job and proper operation. ii. Routine checks are necessary to compare what is actually being dam against the job instruction sheets. iii. Selection and training of persons must be done according to the jon specifications for this new method. ANALYTICAL APPROACH OF METHOD STUDY The detailed procedure for conducting method study is shown in figure 23.1. The following are the steps involved in method study. Select Record

Analysis of the job

.

-Record by means of charts and diagrams all relevant factor about the present method

examine - Critical examination of all facts develop - Develop an efficient and economical method Define

-

The new method to be introduced

Install - Installation of the new method as a standard practice Maintain - Maintaining the standard practice 1. Selection: Among the basic steps of method study, 'selection' poses the . greatest challenge at the initial stages of any project. The first few days of any project demands exacting analysis in order to clarify and crystal areas for detailed investigation. Though selection of the problem is the prerogative of the management, the basis on which a judicious selection is made, the exact areas for detailed investigation, etc., are all decided by the work study expert. In minor assignments, like the study of a specific process, selection is a comparatively easy task. In major assignments, however, where the problem is large in magnitude, and wide in scope, a preliminary or diagnostic survey may be called for.

Analytical approach of method study (a) Diagnostic Approach: In major assignments of larger magnitude and wider scope, diagnostic approach is useful in selection of specific areas for investigation. The steps involved in diagnostic approach are as follows: i. Breakdown in the capital structure. ii. Arrange in terms of succession of cost. iii. Make spot checks. iv. Rearrange in succession in order of feasibility of cost reduction and I value added. v. Draw action programme.

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(b) Consideration in Selection: While selecting the subject for study, the following considerations should be borne in mind: i.

Economic considerations

iii. Human considerations

ii. Technical considerations iv. Economic considerations

Work Study efforts cost Time and Money: The value of the anticipated results I must commensurate with the efforts put in. Short studies which can yield I appreciable dividends quickly are to be preferred to long term studies whose benefits may be difficult to foresee. Technical Consideration: It should be ensured that adequate technical knowledge is available with which to carry out the study. Where a large problem

throws up a number of subjects which are

independent of each other, it is better to have small individual studies initiated on each subject. Where a problem I brings to light two or more subjects which are interrelated, independent studies on each might be carried out in the preliminary stages, but later they should be I continuously integrated by coordinating the recording of the different teams I workmen each subject. The critical examination has to be carried out by the: teams a whole. The scope and magnitude of the problem would determine the number of subjects to be studied. Studies that would lead to better working conditions, improved environment: or increased earnings for the workers must be given due precedence over others. Human considerations: Where resistance to change or reaction is likely to be more, the subject should not be proceeded with until acceptance has been: gained. A spectacular improvement imposed against the will of the staff, can never be effective compared to a modest improvement in implementation with the cooperation of staff. Field of Choice: The range of jobs which may be tackled by method study vary over a wide area. However, following areas should be considered first: i. Optimising allocation of any specific resources ii. Design of equipment for man-machine equilibrium iii. Improving the working conditions or environment iv. Reducing the time required for performing the activity v. Improving the layout vi. Minimising movements vii. Quality improvement viii. System improvement ix. Cost reduction x. Customer satisfaction xi. Standardization/Simplification xii. Material handling activities xiii. High accident rate xiv. Excessive overtime xv. Excessive scrap xvi. Too much work-in-progress xvii. Idle labour time/idle machine title

Recording Techniques

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According to the nature of the job being studied and the purpose for which the record is required, the techniques fall into following categories: I. Charts

2. Diagrams

3. Templates and models

Gives bird's-eye view of process and records, principal operations and inspecting. Sequence of activities performed by worker. Sequence of activities performed on materials. Sequence of activities performed by equipment Man type .:. Material type .:. Equipment type 5. Travel Chart: Movement of materials and/or men between departments. 6. SIMO Chart: Activities of worker's hands, legs and other body movements on common Time scale. 7. Flow and String Diagrams

Recording Techniques: According to the nature of the job being studied and the purpose for which the record is required, the techniques fall into the following category: 1. Charts (for process and time records) 2. Diagrams and models (for path of movement records) Charts: Charts are often used to record the facts due to their simplicity and economy. 1. Operation Process Chart

- Gives bird’s eye view of process and records.

(outline process chart)

- Principal operations and inspections.

2. Flow Process Chart * Man type

- Sequence of activities of men

* Material type

- Sequence of activities of material

* Equipment type

- Sequence of activities of equipment

3. Two-handed process chart

- Activities performed by workers two hands.

4. Multiple Activity Chart

- Activities of men / machine on a common time scale to show their relationship

5. Simultaneous

Motion

(SIMO) Chart 6. Travel Chart

Cycle

- Activities of a worker’s hands, legs and other body movements on a common time cycle -

Movement

of

materials

/

men

between

departments.

Diagrams & Models: 1. Flow and string diagrams

- Path of movement of men, materials.

2. Two and 3 D Models

- Work place layout or plant

3. Cycle Graph

- High speed, short cycle operation recording.

Whatever type of chart / diagram is used , the following information should always be provided.

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1. An adequate description of all the activities or movements entailed in the method. 2. Whether the present or proposed method is shown. 3. The specific reference to where activities begin and end. 4. The time and distance scales used, where applicable. 5. An explanation of any abbreviations or special devices. 6. The date of construction of chart or diagram. CHARTS Process Charts: Operations Process Charts, Outline Process Chart, Flow Process Chart, Two handled Process Chart (Already discussed in Unit II. Please Refer)

Multiple Activity Charts: This chart is similar to Two handed process chart. It is a chart where activities of more than one subject (worker or equipment) are recorded on a common time scale to show their interrelationship. The Multiple Activity chart is used whenever it is necessary to consider on the same document the activities of a subject in relation to one or more. By allotting separate bars placed against a common time scale to represent the activities of each worker during the process, the multiple activity chart is drawn. This chart clearly show sup periods of ineffective time within the process. This type of chart is particularly useful for enabling maintenance and similar work to be organised so that the time expensive equipment out of use can be reduced to minimum. It enables complex processes to be recorded in a simple way for study at leisure.

SIMO chart (Simultaneous Motion Cycle chart)

SIMO chart is a recording technique for micro motion

study. A SIMO chart is a chart based on the film analysis which is used to record simultaneously on a common time scale the therbligs or a group of therbligs performed by different parts of the body of one or more operators. It is the micro-motion form of the man type flow process chart. To prepare SIMO chart, an elaborate procedure and use of expensive equipment are required. This study is justified when the saving resulting from the study will be very high.

Travel Chart: It is in the form of two way table or matrix. The number of backward movements are shown below the thick diagonal line XY anf the forward movements are indicated above the line. This chart represents the movements of materials as they travel in the process of being converted into finished products. It shows the origin of movements, the direction of movements and the destination of materials. It represents visually useful data for methods study and plant layout.

A travel chart has the following uses: - It shows the mutual dependence of departments and their relative self sufficiency - It is a valuable aid in analyzing and visually showing the flow and end use of materials - It indicates inter-relationships between different product lines.

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- It is helpful in planning routes and material handling systems so as to reduce manufacturing cycles. - It assists in planning location of production department so as to make best use of available floor space. - It is a device for reducing material handling and labour costs. - It is useful tool for comparing alternative layouts so as to plan the best layout for the plant.

Thus a travel chart is complete picture of the travel of materials from the stores room to shipping department. DIAGRAMS Process charting helps to visualize the sequence of event in a situation, but it cannot illustrate the pattern of movement that men, materials and tools have to follow when a job is being done. Here we find that certain types of diagrams are helpful to indicate visually the path of movement.

Various such

diagrams are discussed below:

i) Flow Diagram: It shows a rough view of the space which shows the location of specific activities carried out, the extent of work areas, mechanics or desks with a connecting set of arrows and lines to indicate the routes of travel followed by workers, materials or equipment. ii) String Diagram: It is a scale plan or model on which a thread or string is used to trace and measure the path of workers, materials or equipments during a specified sequence of events. iii)

Cyclegraph: Some motions require very small time and it is difficult to measure time for these motions accurately but these motions cannot be neglected.

Therefore motions are taken on

picture films with the help of a picture camera. The procedure used for study is called “Micro Motion study”. Small electric bulbs are attached to the fingures, hands, legs, ankles and other parts of the body of the operator and photographs are taken to record the path of the motion with a still camera. The path of light so photographed is called as ‘Cyclegraph”. iv)

Chronocyclegraph: Referring to the above cyclegraph, if an

interrupter is placed in the electric circuit with the bulb and light flashed quickly and off slowly, then the path of bulb in the photograph will appear like pear –shaped dots indicating the direction of motions. The space between the dots will be according to the speed of hand or fingure of the body.

The number of dots will

give the time taken by that part. Such a record is called “ Chronocyclegraph”

SAFETY ENGINEERING OR WORKER SAFETY The main purpose of effective safety programmes in an organization is to present work related injuries and accidents. An accidents is an unplanned, uncontrolled, unwanted, or unpredictable event or sudden mishap which interrupts an activity or function. The effects of the most industrial accidents can be classified under the headings: I- Injury -

Including disable, pain and sufferings etc.

D- Damage

-

L- Loss -

Of life, of earnings, of profit of output of time.

E-Emotion

-

To equipment, buildings and markets.

Following injury, pain, death etc.

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Principles of safety program: Employee’s safety and health are important concerns in today’s organizations. Occupational health and safety programs should be based on the following principles: 1. Industrial accidents and disease result from multiplicity of factors, but these have to be traced to their root causes, invariably the fault lies with the management. 2. The most important function of a health and safety programs is to identify the potential hazards, provide effective safety facilities and equipment and take prompt remedial actions. 3. Health and safety aspects are the concern of the top management. 4. Managers and supervisors must be made fully accountable for the health and safety performance in the areas they control. 5. All employees should be given through guidance in safe methods of work.

Health and safety programmes or Strategies for preventing accidents: The following tools / methods can be used to present accidents or to improve health and safety of the workers. 1. Awareness of safety:

The primary aim of any organization safety program is “Accident

Prevention”. Hence major objective of any safety program is to get the employee to “Think safety”. 2. Organisational Commitment: There should be company-ordinated effort from top management to involve all members in their maintenance program. 3. Safety rules: Safety rules are made in order to protect employees free from possible hazards working conditions. 4. Safety Devices: It is the duty of the management to make sure that all the protective devices are properly used all the times to avoid or prevent accidents. Ex. To wear gloves, shoes, helmets etc. 5. Safety training: One way to enhance workers safety is the involvement of all employees at various times in safety training sessions and at committee meetings. 6. Safety Inspection: On a regular basis safety inspection is to be done by a safety committee or by the safety co-coordinators. 7. Control of environmental factors:

Related to the situational factors there are many

environmental factors which need to be considered in any specific strategy for accident prevention. 8. Safety Campaigns:

Safety campaigns mainly aim at generating and maintaining safety

consciousness posters, paintings, boards and slogans are used in many situations. 9. Foreman’s / Supervisor’s training:

Foreman plays and important role in maintaining safety

because it is through him that penalties for not observing safety measures are awarded to the workers. Hence foreman should be trained properly.

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MODERN PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT TOOLS The latest developments in the field of production management which revolutionize the field are discussed below: # Business Process Re-Engineering (BPR):

The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of the

process to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance such as cost, quality, service and speed. # Total Quality Management (TQM):

Total Quality Management (TQM) is an organization wide

approach to continuously improving the quality of all the organization processes, products and services. The four fundamentals of TQM being Processes, People, Systems and Management

# Quality Circle (QC):

A quality circle is a small group of employees (8-10) who voluntarily cooperates

to solve problems relating to: Production wastage of materials. Quality of raw materials, tool, semi-finished and finished goods. Work environmental, energy consumption. Scheduling, delay etc. Maintenance. Safety and anything that affect these factors etc.

