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Prinect Micro−6i Format 102/105 Dipco 4.5f (pdf) © 2009

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16

CBNW – Chemical, Biological & Nuclear Warfare

2018 | 01

2018 | 01

Response Sound the alarm

CHEMICAL ATTACKS: The rising threat WE CAN BE HEROES Citizens’ response

LONDON FIRE BRIGADE Putting out fire

UGVs GO UNDERGROUND Robots to the rescue 16/01/2018 18:22

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Prinect Micro−6i Format 102/105 Dipco 4.5f (pdf) © 2

01 Covers_wSpine_Jan18.indd 2-4

0

FLIR Griffin™ G510 Portable GC-MS Chemical Identifier

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To learn more, go to FLIR.com/G510.

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threats in seconds, so that responders can take immediate action.

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sample probe. It analyzes all phases of matter and confirms vapor-based

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NO TIME? NO LAB? NO PROBLEM.


CONTENTS

05

Foreword Andy Oppenheimer argues that terrorism has become the new norm.

06 08 20

Events and advertisers

TERRORISM UPDATE: From IEDS to killer bees Andy Oppenheimer reviews recent attacks in the UK and challenges ahead.

12

SPECIAL REPORT: Open season Col Hamish de Bretton Gordon assesses jihadist chemical attacks after the defeat of Daesh.

16 32

COUNTRY FOCUS: Profumo di agrumi Col Fabrizio Benigni & Lt Col Andrea Gloria on training with the Italian 7th NBC Defence Regiment.

60 20

Putting out fire David Oliver reports on chemical attack preparations by the London Fire Brigade.

24

The sting of the dying wasp Andy Oppenheimer analyses the growth in improvised chemical devices.

64

28

Too fast, too much Col Ram Athavale sounds the alarm on CBRN communications.

32

Robots to the rescue Ed Gummow rolls out UGVs for the transport network.

Third in the world Col H. R. Naidu Gade reviews safety at India’s nuclear facilities.

50

COUNTRY FOCUS: Hearts, minds, and missiles Brig Gen Xavier Stewart assesses the threat from North Korea.

56

A kestrel for the brave Chris Jackson describes the Remploy revival.

60

Heading into the Hot Zone Coben Hoch outlines a new military radiation detection system.

64

A Brief History of Bombings Kevin Cresswell provides a timeline of terrorist blasts in Britain.

68

A good RIID James Tomlinson presents new portable gamma ray spectrometers.

70

Up in the air Ilja M. Bonsen recommends ways to deal with CBRN threats to aviation.

74

COUNTRY FOCUS: Croce Rossa Italiana Gabriele Lupini et al describe CBRN training with the Italian Red Cross.

78

Cleaning the cloud José Luis Pérez-Díaz outlines a new device for rapid decontamination.

36

80

40

84

Rock, paper, scissors Grant Coffey asks if we are taking chances with CBRNE response.

Don’t drink the water Col Zygmunt F. Dembek outlines bioterrorist attacks on the water supply.

ON THE COVER

46

Clash of the Titans Frank G. Rando relates how natural disasters affect hazardous infrastructure.

We can be heroes Dee Ruelas re-states the vital role of citizens in response.

CBNW is published by React Media Publishing, 15 Heritage House, Chase Side, London N14 5BT. Telephone: +44 20 8886 2133 E-mail: tina@chembio.biz www.cbnw.co.uk

Publisher Tahmiena Naji | Editor-in-Chief Andy Oppenheimer AIExpE MIABTI Deputy Editors Dr. Salma Abbasi, David Oliver | US Correspondent Frank Rando Designer/Production Manager Mariel Tabora Foulds Printed by: The Manson Group, 8 Porters Wood, Valley Road Industrial Estate, St Albans AL3 6PZ. Tel: 01727 848440

©US DoD

ISSN 2051-6584. © React Media Publishing 2018. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be used, reproduced, stored in an information retrieval system or transmitted in any manner whatsoever without the express written permission of React Media. This publication has been prepared wholly upon information supplied by the contributors and while the publishers trust that its contents will be of interest to readers, its accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The publishers are unable to accept, and hereby expressly disclaim any liability for the consequences of any inaccuracies, errors or omissions in such information whether occurring during the processing of such information for publication or otherwise. No representations, whether within the meaning of the Misrepresentation Act 1967 or otherwise, warranties or endorsements of any information contained herein are given or intended and full verification of all information appearing in the publication of the articles contained herein does not necessarily imply that any opinions therein are necessarily those of the publishers.

CBNW 2018/01 03


FOREWORD

Taking the roof off

I

n 2017, terrorism once again became the new norm in Britain. The flurry of violent jihadist attacks in the first half of the year claimed 36 lives. London suffered two vehicle-ramming and stabbing attacks on Westminster Bridge and London Bridge. On 1 November this form of attack hit New York City, when a 29-year-old man drove a pick-up truck onto a cycle path in Lower Manhattan, killing eight and injuring 11. On 11 December a man set off a person-borne, crudely made pipe bomb below the Port Authority bus terminal in New York City, injuring four. On 22 May a lone terrorist wielding a single peroxide-based IED killed 22 – mainly youngsters – and injured 120 at the end of a pop concert in Manchester. It was the UK’s most lethal jihadist attack since the transit bombings in London on 7 July 2005. On 15 September a device abandoned on a train at Parsons Green station in west London caught

“That threat is multi-dimensional, evolving rapidly and operating at a scale and pace we’ve not seen before.” MI5 DIRECTOR GENERAL ANDREW PARKER

fire but did not fully detonate. Public expectation of acts of terrorism – along with foolhardy use of social media – may have contributed to

the mass panic that broke out in November at Oxford Circus following reports of gunshots fired on a platform: 16 were injured. MI5 Director General Andrew Parker has warned Britain is facing its most severe ever terrorist threat. Seven jihadist plots were pre-empted in the first seven months of the year alone. A record number of terrorism-related arrests – 400 – were made in the UK in the year up to September. 2017 saw further chemical attacks on the Syrian people by government forces, with CW also being added to the hundreds of IEDs laid by Daesh in once occupied areas in Iraq and Syria. The threat of chemical attacks in Europe and elsewhere is rising. Some 5,000 European jihadists have returned, some having gained combat experience on the battlefields of the Middle East. The abilities of Daesh to ram army vehicles and checkpoints with VBIEDs as well as aiming them at crowds of civilians may be applied to their deployment of chemical devices. In November, a radioactive cloud drifted over Europe, believed to have emanated from an emission in September from the Ural Mountains, not far from Chernobyl. Russia’s meteorological service reported 1,000 times normal levels of a radioactive isotope, ruthenium-106, which has a one-year half-life. French nuclear safety institute IRSN said the emission indicated a possible leak or accident emanating from a medical facility. Russia said a nuclear accident has not occurred on its territory. 2017 also saw the inexorable rise of nuclear North Korea. In September, Dictator Kim detonated what he claimed was a nuclear fusion device, and in December, after several long-range missile tests, fired an ICBM over the Sea of Japan with a range to reach continental USA. The Great Unmentionable – nuclear war – began to be uttered again after long years in post-Cold-War storage. Six tests have been conducted beneath Mt Mantap; further cataclysmic explosions at the same spot are likely to make the tunnels beneath the mountain collapse and release blast energy and radiation. Senior researcher on China’s nuclear weapons programme, Wang Naiyan, called it “taking the roof off.” The Great Nuclear Unmentionable is making a comeback. ❚❙

In this edition we home in on rapid response, with Ed Gummow rolling out a UGV platform on our transport network, while David Oliver visits the London Fire Brigade; Col Hamish de Bretton Gordon reports from the Middle East on the rising chemical weapons threat, with Andy Oppenheimer adding improvised chemical devices to the mix; our Country Focus takes us to Italy for CBRN training and Kevin Cresswell takes a ringside seat for a Thrilla in Manila; Col Ram Athavale sounds the alarm on crisis communications, and Dee Ruelas tells us to duck and cover – again.

CBNW 2018/01 05


EVENTS & INDEX EVENTS 2018

13-14 FEBRUARY

NCT

Bogota Colombia nctsouthamerica.com

5-6

Joint Civil & DOD CBRN Symposium

MARCH

jointcbrn.dsigroup.org

6-7

SCTX London

3-5

NCT USA

MARCH

APRIL

17-19 APRIL

28-30 MAY

4-7 JUNE

11-15 JUNE

18-22 JUNE

Alexandria VA

London, UK

counterterrorexpo.com

ADVERTISERS INDEX 3M SCOTT SAFETY

37

AIRBOSS DEFENSE

43

ARGON ELECTRONICS (UK) LTD

13

BATTELLE

OBC

BERTIN SYSTEMS & INSTRUMENTATION

17

BRUKER DALTONIK GMBH

23

CQC LTD

19

CRISTANINI

27

DXTERITY

65

ENVIRONICS OY

Washington DC

FIRST LINE TECHNOLOGY

nct.usa.com

FLIR INC

4 39 IFC

HOMELAND DEFSEC

67

Rome, Italy

I-BODI TECHNOLOGY

11

intelligence-sec.com/events

INDRA

35

NCT Asia Pacific

NBC-SYS

49

CBRNe Summit Europe

Tokyo Japan

nctasiapacific.com 10th Symposium on CBRN Threats

Rovaniemi, Finland nbcsec.fi

OWR GMBH

IBC

OUVRY SAS

45

PAUL BOYE TECHNOLOGIES

7

PROENGIN

31

JOHNSON MATTHEY (TRACERCO)

57

Eurosatory Paris

SHOW ADS

eurosatory.com

4TH SYMPOSIUM ON DEVELOPMENT OF CBRN PROTECTION CAPABILITIES BERLIN

77

CBRNE SUMMIT ROME

83

EUROSATORY

81

IB CONSULTANCY NCT EVENTS

61

Vught Netherlands

JOINT CIVIL AND DOD SYMPOSIUM

75

Paris, France

IABTI International In-Service Training

Reno, NV, USA

www.iabti.org/itc

3-5

NCT Europe

ncteurope.com

NBC 2018 SYMPOSIUM FINLAND

85

4-5

4th International CBRN Symposium

SECURITY AND COUNTER TERROR EXPO

72

JULY

Berlin, Germany

SEPTEMBER

UK SECURITY EXPO

75

www.cbrn-symposium.com

WORLD MEDICAL & CBRN CONGRESS PRAGUE

77

16-18

NCT Asia Hanoi

Hanoi, Vietnam

BERTIN SYSTEMS AND INSTRUMENTATION

88

CRISTANINI

88

ENVIRONICS OY

89

FIELD FORENSICS INC.

52

INDRA

89

OUVRY SAS

90

London Olympia

SAAB

90

uksecurityexpo.com

SECURITY AND COUNTER TERROR EXPO

87

OCTOBER

http://www.nct-asia.com

17-19

World CBRN & Medical Congress

OCTOBER

29-30 NOVEMBER

06 CBNW 2018/01

ADVERTORIALS

Prague, Czech Republic

natoexhibition.com/forum/event/9_ cbrn-workshop UK Security Expo


TERRORISM

B

y end 2017 Daesh had lost almost all areas they once occupied as a brutally administered proto-Caliphate. But the war on Daesh is far from over. They have laid thousands of IEDs in abandoned buildings and streets, some laced with mustard agent and chlorine. And like hidden time bombs, some 5,000 European jihadists have returned to the EU after obtaining combat experience on the battlefields of the Middle East.

Daesh: it’s not over until it’s over

In the battle for Mosul, Daesh gained the ability – with tons of explosives and munitions at their disposal – to ram army vehicles and checkpoints with vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIEDs). The use of VBIEDs against troops and bases, as well as to kill civilians, reflects the growing crossover of 21st-century warfare with insurgency and terrorism. Lone actors and starter cells have taken up the cudgel of their twisted ideology and continue to launch random attacks in our cities.

UK and US: prime targets

In 2017, terrorism once again became the new norm in Britain. The flurry of violent jihadist attacks in the first half of the year claimed 36 lives. London suffered two vehicle-ramming and stabbing attacks. On 22 March a lone driver mowed down and killed four people on Westminster Bridge and then stabbed a police officer to death close to the Houses of Parliament; 50 were injured. On 3 June, a gang of three mowed down eight people on London Bridge and wounded a further 48 in a stabbing rampage down Borough High Street. In between these two marauding atrocities, on 22 May a lone terrorist wielding a single IED killed 22 – mainly youngsters – and injured 120 at the end of a pop concert in Manchester Arena. It was the UK’s most lethal jihadist attack since the transit bombings in London on 7 July 2005, in which 56 died and over 700 were injured.

device abandoned in a bucket on a train at Parsons Green station in west London caught fire but did not fully detonate. This in some ways echoed the attempted London attack on 21 July 2005 when a four-strong terrorist team tried to bomb the Underground with peroxide-based devices, in a follow-up attack to the 7/7 multiple transit atrocity. Their devices did not fully detonate. The Parsons Green device – as in the Manchester device and many others used by Middle East-based terrorists – was also fashioned from TATP (triacetone triperoxide). TATP is a continuing staple of homegrown terrorists making homemade explosive (HME) and, despite it being highly unstable and short-lived, it has become the terrorist’s explosive of choice because it is extremely powerful and can be mixed from commonly available ingredients. According to veteran explosives engineer Dr Sidney Alford, the TATP could have been the main charge or – as it is a powerful explosive and can be used in a detonator – as an initiator to detonate a main charge. Another variation was a very basic clock timer – an additional factor in a jihadist device, indicating that the perpetrator may not have intended suicide or wanted to An Iraqi Counter Terrorism Service convoy moves towards Mosul in February 2017 as the battle for Daesh’s prime occupied city in the country intensified.

Mutating IEDs

Terrorists repeat their modus operandi the world over, but as in genetic mutation, variations appear. On 15 September, a

IEDs to killer bees Andy Oppenheimer reviews the year in terrorism and assesses oncoming trends and threats During 2017 terrorism manifested itself, as in all recent years, in many conflict-torn countries and stable countries alike. The prime threat and main perpetrators were violent jihadists, mainly against civilians. Their modus operandi continued to involve hundreds of bomb attacks along with stabbings, shootings, and using vehicles as lethal weapons.

08 CBNW 2018/01


TERRORISM

“Today there is more terrorist activity, coming at us more quickly, and it can be harder to detect… It’s at the highest tempo I have seen in my 34-year career” MI5 DIRECTOR GENERAL ANDREW PARKER, OCTOBER 2017

New York City once again became a target in 2017. On 31 October, a man drove a rented pick-up truck onto a cycle path in lower Manhattan, killing eight and injuring 11. On 11 December a man “inspired by ISIS” set off a pipe bomb below Manhattan’s crowded Port Authority terminal. The device ailed to fully detonate but injured four civilians, a police officer, and the perpetrator.

ensure the device went off outside of human factors. The perennial component, fragmentation materials, were included in the device for maximum injury.

Massive vehicle bombs

And in line with the growing trend for bigger VBIEDs, the most lethal attack of this kind in 2017 was committed by the al-Qaeda affiliate Al-Shabaab, who on 14 October deployed a massive truck bomb which killed 300 and injured over 500 close to a hotel in the Somali capital, Mogadishu. One of the worst attacks anywhere in recent times, the VBIED combined, with HME, several hundred kilos of military-grade explosive – said to have been purloined from been stolen from the African Union peacekeeping mission Amisom. On 31 May a stark reminder of the obstacles to rebuilding Afghanistan was the explosion of a fuel-enhanced truck bomb which killed 150 and wounded over 460 outside the German Embassy in the Afghan capital, Kabul. Setting 50 cars alight, it was one of the largest IED attacks in Kabul since the US-led Coalition intervention in 2001. Afghan authorities blamed the Haqqani network.

And drones…

The use of unmanned aerial systems – drones – to drop explosives and perform recce on targets was reported by the Iraqi military in November 2016. While drone-delivered IEDs would be small, they would still create havoc and may be copied elsewhere. A prime problem – as with so many IED materials – is the commercial availability of these machines, dubbed “killer bees” by a US military commander in Iraq.

Us-

The ease materials for their

ing the Internet

controversy deepened around the would-be terrorists can obtain for TATP and other components devices from the Internet. 

“If that bucket were anything like half full it should have killed most of the people in the carriage and I wouldn’t have liked to be in the next one.” DR SIDNEY ALFORD ©US Department of Defense/Staff Sgt. Alex Manne

CBNW 2018/01 09


TERRORISM Following the Manchester attack, it was reported that the perpetrator, Salman Abedi, used instructions from a YouTube video to construct his device. In the absence of the in-field training, online sources have become the first port of call for acquiring bomb components and instruction, along with being fed by the exhortations and propaganda promulgated by Daesh and other extremist groups.

Instant – and sometimes fake news

Twenty-nine people were hurt at Parsons Green, mainly from burns but also injuries sustained in the panic that ensued. This incident also showed how quickly the scene of an attack is filmed and uploaded onto social media. Public expectation of acts of terrorism as a ‘new norm’ – along with instant and inaccurate posts on social media – may have contributed to the mass panic that broke out on 25

“Daesh uses drones for surveillance and sometimes it attaches explosives to them and uses to target commanders or headquarters.” IRAQI COUNTER TERRORISM SERVICE, LT GEN ABDUL WAHAB AL-SAIDI

©Sundance

A massive VBIED attack by al Shabaab in Mogadishu on 15 October 2017 killed over 300 and injured over 500. Left: The first marauding vehicle attack of the year in London was perpetrated by a lone terrorist on Westminster Bridge on 22 March, who mowed down and killed four people and then stabbed a police officer to death close to the Houses of Parliament. Below Right: The path of the marauding terrorist attack on London Bridge and Borough High Street, south London, where a gang of three terrorists killed eight and wounded 48 in a vehicle-ramming and stabbing rampage on 3 June. ©BBC

©ChiralJon/Wikimedia

10 CBNW 2018/01

Left: Following the marauding terrorist attack on London Bridge and Borough Market, bollards were installed on the Bridge to help prevent future attacks.


©AMISOM

November at Oxford Circus, when crowds ran and hid and armed police responded following reports of gunshots fired. The source of the chaos was a fracas breaking out between two men on a platform.

Recruitment of women

In October, the UK security service GCHQ are said to have intercepted a stream of encrypted messages and calls from notorious British jihadis Sally Jones and Samantha Lewthwaite aiming to recruit an ‘army’ of white Muslim women to attack the UK. Both women are top of the most-wanted list in both the UK and the US. Days later Jones was reported killed in a CIA-directed drone strike. Daesh has repeatedly used women suicide bombers to target soldiers in the battle for Mosul in 2017. In July a suicide bomber dressed in a woman’s all-covering robe killed 14 at a camp for displaced people in Anbar province. The most prolific terrorist jihadist group outside of the Middle East, the Daesh-affiliated Boko Haram, has used more female suicide-bombers than any other terrorist group to date. Of the 434 bombers the group deployed between April 2011 and June 2017, 244 were women. Whether brainwashed or not, women are less likely to be suspected or stopped by authorities and can hide devices under a niqab. Sacrificing women also means male fighters are spared for other operations. As Andrew Parker has said, “the Daesh brand has taken root in some other countries where areas of low governance give it space to grow.” Every effort is therefore being made to stop this metastasis: Britain’s security services thwarted nine major attacks in 2017 – and a record 400 terrorism-related arrests were made. ❚❙

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CBNW 2018/01 11


CHEMICAL WEAPONS

OPEN

All photos courtesy of the author

season Daesh is on the way to military defeat in the Middle East. But as Col Hamish de Bretton Gordon asks, are chemical attacks by jihadi terrorists now even more of a threat? Captured Daesh kit.

This 122m rocket was fired by Daesh from Mosul and was originally thought to be chemical.

Chemical weapons were used as much in 2016 as a hundred years ago during World War I – and 2017 looked to be no different. Their widespread use has become the norm, and is now a huge concern. The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) who police the now commonplace deployment of CW – after a century of very little use – needs review 12 CBNW 2018/01

R

eturning jihadists fighting with Daesh in Syria and Iraq – who have been trained in their use – will be returning to the UK, US and Europe, where they will be a direct threat to all of us. We have already seen jihadists trying to use improvised CW in Australia and Indonesia recently.

