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ROSENBERG


ROSENBERG A history

Mattias Malk

2013


I REPUTATION

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iver, along which the monarch and his entourage traveled longer days, not the end. Only gradually enjoyed it and shorelines zostrmeli. Riders, tired and exhausted, since trotted after barely noticeable way are kept mostly into decay area - although Tatars departed, but left after they looted and almost ľudoprázdne valley. The further north, the country was becoming more pronounced Stun indomitable lure of spruce and pine plantations and collapsing for Transparent streams. Hills, emerging one after another, reflecting the dark green to light blue surface, though not end up anywhere. Hustle on the horizon, and, increasingly, in an effort to discourage newcomers. Threatened to stray. “If it will continue like this, we will return,” thought the young king. “In the wild forests alone are worth the hunt.” Even with a passenger tries to circumvent the narrow ribbons of water sweep the sidewalk behind the backs upward cliffs uphill. In polkopci a semicircle in front of them suddenly opened country. On a wide platter spilled horizon valley hemmed emerald mountains and in the middle as silver horseshoe loop in the river, which was encircled him, a huge ruby - top heavy with red flowers. Amidst the sun shone, as it ravaged the most destructive fire. The king and his retinue remained entranced. Because of splendor in the middle of the basin is worthwhile to measure redeem path. Young ruler came to mind his nanny he was a little boy, when he talked about the far top miraculous glowing purple flowers. Reportedly, once in a hundred years from scouts royal family released one of its petals in the enchanted beauties. This miracle is to see up close. Ran down to where the trail widened so that they could spurred the horse into a gallop. They stopped the hill overgrown with wild roses fiery. Resting resembled a monk with a hood withdrawn deep into the forehead. Here you can see what could discern from a distance - as if copied hoop antiquity mounds, purple breaks below the top pearl necklace sweep of flowering shrubs until pink. Between the glistening pink pearls predierala doe. I barely noticed it in the flood of flowers was all white. Daycare quietly gasped. The king, a keen hunter, subconsciously reached into his quiver and burn the string. Arrow whistled. Was heard to shout something to lament, like an echo. When you catch up on the spot, under bushes


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between opadanie found the girl petals. Lying pale and lifeless, and beautiful. No injuries. Unhappy king looked after jockeys. What now? Among them was one about which they knew that they understand the language of animals and birds. Chudučký little man, striking piercing eyes and an aquiline nose. He started looking around. The bushes elevates found what probably subconsciously looking for - a red rose in the heart pierced by an arrow. Gave it to his master, motioning gesture to put the flower lying. It happened. From pierced roses spilled on a white chest slight drop. Vari blood? Red gradually seeped, spread - shoulders, arms and cheeks girl ružoveli. The eyelashes fluttered and then breath. She opened her eyes and saw the king inclined, surprise and naradovaného. Filed miraculously awakened hand, helped her get up and settled into the seat. Young monarch to return home took Beauty wife. In place under the hill planted with red flowers founded the settlement, which later grew up the city. Rose, pierced by an arrow, in his coat of arms lands.

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II BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

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he traditional agricultural, timber, herding and market-trading tradition been associated craftsmanship, which later worked together in numerous guilds. Of these, began to create small businesses, of which the last third of the 19th century, thanks to the construction of Košice-bohumínska railways, have sprouted significant Slovak industry. Specifically, it was the development of the paper and textile industry, wood processing, but also the development of brickworks (1871), Bryndziarne (1850) and zapalkar (1890). With the development of industry originated in the Slovak financial institutions. In the last third of the 19th and in the first half of the 20th Ruzomberok century became an important financial and industrial center of Slovakia. tradition of the paper has established the factory in 1883 based on pulp and paperboard ( Biely Potok ). From these traditions have occurred in the new plant Solo (1880) and between 1907 and 1908 to form another plant, which eventually was named SUPRA. In the western part of the city began in the late 19th Century (1894) brought up another big industrial colossus - Rybárpoľská textile factory, which Postula become the largest in Hungary. Besides this large industry acted in many medium and small enterprises.


III EDUCATION AND CULTURE

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rerequisite for the development of trade and industry was a quality education. In the town gradually established a number of important schools. The first documented school of higher type was Lutheran noble Latin School. Its origin is shrouded in confusion. According to some sources had arisen in the year. 1528, other data indicate 1567. Even so, it is the first, resp. one of the first such schools in Slovakia. Associate with it the names of prominent figures of the time - O. Jakobei, O. Cenglerius, Kalinkovci, Paršicovci, Ps. Nosticius, J. Kucera, P. Lochman and under. Another very important school was Catholic grammar school founded religious orders piaristov in r. 1729 the foundation charter approved by the Emperor Charles VI. At this time, it was Ružomberský piaristic high school the only school of its kind for Liptov, Orava, Turiec and the northern part of Trencin County. School later attended quantity Celebrity - A. Bernolák, KF Palma, A. Radlinsky, F. Skyčák, V. Javorka, members of families Makovického, Houdekovcov, Krčméryovcov, L. Nádaši-Jégeho, A. Hliňák, I. Grebáč-Orlov, E. Bohúň, V. Šrobár, Ľ. Fulla, P. Inviting J. Budavári-Krička, K. Sidor, F. Kafenda and many others. educational development and cultural level of education in addition to significantly facilitate the printer, whether the printer is Charles Fame, John Skoteka, printer LEV, founded by Andrej Hlinka together with John Vojtaššák and other nationalists. The city has been printed many books, created various important periodicals (English, Speech, Obzor, Dennica, Streams, Slovak letters, newspaper folk). The Ruzomberok in Slovakia Slovak distributed calendars, but also instructive Makovického Bibliotéka and enlightening read, Salvova Edition Cheap books, Páričkova Slovak Library. His works are given here: Theresa Vansová, Janko Jesenský, Jozef Gregor-Tajovský, F. Votruba, S. Czambel, V. Šrobár, M. Kukučín, FR Osvald, Ľ. Podjavorinská, FV Sasinek, J. Janoška, T. Milkin, as well as several others. Mentioned and not mentioned patriots, writers and journalists created in Ružomberku so. protimartinský front, which formed a counterweight when it conservative Martin. since the last third of the 19th nearly half of the 20 Ruzomberok century was a major center of the Slovak national movement. The city arose and found fertile ground main philosophical and polit-


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ical currents of the time, which greatly influenced the Slovak policy. Formed the current philosophical thought Tolstoy (Dr. D. Makovický), čechoslovakistický current Hlasists and prúdistov (Dr. Srobar, M. Hoxha, F. Votruba, F. Houdek, J. Burian, K. Hušek), autonomic movement nezrádzajúce fight the Slovak identity (Msgr. A. Hlinka, I. Grebáč-Orlov, J. Stano, Ľ. Labay, O. Janček, M. Pružinský, K. Sidor). Interestingly, Ruzomberok after the creation of Czechoslovakia was one of the important centers working class and trade union movement. Host a founding congress of the Marxist Left, lived here their highest authorities, as well as the highest authorities of the union. Cultural life in previous decades was based primarily on domestic traditions, but was also influenced by priests and religious orders. The significant development of culture and social life began mainly in the third period 19 century. The city began to emerge societies, whose domain was theatricals. The first Slovak amateur theater has played in r. 1868 House Petra Makovického st., Although in the 17th century in games played piaristic in Hungarian. Important cultural associations were: Catholic Circle (1894) and civil discussion (1895). Ruzomberok was agile in other areas of culture. Already in the year. In 1912 there were still here Apollo Theater. A little later came the word photograph, which accounted for Slovak and Czech fans: SJ Hegedus, J. Náhlik, L. Kožehuba, J. Labaj, M. and F. Hodoš, J. Nephew, J. Hansel, K. Kala, L. Króner etc. Rich photographic spawn significantly affected and followers, who in addition to photographing decided to undertake the organization of international salon art photography PhotoForum and later to the international exhibition of organic tree photo. important event in the life of the city was the year 1912 when the Ružomberku created Liptovské museum, founded by brothers Arthur and Julius Kurtiovci. In the thirties was then built the current museum building. Ruzomberok one of the major artistic centers. The city is born or many prominent Slovak and Czech artists. Durable national art treasures are created Fulla Louis, Robert Dúbravec st. and ml., Fedor Klimáček, Elemír Winkler-Koszhéghy, Francis Janček, Alexander and Francis Belopotockovci, Martin Benko, Akidos Ambrose, John Hala, Joseph Hanula, Alojz Felegi, Karol Polónyi and more. Mention must also several major cultural personalities born or Ružomberku active: John Bohun, Anton addition, Alojz Pavčo, Leo Kenstenberg, Frída Bachletová, Joseph and Richard Chládekovci, Nicholas and Paul Stanovci, Joseph Felix, Arthur Gross, Paul and Adolf Oberschallovci, Alexander crosses, Martin Huska, Joseph Czupra, Lawrence Korecz , and Charles Silvester Krčméryovci, Olga Houdková, Anna Pivková, Joseph Májek, Stephen Mišík, Ladislav Moyse, Bohumil Haluzický, Samuel Mikovíni, John Čajak.