# ISO 9000 Standards (ISO) International Organisaion for Standardisation or International Standards Organisation is an international body which consists of representatives from more than 90 countries. ISO 9000 series has fix international standards on quality management which are listed below: ISO 9000, ISO 9001, ISO 9002, ISO 9003, ISO 9004

ISO 9001:

Covers quality management and quality assurance in design, development, production,

installation and servicing. ISO 9002:

Covers quality management and quality assurance in design and development.

ISO 9003:

Covers quality management and quality assurance in final inspection and testing.

ISO 9004:

Guidelines to interpret quality management and quality assurance in internal

management.

# Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS):

A computer controlled process technology suitable for

producing a moderate variety of products in moderate volumes. Features of FMS include the ability to handle variety while reducing the leadtime and inventories; production of specialist designs to meet exact market needs; rapid response to changes in product, more consistent product quality, high initial capital investment, high hardware and software maintenance costs.

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PRODUCTION & MATE. MANG. # Just In Time (JIT):

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JIT or stockless production is a system of production that allows no [or as small

as possible] inventory of raw material, WIP or finished goods. JIT is thus seen as recent method in inventory control.

# Poke a Yoke:

Literally “fool proofing” total quality control technique that fool proof production

from defects.

# Kanban(Card signal): This system aims at a much tighter control of inventories. Literally it means “Visual records”, a method of controlling material flow through a JIT manufacturing system by using cards to authorize a work station to transfer items to produce materials. # Value Engineering / Value Analysis:

Value engineering is defined as “an organized creative

approach which has for its purpose the efficient identification of unnecessary cost, (ie) cost which provides neither quality nor use nor life nor appearance nor customer features”. Value = Function/Cost # World Class Manufacturing (WCM): The concern for improving performance continuously and rapidly on time with the increasing global competition is gathering momentum. WCM concept is of recent origin. The following attributes of the World Class Manufacturing are aimed to fulfill the customer demands: 1. Products with high quality. 2. Products at competitive price.; 3. Products with several enhanced features. 4. Products in a widen variety. 5. Products delivered with short lead times. 6. Products delivered on time. 7. Flexibility in fulfilling products demand. # 5 S Concept: 5 S concept is used for quality improvement and safety purpose. SEIRE - sort SEITON – set in order SEISO – shine (clean) SEIKETSU – standardize SHITSUKE – sustain # CAD/CAM - Computer Aided Designing/ Computer Aided Manufacturing are software packages used in production process. Apart from the above tools discussed above plenty of other tools are listed below and their importance in the production management field cannot be ignored. ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) SCM (Supply Chain Management) KAIZEN (Continuous Improvement) TPM (Total Productivity Management) TPM (Total Predictive Maintenance)

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CNC (Computer Numeric Controlled Machines) CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing) ZERO DEFECT CONCEPT MRP II (Manufacturing Resource Planning) ROBOTICS. MOTION STUDY Relationship of Time and Motion Study to Work Study Both time study and motion study which resulted from the integration of concepts and practices developed by F. W. Taylor and by B. Frank and Lilian M. Gilbreth, are concerned with the systematic analysis and improvement of manually controlled work situations. However, time study is ~. quantitative analysis leading to the establishment of a time standard whereas motion study is a qualitative analysis of a work station leading to the design or improvement of an operation/activity. b. Motion study: Motion study is a more detailed investigation of individual operator, the layout of his bench or machines, his tools, jigs and fixtures, the movements of his body as he performs his work. The study of his environment, body posture, the temperature and noise level of his surroundings. Aims (Objects) of Method Study (or Motion Study) i. Better design of plant equipment and buildings ii. Improved layout offactory and offices iii. Better working conditions and environment iv. High standards of safety and health v. Improved flow of work vi. Better quality vii. Greater job satisfaction viii. High earnings ix. Improved utilisation of resources x. Effective material handling xi. Efficient processes and procedures xii. Optimum inventory xiii. Optimum output xiv. Improved administration xv. Waste reduction xvi. Standardisation and rationalization

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UNIT-VI

MATERIALS MANAGEMENT:

INTRODUCTION AND MEANING: Materials management is one of the areas covered by the whole process of management. For a balanced growth and effective running of the enterprise, it is necessary that materials cost, materials supply and materials utilization are so controlled that they lead to Materials management is concerned with the management of materials resources with the eye on the cost. We incur on materials and seek to reduce this cost. Maximization of production Reduction in the cost of production and distribution and Minimization of the profit. Materials are important determinant if the total cost of production as it occupied 20% to 35% of the total cost which in certain cases may be 60%. The materials require serious attention in any work of production. Materials means raw materials components, sub-assemblies and finished products. Materials are classified as Direct; and Indirect. Direct materials goes directly in to product and forms a part of the end product while indirect materials are used in processing or packaging the direct materials. Materials management is a specialized, systematic and scientific function of a group of people for better procurements stores and distribution of materials. Introduction: Materials management is one of the basic functions of every business. Economic success of any manufacturing company has a direct relationship with the efficiency of the materials management. Materials management can be defined as a function. Which aims for integrated approach towards the management of materials in an industrial undertaking. Its main objects is cost reduction and efficient handling of materials at all stages and in all sections of undertaking.

Management of Materials functions includes several important aspects connected with materials; such as purchasing, storage, inventory control, material handling, standardization etc. Hence this subject has become very important and requires more attention.

Materials are purchased fro different purposes for house utility by common man, for trade by middle-men, by government for own utilization, for production by manufacturers who convert the materials into products required by the consumers. Here in materials management we are concentrating on this last category. The manufacturers purchase raw materials, components, con-sumables, machine tools, spare parts, fuels, lubricants, packing materials.

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Definitions: Materials management is a concept that integrates all the activities of planning, scheduling and controlling materials from design through production and including delivery to the customer. Thus it establishes full responsibility full responsibility over the material flow system with full accountability for quality, delivery and cost.

Materials management can also be defined as an organizational concept in which a single manager has authority and responsibility for all activities principally concerned with the flow of materials into an organization, which includes purchasing, production, planning and scheduling, incoming traffic, inventory control, receiving and stores. Management of Materials Functions

Scope of Materials Management: Materials Management covers all aspects of materials, cost, materials supply and utilization. It covers the whole range of functions involved in converting raw materials and ancillary supplies into finished products. It is concerned with the planning and programming of materials and equipments, market research for purchasing; Pre-design value analysis, procurement of all materials, packaging and packing materials, stores control and inventory control; packaging and packing material handling; value analysis, disposal of scrap, surplus and salvage and operation research for materials. Materials management provides tools and techniques, most of which are very simple, to reduce material costs. In addition to reducing material costs, efficient materials management can also bring about. (i)

Reduction of foreign exchange requirements by getting the maximum value out of the available foreign exchange or by reducing the value of imports thus contributing substantially towards narrowing the foreign exchange gap.

(ii)

Reduction of cost of finished goods of high quality and maintaining the quality at reduced cost.

Industrial managers have been slow in appreciating the importance of materials management as they have been preoccupied with other matters, such as finding new markets, labour problems and so on. Material management brings about increased profits result in increased productivity in inventories. . Classification of Materials Or Explain the types of Materials The materials manager is responsible for classifying the materials before they are sent for inspection, entered into the stock ledger and binned. Therefore, broad classification of materials according to their nature, use and service becomes essential before the job of identification is undertaken. Various items carried in a store are generally divided in to the following major types in order to help the materials executives and staff in maintaining the records, laying down the broad principles of preservation and the internal organization of the store room. (i)

Raw materials

(ii)

Work – in – progress

(iii)

Machinery and Equipment

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PRODUCTION & MATE. MANG. (iv)

Purchased Components

(v)

Packing Materials

(vi)

Finished Goods

116

. Explain about the importance of the materials management. The importance of materials management cannot be over-emphasised in this complex industrial word. It affects not only a particular industry but the entire economic activity of a whole nation. Materials contribute to the quality of the end product. The amount spent on materials in increasing in relation to the expenditure on other inputs. The margin between the values of raw materials and the finished products is known as the value added by production. The following are the importance of the materials management. Continuous production The material management is helping the production for their continuous production. According to this type the production department comes to know about the availability of the raw materials and maintain the machineries details of the company. Maintain quality The material manager need to check whether they are getting the good quality or not. Quality control helps to control over the materials in term in the control of quality during manufacturing and purchasing the raw materials. Quality of a product itself comprises several engineering and manufacturing characteristics, which go to make the product to meet the performance expectations of he designers and the customers. Cost control Reduction of procurement cost by placing bulk order, reduction of investment and carrying cost by low rate of delivery, avoiding obsolescence, control over consumption of materials etc., having the control over receiving the raw materials. Maximize the profit Eliminate the duplication of ordering and replenishing stocks. This is possible with the help of centralizing purchases. To minimize losses though deterioration, pilferage wastages and damages. This it self leads to maximize the profit. Proper utilization of raw materials Utilizing the raw materials in the proper manner during the handling of materials and delivering time. According to the storage of materials pre-specified use of stores by using the right facilities and equipments and prĂŠcising a system to enable the easy identification of materials. Materials handling The materials received against order placed by purchase section are kept in store after they are inspected and checked for quality as per specifications physical conditions and quality.

. Definition of Materials Management According to BAILEY and FARMER define materials management as the management of flow of materials into an organization to the point where these materials are converted into the firms end product.

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According to AMMETR defines it as the “process by which an organization s supplied with goods and services that it needs to achieve its objectives. The materials management begins with the supplier and ends when the materials is consumed or incorporated into some other product. The executives who engage in materials management are concerned with three basic activities- buying, storage of materials and movement”

. Define materials management. “It covers the whole range of functions involved in covering raw materials and ancillary supplies in to finished product”. “The function responsible for the coordination of planning, sourcing, purchasing, moving, storing and controlling materials in an optimum manner so as to provide a pre decided service to the customer at minimum cost”. “According to Lee and Dobler define “Material management as a confederacy of traditional materials activities bound by a common idea – the idea of an integrated management approach to planning, acquisition, conversion, flow and distribution of production materials from the raw materials state to the finished product state”.

. Explain the merits or advantages of materials management. The following are the merits or advantages of materials management. Cost reduction: o

Reduction in the materials cost by about 5% is always possible through an official management of materials.

Maintain quantity: o

Materials contribute to the quality to the end product. The amount of materials is increasing in relation to end product. The efficient material management ensures the quality.

Centers of accountability for performance: o

Materials form an important aspect of current assets in any organization conversion of raw materials and their availability for prosperity is one of the social responsibilities of business. Hence materials management is one of the accountability for performance.

Major add value to the product: o

Materials contribute quality to the end product. The margin between the value of raw materials and finished product is known ad the value added by production.

Major part of expenditure in materials: o

They usually represent 50 to 69% of the total cost of the final product. So even a small change in material cost can lead to a substantial saving.

Productivity:

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Materials management is to increase the productivity of materials. Productivity is the ratio between input and output. As far as materials management is concerned, it implies the reduction of the costs and increases the profit.