Syrian War: deadly legacy

The use of CW has kept the brutal regime 


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CHEMICAL WEAPONS of President Bashir al-Assad in power in Syria since the mass killing of 1,500 people in East Ghouta on 21 August 2013 with the deadly nerve agent sarin. Most informed observers believe his regime was about to fall and the Ghouta massacre put a stop to that. The regime used CW against Daesh to successfully defend their strategic military base at Deir Ezzor from 2014 to the present. Daesh leaders were impressed with their effects, employing CW many times to defend Mosul and Raqqa. Jihadists around the globe appear likely to emulate these attacks in future planned atrocities. Daesh are using easily available toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) like chlorine and organophosphates (pesticides) and have also been making their own mustard agent (gas) because it is so easy, effective and cheap.

Delayed attribution

The UN OPCW Joint Investigation Mechanism (JIM) report leaked in November on a deadly attack earlier in 2017 confirmed the Syrian regime was responsible – despite Russian denials. At Kan Sheikun, on 4 April 2017, the Syrian regime used sarin – killing up to 90 mainly women and children and injuring hundreds. Two days later President Donald J. Trump destroyed the aircraft which delivered these weapons. However, it took a full six months after the date of this attack for the UN to confirm Assad was responsible. This really begs the question as to whether the OPCW is fit for purpose today – given most atrocities are played out in real time on social media. In June and July 2017 there were numerous claims of further sarin attacks which have gone virtually unreported. Does this most shocking of weapons fail to shock? I investigated the chlorine attack on 18 April 2014 on Talmenes, a town in Northern Syria, and published the results in the UK Telegraph on 29 April 2014. Talmenes saw the irst use of chlorine gas by the regime after the UN removed the ‘declared’ stockpile of CW from Syria in early 2014. The OPCW investigation report using much of the same information was published a full 18 months later.

Kim’s WMD

Kim Jong-Un appears to have a hydrogen bomb capability, that is, a yield of over 100 kt – the equivalent of 100,000 tonnes of TNT conventional explosive – and with a range of up to 9,600 km (6,000 miles).This is ten times the size of the Hiroshima bomb and would flatten a 8-km (five-mile) radius: for comparison, that is about the size of Manhattan Island, or South London. North Korea probably does not have many hydrogen bomb warheads but does have around 12 multiple atomic (fission) warheads, which are estimated to be 20 kt in yield – enough to flatten a few city blocks. Seoul could disappear, as could a good chunk of Tokyo under such attack. But these capitals have had Terminal High Altitude Area Defence (THAAD) ballistic missile defence systems installed with US direction, so most of the missiles from the North should be destroyed in high orbit pretty harmlessly. Those cities without THAAD would be decimated – that is, most capital cities which sit within the 9,600-km (6,000-mile) radius of North Korea’s most potent intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). In theory, London is in range as are all European cities and some on the Western Seaboard of the United States. Time of flight for these ICBMs is just minutes – so, THAAD aside, they are very difficult to intercept by other means; they have to be destroyed on the ground. 14 CBNW 2018/01

The psychological terror of CW cannot be overstated. I’ve been gassed with the Peshmerga by Daesh in Northern Iraq and seen very brave soldiers petrified. In the awfulness of Aleppo last year with thousands dead, I’ve had doctors tell me: “we can hide from bombs and bullets but not gas. Can you help us protect ourselves?” Chemical brothers

North Korea also is reputed to have a huge VX nerve agent arsenal, up to 5,000 tonnes – which on its own could kill millions and is far less susceptible to THAAD. Even if knocked out in high orbit, it is possible that up to 50% of the deadly nerve agent would still reach the ground. One pinhead amount of VX is enough to kill a single individual as we With the Peshmerga near Mosul on 16 October


CHEMICAL WEAPONS

“There have been around a staggering one thousand alleged uses of chlorine by the regime since Talemenes. With the regime hiding behind Russia and untimely results, it is unlikely we are going to make progress in outlawing CW unless we change our approach. It is now appears to be open season for all terrorists and for despots like Kim Jong Un (KJU) of North Korea to use CW – with little fear of reprisals.” saw in Malaysia recently, with the murder of Kim’s half-brother, Kim Jong-Nam. The US probably does have the military might to destroy the missiles and the nuclear and chemical warheads on the ground. This would need to be pre-emptive and massive, and thousands would likely be killed. For Trump to carry out a second strike would be no good as a city would already be flattened – and it is likely that if Kim Jong-Un is going to ‘press the button’ he will press them all – and fire off ICBMs and shorter-range missiles around the globe.

blind eye to CW, as well as being pretty silent on the North Korean issue. The other permanent members of the UN Security Council – France, China, UK and the US – seem at this juncture impotent to stop Assad, Kim Jong-Un, or Iran. The ‘red line’ announced in President Obama’s speech on August 2012 was completely breached in August 2013. It was only partially restored when Trump destroyed the Syrian aircraft which delivered the Sarin bomb on Kan Sheikun in April 2017. Surely it is now time the rest of the UN, together, reversed this proliferation of chemical and nuclear weapons? A chemical attack on New York, London, Paris or Moscow would have an impact beyond comprehension. But we are where we are through our own inaction. Trump’s action in Syria was right – but we must be prepared to properly police and rid the world of chemical and nuclear weapons, and this may require military action. Our forebears have more or less kept CW at bay since World War I, and nuclear weapons, since World War Two – but after recent failings we must be as determined as they were if we are to prevent Armageddon. zy Air attacks in Syria.

Slamming into reverse

Against this backdrop we have Russia’s President Vladimir Putin bolstering the Syrian regime and in effect turning a Peshmerga commanders near Gwer.

Col. Hamish de Bretton Gordon is a Chemical Weapons Expert and Advisor to NGOs in Syria & Iraq. CBNW 2018/01 15


TRAINING Detection activities during military operations included a CBRN survey at the Mosul Dam in Iraq.

Col Fabrizio Benigni and Lt Col Andrea Gloria describe the capabilities and operational training activities of the Italian 7th NBC Defence Regiment

Profumo DI AGRUMI All photos Š7th NBC Defence Rgt

Interagency training was conducted during a national exercise Profumo di Agrumi in Civitavecchia Harbour in conjunction with Italian civil defence, firefighters, the Red Cross and health services.

16 CBNW 2018/01

The use of CBRN agents by states and terrorists, as well as in accidents or natural disasters, is real. National territories, civilians and infrastructures are all potential targets. Military and civilian organizations are therefore increasing their efforts to provide appropriate protective and recovery measures in a comprehensive and multiagency approach


TRAINING

I

n recent decades CBRN defence has undergone a real evolution – or, revolution. While the traditional approach has been essentially a military affair, focused on survivability and mitigation of the event, the dynamic environment and related CBRN threat have required a change of mentality – and in the domain where efforts have to be focused, is based on proactive measures.

Italy’s CBRN specialist regiment

Within this evolving context, the 7th NBC Defence Regiment is a unique Italian unit at regiment level that provides CBRN specialist support to the Italian Armed Forces. The regiment is one the youngest units in the Army, placed under the Artillery Command and the Combat Support Land Force Command. It is strategically located in Civitavecchia, a prime Italian harbour 80 km north of Rome and close to Fiumicino Airport. Despite its youth as a CBRN defence unit, the 7th NBC Defence Regiment originated from the 7th Field Artillery regiment founded in 1860. In recent years the regiment has supported several national and international operations. It

7TH NBC DEFENCE REGIMENT: RESPONSIBILITIES  Dissemination of alarms when CBRN events and toxic industrial material (TIM) releases occur  Detection, identification and monitoring (DIM) of releases of CBRN warfare agents and TIM and management of nuclear/radiological issues  CBRN reconnaissance to ascertain possible contamination  Support to personnel evacuation  Sampling of suspect CBR-contaminated materials to perform confirmatory analysis in accredited forensic laboratories  Collaboration with Italian technical/reference centres on environmental monitoring  Operational and thorough decontamination of personnel, materials, equipment and areas or infrastructures of limited size  CBRN-EOD/IEDD capabilities in conjunction with EOD units  Advice and expertise on CBRN risk assessment from company up to division and corps level is fully equipped and capable to provide specialist support for CBRN protection of ground forces, to ensure their survival and operational recovery. It can face all tactical CBRN-related issues throughout the full spectrum of the five enabling components required for an effective

CBRN defence in accordance with NATO policy and procedures. The regiment has a significant role in reacting to CBRN incidents, not only in protecting military forces but – in its ‘dual-use’ function – in protecting the national homeland. The operational core 

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TRAINING of the regiment is the CBRN battalion, composed of four multifunctional companies and one CBRN recce company. The multifunctional company is the standard capability package that guarantees specialist CBRN operations in support of a manoeuvre brigade/regiment that provides detection, survey, sampling and identification of biological, chemical and radiological agents (SIBCRA) capabilities, and decontamination (operational and thorough). The fifth company includes reconnaissance (recce) capabilities equipped with CBRN recce

In a CBRN exercise the 7th NBC Regiment demonstrated the required ability to limit the impact of CBRN hazards, including control and management of individual exposures and decontamination.

The 7th NBC Regiment can provide evacuation of contaminated personnel using specific bio-containment stretchers designed to be used in ground ambulances and a heli ambulance.

vehicles and deployable analytical laboratories.

Joint training operations

In nationwide CBRN events resulting from accidental release, intentional terrorist acts, and sabotage, the 7th NBC Defence Regiment supports homeland agencies such as civil defence, firefighters and other national institutions

THE 7TH NBC DEFENCE REGIMENT IS STRONGLY COMMITTED TO:  amplifying joint integration with other Italian niche CBRN units (including from the 3rd ITA Air Force Wing) and with national civil authorities to operate cooperatively in a CBRN environment, and to provide the required support in a timely manner  improving the cooperation and collaboration with allies, partners, national and international entities and civil and military organizations, with particular focus on planning exercises and sharing of best practices as a comprehensive approach  increasing its participation in NATO, EU, and multinational initiatives such as the NATO Smart Defence 1.29 Initiative and the FNC Cluster CBRN Protection initiative, and to improve live agent training, applying opportunities offered by multinational cooperation  maintaining constant updates of modern and robust CBRN equipment systems to NATO standards to guarantee a common understanding, interoperability at national and international level, and to promptly respond to current and evolving threats 18 CBNW 2018/01

In its 19 years of activity the regiment has taken part in NATO, UN and EU operations and training activities. CBRN defence teams are currently deployed in Afghanistan, Lebanon, Iraq and Kosovo and in all operations where Italian soldiers have been deployed. The regiment has also been tasked with support for Haiti’s beleaguered population after the earthquake in 2010 and to perform radiological checks at the Italian embassy after the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster in 2011. At national level, regiment personnel are also deployed to safeguard main transportation hubs and other possible targets in the context of national counter-terrorism strategy. CBRN teams have also been deployed during high-visibility events, including the election of Pope Benedict XVI in 2005 and EXPO Milan in 2015. ❚❙ Col Fabrizio Benigni is Commander of Italy’s 7th NBC Defence Regiment with specialist expertise in CBRN defence, policy, and counter-proliferation. He served in the Balkans and was appointed Chief of the CBRN Defence Section in the Arms Control, Verification and Counter-Proliferation Office. Lt Col Andrea Gloria is Commander of the 1st NBC Defence Battalion with a career based on international exercises and activities. He has served in Iraq, Kosovo, Lebanon and Afghanistan and was appointed Department Director and CBRN Defence Instructor of NATO School Oberammergau.


AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO CBRN PROTECTION FOR MILITARY AND CIVILIAN APPLICATIONS

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www.cqc.co.uk


RESPONSE

Putting out SPECIAL FEATURE

CBNW Deputy Editor David Oliver reports on London Fire Brigade’s preparations for a chemical attack The London Fire Brigade (LFB) is one of the largest fire, rescue and community safety organizations in the world. The Brigade provides services across the whole of the Greater London area, serving London’s 8.6 million residents as well as those who work in or visit the city. The Brigade is in regular contact with other fire and rescue organizations in the UK and around the world to share good practice and compare performance

20 CBNW 2018/01

I

n 2015 the Brigade attended 97,832 incidents in London, of which 47,545 (49%) were false alarms, some 29,365 (30%) were ‘special services’ – non-fire incidents such as clearing flooded premises and incidents involving chemicals. The worst fire incident they have had to deal with in many years was the Grenfell Tower disaster in west London which took 71 lives and injured hundreds on 14 June 2017. The LFB has statutory duties under the Civil Contingencies Act to ensure that it has appropriate arrangements in place to respond to emergencies as well as maintaining our core services. The Brigade has a range of specialist vehicles and equipment to respond to emergency incidents with the capability to deliver a co-ordinated response to a range of

serious, significant or catastrophic incidents that have a national impact, including CBRN explosive incidents.

A huge concern

The potential for terrorist chemical attacks in Britain is a “huge concern” and fire brigades must be better prepared, the country’s most senior fire chief has warned. When Dany Cotton was appointed as the London Fire Brigade’s first female commissioner earlier this year, she said she would be introducing better training and more practise drills for her teams in preparation for such an attack. She also suggested that education was needed to train members of the public on what to do in the event of a chemical attack, which could be deadly and could most likely involve readily available industrial gases such as chlorine, which could still create lasting damage.

LFB training

The LFB training programme is managed by Babcock International Group under a 25-year contract that commenced in 2012 with governance from the LFB. This


RESPONSE

fire

includes course programming and scheduling, management of equipment, assets and facilities – and the delivery of both operational and administrative courses. Babcock provides the LFB with two state-of-the-art Emergency Services Training Centres at Beckton and Park Royal. It has also invested in local training delivery using Regional Training facilities, improved station training, and where appropriate, increased use of computer-based training packages. Park Royal is home to a unique firefighter training experience with the only carbonaceous basement fire in the country. Firefighters can practice sub-surface procedures in a live fire and carry out relevant safe systems of work in an environment that strikes the balance between realism and safety. The overall complex is a three-storey, seven-room carbonaceous fire house. Each room is different and allows for varying levels of complexity to ensure that training is both challenging and safe.

“I think the chemical attack is a really big threat because it’s an unseen one. It’s something you do with a relatively small amount of chemical if you can find the means to disperse it. ”It’s ensuring we are ready and prepared nationally to respond to that and respond quickly. The natural reaction would be if something happens to run away and go somewhere else. But that just spreads it, which is what the terrorist wants. It’s very important that people stay contained and allow the emergency services to help them out and deal with the situation.” LFB COMMISSIONER DANY COTTON

Specialist units

The Brigade currently has 14 Fire Rescue Units (FRUs) based strategically across 

Some victims suffered hydrogen cyanide poisoning in the Grenfell Tower fire, said to have been emitted from the burning cladding foam. ©Natalie Oxford/wikimedia

CBNW 2018/01 21


RESPONSE London. They are a critical part of the Brigades’ operational response delivery as they provide specialist capabilities to respond to complex and protracted incidents. They are permanently crewed and there are no plans to change this. They include five Hazmat FRUs based across London: at Euston, Wembley, Bexley, Lewisham and Bethnal Green. They provide a specialist response to hazardous materials incidents equipped with extended duration breathing apparatus (EDBA), firefighter decontamination, and water rescue: they are also equipped with a boat. The Fire Rescue Units also provide a core set of specialist skills, including difficult access, heavy cutting and extended duration breathing apparatus capabilities. They are equipped with Mercedes Atego 1325F vehicles.

Response recommendations

Recent reviews of the London Fire Brigade conducted by Anthony Mayer and Lord Harris have stated the importance of these units to the London Fire Brigade fleet, and especially in terms of how the Brigade responds to a terrorist attack. They recommend: ●● Introducing a Mass Casualty Response (MCR) onto FRU stations ●● Reviewing FRU and CBRN Rapid Response Team (RRT) attendances to use their enhanced capabilities across a wider range of relevant incidents ●● Attending incidents at an earlier stage; currently the London Fire Brigade has three mass-decontamination disrobe and two mass-decontamination re-robing facilities ●● Exploring the wider use of FRU and RRT specialist skills to support other agencies and organizations ●● Determining collaboration opportunities in terms of prevention and response ●● Reviewing current locations of FRU, RRT and Scientific Support Units ●● Considering the possibility of

WEMBLEY STADIUM In May 2017 London’s Wembley Stadium provided the backdrop to a Brigade training exercise, testing the emergency services’ response to incidents involving hazardous materials. Supported by colleagues in the Metropolitan Police and London Ambulance Service, ©LFB LFB firefighters assemble the multi-agency exercise an articulating decontamination shelter during simulated the release of an exercise at Wembley hazardous materials into a Stadium in May 2017. crowded area. Around 100 firefighters and officers, 12 fire engines, two fire rescue units, a command unit and the Brigade’s specially trained CBRN team took part. co-locating capabilities to support each other’s functions ●● Reviewing current prevention activities of FRU and RRT stations ●● Developing a range of activities that would better utilise their specialist skills and knowledge. FRUs need to continue to be well placed to tackle high-impact major incidents such as the marauding terrorist attacks witnessed in Mumbai, Paris and London Bridge. To guarantee the future functioning of an expanded FRU capacity, the funds identified for redeployment should be ring-fenced in future budgets.

New PPE

In addition to reviewing the London Fire Brigade’s future operations, two new coverall gas-tight suits were launched by the Brigade in March 2017 to help improve how crews respond at incidents involving hazardous materials and terrorism. The Respirex GTL gas-tight suit can be used with the PermaSURE toxicity modelling app, allowing emergency responders to quickly establish the

“Modern firefighting is about much more than just responding to fires. Our crews now regularly deal with a variety of complex incidents and rescues and that includes chemical spills and regular training to respond to terrorism. We frequently refresh and review our equipment and training to ensure that our crews’ skills and abilities flexes in tandem with London’s needs.” ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER OF OPERATIONAL POLICY, RICHARD MILLS

22 CBNW 2018/01

maximum safe working time with a given chemical, based on real-world conditions. The Respirex SC1 reusable splash contamination suit is designed for SCBA (self-contained breathing apparatus) worn externally. The chemical protective clothing enables firefighters to go into areas that their normal firefighting protective equipment would not protect them from exposure to the potentially poisonous substances that could be used in a terrorist attack. The new suits can also be used at any leak of dangerous substances such as ammonia leaks from fridges and acid spills. They are lighter, give better mobility and dexterity, and make it easier to move and operate equipment. They have integrated inner gloves and separate boots, which maintain high levels of protection and are worn in addition to the normal PPE and breathing apparatus worn by firefighters. As well as the gas-tight suits, liquid-tight suits are also being issued. These will be worn by specially trained firefighters to help decontaminate gas-tight suit wearers who have just left the contaminated ‘hot zone’. In 2013 gas-tight and non-gas tight suits were used by the London Fire Brigade in 18 incidents, 11 in 2014, nine in 2015 and 15 in 2016. Some of the old suits have been donated to May Day Rescue, a voluntary group that helps distribute emergency equipment to countries and communities that are entering, enduring, or emerging from conflict or natural disasters, such as Syria. zy CBNW Deputy Editor David Oliver is the author of 18 defence-related books. He is a former IHS Jane’s consultant editor and a regular correspondent for defence publications.


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TERRORISM

Andy Oppenheimer reviews the threat from improvised chemical terrorism

©US Army/Sgt John Healy

Now that Daesh has largely been defeated in Iraq and Syria, it is feared their followers will unleash revenge chemical attacks on European cities

The sting of the

T

he day before the 17 August 2017 terrorist attacks in Barcelona, where 16 were killed and over 120 injured by the driver of a van which ploughed through crowds of tourists, a house in Catalonia blew up. While first believed to be a gas explosion, in the investigation that followed the attacks 120 butane gas canisters were found at the destroyed premises. The peroxide-based explosives and canisters being prepared at the house were, according to Catalan police, intended for massive VBIEDs (vehicleborne improvised explosive devices) in Barcelona and also for ICDs (improvised 24 CBNW 2018/01

chemical devices). Had the gas canisters been used the death toll would have been in the hundreds. Only days following the Barcelona attacks on 23 August, Dutch police intercepted a van with Spanish number plates containing “a number of gas bottles.” The subsequent terror alert in Rotterdam triggered the cancellation of a rock concert. While it was found to be unconnected to the Catalonia attacks, the discovery highlighted the danger of this form of attack. A year earlier, on 8 September 2016 arrests were made in Paris after a car found near Notre Dame was loaded up with seven gas canisters, as well as

documents in Arabic.