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IV GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE

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uzomberok located in the north to the northeastern part of its land area (cadastral), which has a major north-south shape, while the southern part of reaching deep into the territory of the Great Fatra, Low Tatras and only the immediate vicinity of the city lies in Liptov basin.

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istory of geological and mining research he predecessor of geology as a science were lessons learned from the mining works (montanistike). Surroundings Ruzomberok in the Middle Ages was interesting points of German settlers who probably started survey work where the expected incidence especially precious metals, gold and silver. The mining industry in the history of writing I. Houdek, (1934, 1938) and subsequently by J. Sweet From their work we learn that already in the list of privileges from the Hungarian king Charles Robert of Anjou in 1340 the town received the right look for ore, precious metals and minerals within its confines. Although not extensive, but still partially productive mining and metallurgy existed here until almost modern times. The earliest well-documented written records we find the mines in the valley Matejkova, where today we find traces of the submerged passages. Alternately, are mined from veins in crystalline rocks (granite) mainly ore containing silver and lead. Last mention of mining are still in 1808. By state visit sometime around the year. 1960 one of these galleries. Mining of iron ore took place at several locations in bounds. Perhaps most important was the deep valleys (deep) over Jazierce. In the limestone hillsides Tisova Their position is because there caverns with relatively good quality ore (hematite, limonite), but also occurred locally lead and silver. Mentions of mining are from r. 1693, was later built in the valley iron smelter, which even processed the raw materials to be imported from the Orava region. Hutu mentioned in the “Notice” and Matej Bell. Probably disappeared around the year. 1750, where in connection with the construction of the mills mentioned the ruins. Iron ore is also mined on the White river. The galleries in the slope Borovinská were near the cemetery today at the White creek. probably from kutacích work on iron ore is also named part


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of Ruzomberok Banica. The development of industrial scale in Austria - Hungary importance of local occurrences of ore declined, mining and processing has become unprofitable and ceased to exist. Remained after only wooded debris heaps aa local names. Scientific geological studies in the area of Ruzomberok performed in the interwar period, particularly A. Matejka (1927 et al.), Are also part of a wider conceived works of D. Andrus. Later build on them. Professor John Sweet Ruzomberská school, which issued its own costs unique work with a detailed geological map 1:15 000 These works were later accepted later in the postwar period, when the issue Geological Map of Slovakia at scale 1: 200 000, sheet M -34 - XXIV Banska Bystrica (M. Maheľ, 1964). Latest from our surroundings were issued basic geological maps at a scale of 1:50 000, which already contain the new nomenclature currently in force, terminology and chronology (Polak et. al. 1997)

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ithology and stratigraphy n view of the currently used classification of the main structural units of Slovakia are referred to part 2 mountains called. core areas, Tatricum. Briefly explain the general structural patterns, recurring throughout the Western Carpathians in Slovakia. Tatricum is characterized in that in the central part of the mountain so rise to the surface. “Paleoalpínske unit”, formed by deep igneous rocks (granite, granodiorite), or metamorphosed, Transfiguration (crystalline slate, gneiss). On the crystalline core generally consists of “packaging line”, ie directly on the base established marine mladoprvohorné and Mesozoic rocks. Is a characteristic sequence: Permian quartzite or volcanic rocks, Triassic limestones and dolomites, Jurassic rádiolaritové or crinoid limestone, chert, chert limestone, slate places also, and eventually chalk marl and limestone marlstones. On the original, indigenous or nepremiestnené strata, were from the south or southeast slid “Subtatranské nappes”. In our neighborhood to the Fatricum (older name krízzanského sheet derived from the top cross coming in Great Fatra) and Hronikum, which we find also called Choc nappe. In krízzanského Nappe act mainly marly limestone, chalk, in Choc Nappe Triassic limestones and dolomites. In krízzanského Nappe the whereabouts of “tectonic windows” incurred odstránemím, part rock so that the old members leaving from under Nappe. The crystalline core of the Great Fatra located on the southern edge of the cadastral Ruzomberok namely around Little Smrekovica (1485). The title of this unit is solid zubochnianska the place of its largest expansion. In the vicinity of Ruzomberok decreases from the main ridge of the mountain valleys and Nizhny Vyšný Matejka until Revúcej valley, where it ends at striking fracture. Smrekovica (1530), also popularly called “Lord” is made up of relatives of granite rocks, called Smrekovické tonality. These stretch from there through Vyšné to Nizné Matejkovo, north and south, then to the “Kornietovské granodiorites.” Graniodiorit is also rock similar to granite, only a little less quartz and is visually darker. Their texture p16


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(crystal configuration) is mainly directed to the east side, which reminds gneisses and migmatites. North to occur islets leucogranite (particularly light granite), for example in the area Jánošíková bowling. Also act locally lens dike rocks, aplites and pegmatites, which can bind mineralization. It is in them took place in Nizhny Matzjková silver mining. Crystalline core surrounded by a resident of the Transfiguration, metamorphic rocks. Such is our territory, although few but nevertheless complement a colorful array of rocks. Biotite and biotite gneisses can be found in the islets on the crest north of Nizhny Matejkova. Packing series Tatricum in our area called “Šiprúnska sequence”. Represents a relatively thin strip hlavane on the northern edge of the crystalline massif. Quite a considerable area has spodnotriasové Lúzzanské strata, formed by quartzite, quartz sandstones and conglomerates, which are mainly in the area Pulzíkova (1238) From there it extends above the Šiprúň to Zubochnianska valley. North instead of going through to sandy - clayey shale. West of Šiprúňa, at the end Trlenská valley and then even further west occur Gutenstein layer. This is almost black limestone middle route, where we find veins of white calcite. Despite its color, these relatively pure limestone and usually indicate the presence of caves. Even north of the previous rock band like ourselves looking Ramsau dolomite gray. Above, younger members Šiprúnskej sequences are represented by characteristic Jurassic rocks. Especially from the surrounding slopes and valleys Trlenská south node Šiprúňa have recorded larger areas Trlenská strata formed by sandy, crinoid limestone and chert. At the mouth of the valley Trlenská known strata of the Jury - Dogger, (there’s eponymous protected national monument). Top, members of the Cretaceous sequence Šiprúnskej know whether the conclusion Čutkovská creek, about Hungarians and south of Malinnom This is a Poruba and lučivianske strata, formed by clayey, sandy limestone and chert. Krížňanského unit (Fatricum) The tatridné kryštralické and packaging series is in the middle Cretaceous pushed onto the south nappes. In a large Fatra is the most widely krížňanského sheet. Krížňanského sheet (unit) has a similar layered sequence as a series of packaging, therefore there followed successive strata of sedimentary rock age Triassic, Jurassic and chalk. Lowermost member krížňanského Nappe are Ramsau Triassic dolomites. These stretch from finding Bystrej valley, Čutkovo east almost to Vlkolíncom. Higher members of the strata stretch waist on its northern edge. It is a gray and greenish Jurassic limestone with chert, marl and limestone mottled “Algäuských layers” and loamy sandy shale strata kopieneckého. From this line to the valley of the scale and Revúcej, north and south, leaving only the surface of the uppermost strata, originally referred to as “neo”. Today called “freezer strata” consisting of gray marly limestones and marly shale slôieňovcov takes just Great Fatra, specifically in the area Krížnej largest area and accordingly received the unit described by meno.Treba to mention here that the marly limestone and shale binds rounded relief shapes without die-hard outcomes and karst phenomena, which contrasts with the higher lying Choc nappe. Interestingly the mounp17