. Write about the objectives of materials management. A good materials manager can advice the twin objectives but the identification as to who can be a good materials manger is a difficult task. To ensure an uninterrupted production, by maintaining a steady flow of materials. Ensuring low departmental costs and high efficiency To effect economics in the cost of materials by purchasing materials of the right quality, in the right quantity, at the right term, form the right source and at the right price. To reduce working capital requirements through proper and scientific inventory control. To be alive to the changes in the market in respect of new products etc., To improve the quality of manufactured goods by the use of better raw materials or components and there by increase the competitiveness of goods put on sale. To improve the quality of manufactured goods by reducing their prices through cost reduction and value analysis. To save foreign exchange through import substitution & economizing on foreign purchases. To ensure proper cooperation among all department of the organization to meet objectives of the materials management, both at the corporate and functional levels. To conserve materials resources with in the organization, there by contributing to the conservation of national resources. Continuous supply and Maintain stock level Maintains investment and Cost under control Duplication elimination and Minimize losses To ensure perceptual inventory. Right quality goods and Data. Procuring better value Obtaining better yield Reducing investments in stock through Inventory control and material flow. Establish good- seller-relation

. Write about the functions of the Materials Management. Explain the process of Materials Management. Materials Planning and Programme: This function involves the setting up of the consumption standard or working out requirements for all materials for any giving manufacturing program, considering all relevant factors. Material planning also involves maintenance of information system to feed details necessary for its better functioning in future.

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Primary Materials Objectives: There are at least nine primary objectives of materials department. These are low prices, High inventory turnover, low cost of acquisition and possession, continuity of supply, consistency of quality, low pay roll nance of materials management.

Materials purchase: Generally purchasing function is the combination of functions like locating and development of sources of supply, market research for purchasing, calling for tender’s selection of supplies, negotiating, entering in to contract and issue of the purchase orders, monitoring specification delivering schedule and other terms and conditions. Store Keeping: Store keeping involves receipt, custody and issue of materials. Materials received against order placed by purchase section are kept in store after they are inspected and checked for quality as per specifications physical conditions and quantity. Inventory Control: Inventory control is a systematic location, storage and recording of goods in such a way that desired degree of service can be made to the operating shops at minimum ultimate cost. Material Handling: Various functional related to store keeping requires a lot of handling starting from receipt of material, inspection and storage etc., Quality Control and inspection: Quality control is simplest terms in the control of quality during manufacturing. Quality of a product itself comprises several engineering and manufacturing characteristic which go to make the product to meet the performance expectations of the designers and the customer.

Integrated materials management: Concepts Materials Management as a function responsible for the co-ordination of planning, sourcing, purchasing; Moving; storing and controlling materials in an optimum manner so as to provide a pre-decided services to the customer at a minimum cost. If the above functions of Materials Management are separately handled a conflict of interests occurs and there is a need to balance the conflicting objective from a total organization point of view so as to achieve optimum results for the organization. The organization which are following integrated Materials Management concept require the services of professional managers so that they can fulfill the requirement of an integrated materials management function which demands an ability to bring together conflicting and yet inter- related function.

. Define integrated materials management.

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An integrated approach to materials is only a concentrated and coordinated effort for obtaining greater efficiency in the field of materials utilization and costs. . Objectives of Integrated Material Management The fundamental objectives of an integrated management approach can be viewed as: (a) Procuring better value (b) Obtaining better yield (c) Reducing investments is stock through inventory control and material flow. In an integrated set-up the materials manager who is responsible for all such inter- related functions is in a position to exercise control and co-ordinate with an overview that ensure proper balance of the conflicting objective of the individual functions. Integration also helps in the rapid transfer of data, through effective and informal communication

. Explain about the functions of Integrated Materials Management. The functions of the integrated materials management are based on the following points, Arranging for finance: Assembling, storage and productions of materials Distribution Arranging for finance: o

Making provisions for the operation of the enterprise for which the management has to make all efforts to manage the adequate finance so that the organization may smoothly with out interruption.

Assembling, storage and productions of materials o

This in fact is the functions of actual operation of the enterprise.

o

For an efficient and purposeful operation of the enterprise materials to be assembled, acquired, stored and produced. So that the organization may move a head uninterrupted with speed and good will.

Distribution: o

The organization operates for the ultimate consumers. It is the basic function of any management to arrange the distribution.

o

So as to get the goods and services reach the ultimate consumers.

. Explain about the advantages of the Integrated Material Management. The following are the advantages of the integrated materials management.

Centralized authority and responsibility: o

An integrated materials management presupposes the establishment of centralized organization offers a better accountability problems faced by the individuals and various department can be directed to the central point.

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Better Accountability: o

In a centralized materials management organization the materials manager is responsible for all the aspects of materials functions.

o

He creates a common identity with the entire department under his charge and set out the materials policy.

Objectives evaluation of performance: o

The performance of the materials department is judged by if it is able to achieve a better inventory turnover, reduced lead time and better materials planning an integrated materials management this secures better performances.

Economic use of data processing system: o

An integrated materials management facilities the collection, processing, retention, analysis and distribution of data in a manner in which it can be used to eth benefits of the managerial decision and consequently to the advantages of entire setup.

Team spirit: o

An integrated material management offers better scope for active cooperation among all those who are directly as well as indirectly related with the management of materials.

Procurement at the right time: o

The combined set up in an organization brings about the greater coordination and increased sense of responsibility with regard to procuring materials at the right time.

o

The store keepers and the purchase officers may often indulge in mutual criticism for any delay in procurement other short comings etc.,

Cost reduction: o

Reduction of procurement cost by placing bulk order, reduction of investment and carrying cost by low of delivery, avoiding obsolescence, control over consumption of materials.

Reduce of correspondence: o

Correspondence between stores, purchase and stock control is reduced in a combined set up.

. Explain the process of integrated material management. An integrated approach to materials management is only a concentrated and coordinated effort for obtaining greater efficiency in the field of materials utilization and costs. 1, PURCHASING: Purchasing department procures materials as per requirements to meet quality and time specifications. The main activities include. (i)

Selecting acceptable vendors and negotiating with them on purchase terms, price, quality and other related factors.

(ii)

Interacting with vendors to develop materials specification, to control quality and to solve problems involved in receipt and usage of materials.

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(iii) Placing purchase orders for materials, and services, considering economic levl, blanket or open ordering, make-or-buy consideration, priority of orders and vendor performance. (iv) Expediting delivery of materials. (v)

Keeping abreast of prevailing market conditions and knowing about the arrival of mew materials that result in cost reduction.

2, RECEIVING AND STORE: The receiving and store function accept, store, handle and issue materials and process the necessary documents to record transactions. (i)

Receipt of materials, verification of quality and preparation of material receives reports.

(ii)

Storage of materials in accordance with pre-specified use of stores by using the right facilities and equipment and practicing a system to enable the easy identification of materials.

(iii) Issuing materials upon authorized requisition. (iv) Physical check of stocks to verify accuracy of transactions though constant, special and annual inventories. 3, PRODUCTION CONTROL: The function of production control is increasingly being considered as a part of the materials function. 4, INVENTORY CONTROL: Inventory control is responsible for supplying materials to fulfill production plans and schedules and ensuring that it is achieved with minimum required stocks. 5, PRODUCT DISTRIBUTION: Product distribution receives, stores, select orders, packs and ships finished goods, processes the necessary papers the record such transactions and arranges for transportation of inbound and outbound shipments. 6, MATERIALS COST CONTROL AND COST REDUCTION: As has been stated, materials cost control and cost reduction are the chief tasks of materials management.

EXPLAIN THE FUNCTIONS OF MATERIALS MANAGEMENT. WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF MATERIAL PLANNING? EXPLAIN THE PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL PLANNING.

Functions of the materials management department are grouped. (i)

Materials planning and programming. Planning of materials requirement and its timely provisioning is the essence of the success of materials management. This function involves the setting up of consumption standard or working out the requirements for all materials for any given manufacturing programme, considering all relevant factors, male or buy, laying down standard and specification, sources of supply available, availability of stock, import substitution. Lead time, manufacturing schedule, economic ordering quantity is considered while programming for materials requirement. The department should also follow-up for timely deliveries, and to expedite in case of emergencies.

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123

Purchasing Purchasing function includes locating and development of sources of supply, market research of purchasing, calling for tenders, selection of suppliers, negotiating, entering into rate contract and issue of purchase orders mentioning specifications, delivery schedule and other terms and conditions. Each organization has its own purchase policy, which indicates its policies about (a) Open, limited and single tenders, (b) Rate and running contracts, (c) Purchase through manufacturers, distributers or suppliers, (d) Delegation of powers to its various levels of personnel.

(iii)

Store-Keeping Store-Keeping involves receipt, custody and issue of materials. The materials received against purchase placed by purchase section, are kept in stores after they are in specter and checked for quality as per specifications, physical condition and quality. The materials are kept in stores in such as way that they require minimum handling and remain well protected against any damage or loss. Materials issued from the stores against the authorized indents or store issue vouchers and proper record is maintained for receipts and issues of materials.

(iv)

Inventory control Inventory control is a systematic location, storage and recording of goods in such a way that desired degree of service can be made to the operating shop at minimum ultimate cost. Inventory control has following functions. (a) To run the stores effectively. (b) To ensure timely availability of material and avoid build up of stock. (c) Technical responsibility for the state of materials. (d) To protect the inventories. (e) Pricing of material supplies. (f) To develop policies. (g) To maintain overall control.

(v)

Materials Handling Various functions related to store-keeping requires lot of handling. Starting from receipt of materials, inspection, storage and issue items should be handled in such a way that it require minimum handling. For large stores, suitable materials handling equipment like cranes, hoists, fork lifts, conveyors are required.

(vi)

Quality control and inspection Quality control in simplest terms, is the control of quality during manufacturing. Quality of a product itself comprises several engineering and manufacturing characteristics which go the

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make the product meet the performance expectations of the designer and the customers. These characteristics are Dimensions, Chemical properties, Sensory property. In other words quality includes appearance, performance, life, dependability, reliability, durability, maintainability, small, taste, feel, sound

(vii)

Value engineering Value engineering is a tool of management which approaches the question of saving cost from the point of view of value. In other words value engineering is a study of relationship between the design function and cost of a part, Keeping this is view, reduce the cost through change in design, modification is specification of the materials used, changing the source of supply. (a) Cost value: This is the sum o f all the elements of cost required to produce an item or provide a service. (b) Use value: Use value is equal of the functions performed. (c) Esteem value: The properties, features or attractiveness which creates a desire to possess an articles. (d) Exchange value: The properties or qualities which will remain attractive enough to other people to permit resale in the future.

Materials Planning Introduction of Materials Planning: As planning and controlling is the main function of a manager, materials planning and budgeting is given a prominent place in the integrated materials management set-up. Planning for materials and working out a realistic budget not only help motivate people but also serve as a control device. As we know that in an enterprise planning is done at all levels of the organization, as illustrated in the following diagram.

Top Management

Middle Management

Planning for non-programmed decisions

Planning for programmed decisions

There are large number of non-programmed decisions in materials planning, such as import policy, foreign exchange availability, credit squeeze etc., Which are take by top management. For routine and programmed decisions like working out economic lot, delivery schedule.

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Explain Material Planning. Define Material Planning. Materials planning is the scientific way of determining the requirements of raw materials, components, spares and other items for meeting the production needs within the economic investment policies.

Material planning also involves, maintenance of information system to feed details necessary for its better functioning in future.

Purchase section initiates purchase activities only when they are informed by planning cell about the quality required, procurement programme, and financial provisioning. Materials requirement and its programming is based on lead time so that delivery is ensured at the right time. Materials planning cell prepares its plan based on the production schedules and bill of materials received from the production control department.

Explain the factors of Materials Planning (a) External factors. These covers the factors which are related to the overall business activities affecting the internal policy of the organization towards the materials management. (i)

Price trends of the materials in the market

(ii)

Import policy of the government, for imported materials

(iii)

Prevailing credit policy of the banks

(b) Internal Factors. These factors are related to the internal business activities of the firm. (i)

Objectives of the organization on which entire planning including materials planning, depends.

(ii)

Production programme and scheduling.

