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5th  and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  

“Ship Electric  Grids”  &   “Power  Management  Systems”    

Exploita*on of  sha/  generators  for  green   efficient  ship  opera*on  –  Electric  Machine   selec*on  and  opera*on  on  ship's  electrical   power  system       E. Chatzinikolaou, C. Patsios, A. Sarigiannidis and A. Kladas National Technical University of Athens, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Laboratory of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics


IntroducFon ShaG  generators  (SGs):     •    mounted   on   the   propeller   sha/   between   main   propulsion   engine   and   propeller  variable  speed   •    used   with   Diesel   Generators   and   other   non-­‐conven9onal   sources   for   genera9ng  power  on  ships  

Benefits:       •  Economical  power  produc9on  by   u9lizing  the  ship’s  main  engines   •  Small  space  requirement   •  Low  installa9on  cost   •  Low  noise  levels   •  High  reliability  

Drawbacks: •  Unable   to   run   in   parallel   with   diesel  generators  (PTO/GCR)   •  No   electric   power   genera9on   in   the  harbor   •  Increases   the   load   on   the   main   engine  of  the  ship  

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

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ShaG Generator  Topologies  (1)   •  Power  Take  Off/Gear  Constant   RaFo  (PTO/GCR)   –  frequency  of  the  generator   propor9onal  to  the  speed  of  the   propulsion  engine   –  constant  frequency       controllable  pitch    induc9on   propeller                                generator                (IG)  

•  Power Take  Off/Renk  Constant   Frequency  (PTO/RCF)     –  sha/  speed  constant,  owing   to  a  mul9-­‐level  gearbox   –  wound  rotor  synchronous   generators:  the  most   common  machine  topology  

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

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ShaG Generator  Topologies  (2)   •  Power  Take  Off/Constant  Frequency  Electrical  (PTO/CFE)   –  generator,  step-­‐up  gear  and  electrical  control  equipment  

–  slow-­‐running generator  with  electrical  control  equipment  

–  Low-­‐speed direct-­‐driven  permanent  magnet  synchronous      generators  (PMSGs):  elimina9on  of  the  gearbox,  higher  efficiency,  no   field  winding  required   5th  and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

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Main objecFves  of  this  study    

–  Replace the  exis9ng  SG  (PTO/GCR  topology)  of  an  electric  power  system  of  a   Ro-­‐Ro   ship   with   a   PMSG   mounted   directly   to   the   sha/   (PTO/CFE)   according   to   findings  on  previous  published  paper  on  3rd  &  4th  Marinelive  workshops   –  Propose  an  innova9ve  control  system  in  order  to  :   Ø  Ensure  constant  frequency  and  voltage  under  variable  engine  speed   Ø  Enable   opera9on   of   the   sha/   generator   as   motor   in   case   of   failure   of   the   main   engine   or   running  in  parallel  with  it  

–  Validate opera9on  of  the  proposed  system                              build  the  complete  model   of  the  ship  power  system  and  simulated  for  four  different  opera9ng  modes  :   Ø  Isolated  opera9on  of  diesel  generators     Ø  Parallel  opera9on  of  sha/  generators  and  diesel  generators   Ø  Isolated  opera9on  of  sha/  generators     Ø  Emergency  opera9on  with  the  sha/  generator  running  in  motor  mode  

–  Examine the  benefits  of  implemen9ng  the  proposed  control  scheme  compared   to  the  exis9ng  configura9on,  in  terms  of  fuel  savings  

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

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Ship power  system   •  •  • 

4  diesel  engines    12.000  kW                   •  3    diesel  generators    2.100  kVA     •  2    sha/  generators      2.400  kVA    

1  emergency  diesel  generator    1.125  kVA     Frequency  60  Hz,  2  voltage  levels  (440  V,  230V)   Consumers  

Active Power (ΚW) 1621  

Motor Control Centers (MCCs) Consumers directly 880.3   connected to 440 V   Consumers connected via 638.8   transformers (440 or 230 V)   Thrusters   2192

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

Reactive Power (KVAr) 1005  

545.79

369.08

1359.04  

6


Design &  comparison  of  two  Synchronous  Generators   for  SG  applicaFons       PMSG  of  PTO/CFE  topology  and  Salient  Pole  Synchronous  Generator  (SPSG)  of  (PTO/ GCR  topology)  have  been  designed  via  Finite  Element  Method  with  the  same   nominal  Power  (P=2.4MW)    According  to  previously  published  analysis  in  3rd  &  4th  Marinelive  workshops,  PMSG   has  superior  electromagneFc  characterisFcs  (around  20%)  in  terms  of  torque   ripple,  harmonic  content  of  the  induced  back  electromagne9c  force,  improving  the   produced  power  quality   Therefore  PMSG  has  been  adopted  for  the  SG  applica9on  