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tains are tectonic nappe tectonics windows. This is a phenomenon that erosion in the deep valleys below strikes members of the strata and thus it is possible to “see” what is beneath them. Tectonic window at the end Čutkovo is such interest, leaving it from beneath Cretaceous strata krížňanského Nappe spodnejšie Jurassic its members. Choc nappe (Hronikum) Choc sheet is pushed onto the lower lying krížňanského, which is actually a layered sequence repeats again. There is Ruzomberok for Choc nappe (Hronikum) typically retain only the lowest, Triassic members. The highest strata is relatively lighter rock is called. “Main dolomite.” form the top of the mountain as thick (1208), and also the north peak of sand (1067), as well as southerly Vtáčnik (1236) Sidorovo (1099) and the highest ridge of the large rocks. Below lie Ramsau dolomite, visually a little darker. Form the lower part of the aforementioned peaks, but also separate peaks Mešková, (elevation 902 Brdo), and tinier floe to Ružomberská Calvary, miners and fall to the valley Rebvúcej north of the White creek in the former lime works (quarry). The subsoil Ramsau diolomitov is located Guttenstein limestone. This is a gray to black in color and bind to it rock formations - towers, walls and also skrasovatenie and caves. How good material is also more accessible areas benefited most area forms the eastern slope NIB Bystrej valley, where drops of thick mountain forms Mešková a particular Žľabiny. The islands of limestone are also found on the eastern slope Sidorova to Baničné. A similar scheme continues on the north side of the scale, where do Ružomberská land area is part of a massive mountain Čebrať Radičinej and Keck. Formation krížňanského Nappe form part of the foot as the CEBR or near Hrboltová. Very nice cross section of these súvrstiviami seen in the former quarry Folded rock. However, the mere peaks are formed Choc nappe. A similar situation exists in parts of the land area east of Revúcej, in Low Tatrích in the massive Borovinská

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lder Tertiary - Paleogene odtartanskej bottom of the basin and its western part, Liptov when more than one thousand meters thick strata of sandstone and claystone, also called flysch. Unlike so. external flys a little wrinkled and therefore it is expected that after the establishment has failed to act in this area too strong orogenic movements. This therefore represents about Ruzomberok as Gulf Paleogene sea, into which settled weathering products of the surrounding land. lowest part of the Paleogene strata (Borovsky strata) are formed breccia, conglomerates later. This shows only the beginning of the process of drop zone below sea level part of the Paleogene strata on the perimeter of the bay are numulit limestone. Numulit is extinct organism disc-shaped (literal translation “peniažtek” and it is in our neighborhood, but the monks of the nearby railway station are its nice occurrences. Specifically, these strata can be nicely seen in the quarry above the rocks where stretch waist to Lurdová. The rest of Paleogene súvrtvia is already formed only monotonous mass of sandstone and claystone. them for a small p18


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resistance nevytvrárajú rock walls and the surface is too prominent. Paleogene Contact súvrtství with older dolomites Choc Nappe can be seen for example in that the quarry rock.

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uaternary - travertíny he youngest geological period, the Quaternary, in our territory has not show marine sedimentation, but only terrestrial. The most significant are here travertine rock. Travertine rock, folk tuff also creates a saturated solution of calcium carbonate, thus essentially dissolved limestone. The saturation occurs at higher temperatures and pressures in the depths and seepage at the surface of the travertine deposited in the form of clusters, terraces or poker. There are Ruzomberok most famous travertine in a valley Revúcej. Based on deep rupture north-south direction (Revúcky bad) here stems and vyvieralo number of springs in the area where the travertine settled. The southernmost is travertine terrace under a lot of Bukovina (785) where we present the creation of travertine and watch. further north are known occurrences of travertine to Jazierce which partly took place recently in settling ponds - windows. The northernmost occurrence is then Trlenská valley, especially on its southern side, where the travertine terrace Vlzia rock is the building of the monastery.

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V CONSERVATION

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hotár city is located in the protection zone Low Tatras National Park (declared in 1978) and Great Fatra (promulgated in 2002), which features the best preserved mountains in Slovakia. Boundary between the Rio Revúca. There are 8 small protected areas. National Natural Landmark Brankovský waterfall (27.71 ha), declared in 1980, protects called. Kuruc rock with a 55 m high waterfall (775-830 m asl), which freezes in winter. Jánošíkova National Wildlife bowling (46.81 ha), declared in 1965, protects primeval jarabinové maple and spruce (up to 200 years) in the top, Little Smrekovica of granite (1200-1485 m). Reservation is part of the land Ľubochňa. Natural stone monument Matějkovský current was launched in 1987 at the end of the valley Vyšné Matejková. Natural monument Dogerské rocks, proclaimed in 1952, protects the outcrop of Jurassic strata in Trlenská valley. Natural monument Jazierske travertine, proclaimed in 1952, originally to protect the terrace with a system of lakes. Capturing the source of water supply (1965), however, seriously undermine the development of travertine cascades. Natural monument Vlčia rock, proclaimed in 1952, a travertine terraces in the valley Trlenská. Natural monument toucan rock, proclaimed in 1952, protects the impressive limestone cliff with a group of pine trees. Natural monument Travertine terraces Bukovinka (550-600 m asl) with cascade creek and fossil molluscs was declared in 1980. In a free country specifically protected by three old trees (120 + years) - Under the Pacific maple and ash with maple on the former railway station Biely Potok-Jazierce. Their protection is linked with the history of SNP. The boundaries of the protected since 1993 Avenue of Andrej Hlinka Square. Provide practical conservation management of the national parks located in Banska Bystrica and Vrútky. In Ružomberku (Bernolakova 38) has been active for several years, the extension of a two administrations of national parks. For professional help by volunteers from local citizens called. Guard of nature and in the past has worked actively with the Slovak Union of Nature and Landscape.


VI BURGHER FAMILIES

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ver the centuries, occurring in hundreds of different genera. Some of them live here from the beginning until today, other genera died out, moved away, or are they the only sketchy references. The oldest surviving urban protocols by the end of the 16th century mention several genera: Kuban (1538), Balaz (1538), Bodor (1538), straws (1540), Bohún (1540), Vlkolínsky (1540), Andris (1540), Hlobík (1540), Laclavík (1543) Scrap (1544), Benko (1550), Mason (1552), Surzený (1555), Kacian (1555), Mojško (1568), Kmet (1572), Lacko (1572), Mikulec (1572), Olejnik (1573) Stag (1574), Arrow (1577), Ford (1583), Blasko (1585), Stano (1585), Stacked (1586), Marshall (1587), Vlcek (1589), Hilko (1590), Slosiar (1590) Shakers (1590), Suchan (1596), Kroner (1597) and others. The number of members of most of these families in 16 century in the city reveals, as probably it was a long time ago Ruzomberský indigenous families. The records shall be kept of the data on the adoption of new burgesses. Such a townsman had to pass into the city treasury a sum of money and swear to maintain the loyalty of the local nobility and the municipality. Among the major genera can be considered adopted several families adopted during the 16th to 19th century. In 1649 for example, was among the townspeople in Ruzomberku adopted Opršal Simon, founder of the local family of watchmakers, who later changed the name to Oberschall. They were later adopted a more prominent founders Ruzomberská genera, such as: Thomas Oyster from Likavka in 1669, Matej Pucek from Silesia and John Lavrencík of priests in 1673, Mates Sviezený from Liptovská Štiavnica in 1730, Andrej Kubancík of Slanice in 1738 Juraj Rozinský of German Lupca in 1741, Nicholas Kroneraff of Salzburg in 1753, Adam Labaj of Ivachnová in 1753, Martin Hradský from Likavka in 1756, George Sidor of Cernova in 1758, Joseph and Michael of Milan’s Vlkolínec in 1765 Andrej Rázga of Štiavnicky in 1777, George PEZNER of lubochna in 1778, Andrej Martin of crude in 1783, George Janco of Banovce nad Bebravou in 1786, Juraj Huska from long Orava in 1787, George Jancek of Orava in 1794, Matej Laclavík of Lurdová in 1797, Matej Floch of the White creek in 1801, John Obrcian Lupca from Germany in 1802, Francis Delavoš of LIBOCHOVICE in Moravia in 1815, Michal Holec