(iii)

Lead time decides the inventory level, in turn which help in planning materials requirement and its programming.

(iv)

Working capital requirements and its availability.

(v)

Purchasing policy of the enterprise.

Effective and reliable materials planning (i)

In working out the horizon for planning purposes, the longest lead time that are anticipated must be taken into account so that they are adequately covered.

(ii)

Operating environment of the firm be carefully analyzed.

(iii)

When the planning horizon is short, if more plans are made in a year the materials plan will more reliable.

(iv)

Whenever possible, computerisation of materials planning process should be done.

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Objectives of Material Planning (i)

To offset change and uncertainty. Business conditions are undergoing constant changes. Thus to meet the challenges of change and uncertainty planning must be done.

(ii)

To focus attention on obligation. Because all planning is directed towards achieving enterprise objectives, the very act of planning focuses attention on these objectives.

(iii)

To gain economical operation. Planning minimizes costs becomes of the emphasis on efficient operation and consistency.

(iv)

To facilitate control. Planning also facilitates control a manager can only check on his subordinates accomplishments if planned goals are there for making comparisons and assessments.

What are the needs for material Planning? (i)

Motivates the people: The functions are clearly defined so there is no possibility of the confusion in this there is every activities of the organization is defined so there is the possibility of motivation.

(ii)

To keep production department active. Through proper planning each and every activities are well defined and also it will make the corrective action. These make the production department active.

(iii)

Planning for programmed decision

`

The middle order management engaged itself in planning for programmed decisions.

(iv)

Planning for non- Programmed decision The top management is usually engaged in planning for non programmed decision such as import policy, foreign exchange availability credit and other monetary and fiscal policies.

(v)

Feed back information and reviews Material planning is however is based on certain feed back information and reviews and later it gain helpful for the information system.

(vi)

Forecasting and production programming In fact sales forecasting and production programming are two major functions, which normally precede the materials planning.

WHAT ARE THE TECHNIQUES OF MATERIAL PLANNING? There are two techniques of materials planning are as follow •

Bill of materials techniques.

•

Past consumption analysis technique.

Bill of materials techniques Materials planning is done on the basis of forecast. Requirement of various materials are arrived at the form of sales forecast using bill of material through explosion charts.

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Bill of materials indicate materials required for a given component. It also indicates bought-out item and shop made items. Explosion chart is then made by combining all the bill of materials requirement is determined with the help of explosion charts. Delivery schedules of materials are then prepared considering the production scheduling and inventory level in the stock and organization policies for maximum inventory level. The list of materials so prepared is know as bill of materials which includes all the details as regards to quality, all the details as regards to quality, quantity, code number, drawing number and other necessary specification and provisions for buffer stock and lead time consumption should be made.

Importance: •

The bill of material knows as ‘BOM’ is the simplest techniques of materials planning,

BOM with the required lead time and necessary contingency provision is drawn which eventually turn into indents for procurements.

A BOM therefore, helps in keeping watch over the delivery of matching equipments, spare parts, components and over materials.

A bill materials is also helpful in avoiding the looking of funds uncertainty by proper scheduling the orders, delivery and arrival of materials.

Past consumption analysis technique. The materials which are consumed continuously and for which no bill of materials are made, like maintenance item, lubricants, fuel past consumption data is analyzed and then future projections are made. Where materials are consumed on the continuous basis, the technique of past consumption analysis for material planning is used. According to this technique future projection is made on the basis of the past consumption data.

Importance. Used in process industries. This can be used for materials, being used for which no straight forward norms of consumption can be easily worked out in the organization and also for those materials which are either used directly or indirectly in the production process.

INVENTORY CONTROL MEANING Inventory control is the means by which material of the correct quality and quantity is made available as and when required with due regard to economy in storage and ordering cost, and working capital.

It may also be defined “ as the systematic location, storage and recording of goods in such a way that desired degree of service can be made to the operating shops at minimum ultimate cost”.

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Need Of Inventory Control The necessity of inventory control is to maintain a reserve store of goods that will ensure manufacturing according to a production plan based on sales requirement and the lowest possible ultimate cost. Losses from improper inventory control include purchases in excess than, and what needed, the cost of slowed up production resulting from material not being available when wanted. Each time a machine must be shut down for lack of materials or each time sale must be postponed or cancelled for lack of finished goods. Thus a factory loses money. To promote smooth factory operation and to prevent piling up of stock of idle machine time, proper material must be on hand when it is wanted. Proper inventory6 control can reduce such losses to a great extent. EXPLAIN THE FUNCTIONS OF INVENTRY CONTROL.

(i)

To run the stores effectively. This includes layout, storing media (bins, shelves and open space), utilization of storage space, receiving and issuing procedures.

(ii)

To ensure timely availability of material and avoid build up of stock levels.

(iii)

Technical responsibility for the state of materials. This includes methods of storing, maintenance procedures, studies of deterioration and obsolescence.

(iv)

Stock control system. Physical verification stock taking, maintenance of records, ordering policies and procedures for the purchase of goods.

(v)

Maintenance of specified raw materials. General supplies, work in-process and component parts in sufficient quantities to meet the demand of production.

(vi)

Protecting the inventory from losses due to improper handling and storing of goods and unauthorized removal from stores.

(vii)

Pricing all materials supplied to the shop so as to estimate material cost.

WHAT ARE THE MATHEDS FOLLOWED BY INVENTRY CONTROL? EXPLAIN INVENTORY CONTROL METHEDS. There are six important quality standards used as tool to control Inventory. (i)

The Maximum Stores. This term is applied to designate the upper limit of the Inventory and represents the largest quantity which in the interest of economy should generally be kept in stores.

(ii)

The Minimum Stores. This term is applied to designate the lower limit of the Inventory and represents a reserve or margin of safety to be used in case of emergency. When requirement have been abnormal, it is intended that there must always be at least this quantity available in stores.

(iii)

The Standard Order. It is the quantity to be purchased at any time. Repeat order for a given product are always for this amount until this is revised.

(iv)

The Ordering Point.

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This represents the quantity required to ensure against exhaustion of the supply during the interval between the placement of an order and delivery. When the balance fall to this level, it is an indication that a new purchase order must be placed. (v)

Lead of Procurement Time. In the graph the lead-time is the time which takes the stock to reach from Reorder point to Minimum stock level. In other words, lead-time is the time taken from the time the requisition for an item is raised till the supplies are received, inspected and taken into stock. Lead time involves the time taken by following activities. (a) Requisitioning of material (b) Enquiries, quotations, scrutiny, negotiations and approval (c) Import formalities, in case of imported items (d) Placing an order (e) Time taken by supplier for making the goods ready (f) Transportation (g) Receipt of goods (h) Inspection (i) Taking the material into stock

(vi)

Reserve Stock. If every thing goes as per programme is placed exactly at recorder level, consumption rate remains same and material is received within lead time than there is no need for Reserve or Safety stock. But this seldom happens. Therefore to safeguard the production against uncertainties in consumption rate and lead time, an extra stock is maintained all along and this is called as safety stock, reserve stock or buffer stock.

Safety stock level should be decided very carefully, as lower level may lead to stock out position and higher level means blockage of capital. The factors considered for this purpose are. (i)

Economic size of each purchase order.

(ii)

Increased lock-up of capital.

(iii)

The time required to receive the goods after requisitioning.

(iv)

The probable deprecation and obsolescence.

(v)

The rate of demand.

WHAT ARE THE IMPORTANT TOOLS OF INVENTORY CONTROL? 1. ABC ANALYAIS 2. VED ANALYSIS 3. FSN ANALYSIS 4. EOQ ANALYSIS

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Want is ABC analysis? Explain the advantages. ABC analysis (always better control) In this always control (ABC) technique of inventory control, the materials are classified and controlled according to the value of the materials involved. It is management by exception, system of inventory control. The high value items are paid more attention than low value items. The materials are classified under ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C” designation on the basis of their value and importance. It is also called proportional parts value analysis. The general classification of item under ABC categories are given below:

Category

Percentage of total items

Percentage of total material cost

A

5 to 10

70-80

B

10 to 20

10-20

C

70 to 80

5-10

From the above classification, it is clear that ‘A’ items are of minimum quantity an of maximum value out of total quantity and value of materials. ‘B’ & ‘C’ are of portion quantity of raw materials but having minimum capital investment hence A & B have to be controlled to the fullest possible extent by all methods of inventory control and B & C are to be managed through less stringent controls

Advantages of ABC techniques: 1) Closer and stricter control can be exercised on those items which represent large amount of capital invested. 2) Investment in inventory is regulated and funds can be utilized in the best possible way. 3) Economy in stock carrying costs. 4) It helps in maintaining enough safety stock for ‘C’ category items. 5) Selective control helps in maintaining high stock turnover rate.

What are the varies ABC policies?

Policies for A items (i)

Since these items account for 70% of the total value hence they should be ordered more frequently, but in small quantities in order to reduce capital \locked up at any time.

(ii)

The requirement of such items must be planned in advance for expected future consumption, so that only the required quantities arrive a little before they are required for consumption.

(iii)

Purchase of A items should be looked into by the top executives in purchasing department.

(iv)

Since A items should be stocked as minimum as possible, maximum effort should be made to expedite the delivery.

(v)

Two or more suppliers for each item may be engaged so that dependence on one supplier is eliminated to safeguard against failure by one supplier.

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Policies for B items (i)

The policies for B item in general are in between those for A and C items.

(ii)

Order for those items must be placed less frequently than for A items. Generally 3 to 6 orders per year are placed for B items.

Policies for C items (i)

Since C items do not involve much capital tie up, the stock for such items may be kept liberal.

(ii)

Annual or 6 monthly order should be placed to reduce paper work and ordering cost and to get advantage of quality discounts for bulk purchases.

What is meant by VED analysis and explain in detail? VED analysis V- stands for vital items, without which production of would come to halt. E- is for Essential items, without which did location of production work occurs. D- is for Desirable items. Remaining items which do not cause any immediate loss in production fall under this category.

Vital, essential and desirable analysis is done mainly for control of spare parts. Spares are controlled on the basis of their importance. Vital spares are crucial for production. Non-availability may stop production. The stock out cost of these spares is very high. Essential spares are spares the stock out of which cannot be sustained for more that a few hours and cost of loss of production is high. Desirable spares are needed but their absence for short time may not lead to stoppage of production.

What is meant by FSN analysis and explain in detail? This analysis related to the demand for the materials and stock moving pattern. F- Fast Moving S- Slow Moving N- Non- Moving Analysis •

Fast moving materials are to be stocked nearer to the store keeper.

Slow moving materials are stocked at a considerable distance.

Non-Moving materials are stocked in place with out causing inconvenience to day to day movement of men and materials.

Similarly fast moving materials must be placed easily reached by the store keeper.

Non-Moving materials are kept in a remote place.

This analysis will help for optimal utilization of space available and materials handling time of the store keeper.

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Explain EOQ analysis. Economic Order Quantity This method of material control utilizes the principles of planning the demand for and supply of each item of material t lowest cost possible. With lowest possible inventory, consistent with operating requirements. Optimum quantity of purchasing and manufacturing are determined to economic the cost of procuring, storing and consuming each item of material. The various stock levels are Minimum stock level, Maximum stock level, Danger level, reorder level. Economic ordering quantity The evaluation of the most economic quantity to be purchased involves calculation of the following two cost: (i)

PROCUREMENT COST OR BUYING COST, OR SET UP COST.

(ii)

INVENTORY CARRYING COST.

Procurement cost: This cost includes the expenditure made on: (i)

Calling quotations.

(ii)

Processing quotations.

(iii)

Placing purchase orders.

(iv)

Receiving and inspecting.