• 

• 

•             

 

Magnetic flux density distribution under full load operation

 

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

7


ShaG generator  control  system   The  proposed  control  system  for  the  sha/  generators  consist  of  :     •  The  machine  side  converter  control   v Ac9ve  power  control  during  generator  mode   v Speed  control  during  motor  mode     •  The  grid  side  converter  control   v Grid  voltage  control   v Dc  link  voltage  control  

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

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Machine  side  converter  control   •  Ac9ve  power  control  (speed  control  in  motor  mode)  performed  by  a  PI  controller   •   Field  oriented  control  :   vď śâ€Ż  Using  a  d-­â€?q  reference  frame,  rota9ng  synchronously  to  the  machine’s       đ?‘š đ?‘› speed   T =− (+L − L 0i i − Â Ďˆ i )   2 e

Set   

isd = 0 Â

đ?‘

đ?‘?

sq

đ?‘šđ?‘ đ?‘›đ?‘? Te =  đ?œ“pm isq   2

sd

sd sq

pm sq

Iđ?‘‘ ∗ = 0  Iđ?‘ž ∗ =

5th  and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids�  and  “Power  Management  Systems�  

2 Ă— Te  ms np đ?œ“pm

9 Â


Grid side  converter  control                Control  is  performed  on  a  d-­‐q  reference  frame,  synchronously  rota9ng  at  grid’s   frequency  ,by    2  parallel  controllers  :   Ø  Control  of  d  components     Ø Control  of  q  components   v   Grid  voltage  control     v  DC  link  voltage  control   v   ReacFve  power  control   v  Ιd  current  control   v   Iq  current  control  

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

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Parallel operaFon  of  shaG  generators  and  diesel   generators  (1)   –  Simula9on’s  dura9on  4  sec   –  Insert  thrusters  at  1.5  sec  

Power (KW)

Loads

Active power (ΚW)

Motor control centers (MCCs) Consumers directly connected to 440 V   Consumers connected via transformers (440 or 230 V   Thrusters  

1621

Reactive power (KVAr) 1005  

880.3

545.79

638.8

369.08

2192

1359.04  

Sea service

Maneuvering service

(0-1.5 sec)

(1.5-4 sec)

Diesel generators

1680

18.5%

89%,89%,

Shaft generators

1920

80%, 80%

54.7%,70.6%

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

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Parallel operaFon  of  shaG  generators  and  diesel   generators  (2)   800

Voltage drop   10%   while   inser9ng   the   thrusters   which   correspond   to     69%   of   the   exis9ng   ship’s   load.   The   voltage   returns   to   98%   of   its   nominal   value   at   0.8  sec.  The  specifica9ons  define  the  limit  of  voltage   drop  at  16%  of  its  nominal  value  for    20  sec.  

600

Grid Voltage Vabc (V)

400 200 0 -200 -400 -600 -800

0

1

2 time (sec)

   Grid  voltage  Vabc  

FFT analysis  -­‐  current  

3

4

Total harmonic   distor9on   of   2.42   %   for   the   voltage   and   3.18   %   for   the   current.   The   specifica9ons   define   a   maximum   of   5%   for   the   total   harmonic   distor9on   for   both   the   voltage   and  current.  

FFT analysis  -­‐  voltage  

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

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Parallel operaFon  of  shaG  generators  and  diesel   generators  (3)   5 4 4

3 Active power Diesel generator (̣ W)

Active Power Shaft generator (MW)

2 1 0 -1 -2

3 2 1 0

-3 -1 -4

0

1

2

3

0

1

2

4

3

4

time (sec)

time (sec)

Sha/ generators  ac9ve  power  

Diesel generators  ac9ve  power  

4

5 4

2

Reactive Power Diesel generator (MVAr)

Reactive Power Shaft generator (MVAr)

3

1 0 -1

2 1 0

-2 -3

3

0

1

2

3

time (sec)

Sha/ generators  reac9ve  power  

4

-1

0

1

2

3

4

time (sec)

Diesel generators  reac9ve  power  

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

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Parallel operaFon  of  shaG  generators  and  diesel   generators  (4)   1200

DC link voltage (V)

1150 1100

Response 9me  0.2      sec    Maximum  voltage  rise  at  the  start    16%  

1050 1000 950 900

0

1

2

3

4

time (sec)

DC link  voltage  

500

Active Power Shaft generator Power control (KW)

Response 9me  0.2  sec     Ac9ve  power  fluctua9on    160  kW.  