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of Liptovsky Mikulas in 1827, Andrej MILOVICE, teacher of Liptovska Settlements in 1830, John Kajúch of Zemianska Lurdová in 1837, John Frederick, the local teacher - organist in 1850, and others. alerts when watching in urban protocols can detect a gradual change surnames of some genera, which originated from induced - second surname. The major genera, respectively. their branches, are known the following changes: Smith - Královenskej, Hanzély - Chrenko, Pribiš - Demiter, Chriašteľ - Andel (later Angyal), Demiter - Cibulka, Jakobei Kňazovický, Hanzély - Kmotrík, Bartholomew - Šeffer, ducks - Andel, Hýroš - Sliacky, Sliacky - Figuli, Janovic - Hatiar, Bodor - Kandrea, Bella - Hutman, Hlinka - Sidor, Brečkovský - Kolenič, Janiga - Laclavík, Bohúň - Kuriš, Holy - Shida, Domenik - BRSK, Marshal - Fokor, Bare - Mišík, Laclavík - Dobrík, Mušuta Milan, Bodart - Kander, Elias - Fula, Oravec - Buzák, Rázga - Horse, Malatinský - Cárach, Schedules - Bohúň, Bohúň - Dušička and many others.

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eoman families ince the establishment of its territory and settled down yeoman families from surrounding areas, then more distant kin. Their arrival was connected with the business or their employment as officers Likava estate. As one of the first nobles living in the city is mentioned in the first half of the 14th century Peter the file. It is mentioned in the deed of 1337 in a deed provost Paul Turciansky Convention of 22 February 1337, which Isolde, widow of John, brother of Matthias Turca, sons John of Transylvania (Transylvania), is hereby authorized to Petra from Spis (Petro de Scepusia), burgher of Ruzomberok, populate the area near the scale, the interface Liptov and Turco (circa fluvium Vaage inter Liptove et Turoch existentem). During this period, he was Honorable townsmen Ruzomberok was in 1340 with Ružomberská mayor Hanna and townsmen Kunchulom submitter requests confirmation of the liberties and rights of King Charles. Family of Petra Rather, over several decades maintained in Liptove, but also in the royal court, a good position. It results from King Ludwig I of that deed of 9 July 1376 directed by action of Ruzomberok Rudolf, son of Peter Spis induce subjects living in the vicinity of the town to pay fees. Ruzomberok the area in the 15th century squire lived mainly Štiavnickovci (later Toltovci) of Lurdová and Liptovská Štiavnica Kubíniovci of Kubin and Mindsentyovci of Kuta (defunct village at Lurdová). This is an old family, who chose for prídomok village near the church of All Saints (in Hung. Mindszenty) in Lurdová. After the demise of the village for more unknown circumstances genus gained possessions in Rybárpole, probably as escheat by the local laird Rybárskovcoch sometime in the late 16th century. Gender mansion stood in Rybárpole even during Ujvendégyho canonical visitation in 1732. The Congregational Protocols in 1586-1589 mentions Nicholas Mindsenty of Rybárpoľa, prefect Likava castle, which in 1589 sold for 300 gold in your house Ružomberku widow of a preacher Andrew Cenglerovi. Between students Trnava Jesuit High School in 1616 mentions John p24


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Mindsenty. Featured a prídomok of the Great Kuta - Nagy Kut. He married Catherine, daughter of Matthias Berétesa (+ before 1639), accounting archbishop of Esztergom. Entered the service of Archbishop John Mindsenty later. In the years 1637-1638 is mentioned as a marketing manager Archbishop estates. They are known by two sons John and Nicholas Sigismund, who also studied in his youth at the high school. Trnava branch of descendants continued Sigismund Mindsentyho (+ after 1688), tranvského senator. His sons, members of the Society of Jesus, Anton Mindsenty (* 1687 +1736) and Imrich (* 1675 +1722) have become important teachers and writers. Them trnavská branch died out in the male line. In 1640 the liptov protocols mentioned John and Paul Mindsenty officials Likava. Ileszhazi Gaspar, owner Likava, they donated the property in Ružomberku Striškovský property, but who in 1641 sold to Stephen Regis, preacher of the hazel and his descendants. In the 16th century intensified the arrival of foreign yeoman families to Ruzomberok. In its vicinity, in Liptovská Štiavnica and Lurdová acquired possessions very ambitious squire George Rakovský of Rakov. Soon crossed his interests with the interests of the city. Dispute over the ownership of the White Creek and Lurdová between Juraj Rakovsky and imprisonment urban city culminated in Mr Rakovsky mansion “Jánošovskô” Liptovská Štiavnica and was completed on intervention ruler Ferdinand I, who ordered the townspeople released in 1560 granted the right Ružomberku over four streets Ludrova, Biely Potok, Vlkolíncom and Chernov. Between 16 century in Ružomberská urban protocols which include many surnames squires. Occur between surnames Kasanický, Hanzély, The Prince, Kabzan, Duchon and Rojko. As the first of Ružomberčanov was promoted to yeoman status in 1563 John Nachtigall. His mansion stood on the foothills (bridge street). In 1534 Ladislav mentioned, James, John, Martin, Paul and Andrew Jakubíkovci. It was the squire who have a common origin with the family and the nobility of Parížovce 16 century gained possessions in Lurdová and Liptovská Štiavnica. Rod finally settled in Ružomberku and its members have lived here even in the 19th century. Teacher in Ružomberku - Vlkolínec, Lurdová also Ružomberku, co-founder of Liptov museum and museum administrator Liptovsky Jakubík Joseph (* 1872 +1962) asked Liptovian stool to confirm yeoman origin. It is very likely that one of the family started using Jakubíkovcov polatinčené birth Jakobeus. One Ondrej Jakobeus older (* okolo1500 +?) Was Ružomberku in 20-ies 16 century teacher and preacher. The older church historiography, he attributed no small role in spreading Reformation in Lower Liptove. Preachers were his son Andrew (* 1525 +1593) and grandchildren John called the Paludinus (* 1556 +1612) and Gregor called Paludinus Neosoliensia (* 1559 + 1641). Members of the genus promoted to the ranks of nobility Emperor Rudolf II. Day 1 marca 1593rd ARMALES addressees were descendants of Andrew Jakobea older Jakobeus John and his siblings Paul, Solomon, Andrew, Nicholas, Sigismund, Anna, Elizabeth and Sabina, and their relative Paul Fabricius. Andrew Jakobea yeoman status of Ruzomberok reaffirmed p25