(v)

Verifying and payment of bills.

(vi)

Other incidental charge.

Inventory Carrying Cost: This consists of expenditure made for: (i)

Interest on capital.

(ii)

Insurance.

(iii)

Storage and handling.

(iv)

Obsolescence and Depreciation.

(v)

Deterioration.

(vi)

Taxes.

IMPORTANCE OF EOQ 1, In real life situation, demand is never deterministic. 2,Even if demand remains known over a range of probable values, the starting point for a design of an inventory system in “EOQ�, even though by itself it is not an inventory system. 3, Another important feature of EOQ is justifying the conventional ABC and also elaborating it 4, The order quantity could be altered to get benefits of transport getting a truck load or a wagon load.

INPORTANT ASSUMPTIONS IN APPLING THE EOQ MODEL: (i)

Demand is continuous and constant, and does not change with time.

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Load-time is constant. In practice, these are often quite variable. This will stock out when lead time is more than normal, and produces excess inventories when the lead time is shorter than normal.

(iii)

Delivery of all the items is instantaneous.

(iv)

Replenishment of one item has on effect on the replenishment of any other item of inventory.

(v)

Purchase price and their and their cost parameters.

MATERIAL HANDLING INTRODUCTION MEANING AND DEFINITION According to American Material Handling Society, material handling amount for 15 to 25% of total cost of product. Material handling is the art and science involving the movement, handling and storage of materials during different stages of manufacturing.

In order to convert the raw materials in to finished products, it is essential that one of the three basic elements of production, material, men or machines should move. In majority of the industrial processes, it is the material that moves from raw material stage to finished goods stage. Because the material is more widely moved rather than the men or machines, it is known be the name material handling.

Definition of Material Handling According to the International Material Management Society “Material handling is the art and science involving the movements, Packaging and storing of substances in any form”

According to Raymond A. Kulwice defines “Materials handling is a system or combination of methods, facilities, labour and equipment for moving, packing and storing the materials to meet specific objectives”

IN WHICH MANNER THE FINISHED PRODUCT MOVED FROM ONE LOCATION TO ANOTHER: Materials and finished products must be moved from one location to another. Material handling is concerned with (a) Movement: Material handling expert are primarily concerned with how raw materials reach the operator and how finished or processed articles are removed from the work area. (b) Time: material handling must ensure that no product process or the needs of a customer will be hampered by sending the materials too early or too late at a chosen location (c) Quality: Material handling must also ensure that each location continually receive the correct quality of parts\raw materials. (d) Space: Space requirement are generally influenced by the materials handling flow pattern. Storage of raw material part and semi-finished or finished products involves material handling.

EXPLAIN MATERIAL HANDLING ACTIVITIES AND ITS FUNCTIONS. In a manufacturing organization, the handling activities include 1. Transportation and handling at suppliers’ end

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2. Material handling at manufacturing plant. 3. Transportation and handling from warehouse to customer (Physical distribution)

But we are more concerned in this chapter with materials handling within the plant. The material handling activity in the plant begins with the unloading of the material after receipt from suppliers, and extends throughout the processing from raw material stage till it is manufactured and stored in the warehouse to be dispatched to he customer.

• •

Packing at customers end Loading and transportation at suppliers end External plant handling

• • • • • • • • •

Unloading Receiving and temporary storage location Storing Issuing Workplace handling In process handling and storage Inter-department Inter plant Packaging Warehousing of finished goods Loading and shipping

Transportation to consum Inter-plant handling

IMPORTANCE OF MATERIAL HANDLING: Material handling accounts for approximately 15 to 25 per cent of the total cost of production. Though material handling operations add no value to he end product, the operations may help in reducing the cost of production since material handling operation offers enough scope for minimization of handling operations result in delay. Delay reduces speed which obviously leads to idling of materials and equipment adding to carrying costs and slowing down the production. The importance of material handling lies in fact that the cost and the time of material handling can be reduced to a greater extent by adopting a sound system of material handling procedures which result in the following: •

Increased productivity of labour.

Increased production capacity of the plant.

Full utilization of plant capacity

Saving in man-hours.

Reduction in inventory.

Clean shop-floors enabling smooth and efficient functioning of factory.

Less utilization of available space.

Less wastage, spoilage and damage.

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Reduction n fatigue of workers.

Economic utilization of materials brings prosperity to the organization. This fact has now been realized and organizations have become very conscious of this factor.

WHAT ARE THE OBJECTIVES OF MATERIAL HANDLING? •

Selection of machines\equipment and plant layout to minimize material handling requirements.

Selection of appropriate, efficient and safe material handling equipment.

Prevention of damage to materials

Safety in material handling through improvement in working conditions.

Increase the productive capacity of the production facilities and enhancing productivity.

We can minimize the cost of material handling by:

(a) Minimizing movement of semi-finished goods during production. (b) Planning the movement of optimum number of pieces in one unit. (c) Minimizing the distance moved. (d) Increasing the speed of material handling operations through mechanization. (e) Utilising gravity for handling. (f) Standardizing materials and methods. (g) Training the operators.

WHAT ARE THE FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM? Material handling system mainly depends on following primary factors: (i)

Nature of Operations: By this we mean whether material flow is temporary or permanent, continuous or intermittent or even vertical or horizontal. For intermittent industries with process layout, prime requirement of material handling is the volume of load. The equipment can be mobile truck, tractors, trains, cranes etc.,

(ii)

Layout of the Plant: Layout and material handling problems are not separable so they should always be considered jointly. One important consideration is planning the detail of a labour is to provide easy access to all operations by providing an efficient material handling system.

(iii)

Building Construction: Once a building has been erected, it is not possible at a reasonable cost, to make too many changes in the construction merely for the purpose of installing material handling equipment. The equipment used for material handling should be such that no under loads or other strains be placed on the structural members of the building:

(iv)

Material to be Handled: •

Size and shape of the material

Quantity and weight of the material

Material characteristics

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PRODUCTION & MATE. MANG. • (v)

(vi)

(vii)

136

Susceptibility to damage during handling.

Distance over which the material is to moved: •

Fixed distance

Long distance

Work station

Engineering Factors: •

Door and ceiling dimensions

Floor conditions and structural

Traffic safety strength

Equipment reliability: •

Use of standard components

Service facilities

Supplier reputation

EXPLAIN THE PRINCIPLE OF MATERIAL HANDLING: Principles of Material Handling: (i)

Planning Principle: All handling activities should be planned and should not be left to chance, or to the operating personnel to device methods of handling. Material handling may account for 25 to 80 per cent of all productive activity the management of an organization certainly has to plan this sizable portion of total activity and should not leave it to chance.

(ii)

System Principle: Plan a system integrating as many handling activities as possible and coordinating the full scope of operations (Receiving, storage, production, inspection, packing, warehousing, shipping and transportation)

(iii)

Material-Flow Principle: Plan an operation sequence and equipment arrangement to optimize material flow. Material handling and plant layout are interrelated.

(iv)

Simplification Principle: Reduce, combine, or eliminate unnecessary movements and or equipment. Simplification is one of the by-words of efficiency, motion economy, and many other aspects of industrial operations.

(v)

Gravity Principle: Utilise gravity to move material whenever practicable this is an obvious principle but one that is frequently overlooked.

(vi)

Space Utilisation Principle: Factory and warehouse space are expensive therefore wasted space is wasted money. Inherent in this principle is that square feet and cubic feet are to be given due consideration.

(vii)

Unit Size (load) Principle: The quantity size or weight of unity load or flow rate should be increased to he possible limit. In general more the load lower the cost per unit handled.

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Safety Principle: All handling activities in operation or being planned should be safe, since the object of material handling is to improve working conditions by providing safe work environment.

(ix)

Equipment Selection Principle: In selecting material handling equipment, one must consider all aspects of the material to be handled the move to be made the methods to be utilized.

(x)

Mechanisation \ Automation Principle: Use mechanized or automated handling equipment whenever necessary. Use of mechanized or automated handling devices and equipment can be of extreme value in increasing material handling efficiency.

(xi)

Standardisation Principle: Standardise methods as well as types and size of handling equipment consideration. Standardisation does not mean that only one type or make of equipment must be used. It should be interpreted to mean fewer number of types makes, models, sizes.

(xii)

Flexibility Principle: Use methods and equipment that can perform a variety of tasks and applications. Equipment that can perform a wide range of handling tasks and applications can be utilized.

(xiii)

Dead-weight Principle: Reduce the ratio of mobile equipment dead-weight to pay load. Excess weight of mobile equipment not only costs more money, but may require additional power and be slower to operate.

(xiv)

Maintenance Principle: Plan for preventive maintenance and scheduled repair of all handling equipment. The suggestions for application of several of the previous principles have implied the importance of preventive maintenance and schedule repairs to the effectiveness of material handling activities.

(xv)

Control Principle: Use material handling equipment to improve production control, inventory control and order handling. Since material handling equipment is used to move material through the plant and the production processes its use can have a great effect on the control of the items being moved.

(xvi)

Capacity Principle: Make optimal use of equipment to help achieve full production capacity.

(xvii)

Performance Principle:

Determine efficiency job handling performance in terms of cost per unit handled which is the primary criteria.

MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS: WHAT ARE THE EQUIPMENTS USED FOR HANDLING THE MATERIALS? LIST OUT THE EQUIPMENT FOR HANDLING MATERIAS. Various types of equipment available for material handling can be divided on the basis of types of service rendered into three major divisions. They are

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(1) LIFTING AND LOWERING DEVICES •

Block and Tackle

Winches

Hoists

Elevators

(2) TRANSPORTING OR MOVING DEVICES (HORIZONTAL MOTION) •

Hand truck

Wheeler or box truck

Narrow- gauge rail road

Car puller

(3) COMBINATION DEVICES (LIFTING AND LOWERING, TRANSPORTATION) FOR DTACKING AND PORTIONING. •

Spiral chute

Dolly

Low lift truck

Car dumper

Car conveyor

Car puller

Car truck

Air conveyor

Roller conveyor

Lifting and lowering equipment: All handling equipment that comes under at this category has only vertical motion. Some of them are discussed below.

Block and Tackle: Block and tackle arrangement of lifting loads through a vertical distance. This is one of the oldest and simplest equipment. It is used even now by moving men and in hoisting machinery into position. It depends in general on manpower and gives only the mechanical advantage that is possible for the various rope formations. It is the most inexpensive in cost but the most wasteful of manpower.

Winch: This is used to lift loads vertically by winding the rope of cable on a drum. Here, it is possible to use manpower or other power, to get a much greater mechanical advantage than with a Block and Tackle. It is frequently used in loading heavy equipment into ships, construction equipment into buildings and in other similar jobs.

Power Hoists: A power hoist, which is often operated between fixed guide rails, for lifting things vertically. There is an infinity variety of hoists suitable for different purposes. The simplest is the chain hoist, which is operated by hand. There are also hoists operated by compressed air or by electric power.

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The hoists are similar to elevators except that, a hoist does not carry the operator in it but is operated from one or two other point.

Elevator: This is differentiated from hoist by the fact that the operator rides with the load. Although, there are different types for such for such elevators, in general the only important type is the electric one. Hydraulic elevators are now used only where it is prudent to avoid an electric spark, as in acetylene generator houses.

Transporting Devices: Under this type, those devices which allow horizontal motion are dealt.

Hand truck and Wheeler or box truck The simplest transporting devices are wheel barrows and hand trucks. These are still in use in a number of small industries all over the country. Both wheel barrows and hand trucks which are used to carry materials inside the machine shops.