A sea of chemicals

Chemical attack is seen as the most likely form of CBRN terrorism. The threat of ‘low-tech’ CBRN is growing, concomitant with other basic types of attack – shootings, knifings, and vehicles to run down pedestrians. ICDs do not have to include warfare agents developed in military laboratories or universities. Toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and household chemicals are the likely materials being used to made and deploy ICDs. A common TIC like sulphuric acid or chlorine bleach is not banned. Chlorine, implicated in Daesh


TERRORISM

©Kurdistan Regional Security Council/Handout/EPA

©Kurdistan Regional Security Council/Handout/EPA

1

©Dugway Proving Ground Test Support Division

2 3 4 ©Conflict News

dying wasp ➎

attacks, is classed by the UN as a WMD only when used “in warfare.” Otherwise, it is one of the commonest chemicals on the planet, marketed in varying strengths.

Weapons of mass effect

In improvised incendiary devices (IIDs), flammable liquids and gas may be used as a substitute for explosives or to boost main explosive charges. A gas-enhanced explosive device is an IED containing bottled flammable gas. Addition of flammable gas is intended to enhance the heat, blast, or fragmentation effects. A van or truck is an ideal carrier as these vehicles can fit far more explosive

and chemical enhancement than a single suicide bomber. On 15 October 2017, two massive vehicle bombs attributed to Al-Shabaab killed more than 300 and injured over 500 people in the Somali capital, Mogadishu. One detonated near a fuel truck, creating an enormous fireball. Therefore, the tried and tested terrorist weapon – the VBIED – with the addition of TICs, flammable gas or fuel takes this terrorist modus operandi several steps further into the realms of high lethality and injury. Such ICDs and IIDs are classed as weapons of mass effect (WME). The Mogadishu twin VBIED attack in October was a WME par excellence.

5

US Northern Command soldier conducting reconnaissance of a building containing TICs during a training exercise, Vibrant Response, held at the Muscatatuck Urban Training Complex, Ind., in July 2014. A vehicle is wrecked at the site of an alleged chemical attack carried out by Daesh in Iraq. A canister sits beside discoloured ground at the site of an alleged Daesh chemical attack in Iraq in 2015. Testing defence against chlorine attacks at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. A cloud of the gas moves among condemned shipping containers and vehicles that replicate urban structures and firstresponder response. It dissipates quickly and degrades into a salt. A mortar round used by Daesh in February 2016 reputedly contained mustard. Eyewitnesses said a rocket hit a guarding post in Ruwala village, some 16 km south of Makhmour, Iraq, resulting in three Peshmerga soldiers being severely affected.

Widespread supply

Thousands of tons of industrial chemicals and other civilian-use toxic materials are legally traded daily worldwide and are readily available. While other true CBRN materials become more available in countries where a previous WMD programme was conducted, and where insurgencies ensue – including in territories occupied by Daesh – ICDs can be fabricated without access to legacy munitions. The ingredients are legally traded and sold in regular household supplier outlets. Chlorine has multiple civilian household and industrial uses. No complicated method of airborne delivery  CBNW 2018/01 25


TERRORISM

1 2 3

The first car bomb on 29 June 2007 was found in the Haymarket after an ambulance crew attending a minor incident at the Tiger Tiger nightclub – the terrorists’ prime target – reported suspicious fumes to the police.

After hundreds of passengers were evacuated from London City Airport on 21 October 2016, police found a teargas canister. The son of a suspect arrested in connection with a plot to take a sulphur gas device onto an airliner was reportedly studying aviation management. ©Sky News

©Snapper Jack/Eye Spy Mag/Wikimedia ©Seven News

is needed: just a car or truck.

Transit incidents

Aviation is also the perennial target. On 1 August, Australian police uncovered a plot to take a device to disperse 'sulphur gas’ on board a commercial jet bound for the Middle East. Had they succeeded, in the enclosed cabin of an aircraft, the plotters could have killed or at least immobilized everyone on board. A terrorist could carry a container and spray or throw it in the airport terminal before going near or through Security. On 21 October 2016, 500 people were evacuated from London City Airport when passengers felt unwell. Firefighters and police conducted sweeps of the airport building and found what police described as a canister of a “CS gas or spray.” Dozens were treated on site and two people were taken to hospital. A day of chaos ensued: incoming flights were diverted and hundreds of passengers were stranded on board aircraft on the runway. An arrested suspect was accused of "using a noxious substance to cause serious damage" – but not of terrorism. On 19 September, a “highly corrosive” substance was found spread over part of the M1 motorway near Milton Keynes in the east Midlands, UK. According to police it “may have been hydrochloric acid” and could have been intentionally dispersed. The chemical “reacted with another 26 CBNW 2018/01

substance causing it to discharge on to lane one and lane two of the southbound carriageway.” Again, the incident was not treated as terrorism, but shut down a sizeable part of the motorway, with motorists stranded for most of the day.

A brief history of ICDs

At the height of the Iraqi insurgency, in February 2007 three attacks occurred in Baghdad within days involving hijacked tankers loaded with petrol-enhanced explosive charges and chlorine gas cylinders. They were committed by Al Qaeda in Iraq – the precursor to Daesh (ISIS). On 28 January 2007, an explosion of a dump truck and chlorine tank in Ramadi killed 16. On 21 February 2007 an attack killed nine and wounded 148. Some attacks involved legacy chemical munitions left over from the Saddam regime and were a classic case of insurgent use of ICDs. Also in 2007, in June jihadist terrorists tried to blow up a nightclub in central London, but the two vehicles were discovered and rendered safe. Police discovered plastic containers of petrol and two 13-kg patio gas cylinders and nails. The explosion would have ignited the propane gas and shattered metal cylinders into flying metal fragments. The day after, the terrorists drove to Glasgow International Airport and

rammed a Jeep into the terminal with a vehicle loaded with gasoline, flammable gas and nails. It failed to explode, but caused mayhem, shock and damage and local hospitals cleared wards to prepare for the injured. In October 2006 a plot was thwarted to place 13 gas bottles into three limousines and fabricate an initiation system to produce a large fireball. Plans by the convicted terrorist Dhiden Barot revealed flammable gas would have been the main charge, along with fuel-air mixtures, to create a BLEVE (boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion).

Deadly legacy

While Daesh have been driven out of most of its territories in Iraq and Syria, among its deadly legacy are thousands of booby-trap mines and IEDs littering the devastated buildings and streets and continuing suicide attacks. Daesh deployed chlorine in various attacks against Peshmerga fighters from late 2014 to at least 2017. Combination attacks are a major fear. The fear is that a Daesh-inspired nonconventional attack by homegrown, radicalized self-starter cells or returnees will also include ICDs – deployed in Europe as person-borne, vehicle-borne or drone-dropped devices. The sting of the dying wasp is likely, sadly, to endure, and it may be chemically enhanced. ❚❙


COMMUNICATIONS Col (Dr) Ram Athavale sends out a timely message on how to improve CBRN crisis communications Industrial toxic accidents are almost daily happenstance: tankers with fuel or chemicals exploding, fires in chemical plants or storage warehouses, spread of unknown illness or disease and similar large casualty events. Effective communications in CBRN crisis situations can help prevent public and stakeholder paranoia and assist the management agencies to restore normalcy

S

uch toxic incidents could also be perpetuated by terrorists at larger scales, adding to the casualty score. The scenes are full of sensitive breaking news, scores of dead and wounded, victim and bystander snap interviews, social media posts, all leading to possible chaos

Too fast,

and public panic. CBRN incidents, both accidental and intentional, are unique and demanding. They have an element of surprise, unseen unidentified agents, lethal devices and novel risks leading to speculations,

CHALLENGES OF PUBLIC COMMUNICATION IN CBRN INCIDENTS ARE:  Type and nature of threat – unseen unknown danger – varied symptoms  Capabilities and resources – lack of CBRN expertise, training and experience  Coordination and cooperation – multiple agencies, incident control, Public Information Officers  Public awareness and response – psychological reactions, fear, panic, lack of understanding  Preparedness communication – awareness on CBRN threats, low probability  Communication plan – how much to tell? Fast news cycles, maintenance of trust  Media explosion – expert interviews, social media news and views, uncorroborated information and rumour, viral videos and messages

Crews clean up the remains of a derailed CSX train along the James River in downtown Lynchburg, Va. Multiple CSX train cars carrying crude oil derailed and caught fire on 30 April 2014 with three tankers ending up in the water and leaking some of their contents.

28 CBNW 2018/01

rumours and fear of the unknown. Assessing and communicating risks may be particularly difficult during terrorism incidents involving CBRN materials. Communicators need to understand the nature of the risks facing the public before explaining these risks to the public. This includes efforts to describe the physical effects of agents, likely symptoms, and immediate mitigating measures. Some key challenges of CBRN crisis communications are explained below. Multi-agency involvement: The response to a CBRN public emergency may involve multiple public safety, law and order, public health, and health care organizations – with each one communicating with the public. Mechanisms like Joint Information Centres (JICs) would designate Public Information Officers (PIOs) from participating response agencies with a multi-agency structure for developing, approving, and communicating public information. Too fast and too much: CBRN incidents are by nature fast-paced and rapidly evolving situations. They can compress the time available to PIOs for receiving information, developing public messages, and providing these messages to the public and increases


COMMUNICATIONS

too much the difficulty of communication between the incident managers and the crisis communicators, and the opportunities for making mistakes. This may require frequent press briefings and media events, one-on-one contacts with journalists, arranging interviews with government experts and officials, and increasing the staff to support these increased operations. Situational ambiguity: Incident managers may face difficulties in maintaining situational awareness during CBRN emergencies—particularly in the initial stages. At the same time, the public’s demand for information is likely to be highest during the initial stages of an emergency. Because of gaps in information and knowledge, officials and spokespeople are likely to make mistakes and provide inaccurate information. Public emotional concerns: CBRN incidents producing large-scale casualties raise public emotions and outcry. Scarce resources, official apathy, lack of proper health and poor security measures lead to outrage and unrest. Experts stress the importance of appropriately framing information and messages to assuage the

anxiety and fear among the public. CBRN terrorism: Terrorism exacerbates many of the challenges inherent to crisis communications. A CBRN terrorist incident will evolve rapidly. An act of terrorism is likely to test media relations – especially in the age of unverified messages, pictures and films on social media – and public communications skills of the most seasoned and experienced crisis communicators. Effective risk communication can help the public understand and avoid the public safety risks created by an act of CBRN terrorism.

stakeholder coordination and cooperation. As a critical component of crisis communications, risk communicators describe known risks; identify the probable negative outcomes associated with taking certain actions; and recommend ways of avoiding risk.

Pre-event

● Create and implement a CBRN crisis

● ●

Communication essentials

Crisis communications refer to an organization’s efforts to communicate with internal and external stakeholders and the public during a crisis. They inform the public about the emergency, review the government’s responses, direct the public to sources of assistance, and recommend protective actions. Crisis communications also aim to streamline quick decision making, coordination of multi-agency actions and facilitating

communication plan – which should be adaptable to different types of CBRN contingencies (accidental and intentional). Select spokespersons with sufficient CBRN training and ability to interact with the media and the general public Designate trained members to a Crisis Communication Team (CCT) Prepare for effective CBRN communication covering risks, a common glossary with terms for CBRN incidents mitigating measures, and easy to understand do’s and don’ts Carry out training/simulations/mock drills to strengthen the organizational ability to handle CBRN communications People’s perception of risk and understanding of the crisis should be monitored. Prepare for communication with the media: local, national  and sometimes global media by

©Autumn Parry/the News & Advance

CBNW 2018/01 29


COMMUNICATIONS establishing cooperation and longterm working relationships with selected journalists and media houses.

©Jennifer Meyers/ Herald Journal

During event

Immediately on occurrence of a CBRN incident, the pre-established crisis organization should get activated. Information surge should be prioritized and validated before dissemination. Validate sources continuously, identify and maintain relationships with experts. Acknowledge uncertainty, and inform the public even if the information is partial. Credibility of communications should be maintained by being honest and effectively connecting with the recipient of your message. Display compassion, genuine concern and empathy when communicating with the public, media and employers. Be consistent and clear in your message as CBRN incidents have a terrible halo of gory death. Cooperate with the news media and keep them informed. ● Define the crisis and its magnitude, what kind of release and where, how does it affect people, what symptoms can be encountered ● What is being done to manage the crisis, instructions regarding what to do ● Adjust the message as the situation unfolds. Be as sincere and open about the situation as possible

Good practices

Emergency responders work the scene of a mass casualty drill at Logan-Cache Airport, which involved a mock plane crash with 37 transported and 18 deceased. Patients were played by Utah State University students.

Post-event

CBRN incidents are traumatic and can leave a great psychological impact on the public. Psychosocial aspects of management of post incident rehabilitation need careful planning. Good and directed communications can greatly help in allaying fears and apprehensions of the victims and the worried well. Focus on compassion for the victims. Establish a mourning process for the dead and keep information flowing to assuage their apprehensions. People need to know about long-term threats or

Tasks

Principles

Prevention

Transparency, truthfulness about uncertainties

Preparedness, train, learn, equip

Quick and frequently updated information

Build trust

Consistency and accuracy

risks arising from the incident. Officials should take responsibility for things that have happened and public should be informed. A very important aspect is a clear and confirmed closure of incident message. CBRN incidents are filled with surprise, unknown risks and certainty of large-scale death. Managers and incident commanders need to handle the crisis very carefully and speedily. A comprehensive, structured and effective crisis communications plan can greatly assist incident managers to successfully control the situation with minimal casualties. ❚❙ ©CDEMA

Avoid fear and anxiety Analyse social media Means

Type of communication

Mobile phones, social media and Internet

Interpersonal

Radio and TV

Direct communication to affected and victims

Nominated spokespeople

Open discussions

Social and community influencers Alert systems Content

Communicators

Explain with real concrete examples

Official representatives

Provide useful and timely information

VIPs Neutral experts

Representatives from the four Regional agencies and partners discuss events logged into the Virtual Crisis Room in the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency (CDEMA) Regional Coordination Centre.

Col (Dr) Ram Athavale has been a Key Advisor to the Govt of India on CBRN Security and Incident Management. Currently he is deployed as a Key CBRN Expert for On-Site Technical Assistance to the EU CBRN Risk Mitigation Centres of Excellence Regional Secretariat at Nairobi, Kenya. 30 CBNW 2018/01


TRANSIT RESPONSE Ed Gummow puts forward a compelling case for a UGV rapid response platform for the transport network

ROBOTS to

All photos ©Digital Concepts Engineering

PARSONS GREEN, LONDON: 15 SEPTEMBER 2017, 8.20 A.M. Commuters in a packed tube carriage witness an explosion, leaving many with burns or maimed and unable to escape the scene. Passengers from other carriages crowd around, keen to document the event, while others console victims and help the less injured out of the station. Over the coming hours and days they will begin to experience blistering due to mustard gas exposure – both directly in the carriage and via secondary contamination

32 CBNW 2018/01

T

he italicised section of this scenario is, thankfully, fictitious. The device was defective and no chemical component was involved. Nonetheless, UK Minister of State for Security Ben Wallace is on record as saying that Daesh aspires to mounting a CBRN attack – and in several locations its supporters have been caught in possession of the substances needed for such an attack. Preparation is therefore vital to mitigating the damage. Modern technology allows news to

be disseminated around the globe within seconds. But when it comes to dealing with an incident, most often human guesswork is the first line of response. In this article we first propose that a network of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) deployed across the public transport network would result in faster recognition of, and reduced harm from, a CBRN incident. And secondly, we outline how this can be achieved.

The rationale for ROVs

In the UK, incidents are handled


TRANSIT RESPONSE

the rescue Main and inset images: The vehicle can carry an adult casualty. The platform is designed to climb stairs.

under the CBRN(e) Response Framework, the first phase of which is the Initial Operational Response (IOR). This sets a target of 15 minutes for Evacuation, Disrobing and (Improvised) Decontamination of victims to minimise further injury and death. It is in to this window that we propose introducing ROVs. An immediately deployable ROV platform would overcome a major challenge presented by CBRN terrorism – identification of an incident as such. Current best practise for first responders is to rely on evidential factors  CBNW 2018/01 33


TRANSIT RESPONSE

The Wheelbarrow is a classic EOD robot controller.

cars are widespread, the current market for larger unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) is small. Combining small production runs with development costs and high-end specifications make available platforms expensive. For example, the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) has recently signed a contract for new ‘starter’ EOD (explosives ordnance disposal) robots costing nearly £1m per unit. Capability

– among others, unexplained signs of skin, eye or airway irritation; dead or distressed people, birds and animals; or unexplained vapour or mist clouds. Reliable and rapid diagnosis of an incident’s true character is vital. ROVs equipped with appropriate sensors would facilitate this – and ensure that the incident response is entirely appropriate from the first moments after an attack. The IOR framework recognises that first responders are very unlikely to be trained in specialist CBRN response or have specific CBRN PPE (personal protective equipment). Guidelines for the Fire & Rescue Service (FRS) are that in some scenarios it may be acceptable to deploy personnel in FRS structural fire kit combined with self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) rather than safer – but slow to put on – gas tight suits (GTS) where immobilised victims could potentially be saved using ‘snatch rescue’ protocols. A stretcher-equipped ROV capable of climbing stairs and escalators would allow the number of FRS personnel in the hot zone to be reduced simply to

those directly required to load casualties onto the vehicle. Increased speed of egress vs human stretcher bearers would be a substantial secondary benefit. The third opportunity for ROVs is for delivery of FRS ‘disrobe’ kits. These include capes, bags to contain contaminated clothing, shoes, face wipes, shoes and protective gloves. Such kits are optional and thus risking the lives of inadequately protected FRS personnel is unattractive. They are however a further aid to minimising harm to victims and can assist with identifying those who will require decontamination. Use of an ROV would mitigate both issues.

Capability, complexity and cost

As described, the case for ROV use for CBRN first-response is compelling and the technology is well developed. However, actual deployment is constrained by three major factors, summarised as the 3 Cs: capability, complexity and cost. Cost

While drones and remote control (R/C)

X-2 originates from an agricultural robotics project.

34 CBNW 2018/01

Successful deployment of an ROV in the roles we describe requires it to have a number of competing attributes. The vehicle must be small enough to fit down escalators and through train doors, but be large enough to climb obstacles and to cross the gap between the train and the platform. The ability to traverse stairs and escalators with a victim onboard requires powerful motors and large battery packs. Complexity

Mobility of ROV platforms is commonly enhanced by adding flippers, actuators and by using various mechanisms to shift the platform’s centre of gravity. This added mechanical complexity increases the risk of mission failure due to platform immobilisation or damage, and the proper use of these features generally requires a significant level of operator training. Controllers often feature a bewildering array of switches and dials that require extensive training and high levels of dexterity before the operator can become proficient in vehicle control.

Hitting the ‘sweet spot’

We believe that in many cases ROVs are over-specified for their core roles. So we have developed our X-2 vehicle platform to address the gap in the market: it can be deployed into the field at less than 2% of the cost of the MoD’s Starter platform. X-2 is largely based on best-of-class ‘off-the-shelf’ parts – allowing us to hit the light/powerful/robust/cost effective ‘sweet spot’. The vehicle can be supplied with a number of semi-autonomous features to minimise complexity of operation – and therefore, training requirements. Normal operator input would be reduced to controlling the vehicle’s forward and reverse motion and speed. The autonomous functionality would allow the vehicle the ability to centre itself when driving through a doorway, ticket barrier or while traversing an escalator – thereby


TRANSIT RESPONSE Incident response The vehicle is easily transported in a standard four-wheel drive truck.

removing a general need to steer it. X-2 can climb 45-foot (15-m) slopes, staircases and curbs greater than 20 cm in height – all necessities for use on the Underground. So how does deployment work in practice? We envisage an X-2 permanently available at every tube station (or railway station) for true rapid-response. The vehicles would be permanently tethered to a charger and network point

for diagnostic purposes. Interchangeable top decks and bolt-on equipment would be kept locally – for example a stretcher, camera/lighting unit and sensors. Basic operation would not require special training. Trained professionals who are able to interpret and analyse results from CBRN sensors would be available remotely over a secure network to either advise or potentially take control.

In the event of an incident, the vehicle would be untethered from a permanent charging point, driven into the station and used in any of the roles outlined above. The vehicle has a top speed of 5km/hr and a battery life of up to eight hours – making it faster and more productive than a human in evacuation scenarios. Additionally, use of an ROV reduces the risk from secondary devices to vehicle loss avoiding death or injury among FRS personnel. In conclusion, the capability required to transform a rapid CBRN incident response from ideal scenario to truly achievable now exists. The goal is achievable even within limited budgets. In this uncertain age, widespread deployment of CBRN response UGVs seems a worthwhile insurance policy. ❚❙ Ed Gummow is Managing Director of Digital Concepts Engineering, a specialist ROV and Control Systems manufacturer based in Leicestershire, UK. He has wide experience of the ROV and EOD industry, having previously worked with Alvis-Vickers, Northrop Grumman and BAE.