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Liptovská stools 11 júna 1634th In the 16th century are mentioned in the protocols Ružomberská urban bourgeois family Hýrošovcov. Already in 1532 mentions Andrew, Matthias, Martin, Stephen, George, John and Nicholas. Matthias’s son John Hýroš at the end of the 16th century chaplain and teacher in Ružomberku, later a teacher in Komjatná. John’s grandson John Hýroš Bartoncovou with his wife Anna and their children Andrew and George, also brother of John Andrew and nephew Nicholas Day 2 May 1665 was promoted Leopold I. to the nobility and gave them the coat of arms. All addressees of the document live and work in Nitra county, except Nicholas, who lived in the castle. During the 17th century, new names yeoman families reveal Ružomberku in particular in relation to the filling of posts evangelical preacher or teacher. And so in emerging squire: Budaj, Duchon, Benedict, Fabricius, Mesko, Paršic, splenius and more. since the beginning of the 17th century we find in the Ružomberku Farkašovci from Lazy. In 1634 he was declared Liptov county ARMALES John Farkas otherwise Wolf. Thomas Farkas from Lazy was in 1650 officials at Likava. His potmkovia settled in the castle. At the end of 17 century Ružomberku appear in the members of the genera Mitickovcov and Madočianskovcov of Madočian as royal poštmajstri. In Ružomberku were Mitickovci the local post masters in the 17th century mansion and their standing in the foothills of the Great called. “Old Post” is exempt from all taxes and charges and served at the time of the Reformation as a prayer for Catholics, Protestants who collected Temple. The Ruzomberok branches was the most prominent Stephen Mitický (+1660) Post Master Controller and later Tvrdošínska collectors thirties. His son Andrew Mitický, also master Ruzomberok mail to 20 November 1667 in Turik (by sliačanských registers) Turanský married to Catherine, daughter Gabriela Turanský. The first Madočianskovcov served as poštmajstra Adam Madočiansky in 1699, the second in the 19th century Imrich (* 1799 +1871). Imrich is also the author of the family chronicle “The History of noble families Madočányi”. Rod Šustríkovcov came from Ruzomberok and by the Middle Ages was one of the very wealthy burghers. In Ružomberku family owned several mansions and amount of soil. The first known member of the genus is Ružomberský Mayor Michael Sutor (Šuster, Šustrík), which is documented in 1542. Zemianske privileges granted 2 October 1665 Ferdinand III. Jonah Šustríkovi otherwise Henrichovskému, Likava estate officer, his wife Agnes Bauman, son Kitts, his wife Catherine and children Spléniovej Jonah, John, Ladislav, Magda, Anne, Catherine and Ilone. Said Ladislav Šustrík was in 1707 when one of dozerajúcich castle demolition Likava. Šustríkovcov After the extinction of the male line in the second half of the 18th century, after the death of Andrew and John Šustríka, given their relative Ladislav Jesovský in 1764 the town Ruzomberok property consisting of 4 houses, gardens, fields and meadows, and in 1795 it was bought. In 1792 arose between the city and the heirs Šustríkovcov lawsuit, which was completed in 1816 by the Treaty and their compensation. In 1817, the city dealt with his family Turanskovcov who p26


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were also part šustríkovského property in advance. Since 1796, the town judge and the Gilániovcami who just took in advance of part šustríkovského property. So it became progressively throughout šustríkovskej estate owner and one of šustríkovských mansions have taken up a townhouse. This benefited until the end of the 19th century, when it was built contemporary townhouse. In the 18th century there were several families in Ružomberku important officials Likava estate. Among these, Franz Ferdinand Palma, who had worked on Hrádocká estate as an accountant (Provisional) for the years 1709-1725 in the service Lichtensteinovcov. His son Charles Francis Palma (* 1735 +1787) was born in Ružomberku, bishop of Kalocsa was a major pioneer of modern Hungarian heraldry. V 18 century nobility were added other genera, especially from Liptov. In 1723 he was among the townspeople accepted Juraj nobility of Zádiela. In 1794 the city mentioned in the protocols and Andrej Ráztocká of Ráztoka and John Ráztocká otherwise Chrenko. Martin Kollar from Ruzomberok prove his yeoman origin before Liptov county in 1733. Demonstrated the deed of 1 March 1593, which Rudolf II. elevated to the status of yeoman Ladislav Kollar and Eufrozínu Bánovský, also John Kollar and his sons George, Mateja and Leonard. Kollárovci lived in Liptove since the late 16th century, because ARMALES county Liptovská announced 10 júla 1598th In the 18th century acquired assets and Ružomberku Kečkemétyovci, who in the 18th century and owned mansion in the Lazy Ivachnová. Inventory yeomen of 1733 Liptovská bench recorded in Liptove Andrew Kečkemétyho. This Andrej acquired properties in Lazy buying from Martina Farkas otherwise Wolf in 1714 and later settled in the castle. In 1760, elevated to the status of yeoman Maria Theresa and John Barvulského gave his coat of arms, which describes Iván Nagy in his work. In Liptove have recorded probably his son James, who in 1770 owned six subjects in Lubella, but lived with his wife in the castle. Brečkovský Andrew and John (Brecskovszky), residents Ruzomberok, proving in 1792, his yeoman origin before Liptov county. Rod came from Spišska stool. Erb and yeoman family privileges granted 20 November 1677 Leopold I. In 19 century burghers were added to the particular squire - craftsmen and yeomen in clerical positions. In 1824 he was admitted into the union of Daniel Láni, master soapmaker, who here for some time lived and worked. In 1826 the mayor accepted into their ranks and carver Belopotockého Alexandra, who also has had worked in the city. In 1838 he was accepted among the townspeople accounting office in Salt Ružomberku Karol Solus, squire coming from Krasovského stool. In 1844 Augustine Andaházyho, adopted in 1845 by Anton Dobák, in 1849 Ladislav Mojš, in 1855 landowner Maurice Rakovsky, in 1871 Michael Kmoško, in 1875, John Hammerschmidt in 1899, Julius Matiašovský and Honora Matiašovský. In the 19th a century of ružomberčanov - squires deserves attention and John Lavota, lawyer in Ružomberku and his son John Jr., who in the years 1760-1770 he worked as a notary clerk in the office of the Hungarian king. Ružomberčania But some have become Zeman after leaving the city, so such as p27


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those Community Hýrošovci, but in 19 century and Fábryovci. Fabry, John (* 1786 + 1858 Ružomberku Pest), timber merchant, he moved to Pest and Romania acquired property in the village Româneşti. On 21 February 1833 was given to the royal property deed that while it recognized the nobles and gave it a new coat of arms. Newly acquired property became his nicknames. His youngest son, Adolf (* 1826 in Ružomberku + June 26, 1890 in Ružomberku) served as Sluzny Liptov county. Most of John’s descendants later lived in Budapest. Beyond the city has also succeeded descendant of the family Dereanovcov Ruzomberok. Jakub Dereano “materialist Vlasskeg of land from the City Jericzy stolicza then Karoje gender” was 24 August 1786 adopted by the townspeople. Zemianske rod got privilege to 1 June 1911, when the state was promoted to yeoman Emperor Franz Joseph I. Stephen Dereana (* 1844 +1917 Ruzomberok Budapest), Minister Counselor. Emperor Franz Joseph I. in 1886 confirmed the privileges yeoman, a descendant of the family Šustríkovcov and mentor Paul Ružomberská who used surnames Ružomberský and Liptovskoružomberský, allowed to use the name Ružomberský Liptovského Ruzomberok (Rózsahegyi Liptórózsahegyi) In Ružomberku lived the descendants of Toltovcov Lurdová and Štiavnica. One of the descendants of the genus Adalbert Tolt Veľkoštiavnický (* 1852 +1940 Ruzomberok Allegheny, USA) is known as an expatriate worker, journalist and pioneer of political independence of Slovakia.

I

n Ružomberku in 19 century lived a squire Trnovskovci of Kalamien, Thannovci, Urminskovci (Urményi) derived from Nitra County. The Thannovcov in Ružomberku around 1821 settled royal gamekeeper Michal Thann and later his son Charles. Michal came from the file where his father Anton Thann (+1813) spišskosobotským city officials.