All such equipment involve more manpower for a relatively small load. The chief advantage of these equipment is there very low cost, greater flexibility and easy portability from one job to another. Narrow- gauge rail road: In general, little use is made of such equipment because it requires a heavy investment in laying road-bed and tracks, has little flexibility and is difficult to change at a later date. These were used in the days before the development of equipment having wheels in rubber tyres. They are still found in metal-working industries.

Combination Equipment Spiral chute: One of the simplest equipment that has both vertical and horizontal motion is a chute which may either be straight or spiral. In this, gravity is utilized to move the material. Chutes are common in railway and air line terminals for handling packages and baggage. Chutes are also used in departmental stores in a spiral from to bring the stock reserves from on the upper floors to the lower floors.

Low lift truck: It shows the lifting feature in lift trucks, it provides clearance from the floor fro the skids and permits horizontal transportation.

Belt Conveyor: Belt conveyor consists of moving endless belts and carries materials on them. This has a power driven pulley at one end which moves the belt. Belt is made of rubber fabric or leather. This conveyor is mostly used for handling large quantities of materials such as cement, fertilizer, coal, ore.

Elevating Conveyor: This is used for transporting dry granular materials in the vertical direction with the help of buckets and trays. Roller Conveyor: A roller conveyor. It is used to transport various shapes of products such as huge boxes of products such as huge boxes or materials that extend over several rollers. This type consists of

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rollers supported in frames over which materials are allowed to move. They are driven by power or gravity.

Cable conveyor: Tins is moved by chain or cables in horizontal direction and is installed flush with floor or a little above it. This is used for moving barrels and heavy boxes.

Pipeline Conveyor: This is largely used for transporting dry, pulverized or granular materials, chemical powder. Send, cement, etc. It can be operated by gravity, air pressure or some mechanical means. PURCHASING PURCHASING INTRODUCTION: The scarcity of raw materials has practically put the people in purchasing department in a very tight position. The purchasing department can be in a better position if the designer \takes a little pain to consult the purchasing personnel about the technological capabilities of the vendors. It has been observed that drawings are sent tot purchase department for components with high degree of close tolerance. But we should ensure that high degree of tolerance is really needed because close tolerances not only make procurement difficult also contribute to high price. The main outset of company’s cash goes in materials purchase thus purchasing people should take greater responsibilities and should analyses the existing procurement policy and should tune with the overall organizational objectives and policies.

MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS Material Handling Conveyors: If the path for the flow of material is fixed then the provision of Conveyors at suitable levels eliminates a good deaI of lifting and lowering of :rials. Conveyors require no stopping or starting as they are continuous in :ration. In these, transportation is effected by mction between materials being ISpOrted by the belt. The advantage of conveyors is that they save labour ,st considerably, the disadvantage being occupation of considerable space. There are several kinds of conveyors, such as: (i) Bett conveyor, (ii)Elevating conveyor, (iii) Roller conveyor, (iv) Chain cable conveYOf; (v) Pipe line conveyof, (vi) Screw conveyor. Each type is explained in brief below: I Belt conveyor: Belt conveyor consists of moving endless belts and carries materials on them. This has a power driven pulley at one end which moves the It. Belt is made of rubber fabric or leather. This conveyor is mostly used for

. dling large quantities of materials such as cement, fertilizer, coal, ore, etc. Elevating conveyor: This is used for transp01,1ing dry granular materials in e vertical direction with the help of buckets and trays. I RoUer conveyor: Figure 32.14 shows a roller conveyor. It is used to transport !various shapes of

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products such as huge boxes or materials that extend over ileveral follers. This type consists of rollers supported in frames over which

system utilising conveyors quite freely, whereas a more thorough

study might provide an even

greater Ie I improvement through minor layout revisions. The most important part of a material handling study is the e/ gathering of complete and sufficiently :01 accurate data, for no amount of :a manipulation can transform an Id inherently poor data into a useful state. n. Required changes in processes and equipment must be studied. The influence of a new system on space utilisation, s well as the compatibility of the system with the existing building structure, is important. One system may require considerable aisle space than another, or a proposal may be put into use only after a substantial reinforcement of flooring.

Material handling symbols. It is not that a particular unfavourable factor should result in the rejection. This will measure only the time element in material handling. For finding out the cost effectiveness, we may have to find out the expenses incurred in handling It particular unit of material. Also, it is necessary to know tbe effective utilisation of equipment used in the material handling process. For finding out the effectiveness of equipment util.isation, we should try to d I know the equipment utilisation ratio. Thus, for evaluating the effectiveness . e of a material handling systEm. the following ratios should be computed: 1. Material Handling Time Ratio, 2. Material Handling Cost RaUo. 3. Material Handling Labour Ratio. 4. Material Handling Dir'ect Labour Loss Ratio, and S. Material Movement Operation Ratio) WHAT IS THE MEANING FOR PURCHASING? Purchasing is the activity responsible for getting the right materials to the right place at right time, in the right quaint at the right price. OR The moment buyer placed an order he commits a substantial portion of the finance of the corporation which affects the working capital and cash flow portion. Thus the buyer can make or make the company’s image by his image by his excellent or poor relations with the vendors.

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DESCRIBE THE IMPORTANCE OF GOOD PURCHASING SYSTEM. In any workshop or industry purchase means buying of equipment, materials, parts, tools, stores etc. required for industry. As one of the first act of manufacturing business is to purchase materials, hence purchasing is a primary function. Competitive sales cannot be made unless the material used for manufacturing or for resale are purchased at ultimate cost which is commensurate with that available to competitors.

The importance of the purchasing function varies with the nature and size of industry. In small factories, this function is performed by works manager but in large manufacturing concerns, where large quantities of materials are consumed, the buying function is giving to a separate department under highly competent executive designated as chief buyer or purchase manager or purchasing officer.

The cost of direct and indirect materials from a part of the prime cost of the product. Careful buying helps in reducing the cost of materials and thereby increasing profits. Hence purchasing is one of the delicate activities and the persons employed should be sincere, honest and intelligent.

FUNCTIONS OF PURCHASING DEPARTMENT: WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF PURCHASING DEPARTMENT? 1. To purchase materials on properly authorized requisitions. 2. To place orders of the requisitioned goods with right suppliers. 3. To obtain right type and quality of good at cheapest price. 4. To purchase right quantities in right time. 5. To see that deliveries of all goods are received within time. 6. To check and see that the goods received are in accordance with the orders placed in respect of quality, quantity and specification. 7. To advice the management regarding possible economics to be maintained by manufacturing an ensure availability of materials all the time. 8. To study the market conditions and enter into a rate contact with the large suppliers to ensure availability of materials all the time. 9. To study various sources of supply and decide upon the most convenient as well as alternate supplies. 10. To maintain the list of available and reliable suppliers. 11. To keep the list of articles needed in the organization up to date with their normal quantities for placing orders. 12. To prepare specifications to obtain quotations and compare these quotations and placing orders. 13. TO ensure that suppliers payments are made promptly so that better relations are maintained with the suppliers. 14. To purchase directly all small items, which do not require quotations. 15. To consider first the interest of the enterprise.

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16. To assist purchasing agents, cooperate and guide them, and raise the purchasing standards.

WHAT ARE THE DUTIES OF PURCHASE MANAGER? The most important duties of Purchase Manager are: •

To maintain the standard of quality of product by selecting right quality of materials during of materials during purchases.

To organize and direct the purchasing department for efficient working.

To represent his concern with other concerns during purchasing contacts.

He should maintain the reputation of the concern, through integrity and fair dealings with others while negotiating.

Shops should not await for materials.

To make a final check on all the requisitions received from different shops in the interest of economy, as regards quality, quantity and specifications.

To help in the preparation of purchasing budget.

To spent money on purchases very carefully and wisely.

To suggest if the materials can be economically produced in the concern instead of purchasing and vice-versa.

WHAT ARE THE OBJECTIVES OF PURCHASING? The management expect the purchase department to achieve the five rights in the acquisition of materials. 1. Right Quality: Cost and quantity are critical dimensions. The inter-action between two is very complex. A right quantity is not necessarily a best quality. To a large degree manufacturers determine the quality of goods by the desired quality of product to make. The considerations are basic materials, workmanship, grades, size, designs, colures, patterns, durability. For the purpose of purchasing quality of raw materials etc…., need to be established. 2. Right Quantity: Quantity to be purchased varies with the production strategy and planning. For running operations the value of production in advance, and in such cases it is desirable to enter into annual or biannual contracts specifying periodical supplier at regular intervals. This leaves the burden of ensuring the uninterrupted supply with the suppler and lot of energy of purchase department in saved. In case of carried strategy of manufacture, the techniques of E.O.Q is followed to save the producer from the damager of stock outs as well as carrying cost of surplus inventory. 3. Right Supplier / Source: The source of supplier is determined normally by calling quotations and the lowest bidder is selected provided he has quoted as per the requirement of producer in terms of quality, quantity and period of delivery. It is always prudent to select a manufacturer in case patent standard products even if it means a little extra transportation. Secondly the past records, financial capacity, technical ability, and other resources play important role in the selection of supplier.

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4. Right Time: The ideal time of purchase period would be the minimum time for which the goods remain unconsumed. This could be achieved if the stockiest of manufacturer of raw materials supplies the day-to-day requirements in regular instilments. This would save the storage. But the geographical and market conditions do not permit and it is where the ordering system comes into existence. The timing policies will depend upon fluctuating prices as well as problems arising out of monopolistic trade and sellers maturity. 5. Right Price: The right price is the worth in terms of quality, time and adequacy of supply of an item obtained. It is no doubt easy and safe to go for standard products at a higher price but then one has to keep in mind the utility of item in the ultimate worth of product.

WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF SPECIAL PURCHASING SYSTEM? EXPLAIN THE METHODS OF PURCHASING. Purchasing strictly by requirement. This is also known as hand to mouth purchasing. When a job is taken in hand only then the required quantity of material for that particular job is purchased. Therefore, it is suitable for the concerns, having less working capital. Advantages: •

The market fluctuations will not affect as costing is based on the market rates.

Small storage space will be required.

Disadvantages: •

Distribution cost will be higher.

Sudden demands cannot to met.

Bargaining cannot be had due to the small amounts involved.

Purchasing for a specified period. Generally, the standard items are regularly purchased in quantities that will be sufficient for a particular future period. Advantages: •

Short duration market fluctuations will not effect.

The involved working capital will be less.

Less storage space is needed.

Cost analysis is easier.

Market purchasing. The reasonable requirements based on production planning are calculated. Market trends are analyzed and then purchasing is done. Generally , raw materials used in of manufacturing are purchased by this methods. Advantages: As purchasing is done in lot, distribution cost is less. Disadvantages: •

If the market topples, there is big loss.

Large storage space is required.

Large capital is required.

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Central Purchasing. Large concerns or certain big government concerns may have section wise stores at different places and each section may have a separate store. In such a case, there arises a problem as to whether each store should make its own purchases or whether purchases should be made by the central stores that would go on supplying materials to section wise stores. If the local sectional store is allowed to make its own purchases there would be no delay and the shops can get materials very soon after they have sent their requisitions, but local purchases may sometimes lead to malpractice. The purchase officer may have some kind of understanding with the local dealers and this may result in purchases at higher rates. Advantages: •

Volume discounts are made possible by consolidating all company orders for the same and similar materials.

Duplication of effort and haphazard purchasing practices are minimized.

Services of purchase specialists can be obtained.

Transportation savings can be realized by the consolidation of orders and delivery schedules.

More effective inventory control is possible.

Fewer order are processed for the same quantity of goods purchased, thus reducing purchasing, receiving, inspection, and record keeping expenses.

Better management control.