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indracompany.com CBNW 2018/01 35


RESPONSE

ROCK, PAPER, SCISSORS Grant Coffey asks: are you taking a chance with CBRNE response?

T

All photos ©2017 FLIR Systems, Inc

he CBRNE threats we face today are complicated and ever-changing. You are the front line and must use all available tools to stay safe. But when under stress, it’s common to regress to what we know best. This can yield disorganized, unsuccessful outcomes. Sometimes, it means we are repeating bad habits over and again. This cycle can be broken with good education, tips, and tools from peers that are built on street-level experience. I recently partnered with FLIR Systems to provide responders with a bigger toolbox. Our combined vision is FLIR PRIMED: a place where industry professionals can watch videos and obtain cutting-edge information, drills, white papers, and field checklists that can be downloaded and used immediately.

Dial in your front line

Tools can be complicated, procedures 36 CBNW 2018/01

“Wow. We were really lucky that time.” How many times have you heard those words before? After forty years in emergency response, I’ve learned to believe in chance not luck. Vigilance, not fear; being prepared, not winging it cumbersome, and techniques unfamiliar. With good information, you can build better habits with incremental steps. Many incidents have patterns or similarities that can help us improve our response skills. We have integrated this into the PRIMED approach, designed

PRIMED:  Prepare

 Monitor

 Recognize

 Experience

 Input

 Decision

to prepare someone for a situation or task, by supplying them with relevant information. Much of our work is accomplished before the incident ever happens, so Preparation is the first step in this process. In facing complicated CBRNE events, the key is to obtain good information, based on experience from our peers. After-Action Reports (AARs) are often sanitized for various reasons and are followed up inconsistently. The overwhelming nature of CBRNE events can cause a paralysis that can be countered by concentrating on these patterns and by focusing training in small manageable bites. Why not learn from others who have experience obtained the hard way? I encourage you to create a daily hourly training habit with good information and really learn it. Of great significance is that most  CBRNE events require a significant


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RESPONSE multi-agency response. We must not only train with our partners, but learn about their equipment, capabilities and culture, well before an event.

Ruling it out

A critical skill is recognizing the scope of what’s in front of you. This involves situational awareness and catching key elements that are not readily evident. I use a few techniques to help replace a

HOUR: Hear – get good, current, vetted information Observe – reinforce with demos and hands-on training Understand – understanding your equipment builds the confidence to use it Repeat – make it a habit

narrow focus and catch that outlier that just doesn’t fit. RIO, or Ruling It Out, helps to reduce incident command (IC) pressure at a chaotic scene. Ruling out the presence of radiation or the explosive nature of an unknown powder helps you to focus on what is there. Next, using field checklists or ‘cheat sheets’ helps to organize your priorities and reduce IC ‘vapour lock’ syndrome, building confidence.

Cues and clues

CBRNE responses involve specific hazards that we must recognize and process. This is input, or what could be called Cues and Clues. Unfortunately, I have found that many Top right: FLIR PRIMED delivers field checklists that can be downloaded and used immediately.

KEY MANTRAS:  Product family determines behavioural properties  State or form determines immediate safety issues like hazard zones and PPE  For gases, toxicity over flammability  What am I missing?

38 CBNW 2018/01

Above: Using field checklists or ‘cheat sheets’ helps to organize your priorities. Right: The author currently hosts CBRNE response training videos online at FLIR.com/ PRIMED.

facility personnel and first responders have an inadequate grasp of fundamental chemical and physical principles of CBRNE substances. These are key components of scene input. This is especially evident in the lack of understanding of radiation and what impacts it has on safe emergency response.

It’s not just the equipment

What ARE you missing? Although there is an incredible array of devices to choose from, monitors can’t think for you. They have very specific capabilities - and


RESPONSE therefore, you must think about what the monitor isn’t telling you. Ultimately, your brain is your best tool. I’ve evaluated scenes where responders experience a radiation alert and they freeze up and unnecessarily back out. You need to understand your equipment and what it is telling you.

Flying by the seat of your pants

Experience and decision – this is where the rubber meets the road. The problem here is that experience that produces negative habits can produce poor decisions. Make it your mission to give your team good education, producing good experience that creates good habits. You aren’t stressed by what you know. Whenever poor decisions are made, ask yourself; how are you training your personnel? You are the front line in the dangerous business of CBRNE response, so start today and PRIME your personnel: ●● Foster a learning environment. Assess team needs and utilize lessons

learned by peers’ street-smart knowledge – then make it a habit ●● Don’t fear the gear. To effectively use the monitors and field tools, your team must understand them. Train and use them with proficiency and confidence ●● Mix it up. Meet and cross train with your partner agencies, before the balloon goes up. This is an essential step to integrate them effectively into your team when you ‘Call for the Cavalry’ ●● Tap into your talent. Use expertise from specialist teams like Explosives Ordinance Disposal (EOD) and Hazmat to deliver an effective train-the-trainer programme. Get to know your partners - now ●● If you build it, they will use it. Field checklists help the IC manage incident priorities more effectively ●● Examine your SOPs. If you have it, you own it. One of the worst issues from a safety perspective is having a written SOP that you don’t follow. If you are

violating your SOPs on a regular basis, find out why and update them ●● Make safety a lifestyle. Inoculate your personnel with a safety focus. Don’t let them rely on others. There is nothing more important than safety and ultimately, YOU must be safe first!

Safety Amounts to Focusing Everything Towards You Make it your mission to learn something every day. This is not just desirable, but a necessity in our current world. zy

Understand your equipment and what it’s telling you.

Grant Coffey is a retired Fire & Rescue Hazmat Team Coordinator from Portland, Oregon, College Fire Science Instructor, and a CBRNE expert of nearly 40 years. He currently hosts CBRNE response training videos online at FLIR.com/PRIMED.

CBNW 2018/01 39


BIOTERRORISM

©US CDC

The deliberate contamination of drinking water has been used during warfare throughout history. When such nefarious techniques are used against civilian populations, the goal is often to inflict

O

mass casualties

ne ancient record of deliberate poisoning was in 590 BC, when the water supply for the city of Kirrha, Greece, was attacked by Solon of Athens. The plant Helleborus, which is toxic when ingested, was added to the water supply, and subsequently caused the inhabitants of Kirrha to become “violently sick to their stomachs and all lay unable to move.” Needless to say, the city’s inhabitants soon became overcome. Many toxic plants could be similarly used to deliberately contaminate water, including aconite (Aconitum sp.), oleander (Nerium oleander), water hemlock (Cicuta maculata), deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), and others. During WWII, the surprise Doolittle bombing raids on Tokyo were the first Allied air attack on the Japanese homeland. Many of the B-25 aircraft involved in this attack subsequently crash-landed in Zhejiang Province, the only coastal area remaining under Chinese government control. The Japanese military then harshly retaliated against the Chinese people. A Japanese biological warfare programme

This metal drum is shown leaking toxic contaminant.

Don’t drink the operating in China, known as Unit 731, was set up under the direction of Japanese General Shiro Ishii. Among the retribution tactics used by the Japanese was the contamination of water supplies in this region of China, using cultures of Vibrio cholera, Salmonella typhi, and S. paratyphi, the respective causative agents of cholera, typhoid and paratyphoid fever.

Col (Ret) Zygmunt F. Dembek looks at contamination of water supplies

Panoply of pathogens

A complete listing of biological pathogens with potential for use as waterborne contaminants is quite extensive, and includes many bacteria, virus, and various parasites. The US Centers for

Unsafe drinking water is gathered in Ethiopia.

©US DoD

40 CBNW 2018/01


BIOTERRORISM ©US DoD

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advised that the following suspicious activities related to water supplies should be reported immediately if sighted: € Dumping or discharging material to water sources € Climbing or cutting a utility fence € Unidentified truck or car parked or loitering near a waterway or facilities for no apparent reason € Suspicious opening or tampering with manhole covers, buildings, or equipment € People climbing on top of water tanks € People photographing or videotaping utility facilities, structures or equipment € Strangers hanging around locks or gates € Vehicles other than fire trucks hooked up to hydrants

©US DoD

water

A simulated CBRN sample testing exercise was conducted in Okinawa, Japan in March 2017.

CBNW 2018/01 41


BIOTERRORISM A brief history of water poisoning Water supplies were reinstalled after a flood in Malaysia in December 2014.

Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) list of bioterrorism agents and diseases includes the waterborne pathogens Vibrio cholerae and Cryptosporidium parvum. One comprehensive review of potable water also lists numerous biological threat agents, including B. anthracis, Brucella, V. cholerae, Clostridium perfringens, Yersinia pestis, Chlamydia psittaci, Coxiella burnetii, Salmonella, Shigella, Francisella tularensis, enteric viruses, smallpox virus, aflatoxin, C. botulinum toxin, microcystins, ricin, saxitoxin, staphylococcal enterotoxins, T-2 mycotoxin, and tetradotoxin. A 1993 Milwaukee, Wisconsin outbreak caused by drinking water contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum (a parasite) affected over 400,000 people, and demonstrates the potential for public water supply contamination to adversely affect hundreds of thousands of people in a municipal area. Contaminated well water caused a widespread waterborne disease outbreak occurred in 1999 at a New York state county fair, with over 900 illnesses and 2 deaths from E coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter contamination. Community-wide outbreaks of gastroenteritis, caused by Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium, various E coli serotypes, Torovirus, and other infectious agents, have also occurred with recreational water use, including swimming pools, water slides, and wave pools. Recreational water outbreaks have also been caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Naegleria fowleri, and Legionella.

21st-century incidents

A CDC epidemiologist examines a sample of Chattanooga, Tennessee drinking water in 1976 for chlordane contamination.

©US DoD

42 CBNW 2018/01

Many chemical agents could be used to contaminate water supplies, including pesticides and industrial chemicals. Pesticide poisoning has inadvertently occurred in water supplies. During the counter-culture protests of the 1960s, Leftist militants suggested that the psychedelic drug LSD be added to the public drinking water supply to target a city’s population. A 1966 article in London Life magazine article stated that: “It is quite feasible that LSD could be used take over a city or even a country… if put into reservoirs, it would disable people sufficiently for an enemy to take control.” During the 1968 Democratic Convention in Chicago, the counterculture icon Abbie Hoffman threatened to put LSD in Chicago’s water supply to protest the Vietnam War. Fortunately, it would take enormous quantities (i.e., tons) of LSD to survive dilution factors and be successfully distributed through a public drinking water supply. There are further drug inactivation factors inherent in the conventional potable water purification process prior to final public distribution, from various filtration treatments to chlorination. In 1976, a public drinking water supply in a three-block area of Chattanooga, Tennessee, became contaminated with chlordane, a chlorinated pesticide. This chemical was used in pesticide application, and is thought to have entered the water supply through improper backflow into drinking water. Subsequently, 13 people demonstrated chlordane toxicity symptoms. In 2000, disgruntled French workers occupying a chemical factory in Givet, near the Belgian border, released hundreds of litres of sulphuric acid into a stream flowing into the Meuse River. The workers may have hoped to contaminate water supplies, but if so, were unsuccessful in their attempt. Given the considerable dilution factor of the water supply to the Meuse River, which was processed by water treatment facilities located downriver prior to public distribution, the water supply remained unaffected. In Orissa, India in 2008, 65 individuals were poisoned and two deaths resulted from organophosphate (methyl parathion), following pesticide use by villagers, and disposal of leftovers into ground drains. This poisoning was thought to result from damaged pipelines  where the pesticide was used, and the


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BIOTERRORISM for an ISIS attack on drinking water, following the December 2016 Christmas market attack in Berlin. Another tactic a terrorist might attempt is to bypass a municipal water purification process and introduce a biological pathogen or poison at a later entry point within the potable water distribution system. And private well-water supply systems may be more vulnerable due to a smaller volume of water and less extensive purification system.

…and cyberattack

In 2013, shortly after Israeli airstrikes were launched against Damascus, a claim ©US DoD

Above: A US Marine hands out water at the Marine Corps Marathon in Washington, D.C. on 22 October 2017. Right: Simulated biological decontamination was part of the Global Dragon CBRN training exercise in Perry, Georgia in March 2015.

©US DoD

remainder then discarded in drains.

Government responses

Security concerns for protecting public drinking water supplies have long been shared by government officials charged with such responsibilities. Over 75 years ago, US FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover stated in 1941 that: “It has long been recognized that among public utilities, water supply facilities offer a particularly vulnerable point of attack to the foreign agent…”

Terrorist threats

More recently, security measures for the Paris water supply system were stepped up in 2015 following the Daesh-inspired terror attacks there. Chlorination of Parisian public drinking water was subsequently increased by Eau de Paris, the company responsible for the production, distribution and storage of the city’s drinking water. Additional security precautions to ensure water safety include strict limited access to the water supply, and sensors placed around each entrance, which, if sounded, alert authorities to immediately send a police team onsite. Similarly, German authorities were recently on high alert

was made that Syrian operatives had attempted to sabotage Haifa’s water supply via a cyberattack. This incident demonstrates how the potential for terrorism to sabotage a water supply has evolved in the 21st century. A cyberterrorist located thousands of miles from a water treatment facility may succeed in sabotaging a poorly protected computer control system for such a facility. Little personal risk is at stake with a cyberattack versus the risks inherent in attempting to physically infiltrate a well-guarded water supply plant. Whether a terrorist tries to attack a water supply via conventional methods by use of a biological or chemical agent, by poisonous plant, or by cyberterrorism – authorities must remain vigilant for such sabotage attempts. ❚❙

Col (Ret) Zygmunt F. Dembek, PhD, MS, MPH is an epidemiologist and biochemist writing extensively on biodefence and has conducted international biosecurity training on five continents. 44 CBNW 2018/01


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NUCLEAR SAFETY

Third in the world Col H R Naidu Gade asks:

How safe are India’s nuclear facilities? A major accident in a densely populated country like India can be

to overall accidents worldwide.

catastrophic. The safety performance and culture in India’s nuclear

Accident categories

facilities and how India’s nuclear establishment manages safety is of inherent interest not just to people living in India – but to the larger international community

I

ndia presently operates about 22 nuclear power stations, a number of nuclear fuel cycle facilities related to fuel reprocessing, mining and milling and fabrication and a few nuclear research and development establishments. Additionally, there are about 60,000 radiological facilities involving use of radiation-generating units or use of radioisotopes in the field of research, industry, medicine, and agriculture. According to the World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2017,

India is third in the world in the number – six – of new nuclear reactors being installed. In the past, there have been a few accidents at these nuclear facilities. The secrecy that shrouds the civilian nuclear industry in India makes it almost impossible for citizens to know accurately the details of accidents that have occurred. The frequency and similarity of many of these incidents and accidents is of concern even though magnitude of these accidents is smaller as compared

The origins of accidents and factors contributing to safe operation are related to the aspects of technology and of the operating organization and management. Nuclear accidents generally fall in to major categories as: Nuclear meltdown – a severe nuclear reactor accident that results in the reactor core damage from overheating, occurring when the heat generated by a nuclear reactor exceeds the heat removed by the cooling systems to the point where at least one nuclear fuel element exceeds its melting point; Criticality accidents – when a nuclear chain reaction is accidentally allowed to occur in fissile material – highly enriched uranium or plutonium; Decay heat – the heat generated by the radioactive decay causes harm, and failure to remove decay heat may cause the reactor core temperature to rise to dangerous levels and cause nuclear accidents; Heavy water leakages – common in pressurised heavy water reactors;

©Sharada Prasad CS/Wikimedia

Above: At the Narora nuclear power plant close to the mighty Ganges River, a leak of 1.4 tonnes of heavy water in November 2001 resulted in one worker receiving a high internal dose of radiation. Left: Seismic map of Indian nuclear reactors showing locations and the risks they face. ©Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, India

46 CBNW 2018/01


NUCLEAR SAFETY ©Nuclear Power Corporation India

THE ATOMIC ENERGY REGULATORY BOARD The AERB is a supposedly autonomous organization that regulates nuclear and radiation facilities and activities to ensure that the use of ionizing radiation and nuclear energy in India does not cause undue risk to health and the environment. The facilities and activities under the AERB purview are broadly classified as: Nuclear facility – All nuclear fuel cycle and associated installations encompassing the activities from the front end to the back end of nuclear fuel cycle processes, and associated industrial facilities – heavy water plants, beryllium extraction plants and zirconium plants Radiation facility – Any installation/ equipment or practice involving use of radiation-generating units or use of radioisotopes in the field of research, industry, medicine and agriculture Activities – Transport of radioactive material and radioactive waste management

Top Left: Construction of new nuclear reactors is under way. Left and Below: Kudankulam Nuclear Power Station in the Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu, India, under construction (left) has 1000-MW reactors (below). ©Petr Pavlicek/IAEA/Reetesh Chaurasia

 CBNW 2018/01 47


NUCLEAR SAFETY Transport accidents – cause release of radioactivity resulting in contamination or shielding to be damaged, resulting in direct irradiation; Equipment failure is one possible type of accident. Control software failure is a related cause; Human error – many of the major nuclear accidents have been directly attributable to operator or human error – as was clearly the case in both the Chernobyl and TMI-2 (Three Mile Island) disasters.

Nuclear accidents: a history

Accidents in India’s nuclear sector are related to leaks, fires, structural damages, and high-bearing vibrations, often leading to shutting of plants. They are sometimes not reported, as the Department of Atomic Energy is not obliged to reveal details of goings-on at these plants to the public. There may have been many other accidents that are not known. Some reported accidents are: November 2009 – 55 employees consume radioactive material after tritiated water finds its way into the drinking water cooler in Kaiga Generating Station (KGS), attributing the incident to “an insider’s mischief”; April 2003 – Six-tonne leak of heavy water at Reactor II of the Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS), indicating safety measures had not been improved since

AERB REGULATORY PROCESSES: € Development of regulatory safety documents – safety codes and standards; safety guidelines and safety manuals € Safety review & assessment € Licensing/Consenting – regulatory consent is used to include Licence, Authorisation, Approval, Registration, and Certification € Regulatory Inspection (RI) € Regulatory Enforcement – AERB assesses organizational experience and other related feedback and input from national and international resources to assess and further evolve its processes.

a leak at the same reactor three years previously; January 2003 -Failure of a valve in the Kalpakkam Atomic Reprocessing Plant results in the release of high-level waste, exposing six workers to high doses of radiation. The leaking area of the plant had no radiation monitors or mechanisms to detect valve failure, which may have prevented the employees’ exposure; May 2002 – Tritiated water leaks from a downgraded heavy water storage tank at the tank farm of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) into a common dyke area, releasing an estimated 22.2 Curies of radioactivity

into the environment; November 2001 – A leak of 1.4 tonnes of heavy water at the Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) I reactor results in one worker receiving a high internal radiation dose; April 2000 – Leak of about seven tonnes of heavy water from the moderator system at NAPS Unit II causes workers involved in the clean-up to receive ‘significant uptakes of tritium’, although only one receives a radiation dose over the recommended annual limit; March 1999 – 4-14 tonnes of heavy water leaks from the pipes at Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) at Kalpakam during a test process. The pipes have a history of cracks and vibration problems; February 1994 – Helium gas and heavy water leak in Unit 1 of RAPS. The

plant was shut down for four years; March 1993 – Two blades of the turbine in NAPS Unit I break off, slicing through other blades and indirectly causing a raging fire, which catches onto leaked oil and spreads through the turbine building; May 1992 – Tube leak causes a radioactive release of 12 Curies of radioactivity from Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS); January 1992- Four tons of heavy water spilt at RAPS; December 1991 – A leak from pipelines in the vicinity of CIRUS and Dhruva research reactors at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in Trombay results in severe Cs-137 soil contamination of thousands of times the acceptable limit. Local vegetation is also found to be contaminated; March 1991 – Heavy water leak at MAPS takes four days to clean up. Most Indian nuclear facilities – other than some radiation facilities – are state owned, function directly under the Prime Minister, and are regulated by AERB – which operates under the Atomic Energy Commission. What goes within the government sector is mostly not known to the public and the otherwise active media. There is an absolute need for a fully autonomous body outside of government control to regulate the activities at these facilities – and with extensive public outreach and awareness initiatives to keep the public informed and educated. However, it may be concluded that Indian nuclear facilities are mostly safe. zy

Colonel H R Naidu Gade (Retd.) is a former Chief CW Inspector with the Organisation for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and is presently Chief Consultant with CBRNe Secure India.