NA

umber of people ccording to data from various historical documents and publications were living in 1787 in Ružomberku the streets with 1,889 inhabitants. In 1819 there were 2,100 residents in Ružomberku. Remains a controversial figure from the years 1828 and 1830, when statistics show a population of 2,532, while statistics from 1846 only 2318 inhabitants. In 1850, it was in no streets 2532 inhabitants, of which 2,451 Catholics, 73 Protestants and Jews 5. According to the census in 1857 in Ružomberku there were 2,859 residents in the streets of the city in 2835, with the balance 5694 inhabitants. In 1869, total 6044 people, including 2977 and 3047 in the streets. In 1880, 6,432 people lived here, in 1890 it was 8198 inhabitants, of which 7,030 Catholics, 455 Protestants, 693 Jews and 20 other religions. In 1900 he Ruzomberok to 9004 people. Since the early 20th century the population of the city rose rapidly. In 1910 the Ružomberku joined Rybárpole and the city had already 12,249 inhabitants. After World War I there was a partial loss, when the official census reported in 1919 11 841 inhabitants. p28


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Growth in living standards and stabilize the situation documented by the population in 1921, when he lived in Ru탑omberku 14,230 inhabitants. In 1930 it was already 15,663 people in Ru탑omberku and streets.

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VII ENVIRONMENT

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uman impact in the region is evidenced by archaeological finds from ancient times, whether they are catching fish, wild game, as well as the extraction and processing of clay for pottery production, and later logging and processing of ores and various building materials. The problem remediation is not new. Existed in the Stone Age. Archaeologists are very pleased kicks “food waste”, under which demonstrates not only that man hunted game, but also eliminate waste, to him zapáchali pri homes. To care for their environment. Since ancient times, it was also used bearing quality brick earth. It is known that in prehistoric times was panned gold, mined and processed, copper ore, although direct evidence of this activity, the area of the city, not yet. Had a significantly greater impact agriculture. There was a large area of deforestation to obtain farmland. The original plant cover in Liptov basin preserved only in fragments. Forests also have different species composition than at present. During this period, the first major change of the landscape. The fact that the land is already in the city 14 century panned and mined gold, silver and copper suggest a privileged instrument of the city. Mine just got Ruzomberok already in the privileged list r. 1340, but reports on mining of this period were not retained. Similarly, the charter mentions to fishermen, fish, build mills and saw “mountains and water freely use”. During this period begin to build roads to facilitate the development of (Houdek, I., 1934). In the 16th century the estimated population of the city without the “streets” around the 1000th The city had a village character. The use of natural materials, especially wood from the surrounding forests. Waste is discarded into the environment of the house, or to a watercourse. Pigs and dogs that freely pobiehali addition to homes, rodents or other animals, but also birds, take care of cleanliness. When houses were privy. Such a variety of health conditions caused an epidemic that spared Ružomberku and are mentioned several times in urban protocols. From the late 17th century to preserve the first written mention of mining. In 1691 it was ordered mining ore mines in a deep valley at Biely Potok. According to reports there was a preserved urban and smelter (Houdek, I., 1934). Mined here mainly silver and iron. In their neighborhood originated slag heaps. In 1694


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began also benefit in Nizhny Matejková. In 1695 there worked 8 people who have used steel drills, wedges, hammers, as well as gunpowder (Houdek, I., 1934). The remains of this business are still visible on the ground - gallery, slag heaps and the like. Old mining should therefore have an impact not only on the geological environment but also to shape the earth’s surface. Subsequent processing of metals smelter in the town, from which escaped into the air emissions are exported slag, used to great charcoal, also had some impact on the environment. Already in this period, the urban forests are managed poorly. Destroying arbitrary felling, grazing cattle, sheep and alpine city had from time to time in some stop production to recover. (Houdek, I., 1934). In 1739 banskobystrický mining prefect had to make Ruzomberok first state to protect its forests. In 1743 was published the wood of which only the bills on actual need, and against payment. Forest damage is severely punished. In 1768, developed Comoro lesmajster Hradek new forest order. In 1739 the statute was adopted on fishing Revúcej (Houdek, I., 1934). By this time we put the first real efforts to protect forests, fish and thus the environment. From 1755 comes the next report on mines in Nizhny Matějková, which was then protected mountain to mine for silver. In 1770 mentions the mine outputs for crushing ore. Traces of the old mining can also be found in Borovinská slope of the hill where the remains of two galleries. In 1784, the city opened new tables in Nizhny Matějková under Hanclovkou and r. 1786 another table. Mention the other tunnel, but were gradually abandoned. At the end of the 18th century were open tables and other buildings on the ore deposit in Matějková as well as Biely Potok. (Houdek, I., 1934). The number of passages we can conclude the considerable impact of mining in the river valley Revúcej especially Nizne Matejková. The will of purity, order and security against fire again ordered the city to remove the square sheds, slaughterhouses, Sypar thrust gardens, piles of wood, debris, clean stream flowing through the city etc. Characteristic of the then circumstances is that the city was forced to expressly prohibit the discharge into the river stinking sewage, chandler “to shovel” on the bottom of the street cooked fat (1818), butchers poured blood on the street (1847) and ordered to fill up the foothills of lime pit (1819 ) and the square (1820). 1821 is corrected wooden Kyška banks Revúcej to Zarevúca and r. 1824 replaced such Kyška stream to the square and the foothills of the walls to the rain and winter nevylievala the street water year. 1841 bench warrant from paved the way through the city, r. Delivery by 1845 and (Houdek, I., 1934). Known as disputes about collecting sand from Revúcej dominion, for closing roads in the manor mansion for repairs shores Revúcej etc. 1864 introduced a city street lighting by kerosene lampami.1873, zregulovali bank of the river and the foothills of the Great started to build the first travertine walkways, r. 1875 built the first bijáreň in rajtšule in the balance. In 1894 made the first asphalt pavement (on bridges street). Yet even in 1890, most of the wooden houses (from 1,010 homes in a “street” was 544 wooden and brick 466). Population in r. In 1890 was 7,534 (excluding streets) and p32


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“streets” 13130th R. 1903 -1905 built the first aqueduct from below Sidorova of Spěváková. After the introduction of public water supply wells and a large part of private wells, which did not showered health regulations. In the years 1904-5 were built sewers and r. 1910 introduced electric lighting (current supplying textile mill in Rybárpole). Gradually made the cobbled streets. City slowly began to lose its typical old village character and even appearance was becoming a real city (Houdek, I., 1934). Guilds in the second half of the 19th century decline and mention only a few (Houdek, I., 1934). At the same time began to slowly emerge factory industry. Mainly due to the development of industry, the Ruzomberok soon became the most populous and most vibrant city in Liptove, indeed the whole character. Near to the end of the 19th century dominated agricultural production, with all its consequences. Its impact on the environment was expressed as. Soil erosion, terracing of slope. The remains of terraces are now in the field are less noticeable. Development of industrial production in the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century significantly changed the environment in the city. In addition to intense urban development, rapid population growth, has also brought a number of undesirable effects especially in environmental pollution. He brought the agricultural land under the new plants. It is also the landscaping under new construction, whether industrial plants, but also under houses that are built around them - known colonies around the plants. Starts increased abstraction of water for the needs of production, regulation of river banks, discharging emissions. Changes in the composition of the atmosphere, composition of water in rivers. Collection of plants and water discharges under the plants are changing the hydrological characteristics of streams in areas between abstraction and discharge of water. It changes the landscape, whether the construction of multi-storey buildings, industrial plants, construction of chimneys and roads. Extends the mining and processing of building materials necessary for the construction of industrial buildings, residential buildings for workers. Strongly growing population of the city. Increased concentration of population in a small area of the city, along with intensive industrial development brings synergy with the environment. Concentration of production brings increased demands on the transport of materials. Increasing demands on heating and thus air pollution. Gradually transferred to the home heating coal imported from various coal districts. There is a growing amount of waste water discharged from homes, businesses, increasing the amount of waste produced. The Ruzomberok becomes a city of industry and services. Impact of agriculture with regard to geography and the strong presence of industry and services is reduced. At the end of the 19th century is formed in three complex which is still concentrated the bulk of the industry. The oldest is the southern area around the river Revúca which is still a large proportion of industry (former Solo plant, brickworks, a former poultry factory, SAD, saw Lesy SR). It can be seen for some continuation oldest industrial sites. Gradually some industrial areas were surrounded by residential parts. p33