Contract Purchasing. Contracts are giving to suppliers for large amount of future requirements, for a certain period (Say 2-3 Years), subject to review and cancellation with an appropriate period of notice. In addition, contract purchasing can be classified in the following two groups: Rate Contract. Under this system rates are fixed for certain items of stock or component parts of product for certain period. In this system no tenders are invited but rate are fixed by analyzing the market trends by the purchaser. Any firm whosoever is interested in supplying the material at these fixed rates for that duration can make the supply.

Product like fans, paints, cables can be purchased through this method. This is simple and convenient method. In this method purchaser is not bound to purchase from one supplier but they can receive the materials from any body. Running Contract. In this, the rate as well as quantity for certain period by buyer and supplier is decided. As soon as the desired quantity is supplied by the supplier, the contract is automatically terminated. Main Advantages: •

It avoids necessity for keeping stocks.

It gives a measure of safety to suppliers.

The purchase is not affected by market fluctuations and the supply is ensured.

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As fewer purchase orders are required to be placed, it therefore, reduces to a great extent clerical work, accounting and receiving work.

The purchase department is relieved from the routine work and it can pay more attention on the major works.

Blanket Orders. Blanket Order refer to the purchase of variety of items from a single source. Usually. A middleman. Important characteristics of blanket orders are: •

A blanket order specifies the category of items covered by the order.

The items covered by the order generally have low unit value.

More than one middleman may be selected to avoid hold-ups in case of nonavailability of an item with one.

“Market-price” is generally specified in the order which may include a specified method of determining price variations.

Tender Purchasing: Government department and public sector undertaking in India follow this method of buying. Private sector organizations too adopt tender buying of the value of the purchase exceeds the prescribed limits, say, Rs. 25,000 or Rs. 50,000 fixed by a management as a policy decision. Salient characteristics of the method are: •

The buying department establishes the bidders list and invites them to submit bids. A tender or quotation is a written offer from a supplier to tender a specified service or supply materials of the specified quality, at the specified price and within the specified time.

On receipt, bids are evaluated by comparison and the right supplier is selected. Lowest price is the criterion used except when a supplier quoting the lowest price has questionable delivery time, quality reliability or financial stability.

Seasonal Purchasing: Seasonal buying refers to “buying of the annual requirement of an item during its season”. This method is used for items available in particular season only. Such items may be required for food processing and other similar industries. •

Certain items like oranges, sugarcane, apples, mango, etc., may be available during a particular season only and hence they need to be purchased and stocked in sufficient quantities till the arrival of next season.

The items covered may be small in size but they may be required in large quantities.

Market price is the lowest during the season, therefore, the items can be purchased at the cheapest rates;

Usually the manufacturers are contacted during the season and direct purchases are made.

Group Purchasing: Group purchasing refers to buying of items of trivial value in a single purchase order, Important characteristics of group purchasing are:

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Items required in small quantities are classified into few basic groups, the basic groups being dependent on the source of purchase. For example, drill and taps are placed in one group, plug gauges in another group, screws in yet another group

Minimum and maximum levels are fixed for each item within each classified groups.

One purchase order- one for each group- covering a number of varied item within its group is placed with the supplier.

Quantity, equal to the difference between the “maximum level” and “Stock on hand” is procured for each item.

WHAT IS KARDEX DYSTEM? This system is widely used by the purchase officers and following information can be obtained from the system: (a) What should be purchased? (b) From whom purchase? (c) At what rate? (d) When the material can be delivered? (e) Has it been delivered? (f) Whether payment made? For each item of purchase, a separate card is maintained to keep the record form purchase till receipt of material. When requisitioned sends indent, it is entered in the card along with the details or enquiry and quotations and last date of receipt. When the order is placed, then details of the purchase order are recorded in another card, such as •

Order Number

Date of Order

Quality

Rate Accepted

Delivery Period

The name of the supplier

This above information is very useful, if a repeat order is required to be placed.

EXPLAIN THE PRINCIPLES OF PURCHASE. WHAT ARE THE MAIN PURCHAISNG PRINCIPLES? Right time: This parameter is most critical one due to the consequences of stock out. To determine the right time, information about all the elements of total lead time should be available internal administrative lead time of converting indent into an order, manufacturing and transportation time, inspection lead time. Right Source: Following are the main sources for the procurement of items: •

Authorized dealers of original manufacturers.

Local dealers.

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148 By getting them manufactured.

While selecting a source of supply; timely supply, reliability, price and service facilities offered should be considered. Right Price: Lowest acceptable price consistent with quality, timely supply etc. Should be considered. This is lowest ultimate cost and not the lowest initial cost. Right Quality: While inviting the tenders or placing the enquiries, quality specifications mentioning tolerance etc. Should be clearly spelled out. Right quality means suitability of an item for its intended purpose. Right Quantity: The problem of determining the right quantity is interlinked with the right time. The quantity will be different for each category of manufacturing items or spares such as maintenance, overhaul, insurance of storable spares. Broad guidelines are given by the concept of Economic Order Quantity and Economic Batch Size as described in the chapter on “Inventory Control”. Right Place of Delivery\ Transportation: In most of the cases, items are supplied directly to the consuming units, which may be located at far distant placed from the head-quarter. The palace of delivery should be clearly mentioned in the supply order. Right Procedure: Right procedure to be adopted has to be formally developed for the pre-purchase, ordering, and post purchase system. Pre-purchase system means initiating the purchase through indents requirement, planning, selection of suppliers, obtaining quotations and evaluating them. With purchase order generally an acknowledgement copy is also sent to the supplier, who then return it as a written acceptance of supply order and to abide by the terms and conditions mentioned in the order. Post purchase system include follow up with the suppliers. Right Contract: Purchase order is a legal document that binds selling company with the buying company regarding various terms and conditions such as insurance, sales tax, customs, excise, breach of contract, settlement of dispute, F.O.B., F.I.R., C.I.F., etc. Should be clearly mentioned. VENDOR DEVELOPMENT AND RATING Introduction Most large manufacturing organizations depend on small and medium industries for their requirements of components, sub- assemblies and special items. Small unit need guidance in the form of know-how and assured orders for commercial viability. In fact, they have to be nursed by the bigger industries in the initial stages. This interdependence is fully recognized and this forms the basis of a sound and harmonious vendor-vendee relationship. Any organization should realize that the development of vendors is a planned effort and does not happen by itself. Vendors are considered an important link of a factory and their quality control activities are extension of the factory quality assurance effort. Purchase and quality control are jointly responsible in implementing the vendor development system. They make full use of expertise of production engineering and research and development departments in vendor development. Material Hanallng. According to American Material Handling Society, material handling amounts for 15 to 25% of total cost of product. Material handling is the art and science involving the movement, handling and storage of materials during different stages of manufacturing.

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Out of the total time-spent for manufacturing a product, 20% of the time is utilised for actual processing to them while the remaining 80% is spent in moving from one place to another, w~iting for the processing or storage (temporary). Definition of Material Handling According to the International Material Management Society "Material handling is the art and science involving the movements, packaging and storing of substances in any form". Raymond A. Kulwice defines "materials handling is a system or combination of methods, facilities, labour and equipment for moving, packaging and storing the materials to meet specific objectives".

Material Handling Activities and Functions In a manufacturing organization, the handling activities include 1. Transportation and handling at suppliers' end. 2. Material handling at manufacturing plant. 3. Transportation and handling from warehouse to customer (physical distribution). But we are more concerned in this chapter with material handling the plant. The material handling activity in the plant begins with the unloading 0f the material after receipt from suppliers, and extends throughout the process from raw material stage till it is manufactured and stored in the warehouse be despatched to the customer.

Relation between Plant Layout and Material Handling - There is a close relationship between plant layout and material handling. A good layout ensures minimum material handling and eliminates rehandling. Material movement does not add any value to the product so, material handling should be kept minimum. This is possible only through the systematic plant layout. Thus, a good layout minimises handling. The productive time of workers will be wasted unnecessarily, if they are required to travel long distance to fetch materials, tools, etc. Thus, a good layout ensures minimum travel for workmen and enhances the production time. Space is an important criteria. Plant layout integrates all the movements of men, material through a well designed layout with material handling system. Good plant layout helps in building an efficient material handling system. It helps to keep material handling faster and economical. A good layout reduces the material backtracking, unnecessary movement of workmen. Thus, a good layout always ensure minimum material handling.

Objectives of Material Handling (i) Selection of machines/equipment and plant layout to minimise material handling requirements. (ii) Selection of appropriate, efficient and safe material handling equipment. (iii) Prevention of damage to materials (iv) Safety in material handling through improvement in working conditions. (v) Increase the productive capacity of the production facilities and enhancingproductivity. )

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We can minimise the cost of material handling by: (a) minimising movements of semi-finished goods during production (b) planning the movement of optimum number of pieces in one Unit ( c) minimising the distance moved. (d) increasing the speed of material handling operations through mechanisation. (e) eliminating / minimising backtracking and duplicate handling. (t) utilising gravity for handling. (g) standardising materials and methods. (h) training the operators.

Importance of Material Handling Material handling accounts for approximately 15 to 25 per cent of the cost of production. Though material handling operations add no value to ~end product, the operations may help in reducing the cost of production sin~ : material handling operation offers enough scope for minimisation of handling costs provided materials are moved quickly and safely. Poor material handling operations result in delay. Delay reduces speed which obviously leads to idling.' of materials and equipment adding to carrying costs and slowing down ~ production. The importance of material handling lies in fact that the cost and the ti1rt of material handling can be reduced to a greater extent by adopting a sow.: system of material handling procedures which result in the following: (i) Increased productivity of labour. (ii) Increased production capacity of the plant. (iii) Full utilisation of plant capacity. (iv) Savings in man-hours. (v) Reduction in inventory. (vi) Clean shop-floors enabling smooth and efficient functioning of factory (vii) Less utilisation of available space. (viii) Less wastage, spoilage and damage. (ix) Minimum supervision due to minimisation of interruption in production schedule. (x) Reduction in fatigue of workers. Economic utilisation of materials brings prosperity to the organisation. This fact has now been realised and organisations have become very conscious ~ this factor.

Symptoms of Bad Material Handling 1. Frequent interruption in production due to delay in handling and supply of materials to the point of use. 2. Skilled labour performing duties like storing, movement and handling of materials. 3. Damages to materials in view of frequent handling. 4. Accumulation of work-in-process and materials in different locations. 5. Reworking and rejections due to handling defects.

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6. Crowded floor space with scrap and materials strewn all round. 7. Congestion at receipt, production and inspection areas. 8. Awaiting long for material handling equipment to pick up and deliver materials.

Factors Influencing the Selection of Material Handling System Material handling system mainly depends on following primary factors: (ij Nature of Operations: By this we mean whether material flow is temporary or permanent, continuous or intermittent, or even vertical or horizontal. For intermittent industries with process layout, prime requirement of material handling is the volume of load. The equipment can be mobile trucks, tractors, trains, cranes, etc. For continuous industries using line or product layout, some direct means of transportation between various operations are required. (ii) Layout of the Plant: Layout and material handling problems are not separable so they should always be considered jointly. One important consideration in planning the details of a labour is to provide easy access' to all operations by providing an efficient material handling system. (iii) Building Construction: Once a btVlding has been erected, it is not possible, at a reasonable cost, to make too many changes in the construction merely for the purpose of in stalling Material handling equipment. The equipment used for material handling should be such that no undue loads or other strains be placed on the structural members of the building.

Other Factors that are taken in to account while selecting material handling equipment are listed below: (iv) Material to be handled: (a) Size and shape of the material, (b) Quantity and weight of the materjal, (c) Material characteristics and (d) Susceptibility 10 damage during handling.

(v) Distance over which the material is to be moved: (a) Fixed distance, (b) Long distance and (c) Work station (vi) Installation and operating costs: (a) Initial investment, (b) Operating and maintenance costs.