48 CBNW 2018/01


COUNTRY FOCUS

Hearts, minds, The proliferation of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and high-yield explosives and weapons

of mass destruction continues to reverberate throughout the international community. We are no longer dealing with a theoretical threat from North Korea

T

he North Korean leader Kim Jong-Un’s belligerence and reckless use of missile system launches, continued nuclear testing, and articulated threats to reach Guam, Hawaii or the United States – and to destroy the West – has become an existential threat to the US and its allies. Kim has attracted deep concern by myriad nations and, most recently, his sole consistent ally, China – with his launching of missiles over a sovereign

launchers and artillery cannons, and a million-strength army – of which 120,000 are highly trained special-operations soldiers. With Seoul located 25 miles (40 km) from the border with a metropolitan and suburban population of 25 million, with 678,000 international residents and 28,500 US soldiers, the number killed or wounded would be significant. In addition to a potential nuclear catastrophe, North Korea has an arsenal of chemical (nerve agent, mustard) as

©Dr Xavier Stewart

©Lt Col William Oberholtzer

nation, Japan. Should a missile fall short of its destination or collide with an aircraft over Japan, the probability that such an incident could spark conflict with the regional Trans-Pacific nations and the US, or escalate into a global conflict, is particularly high.

Not just nuclear

The challenge is manifold. Kim has nuclear weapons five to six times more powerful than the bomb that destroyed Nagasaki in August 1945, with a yield of approximately 100 kilotons (kt). He has approximately 20 or more nuclear weapons, 8,000 conventional rocket 50 CBNW 2018/01

well as biological agents. These unleashed on the South Korean Peninsula would exponentially increase morbidity and mortality rates. Case in point: North Korea was able to smuggle VX (a deadly nerve agent) through airports to Malaysia to assassinate Kim Jong-Un’s half-brother, Kim Jong Nam.

Reining Kim in

The world community has a responsibility to ensure that a CBRN war on the Korean Peninsula is prevented and addressed through diplomacy. The global strategic environment remains turbulent. Balancing liberty and security

is a delicate societal challenge. However, a kinetic option would be unthinkable and China will likely decide to step into this conflict to protect its interests. World leaders are faced with the juxtaposition of deterrence and preemption on this worsening global security issue. Thus, the diplomatic, moral, political, economic and military obligations which resides in any international strategic leadership construct, requires world leaders to not turn a blind eye towards this existential threat. We must work with North Korea and the regional nations in a process of


COUNTRY FOCUS

and MISSILES

The most recent online cyber-attack on South Korea by Kim’s regime yielded a treasure trove of documents. North Korea stole classified military documents which included war plans yielding 235 gigabytes of data. Inclusive in this data was a plan to assassinate Kim Jong-Un. A similar South Korean plan was developed in 1971 with a ‘kill squad’ to assassinate Kim II-Sung, the current leader’s grandfather. The stolen data complicates an already complex issue

Brig. Gen. (retd) Dr. Xavier Stewart assesses the existential CBRN threat from North Korea

©Dr Bruce Teft

Top: The growing concern surrounding North Korea’s missile programme is when the pariah state will have the ability to fit a nuclear warhead – possibly an H-bomb – onto an ICBM. Left: Military exercises are being stepped up to prepare for a possible CBRN attack by North Korea. Far Left: US military exercises help prepare for the worst-case scenario.

to the regional Pacific and world leaders. We must remind ourselves that bringing elements of national power to solve this Korean Peninsula matter has grave consequences. History is replete with examples that in and of themselves cannot win wars. But diplomatic solutions, nation-building and winning the hearts and minds of a people plays a more important role – with greater success.

The current security environment is volatile, ambiguous, increasingly uncertain, and complex. World leaders, particularly those of the Trans-Pacific Region who have an appreciation for and understanding of culture, will need to formulate strategic tools for success in reducing risk on the Korean Peninsula. The formula will need to include other nations’ history, values, ideology, politics, religion, and other cultural dimensions. This broad-based cultural awareness will enable these leaders to look at policy development and formulation through the lens of that particular nation: in this case, Mr. Kim’s. ❚❙

diplomacy, collaboration, coordination, communication and command constructs in decision-making processes with Kim Jong-Un. We must be able to provide clarity, understanding, vision, leadership and direction through unambiguous policy in this complex and uncertain era – providing substantive, resolute guidance Right: This military exercise serves as a dress rehearsal for dealing with radiological contamination. If a conflict with North Korea turned nuclear, millions could be thus affected.

©Lt Col William Oberholtzer

Dr Xavier Stewart is a retired Brigadier General (PA). He is currently President and CEO of Stewart and Associates, which helps the US Government combat WMD and develop national policies on Homeland Defense. CBNW 2018/01 51


ADVERTORIAL: CRESSWELL

A THRILLA in Kevin Cresswell was at the ringside when three major companies manufactured maximum exposure in Southeast Asia “Why can’t you guys organize a series of workshops themed around CBRNe and cover several locations back to back? It would cut down on our costs,” I said during a discussion with IIja Bonsen and Anna Patternosto of IB Consultancy over a beer in Kuala Lumpur. “We can do that, no problem,” was Ilja’s response. “And we’ll be culminating with a Thrilla in Manila…”

W

ithin a short few months, representatives from three US companies were heading out to Southeast Asia to take part in three informative, interactive workshops in the region over twelve days, back to back. Netherlands-based IB Consultancy already has a comprehensive network of stakeholders, lobbyists, subject matter experts and decision makers bringing networking knowledge from international organizations, national government departments, research institutes, and companies in support of business. They are best known for their prestigious Non-Conventional Threat (NCT) CBRNe and C-IED/EOD events. The original Thrilla in Manila was the third and final boxing match between Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier. It was contested in 1975 for the heavyweight championship of the world and was arguably the greatest ever. The IB version could have turned into fisticuffs if the team had failed to deliver, and I wondered if Ilja was taking a leaf out of President Ferdinand Marcos’s book when he sought to hold the bout in Metro Manila and sponsor it in order to divert attention from the social turmoil that the country was experiencing, having declared Steve Hanford of ADS presents operations for procurement to Head of the Philippines Bomb Data Centre, Senior Police Superintendent Marlon Sapla. 

52 CBNW 2018/01

CEO Field Forensics/ FFI Tactical CEO Craig Johnson demonstrates a urea nitrate colorimetric test kit to the PNP CBRN team commander.

martial law in The Philippines three years earlier.

Three main contenders

Three companies had expressed an early interest and enthusiasm. First in the ring was Field Forensics, Inc (FFI), a developer and manufacturer of forensics sampling and identification devices for law enforcement, homeland security, and military customers – along with their tactical division, FFI Tactical (FFIT) – which delivers systems, tools, and technology to EOD, C-IED, UXO, demining and related applications in support of very difficult missions. In addition to FFI also joining the SE Asia roadshow and ‘fighting out of the red corner’ were Richard Carrick and George McKerrow of Inert Products, LLC and their training wing, Mac7. They are a rapidly growing company, providing customers with


ADVERTORIAL: CRESSWELL

Manila extremely durable, highly realistic inert training aids used in training against terrorist threats, with a strong belief that security, vigilance, and training are the cornerstones to combating the asymmetric threat from terrorism. Completing the line-up as the ‘match commentators’ were members of the ADS Inc. international team, and walking encyclopedias of navigating procurement processes, brothers Simon and Steve Hanford. ADS is a company that works in 140 countries on over 1,750 Foreign Military Sales (FMS) cases with foreign government

procurement offices, US Embassies, security assistance staff and CONUS (Continental United States) programme offices to blend equipment solutions with applicable contracting routes, enabling an expeditious procurement process and case delivery. ADS is a vital member of the team for any company wishing to do business in the region.

“By placing the ultimate end user at the centre of the solution, ADS can provide customers in the countries we’re visiting this week options and a clear route to acquisition – either through Direct Commercial Sales (DCS), US Security Cooperation Programmes, or a mixture of both – based on their capability needs. In addition, my team can allow key decision makers insight into capability development risks – introduced by selecting export-controlled technology and how these risks may impact the overall solution.” FORMER BRITISH ARMY OFFICER AND HEAD OF FMS AND INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMMES, SIMON HANFORD 

The INERT Products range of training aids.

CBNW 2018/01 53


ADVERTORIAL: CRESSWELL First stop – Vietnam

The SE Asia roadshow kicked off in Vietnam. Following the long war with the US and a border war with China in 1979, Vietnam does not face an identifiable military enemy – despite some sovereignty issues with China over islands in the South China Seas. The country also remains untouched by terrorism in recent years. The biggest issue in Vietnam is the massive amount of UXO and mine remains, especially in Quang Tri province near the old DMZ, where thousands of tons of bombs and chemicals were dropped by B-52s in 1972 towards the end of the Vietnam War. This keeps the EOD teams and National Committee for Incident, Disaster Response, and Search and Rescue teams busy.

“Despite the lack of ongoing conflict, it’s important that the Vietnamese UXO teams, military, and law enforcement training is as realistic as possible – more so because they don’t have the operational experience of dealing with IEDs day to day. Our products range from all types of inert mines, simulated explosives and demolition devices, inert improvised explosive devices, replica military ordnance and munitions, demolition tools and accessories, and many training materials such as large classroom posters, display boards, cutaways and diagrams. If they want something we haven’t got – we’ll make it!” RICK CARRICK, DIRECTOR OF SALES, INERT PRODUCTS

Craig Johnson, CEO of FFI and FFIT was able to offer the delegates some demining and clearance solutions. “At the tech end we offer software programs developed by world class programmers alongside domain experts in the UXO/HMA industry. The tool essentially creates custom reporting capabilities, forms, data collection, with the objective of centralized control, speeding up the mission and cost savings.

In addition we manufacture our own demining individual protection equipment, which is all Berry Amendment-compliant, and we offer the world’s best metal and mine detection equipment. Think of us as a one-stop shop in this field!”

And on to Jakarta

From Vietnam it was onto Jakarta. Here the issues are different. Almost 600 Indonesian Daesh supporters are still believed to be in Syria. Many more have been killed, deported back to Indonesia, or returned voluntarily. “The threat to Indonesia is no different than in Europe at present, as experienced fighters return home, equipped with new skills and radicalized – imparting their skills in IED-making and offensive operations,” explained George McKerrow, Director of Training for MAC 7, who has over 30 years’ experience in counter-terrorism and C-IED. Additionally, rather weak terrorism laws restrict the Indonesian government’s options: it is not illegal to leave the country and join Daesh, or even to declare support for the group. In January 2016 multiple explosions near the Sarinah shopping mall in Central Jakarta killed eight people, including four civilians. It was the first terrorist attack in Indonesia to be claimed by Daesh. Since then, there have been several Daesh-inspired attacks – mostly low-impact suicide bombings targeting police. But earlier this year two suicide bombings killed five and injured ten near Kampung Melayu Terminal in east Jakarta, revealing an ominous link existed within the conflict in the Philippines.

Seconds out the ring

A small number of Indonesians have fought with Daesh-linked militants in Marawi, Mindanao in the southern Philippines. So it was to the Philippines that the roadshow went to complete their third and final leg – and the most intensive. The roadshow arrived in Manila for the final two days of workshops and presentations which the IB Consultancy billed as ‘Thrilla’ – with representatives from the Army and Police EOD and CBRN teams. The workshops were chaired by Maj. Gen. Danilo M Servando (Ret.) of the Anti-Terrorism Program Management Center, and Police Senior Superintendent Marlon S. Sapla – currently the Chief of the Philippine Bomb Data Centre (PBDC), under the administrative and operational supervision of the Philippine National Police (PNP) Directorate for Intelligence.

“The plan is to keep growing the Philippines CBRNE unit for deployment nationwide. The training and equipment are expensive, however. We will continue to acquire more equipment to improve the capability of this unit.” The Field Forensics CHAMP includes a complementary set of chemical analysis tools.

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MAJOR GENERAL DANILO SERVANDO, ANTI-TERRORISM PROGRAM MANAGEMENT CENTRE, MANILA, THE PHILIPPINES

“To combat the terrorist, we as manufacturers and sellers of


ADVERTORIAL: CRESSWELL equipment have to think asymmetrically and unconventionally too. We have to provide you with the right tools,” I explained at the start of my presentation on the threat from asymmetric attack in the Philippines – drawing upon my own experiences and recent events in Manila, such as the IED found in a trash bin metres away from the US Embassy in Manila on 28 November 2016.

“To know that the terrorists are, literally, among us here in Manila is a reality check. The threat of terrorism and asymmetric warfare is no longer remotely located in the south and rural areas of this country, but it’s right at our doorstep today. ISIS is establishing a caliphate in Central Mindanao and the thought that it is sending terrorists throughout other parts of the Philippines, including Manila, to commit acts of asymmetric warfare is troubling.” MAJOR GENERAL DANILO SERVANDO, ANTI-TERRORISM PROGRAM MANAGEMENT CENTRE, MANILA, THE PHILIPPINES

I went on to give examples of recent terrorist attempts and the will to use CBRN – reminding delegates that, in 1987 in the Philippines, 19 police recruits were killed and 140 injured in a pesticide attack on the police college water supply.

The CHAMP

Earlier during the roadshow FFI had introduced their Chemical Hazard Analysis Module Portable – known as ‘CHAMP.’ In Manila, delegates were able to use some of the detection and identification tools for real in various scenarios. CHAMP includes a complementary set of chemical analysis tools including Raman spectroscopy, FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy), DMS (Differential Mobility Spectrometry), chromatography, and colorimetric tests – as well as nuclear and radiological detection.

“The CBRNE threat environment has continued to evolve and increase in complexity. State and non-state actors demonstrate interest in developing, acquiring, or using CBRNE materials. Modern military forces must be able to rapidly identify chemical hazards and to do so accurately using devices they can carry.” CEO FIELD FORENSICS/FFI TACTICAL CEO, CRAIG JOHNSON

In simple terms – CHAMP is a hardware and method-based system. Its objective is to achieve identification results as close as possible to laboratory analyses – but in tactical scenarios in forward-deployed, non-secure areas. As the attendees used various tools on suspect chemicals, Craig Johnson reinforced the methodology. “CHAMP is flexible, adjusting to the problem at hand with multiple testing techniques. The fact is – there is no single portable chemical detection or identification system or method that will provide an answer in every situation. So we use different techniques together to provide detection AND confirmation.” The methods used in CHAMP build a case for each situation to justify further action – or to aid supporting scientists in making a ‘reach-back’ determination.

Knockout punch

In wrapping up the roadshow, Ilja Bonsen reminded delegates that IB Consultancy offers top-quality programmes with more high-level speakers than any other commercial CBRNe or C-IED/EOD event. The bonus for the vendors was guaranteed participation from relevant end-user organizations and government delegations to maximize networking and sales opportunities. “ADS understand programmatic risk. You’ve had a lot of equipment presented at these workshops. We can define packages for you the customer, and ADS can provide comprehensible solution options for you,” concluded former soldier and Dyfed Powys and New South Wales police officer Steven Hanford, based in Australia and the ADS lead in the SE Asia region. He already has several invitations to return to discuss equipment requirements in the coming months. All in all, the 2017 Southeast Asia roadshow – Vietnam, Indonesia and The Philippines – was a complete success. Over 100 prime delegates attended the three events and benefited from over 35 hours of training on new equipment, training aids and education on procurement processes. Of course in business we look for the knockout punch. The proof is always in sales – but taking a holistic view, it shouldn’t just be about sales and profit. In the defence industry we have a duty to educate and share knowledge. These workshops allowed for maximum exposure, interacting with the warfighter and first responder in an environment conducive to producing two-way communication from the customers fighting the asymmetric aggressor – and those of us conducting the unconventional battle from the boardroom and the factory floor. zy

FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THE COMPANIES MENTIONED IN THIS ARTICLE PLEASE CONTACT: ADS Inc at www.adsinc.com Inert Products/Mac7 Training at www.inertproducts.com Field Forensics at www.fieldforensics.com and www.ffitactical.com IB Consultancy at www.ib-consultancy.com

Kevin Cresswell is a security consultant and business development executive with FFI and FFI Tactical. CBNW 2018/01 55


PROTECTION

A KESTREL for the brave

Chris Jackson relates how the former Remploy has risen from the ashes Lightweight and breathable, the Kestrel conforms to NATO standards and is especially suited to high-heat burden environments.

Nature, they say, abhors a vacuum and the demise of Remploy from the CBRN suit market in 2014 left a yawning chasm after nearly 40 years at the forefront of this speciality arena. OPEC CBRNe, a specialty British provider of CBRNe apparel to the global defence market, is making some ambitious headway in terms of filling the gap

O

PEC CBRNe stepped firmly into the shoes of the former Remploy Frontline in 2015 when their parent company, OPEC Systems, partnered with Haven Protective Technology Solutions of Scotland to acquire the rights to produce the full range of former Remploy Frontline suits. Today, many of the former Remploy team, including a large cohort of senior management, technical and fabrication staff, have regathered under the OPEC/Haven banner, allowing their rich CBRN capability and proud history to be preserved.

Safe Haven

©OPEC CBRNe

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The team at Haven in Scotland, where more than 90% of the workforce has a permanent disability, serves as OPEC’s primary manufacturing capability. A significant portion of the profits from suit sales are poured back into Haven to support the work of this valuable organization. It is satisfying to know that this partnership between OPEC and Haven is helping to provide quality work for disabled people, including many of the former Remploy Frontline team, as well as making a significant contribution to the British CBRN market. This practical fusion of UK social enterprise with world-class CBRN garment construction is a powerful and compelling business model under the OPEC CBRNe brand. More than 98% of the raw materials used in the company’s suit manufacturing process, including some genuinely exciting CBRN protection fabrics never before seen in the market, are designed and manufactured in the UK, ensuring profits and intellectual property are retained  firmly within Britain.


Detect & Protect

Specialist CBRN equipment for use in hazardous areas The capability to react quickly and safely to incidents in dangerous environments, including potentially explosive atmospheres and hazardous areas, is extremely important for CBRN response teams. Tracerco offer a range of award winning radiation monitors, including contamination, dose rate and personal dosimeters, that are: • Intrinsically safe for use in hazardous areas • Easy to use • Extremely robust and reliable • Available with a wide range of accessories All our products are developed in-house by our world leading development team of radiation detection experts. To find out more about our full range of easy to use radiation detection equipment, contact us today.

Web: www.tracerco.com/monitors Email: radiation.monitors@tracerco.com


PROTECTION

Andrew Brennan is featured ‘on the floor’ at Haven in Scotland, which serves as OPEC CBRNe’s primary manufacturing location. ©Haven Protective Technology Solutions

The OPEC team are intent on not resting on the laurels of their auspicious pedigree. For the past two-and-a-half years, on the other side of the world in Australia, they have been striving to secure credibility and success in the competitive CBRN suit market – and the results have been very positive.

The big prize: Australian Defence

For the first time since 1998, when Project Bloodhound provided a consolidated CBRN capability to the Australian Defence Forces Incident Response Regiment, the Australia government adopted a progressive ‘all of Defence’ CBRN enablement strategy under the mantle of Joint Project 2110. The project, one of the more ambitious CBRN-centric initiatives to be undertaken by a NATO country in recent years, appears set to be finalized in coming months, with Defence seemingly well advanced in discussions with a preferred tenderer. Few however were more excited about the outcome of JP2110 than the enthusiastic team at OPEC who, against the odds, had partnered with the successful prime on the contract to provide their CBRN suits. Following exhaustive user trials and technical evaluations that lasted nearly a year, OPEC were informed that their 58 CBNW 2018/01

Kestrel CBRN ensemble (Remploy’s final design contribution to the CBRN world before their untimely demise in early 2014) was identified as the preferred Medium Weight Protective ensemble under JP2110. In addition to being a significant coup for the OPEC team as they turn their focus to Project Sonoric and the UK MoD’s own CBRN ensemble needs, this major contract provided clear validation for a value proposition that had arisen out of a R&D workshop several years earlier. Back in 2012 and over a year prior to Remploy’s closure, the Remploy-designed ‘MkIVA’ ensemble was flagged for a significant redesign. A think tank of creatives was looking to develop an ultra-light suit specifically for the Australian market, when a particular fabric combination caught the eye of the design team. This combination epitomised the Holy Grail for the designers in meeting a lighter, cooler and more comfortable design brief than the original MkIVA, whilst maintaining the client’s required levels for CBRN protection. The designers then went to work creating a technologically superior prototype, with other key changes including improvements to respirator, boot and glove integration.