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Negative, this resulted mainly from the race Solo, which significantly affect the environment, whether the use of solid fuel heating plants (especially the North lignite, hard coal in part) and later on heavy fuel oil. Waste water from pulp and paper were discharged without treatment into the stream Revúca. West industrial area also originated in the late 19th century. Originally, the area dedicated to one industry-textile production with auxiliary operations, such as. strojárne, heat and steam. The actual production of textiles has also contributed to the pollution by discharges of water color farbiareň to Váh. Textile auxiliary operations, particularly heating plant, which combusted coal and foundry, were major sources of air pollution. Due to the prevailing wind interfered virtually the entire territory of the city. Produce large amounts of waste from production. The newest industrial complex was formed early 20th century to the east of the city. In 1906 there was a new plant for manufacturing of paper, which is quite intensively grown. There are new pulp production, CHP, new machinery for paper and since 1981 a new production of cellulose, to add to the need to translate the scale trough and its tributaries. All these facts demonstrate the significant environmental pollution in the city. The pulp and paper were in the scale discharges with high pollution. In this area are more concentrated sources of air pollution in the city. There were also placed car races (AZNP, Mladá Boleslav) and Central Slovakia meat industry, but had much less impact. The Meat Processing has built its own wastewater treatment plant. Automobile factories have been equipped with oil separators etc.. A massive industrial development in the 20th century was reflected in the clean water flows in the city. Up to r. 1982, all waste water from industrial plants, but also discharged into the municipal sector and the balance Revúcej without purification and raced through the city. While in 1980, the Vah over Ruzomberok in Liskova, dirty to 2.4 mg. l-1, under Ruzomberok in Hubova already totaled 62.2 mg. l-1 (expressed as an indicator of biochemical oxygen demand - BOD 5). The mere river Revúca stood at the entrance to the scale value of 65.5 mg. l -1. The influence of industry and increased pollution of water balance by 2500%. This situation lasted until 1982, when were brought into wastewater treatment plants in the Supra and Solo Waste water were cleaned in mechanical wastewater after cleaning and are discharged into rivers Váh and Revúca. Waste water from the new pulp has been cleaned to the common effluent treatment plant. The improvement was already in 1982, when the increase in pollution has been reduced to 818% in 1983 to 267%. Construction of common wastewater treatment plant for the city of Ruzomberok and other industries was realized in the period rokov1977 - 1982 with a capacity of 623,774 population equivalents. This mechanical-biological wastewater were gradually involved; sewage from the city and the industry. Waste water from production of paper after cleaning the mechanical wastewater treatment plants, however, continue to be discharged into the scale and Revúcej. Since 2002, all wastewater from pulp and paper discharged into drains into a common wastewater treatment. When the operation took place to p34


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escape unpleasant stink organosulfur compounds and hydrogen sulfide that annoying you environment. Significant improvement occurred after covering parts cleaning in 2002. Exhaust air from the overlapped areas to clean the biofilms. In terms of cleanliness of rivers can be considered as the worst period in 1982. After this period there is to revitalize flows. Weights and Revúca in today belong to the clean river. Weights under Ruzomberok meets the requirements for purity streams. Generally speaking, the river in an important element and give the city a special character. Significant impact on flows also have surface water abstractions, which are used in manufacturing. As wastewater is led into the common sewer wastewater treatment plant in Hrboltová. The use of Revúcej water supply ponds causes that in times of low flow, flows through the bed of a small amount of water. Diversion of water from the original riverbed is also known from the past. For flow were built floodgates, weirs and raceways. To this day, are preserved in Bukovina, in the race Solo, but also in other places. Some are maintained and include the technical monuments. Similarly, the collection of groundwater, which is used for drinking water supply. This amount actually missing in the riverbed rivers and streams that run through the town. Currently it is around 116,000 m3/ day. In order to protect the city from flooding have already been built in previous centuries so. Wooden Kyška. In the 20th century was modified river banks as we know them today. These adjustments ensure that the rivers through the city covered in bed. The town is secured to the critical flood flows. Within the town there are also two small dams - in Hrabovska and Čutkovská valley. Ružomberok is well placed for smooth supply of potable and non-potable water from sources that are located in the surrounding mountains. Groundwater catchments plains are more heavily soiled areas - the area of the former factory Benzinol, resort Mondi BP SCP Ruzomberok. From the 19th century similar development as waters occurred in the air. With the development of industrial production also increased demands for energy. While in manufacture production was used to drive machinery in particular waterwheel, now have requirements for thermal energy. They began to build thermal plants, started manufacturing bricks. In ensuring energy began to use coal to their emissions of particulate matter, sulfur oxides, nitrogen, and other substances pollute the air. The development of industry and related jobs attracted more people to the city. The population begins to grow rapidly. The emissions of heat and power plants being updated and emissions from domestic furnaces, although they had much less impact on air pollution. Heating is more often used mainly wood from the surrounding forests and only later are increasingly began to use coal. In Ružomberku as one of the first places in Slovakia, the air monitors since 1982, when the Plavisko was put into operation the first station. The following year, 1983 was commissioned a second station over the stadium. Both stations measure air pollution, dust, sulfur oxides, nitrogen and arsenic until 1989. Measurements listed pollutants were important because of the huge energy Ružomberku built-fired mainly substandard North Bohemian brown p35


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coal. In early 80s with major energy sources of air pollution (Severoslovenské pulp and paper; Bavlnárske works of VI Lenin) still prevailed solid fuels. In 1982, two factories for the production of energy used together nearly 200,000 tons of coal. In second place were liquid fuels. Both plants incinerated nearly 140 000 tonnes of heavy fuel oil (mazut). Gaseous fuels - natural gas, accounted for only a small proportion - 36.5 million. m3 of natural gas. Contributed to air pollution and other industrial factories and breweries sódovkárne, Steel structures, Lipton, Central Slovakia meat industry, Severoslovenské brickworks and other minor sources of air pollution in 2000, only 31 have burned 580 tons of lignite in the SCP plant (Solo). Both races together burned 1,736 tons of heavy fuel oil and 177.31 million. m3 of natural gas. Fuel switching is also reflected in the amount of air emissions from the two plants. In 1982, it was more than 14 000 tons of fly ash, and more than 9 629 t of sulfur. Huge amounts of solids discharged from coal combustion is also reflected in the total air pollution. Measuring station to Plavisko in 1982 measured diameters dust pollution - 130 m g. m-3 and sulfur oxides 100 m g. m-3 (micrograms). Significantly better situation already was in 2000, when both plants discharge into the atmosphere together only 173.7 tons of particulate matter and nearly 2860 t of sulfur. This significant decrease was also reflected in the air. In 2001, the following were measured annual average concentrations of air pollutants: dust 40.2 m g. m-3 (micrograms per m3), sulfur oxides (SO2) 16.1 m g. m-3, nitrogen oxides (NOx) 37.6 m g. m-3, and hydrogen sulfide (sulphide) 5.3 m g. m-3 in 2005, it was: dust: 28.3 m g. m-3, SO2: 9 m g. m-3, NOx: 49.8 m g. m-third Significantly reduced the emission of malodorous gases. Impact of agriculture in the administrative area of the city is small. After World War II there was a second major change in the country - and collectivization of land consolidation. Plowed field margins has changed its appearance and functionality of the country. Furthermore, it was largely started using fertilizers that have an impact on water pollution and soil. At present practically used. Mnohé, formerly cultivated area, are changing to meadows and possibly the forest. To the overall scenery struck a building routes high voltage and forest roads. The first high-voltage power line was built in 1962 and gradually increased further. Around them is maintained buffer zone where the vegetation is changed. The remains of the old quarries is found scattered in various parts of the cadastral area - miners quarry lime kiln. Many are already on the ground only slightly visible. Since around Ruzomberok today does not produce any ore or fuel, mining focuses exclusively on raw materials for construction. This activity is concentrated in the southern part of the city-under a rock, where there are layers of building materials and the north is used bearing brick material. The need to ensure the removal of waste from the city to force the creation of businesses that take care of waste. In the city until 1970 collection provide municipal services of Ruzomberok. Then this activity provide the technical services of Ruzomberok .. Waste disposal sites used a variety of mainly old mining pits and quarries as landfill were p36