(vii) Engmeering factors: (a) Door and ceiling dimensions, (b) Floor conditions and structural and (c) Traffic safety strength.

(viii) Equipment reliability: (a) Use of standard components, (b) Service facilities and (c) Supplier reputation

(xi) Standardisation Principle: Standardise methods as well as types and sizes of handling equipment consideration. Standardisation does not mean that only one type or make of equipment must be used. It should be interpreted to mean fewer number of types makes, models, sizes, etc.

(xiij Flexibility Principle: Use methods and equipment that can perform a variety of tasks and applications. Equipment that can perform a wide range of handling tasks and which has a variety of uses

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and applications can be utilised.

(xiiij Dead-Weight Principle: Reduce the ratio of mobile equipment deadweight to pay load. Excess weight of mobile equipment not only costs more money, but may require additional power and be slower to operate. It is, therefore, unwise to invest in a heavier-weight piece of equipment than is required by the task to be performed. (xiv) Motion Principle: Equipment designed to transport materials should be kept in motion. This principle implies that mobile equipment should be' kept moving, i.e., performing the function for which it was designed. It should not be tied up for unduly long periods of time for loading and unloading. (xv) Idle- TIme Principle: Reduce idle or unproductive time on both handling equipment and manpower. Idle time is undesirable in any industrial or commercial activity, and especially so in the use of material handling equipment or manpower. Therefore, every effort should be made to plan methods and schedule equipment to permit full use of both equipment and manpower. (xvij Maintenance Principle: Plan for preventive maintenance and scheduled repair of all handling equipment. The suggestions for application of several of the previous principles have implied the importance of preventive maintenance and scheduled repairs to the effectiveness of material handling activities. (xvii) Obsolescence Principle: Replace obsolete handling methods and equipment with latest methods and equipment. As with any other type of physical equipment, material handling devices are subject to obsolescence, as well as depreciation. New equipment may be faster, more efficient, etc., and may result in a lower cost per unit handled even though it does require a capital investment. (xviii) Control Principle: Use material handling equipment to improve production control, inventory control and order handling. Since material handling equipment is used to move material through the plant and the production processes, its use can have a great effect on the control of the items being moved. (xix) Capacity Principle: Make optimal use of handling equipment to help achieve full production capacity. (xx) Performance Principle: Determine efficiency of handling performance terms of cost per unit handled which is to be primary Criteria (xi) Standardisation Principle: Standardise methods as well as types and sizes of handling equipment consideration. Standardisation does not mean that only one type or make of equipment must be used. It should be interpreted to mean fewer number of types makes, models, sizes, etc. (xii) Flexibility Principle: Use methods and equipment that can perform a variety of tasks and applications. Equipment that can perform a wide range of handling tasks and which has a variety of uses and applications can be utilised. (xiii) Dead-Weight Principle: Reduce the ratio of mobile equipment deadweight to pay load. Excess weight of mobile equipment not only costs more money, but may require additional power and be slower to operate. It is, therefore, unwise to invest in a heavier-weight piece of equipment than is required by the task to be performed. (xiv) Motion Principle: Equipment designed to transport materials should be kept in motion. This

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principle implies that mobile equipment should be' kept moving, i.e., performing the function for which it was designed. It should not be tied up for unduly long periods of time for loading and unloading. (xv) ldletime Principle: Reduce idle or unproductive time on both handling equipment and manpower. Idle time is undesirable in any industrial or commercial activity, and especially so in the use of materia I handling equipment or manpower. Therefore, every effort should be made to plan methods and schedule equipment to permit fun use of both equipment and manpower. (xvi) Maintenance Principle: Plan for preventive maintenance and scheduled repair of all handling equipment. The suggestions for application of several of the previous principles have implied the importance of preventive maintenance and scheduled repairs to the effectiveness of material handling activities. (.'(Vii) Obsolescence Principle: Replace obsolete handling methods and equipment with latest methods and equipment. As with any other type of physical equipment, material handling devices are select to obsolescence, as well as depreciation. New equipment may be faster, more efficient, etc., and may result in a lower cost per unit handled even though it does require a capital investment. (xviii) Control Principle: Use material handling equipment to improve production control, inventory control and order handling. Since material handling equipment is used to move mat(:rial through the plant and the production processes, its use can have a great effect on the control of the items being moved. (xix) Capacity Principle: Make optimal use of handling equipment to help achieve full production capacity.

Material Handling Costs The cost of material handling includes the cost of owning and maintaining equipment and the cost of operating the system. Every effort should be made to reduce material handling costs, as they do not add any value to a product. How to reduce handling costs? There are three fundamental ways of minimisingthe costs: a. Eliminating the handling itself whenever and wherever possible. b. Mechanising the movement by conveyors and power driven trucks. c. Making the handling operations more efficient. The primary requisite for any action to be taken towards minimising handling costs is to have a record maintained for them.

MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT Various types of equipment available for material handling can be divided on the basis of types of services rendered, into three major divisions. They are: 1. Lifting and lowering devices. 2. Transporting or moving devices (horizontal motion). 3. Combination devices (lifting & lowering and transportation) for stacking and portioning. 1. Lifting and lowering equipment. It includes - . (a) Block and tackle

(b) Winches

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(c) Hoists

(d) Elevators

(e) Pillar crane

( e) Overhead crane

2. Transporting equipment. It includes (a) Hand truck (c) Narrow-gauge rail road 3. Combination equipment. It includes (a) Spiral chute (c) Dolly (e) Low lift truck (g) Car dumper (i) Power-operated tail board type (k) Wheel gravity conveyor (m) Pneumatic tube (0) Screw conveyor (q) Portable conveyor Some of the important material handling equipment that are commonly used in industries have been explained below. 1. Lifting and lowering equipment: All handling equipment that comes under at this category has only vertical motion. Some of them are discussed below) Material Handling Block and Tackle: flgure 32.2 shows a Block and Tackle arrangement of lifting loads through a vertical distance. This is one of the oldest and simplest equipment. It is used even now by moving men and in hoisting machinery into position. It depends iri general on manpower and gives only Ihe mechanical advantage that is possible for the various rope formations. It ~ the most inexpensive in cost but the most wasteful of manpower. shows the winch. This is Used to lift loads vertically by winding the rope or cable on a drum. Here, it is It is possible to use manpower or other power, to get a much greater mechanical advantage than with a Block and Tackle. It is fiequently used in loading heavy equipment into ships, construction equipment into buildings ) and in other similar jobs \, between fIxed guide rails, for lifting things vertically. There is an infInite variety of hoists suitable for different purposes. The simplest is the chain hoist, which is operated by hand. There are also hoists operated by compressed air or by electric power. The hoists are similar to elevators except that, a hoist does not carry the operator in it but is operated from one or two other points Hydraulic Elevator. This is differentiated from hoist by the fact that the operator rides with the load. Although, there are different types of drives for such elevators, in general the only important type is the electric one. Hydraulic elevators are used Overhead crane: Fi re 32.6 shows an overhead travelling crane. Today all the big workshops such as foundry, power house, chemical plants, huge repairing shops, etc., have these cranes. These cranes have the advantage of providing large service area and freedom from obstruction on

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the floor. In these all the movements are controlled by the driver seated in this cabin. 2. Transporting Devices: Under this type, those devices which allow horizontal motion are dealt. (a) The simplest transporting devices are wheel barrows and hand trucks. These are still in use in a number of small industries all over the country. Figures given below show, both wheel barrows and hand trucks which are used to carry materials inside the machine Shop.:) All such equipment involve more manpower for a relatively small load The chief advantage of these equipment is there very low cost, greater flexibility~ and easy portability from one job to mother. (b) Narrow-gauge Rail road: In general, little use is made of such equipment because it requires a heavy investment in laying road-bed and tracks, has little flexibility and is difficult to change at a eater date. These were used in the day before the development of equipment having wheels in rubber tyres. They a still found in metal-working industries (blast furnaces, copper refineries and steel-rolling operations). In mining activities, it is cheaper to lay tracks than~ pave the entire area. Tractors and Trailers: These are one of the most common methods of, . Horizontal transportation. Greater flexibility is achieved as tractors can be use to haul a variety of different types of trailers. Trailers can be lift loaded and picked up by different tractors. This is one of the most important methods ~ handling materials inside a plant and from one building to another." . Railway Equipment: Where plants are located at a considerable distance li6-the units handled are extremely large, such as in some steel-rolling, the use of railway equipment. is advantageous. Aerial Tramways: This is also a horizontal transportation system in which 1~load carrying vehicle is supported from the top, usually by means of a cable 1M its equivalent. Skid$: These are shown in figure 32.10 and they are used with lift trucks. goods may be loaded into skids and then picked up with lift trucks. The skid wiII be loaded as a unit and transferred from position to position without sequent loading and unloading. Both skids and pallets raise the l~ off the supporting surface and allow easy insertion of the conveying me Some materials are stored on dollies figure 32.10 (c). This can be moved on meters. Other materials are stored on skids. The most common skid, which can be picked up in either direction, consists of a wooden platform and four steel legs. Pipelines: Pipelines and pumps are also used for horizontal transportation of commodities. . Most obvious among these is oil, which is pumped at great distance through pipelines. Natural gas is-also carried through pipelines. Water is similarly transported.

Combination Equipment (a)

Chute: One of the simplest equipment that has both vertical and horizontal motion is a chute which may either be straight or spiral. In this, gravity is utilised to move the material. Ch1,1tes are common in railway and air line terminals for handling packages and baggage. Chutes are also used in departmental stores in a spiral form to bring the :.tock reserves from on the upper floors to the lower floors. Lift Truck: Figure 32.11 shows the lifting feature in lift trucks, it provides 'clearance from the floor for the skids and permits horizontal transportation. ma.Crane Truck: Small crane trucks as shown in figure 32.12 operate on the belt., same principle as lift trucks. These are used for materials that cannot be put on handling. skids. This moves quickly over

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smooth, even and hard ground. In these cranes ~ solid rubber tyres are US . The cranes are of rotary type, so that loads can be the lifted from any position. Production and Materials Management Cable conveyor: This is moved by chains or cables in horizontal direction and is installed flush with floor or a little above it. This is used for movingbarrels and heavy boxes. Pipeline conveyor: This is largely used for transporting dry, pulverize or granular materials, chemical powder, sand, cement, etc. It can be operate~ by gravity, air pressure or some mechanical means. Screw conveyor: This tyPeis used for transmitting, materials in the past or powder form with the application of rotating screw)

MATERIAL HANDLING ANALYSIS When one liewith a material handling problem for a number of years, h~ she becomes so accustomed to the existing situations that problems are not recognized as such. The recognition of a material handling problem constitutes! major step towards its solution. Occasionally, one finds that an expert in the field can recognize material handling problems upon a somewhat cursory observation, The systems which are noticeable to such experts include production delay, backtracking, considerable manual lifting, too much handling at work stations and excessive damage in transit, to name a few. One can fmd that the same methodical and detailed approach is used here as is used in studying methods and plant layout projects. Even those who might recognise a material handling problem without making a single chart or diagram find such tools to be very helpful when a project is attacked seriously. Method handling, and layout work are so interrelated that require a great deal 01 coordination between functional specialists in the three areas, and the tools an~ techniques used in handling studies are generally the same as those discussed in previous chapters on methods and layout. However, the analyst may find the symbols shown below helpful in his work. Material Handling Symbols A symbols is a significant indication, mark, character, or group of character which may consist of figures, letters, or signs chosen to typify or represent an ideal or item. A system of coloured symbols facilitates distinction and easy identification, However, the analyst may find the following material handling symbols helpful in his/her work.

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