Power Power Reference

0 -500 -1000 -1500 -2000 -2500 -3000 -3500

0

1

2

3

4

time (sec)

Ac9ve power  control     5th  and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

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Improved power  factor  

•  Sea service     •  Isolated  opera9on  of  diesel  generators  :                                              PF=  0.85   •  Using  sha/  generators  as  synchronous  condensers  :    PF  =  0.97                                                                  Improved  by    14%    

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

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Isolated operaFon  of  shaG  generators(1)     •  •  • 

Simula9on’s dura9on  4  sec   Insert  thrusters  at  2  sec   Increase  sha/  speed  by  10%  at  3  sec   Loads  

Motor control centers (MCCs) Consumers directly connected to 440 V   Consumers connected via transformers (440 or 230 V)   Thrusters  

Active power Reactive (ΚW) power (KVAr)   587.4   364.188  

195.7

121.33

68.9

36.84

275.9

171.058

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

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Isolated operaFon  of  shaG  generators(2)     400

Voltage drop  of  2%  for  1  sec,  during   the  inser9on  of  load    corresponding   to  32%  of  the  systems  load.  

300

Grid voltage Vabc (V)

200 100 0 -100 -200 -300 -400

0

1

2 time (sec)

                       Grid  voltage  Vabc  

FFT analysis  –  voltage    

3

4

Total harmonic  distor9on  of  2.74%  for  the   voltage  and  2.46%  for  the  current  

FFT analysis  –  current    

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

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Isolated operaFon  of  shaG  generators(3)     2 1.5

Active Power Shaft generators (MW)

1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2

0

1

2

3

4

time (sec)

Sha/  generators  ac9ve    power  

Response 9me   of   the   controller  0.9  sec.  

1

Reactive Power Shaft generator (MVAr)

0.5

0

-0.5

-1

-1.5

0

1

2 time (sec)

3

4

Sha/  generators  reac9ve  power   5th  and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

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Isolated operaFon  of  shaG  generators(4)     1200

DC link voltage (V)

1150

Response 9me  of  dc  voltage  controller  0.2       sec    maximum  voltage  rise  at  start  14%  

1100 1050 1000 950 900

0

1

2

3

4

time (sec)

DC  link  voltage  

Response 9me   of   ac9ve   power   controller   0.03   sec,  for  10%    increase  in  sha/  speed.  

200

0.5

Active Power Active Power Reference

0

x 10

4

Torque Torque Reference

0 Electromagnetic Torque (Nm)

Active Power control shaft generators (KW)

-200 -400 -600 -800 -1000 -1200

-1 -1.5 -2 -2.5

-1400 -1600

-0.5

0

1

2

3

time (sec)

Ac9ve  power  control  

4

-3

0

1

2

3

4

time (sec)

Electromagne9c torque  control  

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

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Emergency operaFon  -­‐  shaG  generator  running   in  motor  mode(1)   Simula9on’s  dura9on  10  sec      

•  • 

Change in  torque  at  the  sha/  every  1.5  sec  

Time (sec) Shaft torque (Nm)  

0-1.5

1.5-3

3-4.5

4.5-6

6-7.5

7.5-9

0.1*8 5000

0.5*8 5000

0.75*8 5000

0.9*8 5000

0.25*8 5000

0.5*8 5000

Shaft speed (RPM)

215

8

x 10

215

215

215

215

9-1 0 0  

215

Voltage drop less than 1.8% of the nominal value.

215

4

400

7 300 200

5

Grid voltage Vabc (V)

Shaft Torque (̤ m)

6

4 3

100 0 -100

2

-200

1

-300

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

time (sec)

Sha/ torque    

8

9

10

-400

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

time (sec)

                     Grid  voltage    Vabc  

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

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Emergency operaFon  -­‐  shaG  generator  running  in   motor  mode(2)   0.5

5 4.5 4 Active Power Diesel generators (MW)

Active Power Shaft motor (MW)

0 -0.5 -1 -1.5

3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1

-2

0.5 -2.5

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

10

0

1

2

3

4

time (sec)

Sha/ motor  ac9ve  power     0.2

7

8

9

10

4 3.5 Reactive Power Diesel generators (MVAr)

-0.2 Reactive Power Shaft motor (MVAr)

6

Diesel generators  ac9ve  power      

4.5

0

-0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1

3 2.5 2 1.5 1

-1.2 -1.4

5 time (sec)

0.5 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

time (sec)

Sha/ motor  reac9ve  power    

9

10

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

time (sec)

Diesel generators  reac9ve  power    

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

21


Emergency operaFon  -­‐  shaG  generator  running   in  motor  mode(3)   350

Shaft motor speed (rad/sec)

300 250 200 150 100 Speed Speed Reference

50 0 -50

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

time (sec)

Motor  speed  control   10

x 10

4

Torque Torque Reference

Electromagnetic Torque Shaft motor (Nm)

8

• R e s p o n s e 9 m e   o f   s p e e d   controller     0.04   sec   and   23%     maximum   decelera9on   of   the   motor   (at     165   RPM)   for   400%   rise   in  sha/  torque.     • R e s p o n s e   9 m e   o f   s p e e d   controller     0.06   sec   and       38%   maximum   accelera9on   (at   330   RPM)   for   72%   reduc9on   of   sha/   torque.  