The Kestrel flagship

Today, the two-piece Kestrel is one of OPEC CBRNe’s flagships. The versatile medium-weight suit is 30% lighter than many current systems and is ideally suited to high-heat burden environments. Its design ensures excellent CBRN protection, while at the same time delivering long-term comfort, breathability and ease of movement in a high-threat environment. OPEC’s selection as the preferred CBRN ensemble tenderer for the Australian Government reflects the market’s appreciation for a lighter, extra comfortable and more breathable garment with retained safety features.


PROTECTION KESTREL: KEY FEATURES Robust testing, coupled with the use of cutting-edge manufacturing technologies and a focus on integration with other in-service items, has delivered a garment with multiple key features:  Versatile CBRN protection system for use in multiple CBRN threat environments  Conformity to NATO standards  Demonstrated improvement in comfort and durability across diverse operating environments

was left in tatters following Remploy’s exit from the marketplace. New distribution agreements have been struck up across Europe, Asia, the Pacific and the Middle East – and in recent months advances into the US market have yielded significant interest as the UIPE (Uniform Integrated Protection Ensemble) programme gains traction. Interesting times indeed in the once-predictable world of CBRN garments! ❚❙

 High air permeability and low physiological burden  20 times launderable  10-year minimum shelf life  Built for close integration with protective gloves, over-boots and all major in-service respiratory systems  Fire retardant and water/oil repellent  Standalone garment or over-garment

Where to from here?

The rugged Kestrel can be laundered up to 20 times and has a ten-year shelf life.

With the backing of OPEC Systems’ significant funding capabilities and in-house design resources, the OPEC CBRNe stable of technical suits continues to enjoy on-going refinement and improvement. With Sonoric looming large, the OPEC design team has been working diligently for the past two years refining and proving a number of further intelligent enhancements. These will take them closer to their ultimate goal of producing a highly durable, protective and systems integrated suit – which has no greater burden on the soldier or first responder’s body than their standard uniform. In other CBRN markets, OPEC CBRNe has been diligently building up the distribution network that

The Kestrel’s low weight was a key feature in OPEC’s successful tender with the Australian government.

Haven’s Helen Henderson puts the finishing touches on another Kestrel ensemble.

©OPEC CBRNe

©Haven Protective Technology Solutions

©OPEC CBRNe

Chris Jackson is the current General Manager of OPEC CBRNe and former General Manager of Remploy frontline. He has wide commercial and operational experience in technical PPE, workwear and CBRN, gained from working on projects for key organizations in the sector. CBNW 2018/01 59


DETECTION The neutron probe was designed for scanning naval vessels. It has an engineered flat surface on one side and a solid handle that help scan walls more effectively. All photos ©VPI Technology Group

Coben Hoch outlines a new unified radiation detection system for military applications On 11 March 2011, a tsunami hit the coast of Japan, damaging the Daiichi power plant in Fukushima. The tsunami disabled all but one of the plant’s back-up generators and all the heat exchangers that would have dumped the reactors’ waste and decay heat into the ocean, according to the World Nuclear Association. Soaring temperatures and explosions compromised the plant’s integrity and radiation escaped the facility

T

he United States sent troops from each branch of their military to Japan to provide support for the disaster. Once on the ground, troops from the separate branches used differing radiation detection systems. The systems consisted of differing brands and models of detectors, resulting in inconsistent data, varying units of measurement, and little integration between the data sets. Additionally, most of their equipment was nearly 30 years old. It became apparent that developing a modern, unified system was in order.

Unified system

The US Army led the way in collecting requirements from each of

the US military services and NATO allies, including the UK and Canada with the goal of creating the first unified system to be used by all organizations. The Joint Project Leader – Radiation Nuclear Defense (JPL-RND) group at the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland conducted market research, which determined that there was sufficient small business interest and capability to complete the project. After completing their research efforts they designated this project as a small business set-aside. JPL-RND reviewed bids from multiple companies, and awarded the contract to VPI Technology Group in Draper, Utah. VPI is working closely with JPL-RND to provide a system that will modernize and standardize the military’s radiological detection capability. VPI Technology Group has been working with commercial, government and military clients for over 21 years. They have developed a wide range of products including a military 

Heading into the HOT ZONE 60 CBNW 2018/01


NCT

A Vision of IB Consultancy

Join the world’s leading CBRNe event series! In 2018, we will host events in six continents, including our first event in South America. At our events in Tokyo and The Netherlands we expect over 500 participants with the largest CBRNe exhibitions in Asia and Europe. In 2018 NCT Europe will again host the only outdoor CBRNe exhibition showcasing (large) equipment from different companies and end users. IB Consultancy is proud to work with the Syrian Opposition hosting workshops on IEDs and the use of Chemical Weapons in Syria at all our 2018 events!

NCT South America, 13-14 February 2018, Bogota, Colombia www.nctsouthamerica.com NCT USA, 3-5 April 2018, Washington DC, USA www.nct-usa.com

+31 71 744 0174 www.ib-consultancy.com @ibconsultancy facebook.com/ibconsultancy vimeo.com/ibconsultancy

NCT Asia Pacific, 29-31 May 2018, Tokyo, Japan www.nctasiapacific.com NCT Europe, 3-5 July 2018, NTC Vught, The Netherlands www.nct-europe.com NCT Asia, 16-18 October 2018, Hanoi, Vietnam www.nct-asia.com


DETECTION

“VPI has many years of experience developing radiation detection equipment, but we were not part of the ‘inner circle’ of companies that typically win these kinds of government contracts. Our years of experience in the commercial space were appealing to JPL-RND because our commercial customers demand quick turnaround, competitive pricing, and utilization of components that are available off-the-shelf, as opposed to completely proprietary solutions that drive up costs.” VPI DIRECTOR OF BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT, KURT OLSEN

ammunition inspection system, medical barcode scanners, and a commercial ship tracking system that currently resides on the International Space Station. JPL-RND required that the RDS (radiation detection system) be an open system, meaning that the government

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would have full rights and access to all engineering design information and documentation developed by the contractor. VPI’s response to this requirement is a key differentiator in their ability to secure government contracts.

Their business model for commercial customers is based on the same concept – once the design is finished, commercial customers own all intellectual property developed by VPI, giving them full control over their own product and enabling them to have their products manufactured anywhere they wish. VPI offered this same approach to JPL-RND, which gives them flexibility for future development and won’t hold them hostage to a proprietary engineering and manufacturing solution. One of VPI’s core strengths as a small business is their ability to develop projects quickly and produce high-quality results. The timelines for the RDS project were very aggressive, and VPI has proved


DETECTION

Bottom Left: RDS comes with a telescoping handle for scanning tall or faraway objects. An internal wire connects the probes to the base unit at the other end. Left: The Small Area Beta Gamma Probe is shown in this image. Above: Soldiers can use the base unit coupled with the Alpha Beta probe for surfaces such as this helicopter tailplane. The Alpha Beta probe incorporates a reflective film that minimizes light interference.

their efficiency once again by developing working RDS prototypes within eight months of winning the contract. RDS design and prototyping efforts are conducted completely in-house at VPI, with no backing from any major defence contractors.

Work on the RDS

The RDS system consists of a base unit and six individual probes, along with several accessories including connecting cable, carrying pouches, and telescoping handle. The base unit itself can detect beta and gamma radiation. It also automatically senses when a probe has been connected, and displays its radiation detection data on the screen along with the base unit’s detection data. The system allows users to detect alpha,

“The system passed most of the difficult tests at government facilities the first time, which is unusual. We expect to start selling the product directly to the US military soon. It will also be available to commercial clients in the near future.” KURT OLSEN

beta, gamma, neutron, and X-ray radiation. One of the probes included in RDS is one of the first widely available solid-state based neutron detectors. Moving to a solid-state based neutron detector reduces the military’s dependency on He3-based neutron detectors (He3 - helium-3 - is in limited supply and expensive). The RDS is designed to exacting military specifications. It is durable, easy to use, and operates under extreme conditions. It can withstand heat, cold, dirt, sand, vibration, shock, and full immersion in fresh and salt water. Its design is acceptable to all branches of the US military, the UK Ministry of Defence, and the Canadian Department of National Defence.

Nuclear explosions release an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and gamma radiation, both of which can disable electronic equipment. RDS is designed to withstand both types of energy discharges. VPI recently showcased the system at the Defence and Security Equipment International (DSEI) Convention in London. They joined the four other companies that made up the Utah delegation, which was hosted by the Utah Governor’s Office of Economic Development (GOED). The RDS is currently going through extensive testing, and is nearing final design completion. zy Coben Hoch works for VPI Engineering on marketing and technical text. CBNW 2018/01 63


A Brief History of BOMBINGS Kevin Cresswell lays out a timeline of terrorist blasts in Britain

©Coventry Telegraph

In June 1996, I was an army reservist and a police officer with 13 years in the force. At this point I was a police instructor at the National Police Training Centre, teaching law, advanced interview skills, public order and counterterrorism. Three years earlier my force had dealt with the 1993 Warrington bombings. I had just delivered a presentation on Irish republican terrorism and a bomb scene management presentation at the police college – and on Saturday, 15 June 1996, I was off duty and on my way into Manchester by train

A

t 09:38 that day, several warnings were called in with a recognized code word by a man with a strong Irish accent. By 11:10 the streets around the Arndale shopping centre were deserted. At 11:05 my train pulled into Manchester Piccadilly station and there was an immediate recognition that something was up. Of course we had no instantaccess smartphones in those days, but police activity was very much apparent. I started to make my way a half mile or so towards the Arndale when I heard the first bang. This turned out to be 11 EOD Regiment who had made their way in good time along the M62 motorway and had deployed their Wheelbarrow robot, blowing an access hole in the side of an abandoned cargo van… Any further attempts to disarm the bomb using the robot device however failed……. And time ran out.

The Fenian Dynamiters

©Simon Shaw/Wikipedia

It would be 262 years before terrorists next used an explosive device on British soil – when a keg containing approximately 200 lbs of explosive was laid by the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) against the wall of London’s Clerkenwell Prison. It damaged several houses close by, killed 12, and caused 120 injuries. Like the Gunpowder plotters the mission was unsuccessful; none of the Irish prisoners escaped. Left and Top Left: The Broadgate bombing in Coventry on 25 August 1939 was carried out just days before World War II broke out. Right: The IRA’s second audacious attempt at assassinating the British government involved the use of one of their homemade mortar systems – the Mk 10, aimed at 10 Downing Street on 7 February 1991.

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©Museum of London prints

TERRORISM

The Fenian plot at Clerkenwell prison.

Fourteen years on from then, the IRB switched to the newly invented ‘dynamite’: an explosive mix of nitroglycerin, sorbents and stabilizers invented by Alfred Nobel – and patented exactly the same year as the Clerkenwell bombing. Dynamite was a safer alternative to gunpowder and so the IRB began a four-year campaign of bombings against military, law enforcement and political targets. Throughout the 19th century there were several explosions against mainland targets, and then a period of inactivity during World War I and the immediate postwar years.

The IRA hits Coventry

Before and after the outbreak of World War II in 1939 and following Ireland’s war of independence and a civil war, Irish republicanism had begun to grow again. The Irish Republican Army (IRA) began a campaign of explosions and sabotage in Britain. The worst of these 


TERRORISM

”Black gaps punched its fifty-two floors like a mouth full of bad teeth” DAILY MAIL DESCRIBING LONDON’S TALLEST BUILDING AFTER THE BISHOPSGATE BOMBING

was in Coventry, using a 5-lb (2-kg) potassium chlorate bomb hidden in the carrier of a butcher’s bicycle abandoned outside a shop. After getting stuck in tram tracks, the intended target was the police station. It caused massive structural damage, five deaths and over 70 casualties. It would be the 1970s before the IRA – now as the far more ruthless Provisional IRA – re-commenced their mainland campaign of bombings. For the next three decades they continued their campaign. In terms of massive explosions of IEDs (improvised explosive devices), the Provisional IRA pioneered the modern deployment of massive vehicle-borne IEDs (VBIEDs). Manchester had already suffered a series of IRA incendiary devices planted at various locations during the 1990s. A further two devices injured 64 people in a rush-hour attack in 1993 – two small packages containing 2 lbs (almost a kilo) of HE (high explosive) hidden in bushes.

Manchester, June 1996

And so it was that after they fired off the access charge on that fateful Saturday on 15 June 1996, the EOD team’s time ran out. I heard the device explode, a sound heard 15 miles (24 km) away. At 11:17 the bomb, containing 3,300-lb (1,500-kg) fertilizer and Semtex mix exploded in Corporation Street. It was without doubt the largest bomb detonated in Britain since World War II, three times the size of the Canary Wharf device. The Provisionals had targeted the city’s infrastructure. The damage cost was later put at over £700 million (equivalent to £1.4 billion in today’s money). Within the half-mile blast zone people were knocked to the ground and every window was shattered. Rubble and glass littered the street, alarms were screeching, and standing like a guard on point duty at Buckingham Palace, a red post box remained steadfast.

The following day I read the front pages of the papers. The most striking image was of a police officer who assisted in the evacuation of over 75,000 people. He entered the scene and brought out a badly injured, bloodied elderly woman from the basement of a destroyed building. PC Vanessa Winstanley, 23 years old at the time, had been one of the students at the bomb scene management presentation I mentioned above. She was commended later for her courageous actions.

Gold-standard response

The police response on that day was nothing short of miraculous. After the coded warning had been processed the clock began counting down. The vehicle was quickly located on CCTV cameras. In fact, the vehicle had been ticketed for illegal parking. But this was a busy Saturday in the heart of the city centre – full of workers, shoppers and football fans as Manchester was hosting the Euro ‘96 Championships. The quick response of the emergency services under police management saved an incredible number of lives. More than 200 were injured but miraculously there were no fatalities.

From the IRA to violent Jihad

Despite the enormity of their IED attacks, the IRA was not primarily interested in causing death and injury on the

mainland. Five days after the Manchester blast, they issued a statement claiming responsibility, also expressing regret in causing injury to civilians. The IRA’s prime aim was to strike Britain’s economic centres to wear down London’s commitment to Northern Ireland. Overall, the system of coded warnings on most occasions gave police the chance to evacuate civilians. The dawn of the new millennium would be followed by a quite different campaign of violence as Islamic extremists took up the baton of explosive terrorism. TATP (triacetone triperoxide) has since become a favoured homemade explosive used in their IEDs. This was exemplified by the London bombings of 7 July 2005 – Britain’s first suicide bombings – in which 52 people were killed and over 700 injured. TATP was also used in the single device used in the attack only metres away from the 1996 IRA bombing – at the Manchester Arena – on 22 May 2017, in which 23 died and 250 were injured. Terrorism has changed little in 400 years. The actions of the gunpowder conspirators, Irish republicans, and Islamic extremists are strikingly similar in motivations and the objective the same. In each case the terrorists’ fanatical belief that if the government failed to subscribe to their beliefs and aims, it had to be brought down at all cost. zy

PROVISIONAL IRA: “one bomb in London is worth 20 in Belfast” 14 November 1990: Stoke Newington, north London – 2,000-lb fertilizer bomb: failed to explode 10 April 1992: Baltic Exchange, City of London – 100 lb of fertilizer detonated by a small quantity of Semtex: killed three 24 April 1993: Bishopsgate, City of London – 2,240 lb of ANFO (ammonium nitrate/fuel oil) VBIED: killed one man; produced a cloud that could be seen across London; left a 5-m-wide crater. Buildings up to 500 m away were damaged and over 500 tonnes of glass broken 9 February 1996: London’s Docklands – 2,240-lb fertilizer and Semtex VBIED: killed two and injured 40. Area around Canary Wharf devastated. A sophisticated device: PETN/RDX det cord was fabricated from plastic tubing filled with the main constituents of Semtex, PETN and RDX; a kitchen timer; US-made Ireco detonators 24 April 1996: Hammersmith Bridge, west London – 30-lb (13-kg) Semtex device: failed to explode

Kevin Cresswell works with US companies Field Forensics Inc (FFI) and FFI Tactical Inc (FFIT). FFI invents and manufactures forensics sampling, analysis, and identification equipment and FFI Tactical (FFIT), a division of FFI, serves bomb squads, demining teams, and UXO clearance teams with tactical equipment and FFIT partner brands. 66 CBNW 2018/01


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DETECTION

A good James Tomlinson outlines recent developments in portable gamma ray spectrometers

Handheld gamma ray spectrometers, otherwise known as radioisotope identification devices/RIIDs, have been in common use by first responders for many decades in national programmes such as Project Cyclamen in the UK and Second Line of Defence in the United States. RIIDS are used on a global scale to detect and identify the illegal (and sometimes even accidental) movement of radioactive materials

All images ©Southern Scientific Ltd

R

IIDs utilise the properties of certain materials, typically a specially grown crystal – or semiconductor – within the detector to measure the photon energies emitted by radioactive sources. In order to identify the specific radioisotopes, it is necessary to have a detector that provides an energy proportional output with good resolution. Traditional forms of detector (so called scintillation detectors) use a doped crystal that emits a flash of light when a gamma photon is absorbed. The intensity of this flash of light is proportional to the intensity (or energy) of the incoming gamma ray photon. Thus, by characterising each pulse it is possible to obtain a spectrum of energies emanating from a radioactive source and, thereby, identify which isotopes are present. It is also possible to tell even if a source is being shielded, by carefully measuring the secondary gamma emissions.

Sensitivity and resolution

Scintillation materials have undergone many incremental changes over the last 68 CBNW 2018/01

few decades, with the original materials such as sodium iodide now being accompanied by many new material formulations – such as CLYC (Cs2LiYCl6), adding neutron sensitivity. These improvements have brought increased sensitivity and resolution at cost-effective manufacturing levels, including the recent focus on room temperature semiconductor sensors that utilise CZT (cadmium zinc telluride). Radiation isotope detection in general however has not seen many fundamental advances since the early days of scintillation materials, along with other detector technologies such as Geiger Müller detectors and their associated electronics.

More user-friendly

The major advances in radiation detection technology have primarily been seen in the areas of the software, graphical user interface, user experience and packaging (form, fit, feel). Most devices now include interactive displays, enabling user-friendly interfaces with different RIID functions such as radioactive isotope localization,


RIID

identification and radiation level measurements. The latest generations of RIIDs aim to convey information in the most understandable and user-friendly manner as possible. This is often achieved through colour-grouping radioisotopes of concern to help users quickly differentiate between a threat (e.g. plutonium-239) and non-threat (radium-226) nuclides. The most common groupings are naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and medical, industrial and special nuclear material (SNM). In addition to the use of colour, other methods implemented to simplify interaction with the devices include the use of graphical representations. These can specify required actions, for example in radioisotope localisation mode on the FLIR R440 – which directs the user to rotate slowly to allow a baseline to be gathered, enabling radiation directionality features to be utilised. Features such as these are very new to the market – this author is only aware of the FLIR R440 and Mirion SPIR-Ace having such capability. They greatly

DETECTION Page 68 Top Left: R440 is the latest addition to the FLIR identiFINDER family. Bottom Left: The R440 shows on-screen localization functionality. Right: The R440 screen NORM Thorium offers grouped radioisotope identification.

advance source localization capability compared to more traditional static bar graph displays.