6 4 2 0 -2 -4

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

time (sec)

   Electromagne9c  torque     5th  and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  


Fuel consumpFon  calculaFon   •  Specific  fuel  oil  consump9on  (sfoc)  calcula9on  for  the  main  engine  and   diesel  generator   •  Typical  journey  of  7  hours  (6  hours  sea  service,  1  hour  maneuvering)   •  Fuel  consump9on  calcula9on  for  the  exis9ng  configura9on  of  the   examined  vessel   •  Op9miza9on  of  the  exis9ng  opera9onal  scenario  by  u9lizing  the  proposed   control  system   •  Calcula9on  of  fuel  consump9on  a/er  the  aforemen9oned  op9miza9on  

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

23


Specific fuel  oil  consumpFon   •  •  •  • 

Four main  diesel  engines  (1200  kW)   Two  sha/  generators  (2400  kVA)   Three  diesel  generators  (2100  kVA)   Calcula9on  of  the  specific  fuel  oil  consump9on  using  official  datasheet    

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

24


ExisFng operaFonal  scenario   •  Sea  opera9on  –  1  sha/  generator,  1  diesel  generator     SG   DG   ΜΕ   Load %   66.86   73.25   95 .6     Sfoc g/kWh   192.14   173.08       •  Maneuvering  –  2  sha/  generators,  3  diesel  generators  

Load % Sfoc g/kWh  

SG1

SG2

DG1

DG2

DG3

ΜΕ1

ΜΕ2

4.9

8.3

50

50

51

95.4

95.7

197.23

197.23

196.88

173

173.12

•  Total fuel  consump9on    3.478.118  gr   5th  and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

25


Proposed operaFonal  scenario   •  Sea  opera9on  –  2  sha/  generators     Load %  

SG1

SG2

ΜΕ1

ME2

71.33

71.33

95.71

95.71

173.12

173.12

Sfoc g/kWh

•  Maneuvering –  2  sha/  generators,  1  diesel  generator   Load %   Sfoc g/kWh  

SG1

SG2

DG1

ΜΕ1

ΜΕ2

40

40

81.36

98.2

98.2

191.89

174.19

174.19

•  Total fuel  consump9on  3.375.092  gr                                          3%  reduc9on   5th  and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

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Conclusions •  Proposing   a   flexible   control   system   for   the   sha/   generators   in   order   to   achieve:   Ø  Control  of  the  ac9ve  power  output     Ø  Constant  dc  link  voltage   Ø  Constant    grid  voltage  and  frequency   Ø  Invert  power  flow  :  the  sha/  generator  (8%  of  the  main  engine’s  power)   can  provide  50%  of  the  rated  speed  in  emergency  opera9on   •  Improved  efficiency  of  the  sha/  generators  system  from  0.883  to  0.92   •  Power  factor  of  the  diesel  generators  improved  by  14%  ,  from  0.85  to  0.97     •  Reduced  fuel  consump9on  up  to  3%  according  to  theore9cal  calcula9ons    

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT THE

WORK PRESENTED IN THIS PAPER HAS BEEN DEVELOPED WITHIN THE

THALES-DEFKALION PROJECT. THIS RESEARCH HAS BEEN COFINANCED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION (EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND – ESF) AND GREEK NATIONAL FUNDS THROUGH THE OPERATIONAL PROGRAM "EDUCATION AND LIFELONG LEARNING" OF THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC REFERENCE FRAMEWORK (NSRF) - RESEARCH FUNDING PROGRAM: THALES: REINFORCEMENT OF THE INTERDISCIPLINARY AND/OR INTER-INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH AND INNOVATION.

FRAMEWORK OF THE


Thank you  for  your  anen9on  

5th and  6th  MARINELIVE  Workshops  on  “Ship  Electric  Grids”  and  “Power  Management  Systems”  

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“Ship Electric Grids” & “Power Management Systems”  
“Ship Electric Grids” & “Power Management Systems”  
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