Rugged and ergonomic

Due to the nature of their work, first responders and the military need devices that are rugged enough for tough environments and missions where Ingress Protection ratings become an important factor. Furthermore, the requirement for everyday usage and long monitoring periods drives the need for an ergonomic design for RIIDs – such as provisions for hand positioning, grip and protection, as they are a key factor for extended use. Other advances in modern RIIDs are centred on so called ‘reach-back’ capability, to improve data transmission when in the field and manipulation of the data by specialists away from the scene. Examples of improvements made in this area are well represented by a device such as the SPIR-Ace, a versatile, compact and accurate RIID with a built i n mobile handset. The SPIR-Ace offers benefits such as reporting and submission of data for reach-back, sent directly

Page 69 Left: The Mirion SPIR-Ace modern handheld gamma spectrometer reports and submits data for reach-back. Centre: Built-in RIID mapping capability is a notable feature. Right: The SPIR-Ace has localization functionality.

from the handset in the device. This replaces the need to connect traditional RIID systems via Bluetooth to external personal network devices, such as cellphones or tablet computers. Additionally, by using a built-in mobile handset, mapping capability is immediately achieved on the RIID itself. This feature allows reporting from a scene to include overlaid satellite imagery with dose rate levels and identified isotopes. With an ever increasing requirement within the military and civil first responder organizations for RIIDs, manufacturers are further focusing on the demanding needs of their field-based clients to drive new advances in product development. The cutting-edge form factors and functionality seen in recent RIID releases (such as the FLIR R440 and Mirion SPIR-Ace) are primary evidence of this. ❚❙ James Tomlinson is the CBRNe Sales Manager at Southern Scientific Ltd with seven years’ experience in military/first responder sales and a background in radiation detection and scintillation materials. CBNW 2018/01 69


AVIATION

Up in the air Photos ŠIB Consultancy

On 22 March 2016, two suicide bombers detonated an IED in the check-in area in Brussels Zaventem Airport, causing the deaths of 11 people. One hour later, this attack was followed by another explosion at the Belgian capital’s Maelbeek metro station. Both attacks were coordinated and carefully prepared with a high level of sophistication and logistical support. In 2017 an IED exploded on a local flight flying from Mogadishu to Djibouti on 2 February, and in June, three suicide attackers killed 45 people at Istanbul airport

70 CBNW 2018/01


AVIATION

Ilja M. Bonsen and Marlène Meunier revisit CBRN threats to aviation and make some timely recommendations

T

he terrorist threat to civil aviation is real, and has been real since the first days of aviation in the 1930s. Since the aviation sector was privatised in the 1990s, it has seen a significant increase in passenger numbers and air-cargo. This means a substantial pressure on the space needed, as airports need to expand to accommodate more passengers. They also have to adapt screening strategies so that the increase does not affect the time taken to go through security. In response to the 2016 and 2017 attacks, the threat has not been left unaddressed; the baseline for aviation security has increased significantly over the years. It includes whole-body scans, strict guidelines on carry-on items, and the most recent laptop ban, as a response to a laptop bomb incident in 2016 which targeted ten airports and eight Middle Eastern and African countries. This development means that in terms of infrastructure, airports and aircraft are generally less vulnerable than shopping malls, schools, trains, subway stations and so on – but this does not make them invulnerable against a CBRNE terrorist threat.

CBRN aims

Although a large-scale CBRN attack in Europe has not yet

Above: Check-in halls are the most vulnerable areas for a terrorist attack, the most recent being the March 2016 suicide bombing in Brussels Zaventem Airport. Below: A significant increase in passenger numbers and air-cargo means airports need to expand.

CBNW 2018/01 71


AVIATION occurred – with the ‘E’ in CBRNE being most prevalent along with more low-tech methods of attack – the chance of Jihadi groups acquiring and potentially using CBRN weapons in Europe is high. Jihadi groups can gain knowledge in the development of CBRN weapons by recruiting scientists. Daesh actually controlled CBRN facilities and used chemical weapons in Syria and Iraq. Moreover, terrorist propaganda and news outlets still focus on CBRN and E topics, which showcase their commitment to such attacks. A CBRN terrorist attack in the aviation sector can only become a reality if the terrorist has the capability of using a CBRN weapon, and is motivated to use it for terrorist purposes. In order to recommend counter-strategies, we have to understand these two factors.

Assessing capability

The first factor, namely the CBRN capability, constitutes in essence of a) the access to a CBRN agent and b) a dispersal device. The more lethal the agent, the more difficult it is to access. States protect their most lethal agents

well, and developing highly lethal agents is not that easy. However, the lethality of CBRN weapons may not be the most important factor in determining their threat, and the capability of the terrorists. Some CBRN agents are often referred to as ‘weapons of mass disruption’ as it is assumed the lethality of an attack would be limited, but the psycho-societal impact of such an attack would be disproportionately larger than the number of casualties. For example, the sarin Tokyo subway attacks in March 1995 “only” resulted in 12 deaths – but the city’s subway system was paralysed and 5,510 people reported to hospitals with various levels of injury and symptoms, some of them long-lasting.

Assessing motivation

This indicates the significance of the second factor, namely the motivation to use CBRN agents for terrorist purposes. The political component of terrorism remains central to countering CBRN terrorism; the motivation to terrorise is basic to the terrorist’s choice of CBRN weapons. This means that (relatively speaking) inefficient agents with inefficient dispersal devices may still cause a huge amount of disruption. While the anthrax you find on a rural farm may not be as efficient (read deadly) as a Russian weapons-grade strain, the terror it is likely to propagate will still be significant. Moreover, specifically in the case of anthrax, its lethality is very difficult to determine.

Aviation security: recommendations

The conclusions are, first: that aviation infrastructure and

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AVIATION factors in making airlines and airports vulnerable to such attacks. PPE and detection equipment can be efficient in countering and responding to them, and explosives detection has advanced significantly. But if no guidelines are set-up for potential emergency situations the equipment, even when available, will be redundant in guaranteeing the safety of travellers and airport and airline staff. A detector can go off, but if staff members are not properly trained in how to act, the value of the alarm is limited. Airports and airlines need to invest in CBRN defence in order to offer passengers a safe means of transportation. This must begin with an analysis of their vulnerabilities and then, the development of a CBRN defence plan. This will lead to the necessary procurement of detection and protection equipment, and proper training of staff. Only then can airports and airlines consider themselves (reasonably) protected against CBRN threats. ❚❙

aircraft are targets and, second – that CBRN attacks are foreseeable. Within the EU, however, aviation security rules in the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and the security measures laid down by the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) do not afford much attention to CBRN, which is problematic. How can we be prepared for a CBRN threat if we do not address it? The most important countermeasure to CBRN is detection. Not all agents have immediate effects, and detecting an attack only when victims become ill days later is not a good start. Knowing what you’re dealing with is the first step into being able to deal with it. Filtration of the airport HVAC (heating, ventilation & air conditioning) systems can prevent a further spread of the CBRN agent, limiting the consequences of an attack. Personal protective equipment (PPE) would protect responders and allow them to help victims. PPE can be elaborate, with full protective suits – but can equally be limited to escape hoods and gloves, offering at least a basic protection of the most sensitive parts of responders’ bodies against a CBRN attack.

Despite constant announcements to not leave bags unattended, they often are. A laptop bomb incident in 2016 was targeted at ten airports and eight MENA countries.

Lack of knowledge

But for this to be effective, PPE wearers must have an understanding of the use and limitations of the PPE equipment itself. This brings us to the second problem: a lack of knowledge. Lack of knowledge on CBRN threats of airport and airline staff, and a virtually non-existent CBRN doctrine are chief

Drs. Ilja M. Bonsen is President of the CBRNe Society and Managing Director of IB Consultancy, an independent defence and security firm specialising in non-conventional threats in Leiden, The Netherlands. Marlène Meunier works at the company as a consultant. CBNW 2018/01 73


TRAINING

Croce Rossa ITALIANA

All photos ŠNational Inspectorate of Volunteer Military Corps

VMC operator in operational decon with man-portable CBRN decon equipment.

Gabriele Lupini, Romano Tripodi, Vittorio Badalone and Pietro Rossetti of the Italian Red Cross Volunteer Military Corps outline CBRN training for civil defence emergencies

The Volunteer Military Corps (VMC) of the Italian Red Cross (ItRC) is an auxiliary of the Italian Armed Forces within the ItRC structure and under the supervision of the Italian Ministry of Defence. It represents a Civil Protection Operational Structure and takes part in a civil defence mechanism as laid out in the National Plan for Defence against CBRN terrorist attacks

T

he VMC acts to strengthen CBRN emergency capabilities according to our institutional mission. This is carried out through implementing the Sector Plan for defence against CBRN terrorist attacks as well as standard operating procedures, continuing education and training, and materials. The CBRN Defence courses provided by VMC are divided into two training levels. The first, the Basic Training Course for CBRN Defence, is a theoretical and practical preparatory course that offers an introduction to CBRN risks, CBRN agents/TIM 74 CBNW 2018/01

(toxic industrial materials) and their human effects. It provides the fundamental principles of, according to Ministry of Defence and CBRN defence procedures and CBRN NATO doctrine.

Enabling Course

The second, the Enabling Course for CBRN Decontamination and Biocontainment VMC Units Operator, provides attendees with the knowledge required for the performance of tasks related to the treatment of people, materials, vehicles, and equipment contaminated by CBRN agents. Further supplementary sessions for operators and instructors are planned, such as Summer Schools, training camps and periodically refresher CBRN courses, with a view to training and continually updating skills, mission preparedness and team building. The above-mentioned exercises and activities could also train the trainers to prepare expert teams for rapid deployment in a multi-agency and inter-operational context. Moreover, CBRN exercises are essential to enable joint interaction in the field among civil authority staff, Fire Brigade CBRN specialist units, Ministry of Health, armed forces, and other health emergency organizations through a massive  deployment of forces.


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TRAINING ENABLING COURSE FOR CBRN DECONTAMINATION Instruction in the management of decontamination:  Decontamination units – decontamination tent and operational/thorough decontamination showers both for ambulatory persons and people on stretchers  Use of biocontainment tents and isolation stretchers used for transporting patients with highly infectious diseases  Essential training in tactical CBRN detection and Telco equipment  Decontamination activities using the Kärcher system  Disinfection materials and CBRN waste management including healthcare/ first aid procedures for surgery carried out on contaminated or injured personnel  How to minimize the consequences of a CBRN incident  How to operate safely in a biocontainment environment: biocontainment protection training, both theoretical and practical

A VMC decontamination tent is erected for ambulatory and stretcher-borne persons in National Emergency Exercises Anat in 2013 in Civitavecchia, Rome.

 Dress/undress procedures of PPE suits, e.g. type 3 and 4 protective coveralls, CBRN rubber safety boots and over-boots, repellent surgical mask, eye protection (goggles or face shield to EN166), protective gloves  Procedures for entire water-repellent suits and full face masks, scuba, PAPRs (Powered Air Purifying Respirators) for response to probable or confirmed biological agents in the Level 4 group (e.g. viral hemorrhagic fever)

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 CBRN protection

 Immediate operational decontamination  CBRN alarms; C-R-antidotes kit; and self/buddy first aid  Fatigue exercises in full PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)  CBRN coverall and respiratory protection equipment (IPE – Protective Permeable Suit – and CBRN Mask M.90)  Night and daytime exercises  Self-rescue  Wounded rescue training in a contaminated environment AMET-Bio-isolation stretcher with yellow spinal board for support on an ECO/NATO stretcher at the entry of a biocontainment isolation tent.

Exercise Anat

An example of a National Emergency Exercise, ‘Anat’, was conducted in 2013 in the port area of Civitavecchia in Rome. The aim was to verify operational and tactical measures of all civil and military actors involved in containing a highly infectious disease with potentially lethal consequences for most of the population. The exercise allowed each responding agency involved in scene management to test the implementation of knowledge and understanding of mutual roles, responsibilities, and capabilities of common command systems and structures. It also tested, on site, inter-agency coordination effectiveness and analysis of critical issues. In addition to the VMC’s institutional training centres, qualifying CBRN defence courses are provided for VMC Officers, non-commissioned officers, doctors and nurses at the Joint CBRN Defence School in Rieti, and at the NUBICH training area, which specializes in multiple CBRN scenarios. Upon training completion in the CBRN defence environment, VMC VMC military personnel attended courses and seminars provided by the Improvement and Training Air Force Medicine Institute. These included the basic/advanced CBRN training course for defence staff at the Naval Aviation Training Centre Italian Navy in Taranto, with auxiliary activities in Migratory Flows Control Operations on board Italian Navy vessels at Maristanav at Taranto, the Italian Navy Base and the AMET-Bio Aero-Medical Evacuation team tasked with Biocontainment at the Maristaeli Navy Base at Catania. ❚❙

Maj Gen Med Gabriele Lupini is National Inspector, National Inspectorate; Col. Med. Romano Tripodi is Chief Health Officer, Disaster Management; Lt Col Comm Vittorio Badalone was Operations and Training Officer; and It CEng Pietro Rossetti is on the Health Office staff, all with the National Inspectorate of Volunteer Military Corps, Italian Red Cross, Rome, Italy. 76 CBNW 2018/01


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DECONTAMINATION

Cleaning the cloud José Luis Pérez-Díaz introduces a new fast-response decon device for CBRN episodes

More than five years ago, the European Commission (EC) published a proposal in the FP7 Security programme, calling for projects to provide “new alternative or improved technology to decontaminate public areas and critical infrastructures in a more efficient way” ©Jose Luis Pérez Díaz

M

oreover, the EC asked for non-expensive, massive and as environmental friendly as possible methods and systems. Leading a group of ten partners from six EU countries I applied with a proposal called Counterfog. A new simple idea was to be explored: to imitate and accelerate the mechanisms that Nature uses for cleaning the atmosphere.

Water-based for washout

The deadly threat of CBRN agents in air is clearly associated with their dispersed state. A method to collapse them onto surfaces and floor independently of their nature was proposed. This method is to generate a water-based fog with a particular droplet size able to wash out particles and droplets irrespectively of its characteristics. It is well known that natural scavenging of particles by water droplets is extremely inefficient and this is essentially slow - and requires very large-scale interactions. Counterfog multiplies the effectiveness thanks to the particular flow dynamics of a twisted jet of fog. The use of the right size of 78 CBNW 2018/01

droplets is an essential factor as well, and the addition of small amounts of innocuous additives guarantees that even hydrophobic particles are caught. Additionally, for those in gas or vapour state, a water Counterfog dissolves and eventually hydrolyzes any water-soluble compound. However, Counterfog provides a more powerful technique to quickly decompose chemical agents. It is able to quickly disperse nanostructured TiO2-Al2O3 (titanium dioxide-aluminium oxide) micro-sized particles, which act as a fast catalyst and absorber while floating in air. Once the catalyzed chemical reaction has progressed adequately, the Counterfog system will provide a water-based fog to wash out the microparticles from air.

Applying the system

This simple and effective method is unique and provides a first and fast response for the very early stages of a CBRN terrorist attack or industrial accident. If adequately installed in a facility it provides a tool for washing out air or a barrier that prevents the dispersion of agents. Even in outdoor

environments Counterfog is useful for confinement and washout. The system is based on general physical phenomena and has demonstrated to be effective against C, B and R simulants as well as against smoke. Therefore, it is quite reasonably expected that Counterfog will be effective as well against real agents. In case of fire, the system can also wash out smoke and even control or extinguish fire. Its broad-spectrum capability makes it to be unique and relaxes requirements for triggering this counteraction tool. Tests with mice have demonstrated that it is absolutely harmless and therefore an activation of the Counterfog system as a result of a false alarm will be harmless and environmentally innocuous. Therefore, you do not need to identify the threat before acting. In case of any anomaly, explosion, smoke or just suspicion, Counterfog can be activated providing time for evacuation and preventing the dissemination of the toxic cloud. As a complement to the system, a set of anomaly detection sensors based on Surface Photo-Charge Effect has been developed as well. They do not identify


DECONTAMINATION Counterfog 2.0 l/s nozzle in action.

©Soledad del Cañizo

Below: In decontaminating a bio-aerosol in the Fog Dynamics Laboratory, comparison is made between no action and Counterfog acting after release of aerosolized B. Thurigiensis spores. Counterfog eliminated all spores after one minute of action.

A bio-disinfectant is applied to office hardware.

©Soledad del Cañizo

threats but provide a fast response to anomalies present in air. This project has been funded by the EU FP7 programme under contract 312804. zy

©Fernando Rodríguez

José Luis Pérez-Díaz worked as a researcher in CERN (Switzerland) and CSIC (Spain) and served as second Lieutenant in the Spanish Air Force. He is currently Dean of the Master in Fire Protection Engineering in Universidad de Alcalá and has coordinated five EU cooperative projects on Security and Aerospace. CBNW 2018/01 79


DISASTERS In the wake of natural disasters – hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, earthquakes and tsunamis – emergency managers and first responders plan for and often discover considerable disruption and damage to critical infrastructure: power generation and distribution systems, transportation routes and services, health and medical services and water purification and wastewater treatment facilities

Clash of the TITANS

©NASA

S

evere weather and other natural phenomena wreak havoc and devastation on communities around the globe. Forceful hurricanes have rendered storm-vulnerable areas such as the Gulf Coast states and Puerto Rico federally declared disaster areas. Highly industrialized countries have hazardous industries with treatment, storage and disposal facilities that are severely affected during a natural disaster and pose significant risks to communities.

The domino effect

Sometimes a natural disaster triggers damage or disruption to the industrial sector and sets off a technological event. A community will have experienced the ravages of Nature’s fury – coupled with the real or potential harm from a toxic industrial release from a damaged portion of a chemical manufacturing facility, or fire and explosion hazards. The disruption of power generation and distribution systems can also precipitate catastrophic failures within the chemical and petroleum refining sectors or affect the water/wastewater treatment and distribution system, causing millions of gallons of raw, untreated sewage to enter waterways and migrate into flood waters. Secondary back-up systems have also been known to malfunction. Runoff, emissions or violent chemical reactions from abandoned, uncontrolled hazardous waste sites are also of concern, as the contents have not been characterized. There emerges a plethora of incompatible, toxic, flammable and highly reactive substances as well as no provisions made for safe cover or isolation against severe weather or other natural hazards.

A petri dish of pathogens

On 29 October 2012 the 1,000-mile wide 80 CBNW 2018/01

CBNW US Correspondent Frank G. Rando examines the impact of natural disasters on hazardous infrastructure and environments Hurricane Sandy photographed by NASA was at peak intensity just before landfall in Cuba on 25 October 2012.

Hurricane Sandy hit the East Coast of the US and affected states from Florida to Maine. In the borough of Brooklyn, New York, one of America’s most polluted and toxic waterways, the Gowanus Canal, is home to over 50 known microbial pathogens – hepatitis viruses, vibrios, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Gonococcus, amoebas – as well as 45 organisms with ‘uncharacterized DNA’. These are contained in a thick layer of biofilm which coats a 3-m layer of highly toxic, oily sediment comprised of coal tar, heavy metals including high levels of

arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, pesticides, benzene, toluene, oil, and other hazardous industrial wastes. The Gowanus Canal has been characterized as a federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund remediation site. Laden with toxicants, carcinogens, mutagens and a virtual petri dish of microbial pathogens, the canal water flooded into homes and businesses during the storm surge generated by Hurricane Sandy, leaving behind puddles of highly contaminated water  and toxic sludge.


DISASTERS Hurricane Hazmat

Hurricane Sandy also saw hazardous chemical containers swept from homes and businesses and depositing them into nearby marshland. Raw sewage also spilled into homes in Baldwin and East Rockaway, NY, when a sewage treatment plant flooded and could not handle the volume. In New Jersey alone, the storm disabled or damaged approximately 80 sewage treatment systems, including the Passaic Valley Sewerage Commission, one of the largest sewage treatment plants in the US. Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Sandy have caused secondary environmental contamination – fires and explosions – especially in dense industrial corridors. In the US, Hurricanes Katrina/Rita resulted in the release of chemicals, oil and sewage into the flood waters and leaving behind toxic sediment when the flood waters receded. This was a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds, inorganic chemicals, heavy metals, and extensive pathogenic microbial contamination, which at once complicated the epidemiological and ecological profiles of this disaster. Among

the pathogens discovered in Katrina flood waters was the organism Vibrio vulfinicus, which contributed to serious wound infections. On the islands of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands, the devastating effects of Hurricane Maria caused severe damage, disruption and destruction of critical and supportive infrastructure.

Response to the effects

The EPA has completed preliminary assessments at its Superfund sites, oil sites, and chemical facilities in Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands to determine if the sites were affected by Hurricane Maria. It is conducting follow-up actions such as fence and structural repairs and is also coordinating with the lead federal agencies for two other sites, Culebra and Vieques. For years this has been a major proving ground for the US military, with a history of serious environmental contamination. EPA teams have assessed 285 fixed facilities in Puerto Rico and 91 in the US Virgin Islands that are regulated under the Risk Management Plan (RMP), Facility Response Plan (FRP), and Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) programmes. Left: People collect water from a natural spring created by the landslides in a mountain next to a road west of San Juan, Puerto Rico, after Hurricane Maria slammed into the US territory in September 2017.

©Phys.org

Below: The Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant showing the damage to Reactor 1 to 4 from right to left. ©Digital Globe

©CDC/Dr George Kubica

Top: Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

EPA identified no major spills or releases from these facilities and continues to assess drinking water safety and quality with sampling, qualitative and quantitative analyses, and laboratory support functions. It is also assisting federal, state and local agencies to assess and identify needed repairs to wastewater conveyance and treatment systems.

Fukushima – a perfect storm

The tsunami following the Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011 disabled the power supply and cooling of three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant and resulted in severe core damage. Multiple serious human health and environmental implications all arose within a five-hour timeframe. The radionuclides iodine-131, which are absorbed by the thyroid gland, cesium-134, and cesium-137 were released into the atmosphere and relatively small amounts of fallout deposited on land. Most of the atmospheric releases blew eastwards towards the North Pacific Ocean, and there were radioactive effluent discharges into the sea. These radionuclides were assayed and found in drinking water, food and some non-edible items. Areas of agricultural productivity were impacted as well. To this day, several hundred gallons of radioactive effluent enter the marine ecosystem daily from the Fukushima plant and thousands of gallons of contaminated water remain on site at the plant. Natural disasters will continue to occur and affect our technological infrastructure. In the highly developed West and developing nations high-hazard facilities continue to flourish. We need to continue to proactively seek ways to prevent, prepare for mitigate, respond to, recover from, and become more resilient to, the dual threat posed by nature and technology. ❚❙

Frank G. Rando is a national SME, trainer, and first responder with over 30 years’ experience in emergency management, tactical, disaster and special operations medicine, environmental health and safety, public safety, and counterterrorism. 82 CBNW 2018/01

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Endorsed by

Scientific Partners

CBRNe SUMMIT EUROPE

ROME, ITALY 17TH – 19TH APRIL 2018 Esteemed Speaker List:

Brigadier General Sossio Andreottola, Head, Joint NBC Military School, Ministry of Defence, Italy Brigadier General Roberto Biselli, Deputy Head, Health Service, Italian Air Force Lead Media Partner Rear Admiral Pasquale Guerra, Commander, Naval Air Training Center, Italian Navy Colonel Pietro Spagnoli, Commander of 3rd Wing, Italian Air Force Colonel Fabrizio Benigni, Commander of the 7th NBC Defense Regiment "CREMONA", Ministry of Defence, Italy William Alberque, Head, Arms Control and Coordination Section, Political Affairs and Security Policy Division, NATO Colonel Volker Quante, Deputy Director, NATO JCBRN Defence Centre of Excellence Major Olivier Rousseau, Head, Joint CBRN Sector, Ministry of Defence, Belgium Inspector Ian Stubbs, Operations & Performance, National CBRN Centre, National Counter Terrorism Police, United Kingdom Dr. Maurizio Barbeschi, Scientist, World Health Organisation (WHO) Dr. Patrick Mullan, Team Leader Chemical Biological (CB) Response Team, DSTL Dr. Francesco Marelli, CBRN Risk Mitigation and Security Governance Programme, United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) Dr. Antonio Fasanella, Head of Anthrax Reference Institute, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale of Puglia and Basilicata, Italy Professor Robert Chilcott, Head of Toxicology, University of Hertfordshire Professor Roberto Mugavero, President, OSDIFE

OFFICIAL SITE VISIT AND LIVE EXERCISE On 19th April 2018 we are pleased to announce an official site visit and live demonstration hosted by the 7TH NBC DEFENSE REGIMENT “CREMONA”

SPONSORS AND EXHIBITORS

Organised by:

e: events@intelligence-sec.com | t: +44(0)1582 346706 | www.intelligence-sec.com


READINESS

WE CAN BE

©Jocelyn Augustino/FEMA News

HEROES

A CERT volunteer practices use of a fire extinguisher at the FEMA National Emergency Training Center. The teams are ordinary citizens trained in basic disaster response who offer critical support to first responders by providing immediate assistance to victims.

Dee Ruelas reminds us of the absolute necessity of citizen preparedness

I The US Civil Defense logo can be seen on the side of the rotator mechanism on this Thunderbolt 1003 warning siren. ©FSDM9109/Wikimedia

84 CBNW 2018/01

n the civil defence drills of the 1950s and 1960s schoolchildren would “duck and cover” under their desks when the sirens sounded. We followed signs directing us to shelters. A few citizens had bomb shelters or air raid shelters, usually in the basement, with ample provisions in case of attack. There was a great deal of fear in those days. We knew how to run and hide, but very little else. Those in authority would take care of us: our government, military, police, fire and rescue personnel. Few knew what to do to truly be prepared to help themselves, their family or their neighbour in the event of a disaster. Fast forward to the 21st century, and war has come to our city streets. No nation, state or community is immune. No individual citizen has the luxury of ignorance any longer. We must now be

personally responsible for our own preparedness. We must possess situational awareness and be ready to act when an event occurs.

Public preparedness

For those of us who teach and train, we  ©US Gov


NBC-2018 Symposium at the Arctic Circle, Rovaniemi, Finland 4-7 June 2018

AD

www.visitrovaniemi.fi

The 10th NBC Symposium, NBC-2018, welcomes safety and security experts, and CBRNE scientists and business enterprises to the Arctic Circle in Finland. The symposium programme includes oral and poster presentations, an exhibition, a rescue demonstration and a social programme under the Midnight Sun.

More information: www.nbc2018.org The symposium is organised by the Finnish Association for Protection, Rescue, Security and Safety.


READINESS Below: A ‘go bag’ can help reduce the immediate effects of a disaster or attack.

©Disaster Operations Center

Right: There are around 300,000 fallout shelters in private and public buildings as part of Civil Protection in Switzerland.

must do everything in our power to make sure ALL members of our communities realize the importance of being prepared. However, the individual citizen tends to be overlooked as a stakeholder in Disaster Risk Reduction. Individual preparedness and training is critical both from the all-hazards perspective, as well as the CBRNE arena. Every citizen should have a good basic understanding of the nature of threats we face daily and be trained in situational awareness, planning and preparation. This does not end with the usual First Aid and CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) courses that anyone can (and should) take. In today’s world, individual preparedness also requires that programmes like Citizen Emergency Response Team (CERT), Neighborhood Watch and Integrated Community Solutions to Active Violence Events (ICSAVE.org) be active in every community. These are no longer large ‘urban area-only’ programmes. Small and rural communities need to have programmes like this in place as well. Red Cross training and FEMA online courses can also be taken through local agencies. This is a good start, but what do you do when infrastructure is damaged and there is no or limited water? Buildings may be unstable and you cannot get additional supplies. How do you prepare for that? And what do you do to prepare for a tornado, cyclone, earthquake or major flood, when the grid goes down or there is major civil unrest? No one likes to feel helpless when there is an emergency. Most people want to help, and Citizen Emergency Response Team courses are an excellent way for them to effectively and safely render that help.

We can be heroes….

Citizens are heroes every single day. Consider the horrific mass shooting that 86 CBNW 2018/01

©Kecko/Wikimedia

occurred in Las Vegas in October. Countless lives were saved because ordinary citizens had some basic training and became immediate responders that night: heroes all. In Mexico City, Houston, and Florida citizens tried to help in any way they could. Some helped in their neighbourhoods or used their training to volunteer with organizations like the Red Cross, Operation Blessing, Salvation Army and CERT. Individual preparedness and personal accountability lessens the impact on families, businesses and the community. Having an emergency plan and a ‘go bag’ ready makes a huge difference. Preparation can mean the difference between life and death. It empowers the individual who now is no longer in need of assistance - but is able to render assistance. If there are fewer emergency calls coming into the system because more citizens are trained, then the professional responders are freed up to respond to more critical emergencies and to those who are unable to help themselves. This all lends itself to becoming a stronger, healthier and more resilient community. Resilience is the new paradigm in disaster management. Previously, we have designed our emergency and disaster frameworks from a risk management approach, from a response perspective. This is shortsighted and potentially dooms a community to a much longer and more expensive recovery time - simply because it does not utilise the greatest resource a community has: its individual members. It is time to shift from a response approach to a resilience approach.

Emergency Operations Managers in the workplace and the community need to actively include all members in planning for events and in making the availability of citizen training widely known and accessible. True community-wide drills need to be considered so that all stakeholders participate, just like the duck-and-cover drills. This is going to take time. It is a paradigm shift. We need buy-in from the government at national and local level; from Emergency Managers, Law Enforcement, Fire Service, EMS agencies, businesses, media and of course, the public. Our responders, military, managers and planners are generally well trained. We need to train and practice with citizens so when the responders cannot get there, they can rescue themselves. Japan and Israel have done an outstanding job with this. Others are working on it. They are changing their paradigm.

The presence of the abnormal

We should now be educating our citizens to look for the ‘presence of the abnormal’ beyond the abandoned backpack or suspect package. For instance, recognizing signs and symptoms of mass exposures in a public venue, and teaching our children how to behave in the face of an emergency – so they can respond and not react. Increasing situational awareness will improve survival chances and keep panic to a minimum. Knowing how, and when, to evacuate or shelter in place and do it safely is something every individual in every community should know how to do. Knowing to go uphill, upstream and upwind in a hazardous materials situation will save lives. Having enough food and water on hand for up to 14 days for your household will save lives. Post an evacuation plan for your home and business and then PRACTICE it, including at night. These measures contribute to the culture of preparedness and resiliency needed to reduce the vulnerability of our communities. zy Dee Ruelas is a Health, Safety and Emergency Preparedness consultant and Instructor in Arizona with 40 years’ teaching experience. She is formerly a radiological technologist, emergency medical technician, public safety communications dispatcher, and Director of the Community Emergency Response Team for Tucson CERT. She also volunteers for the American Red Cross and is a FEMA CERT Instructor.


ADVERTORIAL: SECURITY & COUNTER TERROR EXPO

UK SECURITY WEEK launches in March 2018 International security professionals to gather in London to help tackle the growing threat facing nations and businesses

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or many nations across the globe, the threat from international terrorism remains severe. Physical attacks, carried out by terror cells and radicalised individuals, in Barcelona, London, Manchester, Paris and Brussels have been coupled with an increasing number of cyber-attacks. With the issue of national security and counter terrorism at the top of government agendas, UK Security Week (6-7 March 2018, Olympia London) is the must-visit event for any security professional. Encompassing Security & Counter Terror Expo (SCTX), World Counter Terror Congress (WCTC), Forensics Europe Expo (FEE), Ambition, and the new People Movement and Management Show (PMMS), the events at UK Security Week have the ultimate objective of helping those tasked with preserving national security, protecting assets and individuals against terrorism. Over 350 exhibitors will be present at

the 2018 show, including BAE Systems, Chemring, Aaronia, Surelock McGill and Meggitt Training to name a few – making it the largest showcase of national security solutions in the UK. SCTX will also feature an expansive educational programme that will deliver unrivalled insight into current issues and how to combat new challenges. Ten free-to-attend conference streams will run on the exhibition floor and will cover border security, the cyber threat, protecting national infrastructure, policing, major events security and security design.

This year, Richard Barrett – the former coordinator of the Al-Qaeda/Taliban Monitoring Team of the United Nations Security Council – will chair the renowned World Counter Terror Congress, which runs alongside SCTX. One of the world’s foremost experts on terrorism, from 2004 to 2012 Barrett headed the Al-Qaeda and Taliban Monitoring Team at the United Nations (UN). During this time, he helped establish a working group on terrorism that became the UN Counter Terrorism Implementation Task Force, and before that he worked for the British government.

“The threat we are facing today is inherently different from that of even a few years ago. Cyber-attacks are now a major concern for governments and businesses, while physical attacks being carried out by radicalised ‘lone wolves’ are incredibly hard to prevent. UK Security Week will deliver a series of invaluable opportunities to learn about new strategies that can help security professionals keep civilians, assets and infrastructure safe.” RICHARD WALTON, UK SECURITY WEEK SPECIAL ADVISOR AND FORMER HEAD OF COUNTER TERRORISM COMMAND (SO15) AT NEW SCOTLAND YARD

UK Security Week will run 6-7 March 2018 and will also include a number of networking events. For more information and to register for access to all the week’s events, visit www.sctx.co.uk/registration. zy CBNW 2018/01 87


ADVERTORIAL: BERTIN / CRISTANINI

Military survey meter:

SaphyRAD MS Bertin is fighting against radioactive contamination with a new generation of multi-probe survey meters

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he SaphyRAD MS developed by Bertin is the latest multiprobe survey meter designed for operations in harsh environments, to be used on military operations or by hazmat teams. Its wide range of dose-rate meter and external smart probes for source, hot-spot search and contamination measurement covers the needs of all army corps. Through its embedded simulation mode, users can train in real conditions without the use of any radioactive sources. The SaphyRAD MS’s ruggedized design has been developed especially for use with CBRN protective clothing. Its easy-to-use interface allows for quick use

– even by non-radiation specialists. With the development of this new military survey meter, Bertin strengthens its existing products in CBRN threat detection, suppling proprietary systems for all chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear detection and identification dedicated to armed forces and civil security bodies (rapid intervention teams, and public health and emergency services). The SaphyRAD MS is the result of two years of research and development. It is currently in beta testing by the French Army. A significant production schedule is planned by Bertin from the end of 2018. ❚❙

Cristanini presents its newest firefighting/ Hazmat technology with high pressure “water mist”

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talian alian manufacturer Cristanini specialising in high-pressure technology presents two firefighting systems, Fire Stop and WJ.FE. These are first-attack systems with high-pressure ‘water mist’ and cutting technology. WJ.FE:: is a powerful firefighting tool to suppress fire in closed environments. While working at 350 bar its patented lance enables the perforation of steel, concrete and other materials to inject water mist for cooling down and extinguishing fire. WJ.FE offers outstanding performances with a ruggedized, low-maintenance and the highest level of safety - and an ease-of-use concept design. FIRE STOP 200/30:: while using water-mist technology at 200 bar, Fire Stop allows class A and B fires to be extinguished with a small amount of water and acts faster than other traditional systems. This makes the Fire Stop a powerful tool to be used in open spaces while operated as a stand-alone system, as well as being integrated on high-mobility vehicles. Both systems can also be used for Hazmat decon. CRISTANINI was established in 1972 and is a world market leader in the development, research and production of systems and products for CBRN decontamination and detoxification. The company has NATO AQAP 2110 and ISO 9001:2008 quality certifications and is NATO manufacturer A5009. With more than 40 years of experience, CRISTANINI has developed a wide range of capabilities for CBRN decontamina88 CBNW 2018/01

WJ.FE 300

tion and detoxification, for military and civil defence purposes. CRISTANINI excels at reducing logistic, training and operator burdens through innovative, modular and multifunctional solutions for defence and civil protection. Simple, reliable....... and effective! ❚❙


ADVERTORIAL: ENVIRONICS / INDRA

RanidSOLO

The ‘missing link’ of radiation source localization in field operations

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nvironics newest device, RanidSOLO – a spectrometric radiation source locator for RanidPro200 - was officially released in November 2017. RanidSOLO is the first automated gamma radiation localizer inside the category of Backpack Radiation Detectors

(BRD) that bridges the ‘missing link’ of radiation source localization in field operations. Its high-precision automated method is able to calculate the estimated location direction of one or multiple radiation sources in a short time frame of approximately 12 seconds. RanidSOLO is suitable for mobile

measurements, allowing it to be widely used in diverse application fields - ranging from foot patrols in scouting operations to vehicle integration where the potentially affected zones are too broad to be surveyed by foot. The operative detection principle is based on a 1.5”x1.5” LaBr3 scintillator with an automated rotating attenuator to detect gamma radiation and provide the direction towards the source when combined to a small rotating attenuator. The automated localization method can achieve a high-precision exceeding ANSI (American National Standards Institute) and IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) standard demands in directional capabilities (±15 degrees precision) which can go up to ±2 degrees with longer measurements. RanidSOLO enables faster operational awareness - which leads to faster actions during a mission. It is an essential tool for the FLO [Front Line Officer], providing not only the necessary guidance for the next operational step -but also protecting the individual from higher and harmful radiation dose rates. zy

www.environics.fi/ranidsolo

INDRA highlights its CBRN capabilities

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ndra is one of the main global consulting and technology companies with a presence in more than 140 countries. In the CBRN and C-IED area it is playing a leading role in the defence market. CBRN: Indra has developed several projects, focusing mainly on reconnaissance. Its AREVE (Advance Reconnaissance Vehicle) has a military and civilian dual-use capability. Regarding identification, Indra counts on solutions for fixes and mobile laboratories. The most significant mobile laboratory is our CBRN mobile unit for the Turkish Army, based on an ISO 20 shelter with capabilities in both detection and identification of CBRN threats. This was also tested with simulants and live agents, having been certified by a third independent international laboratory. The laboratory allows operators to analyse and identify toxic and dangerous substances in the field, and can be used in military conflict as well as in a terrorist attack or industrial incident. As a fixed laboratory we can highlight a BSL-3 (Biosafety Level 3) laboratory for universities, focusing on scientific research.

C-IED: Indra has developed several deployable forensic laboratories designed to help in the fight against IEDs (improvised explosive devices) and can work across the entire spectrum of exploitation areas (Chemical, Biometrics, Electronic, Document, Technical, and Triage). All laboratories were submitted to the EDA (European Defence Agency). Indra has also developed its own technology for using in post-blast scenes for identifying chemical elements, and has integrated a radiological alert network to cover the entire Spanish territory. The company has also participated actively in other R&D projects. zy

Above: JDEAL (Joint Deployable Exploitation and Analysis Laboratory) Below: CBRN Mobile Field Laboratory

www.indracompany.com/es/nrbq?line=57522 CBNW 2018/01 89


ADVERTORIAL: OUVRY / SAAB

OUVRY: They protect us, we protect them

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orld leader in the latest generation of CBRN protective and decontamination systems, OUVRY offers solutions developed with end users to meet their operational needs. Throughout years of experience in the creation of CBRN systems, OUVRY has today developed a large product portfolio covering PPE, decontamination solutions, accessories and innovative products intended for a wide range of operators: soldiers, Special Forces, pilots, EOD teams, law enforcement staff, Fire Service and Rescue operators, first-responders, civil defence, critical infrastructures and public transportation. l In the wardrobe of extremes developed by OUVRY, protective suits are based on air-permeable technology, which ensures a better protection and an optimal comfort for the user (lightweight, no heat stress).

OUVRY offers decontamination and disinfection solutions of both CWAs (chemical warfare agents) and biological agents for people, small equipment and polluted confined spaces. l OUVRY completes this offer with a range of CBRN accessories (containment bags, CWA simulants kit, medical bag, detection device, casualty bag, body bag) and CBRN professional training (audit, general CBRN training, customized training, train the trainer, training in the use of PPE, maintenance training). Ouvry designs and manufactures in France an entire product portfolio to meet ever-changing requirements. Being a creator rather than a follower and integrating innovative components designed together with the partners of our ‘ecosystem’ is in the DNA of the company. l

For more information on our products, please visit our website www.ouvry.com Contact: info@ouvry.com zy

Saab: end to end Saab serves the global market with world-leading products, services and solutions ranging from military defence to civil security. Saab has operations and employees on all continents and constantly develops, adopts and improves new technology to meet customers’ changing needs.

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arly warnings to units and personnel are a key factor in limiting CBRN threats. Saab is a worldleading CBRN systems integrator, specializing in design and development of fully integrated end-to-end sensor networks for civil and military applications. Our systems have been EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) tested and successfully deployed to protect critical infrastructure through mobile and fixed sensor nodes. Combined with our experience in integrated CBRN reconnaissance vehicles, this provides a complete Automatic Warning and Reporting system - enabling unparalleled situational awareness to battlefield commanders and incident controllers alike. The personal protection ensembles are certified to meet NATO standards providing the best protection available. To meet current and emerging threats, Saab’s CBRN solutions are fully supported by responsive through-life-support and cost-effective global logistics and training network. Independent of supplier choice, we work with any supplier of our customer’s choice in order to provide a seamless solution between new and existing systems and equipment. zy 90 CBNW 2018/01

For the CBRNe market Saab develops and manufactures:

€ AWR systems € CBRN/TIM sampling equipment € Transport Packaging of hazardous CBRN/toxic material samples

Website: http://www.saab.com/cbrn

Capabilities include complete end-to-end CBRN solutions for any requirement covering all aspects of:

€ € € €

Protection Detection Decontamination Simulation


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welcome@owrgroup.com · www.owrgroup.com

SOF DCR Medical Unit Y

74834 Elztal-Rittersbach · Germany

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Casualty Decontamination System

by OWR

CBRNe MED Technology

Chosen by Bundeswehr Joint Medical Service. CBRN equipment for highly mobile units.

Agile Solutions.

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Neutralizing emerging threats Stopping drones Protecting our troops

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CBNW 2018 Vol 1  
CBNW 2018 Vol 1