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used mine on the yellow sand under a rock above the mine Dielcom. Currently, as a construction waste landfill used in old quarry VÁPENKA. The deposit of waste left over from the construction of new mills after 1981 used the old bed of the scale. Location was later reclaimed using organic waste. Since 1974, the landfill began to use space in the White pilgrimage site, as soon as possible uncontrolled landfill. In 1978 he was drafted first operating procedure of the landfill. In 1992 was a fundamental reconstruction of the landfill White pilgrimage. Was ensured by placing the film against seepage of contaminated water into the ground. Leachate were paid from the damp, concentrated, and ensuring that it is clean in the common wastewater treatment. The city is now a care management company in particular: Technical Services Ruzomberok, as a DDA, as Liptovsky Mikulas. Technical Services provide particular care MSW, DDA, and focuses mainly on industrial waste. With the development of industry, however, there has been enormous growth of waste, mainly from energy plants. Slag and Ash is used in the manufacture of structural components, landscaping for filling depressions and often uncontrolled and exported to various sites. In connection with the increase in pulp and paper production after 1981 grew mainly of organic waste from wastewater treatment of pulp and paper. These along with other components to a large extent used for the production of industrial compost and then to increase the porosity and for bricks. Waste of mechanically debarked wood began to use in the production of energy. Gradual transition to natural gas combustion diesel to reduce the proportion of waste of energy. Early indications of separate collection of municipal waste in Ružomberku started during 1993. This interesting project was one of the first in Slovakia. The collection system was gradually expanded and supplemented. In 2005, sort out 168.3 tons of glass, plastic 60.5 tons, 51.2 tons of paper, 18.2 tons of multilayer composites and 5 t of metal packaging.

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onservation hotár city is located in the protection zone Low Tatras National Park (declared in 1978) and Great Fatra (promulgated in 2002), which features the best preserved mountains in Slovakia. Boundary between the Rio Revúca. There are 8 small protected areas. National Natural Landmark Brankovský waterfall (27.71 ha), declared in 1980, protects called. Kuruc rock with a 55 m high waterfall (775-830 m asl), which freezes in winter. Jánošíkova National Wildlife bowling (46.81 ha), declared in 1965, protects primeval jarabinové maple and spruce (up to 200 years) in the top, Little Smrekovica of granite (1200-1485 m). Reservation is part of the land Ľubochňa. Natural stone monument Matějkovský current was launched in 1987 at the end of the valley Vyšné Matejková. Natural monument Dogerské rocks, proclaimed in 1952, protects the outcrop of Jurassic strata in Trlenská valley. Natural monument Jazierske travertine, proclaimed in 1952, originally to protect the terrace with a system of lakes. Capturing the source p37


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of water supply (1965), however, seriously undermine the development of travertine cascades. Natural monument Vlčia rock, proclaimed in 1952, a travertine terraces in the valley Trlenská. Natural monument toucan rock, proclaimed in 1952, protects the impressive limestone cliff with a group of pine trees. Natural monument Travertine terraces Bukovinka (550-600 m asl) with cascade creek and fossil molluscs was declared in 1980. In a free country specifically protected by three old trees (120 + years) - Under the Pacific maple and ash with maple on the former railway station Biely Potok-Jazierce. Their protection is linked with the history of SNP. The boundaries of the protected since 1993 Avenue of Andrej Hlinka Square. Provide practical conservation management of the national parks located in Banska Bystrica and Vrútky. In Ružomberku (Bernolakova 38) has been active for several years, the extension of a two administrations of national parks. For professional help by volunteers from local citizens called. Guard of nature and in the past has worked actively with the Slovak Union of Nature and Landscape.

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urface Water ydrographic person Liptov constitutes river Vah. Part of the basin over Zilina so. “Upper Vah” is fan-shaped in nature (Abaffy, D., M. Lukac, 1991). The most important tributary of the river Liptove Revúca, which flows into the balance right in the city. In the land of Libra recruits has several smaller tributaries LIKAVKA, Hrabovský stream, creek Čutkovská, Bright Stream, and other minor tributaries. Revúca The river was flowing streams Water Retention especially the eastern part of the Great Fatra. The most significant rivers drain the valley Vyšné and Nižné Matejkovo and Trlenská valley. Less important are the right-hand tributaries of the Water Retention of Low Tatras. Váh River Basin in Liptov basin and catchment Revúcej belongs to the highlands. The maximum monthly water balance occurs in the spring months of March to May . minimum in winter months - January and February A secondary minimum monthly water balance in the autumn months. (Balco, M.,: 1977) Mode of surface waters could significantly affect artificial reservoirs - Liptovská Mara and Bešeňová, which were completed in the year. 1975th river network density, the density throughout the basin about 2 km. km-2, of the basin from 0.5 to 2 and the mountain side from below 0 over 3 km. km-second Weights has Liptov basin slope of about 4 ‰. (Porubský, A., 1991) The average flow in the balance after Revúcej flow is 37.5 m3. s -1. (Abaffy, D., M. Lukac, 1991). term annual discharge at the station Podsuchá is 5.02 m3. s-1 (Vestenický, K., et al .. 1986). specific runoff in the basin is 23.94 Revúcej l/s/km2. Given the high levels of rainfall (average of the area okolo1 000 mm) and low spatial evaporation (average of the area is about 480 mm) remains infiltration into groundwater and runoff available for more than half of the fallen precipitation. (Porubský, A., 1991). The average flow at the mouth Revúcej to balance a 6 m3. s -1. (Abaffy, D., M. Lukac, 1991). River Revúca death is 30 ‰. The total length of 33.1 km flow, the bulk flow is accounted for cadastral town of Ruzomberok. Woodiness is 60%. primary source of water levels in area streams are rain and snowfall. terms of basin size is important, and time occurrence of extreme, first maximum flow. The volatility of


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the weather in this area means that the maximum flow may appear in Any month of the year. The occurrence of flood flows mainly focuses on most spring months in connection with the melting snow and summer rain storm. Maximum flow on the river Revúca was 90.7 m3. s-1 was measured at 8.23 1938 and discharges below 1.0 cubic meters. s-1 were measured more frequently (Vestenický, K., et al .. 1986). occurrence of ice phenomena on Revúcej is evaluated according to observations from 1928. The first ice phenomenon was first observed 8.11. in 1956, not later than 02.02.1952. The last ice phenomenon was first recorded 12/28/1947, no later than 03.29 , 1952. The greatest number of days - 60 with the presence of ice stationery was r. 1929 (Vestenický, K., et al .. 1986). flow rates are measured by the Revúcej 1928. On balance since 1920 in Lubochna, was later moved to the gauging stations Hubova (Balco, M.,: 1977). ABOUT floods in a number of reports have been preserved. For example, from 1602 to 1798 a total of 17 of those (Houdek, I., 1934). Devastating effect on the city and surrounding area was mainly flood in August 1813. The report of the county physicist dr. Flittnera, submitted by the beginning of December 1814, there are also several entries on the flood and weather this year. (Churý, S., 1968). Among the commemorative events that dr. Flittner is recorded and forfeiture top Havránok for hair (Churý, S., 1968). Elsewhere dr. Flettner in the inventory of mineral springs and healing waters Liptov mentions the disappearance of spring mineral water in Bešeňovej after the flood. was also significant flood in 1958. During the floods poured all the rivers and caused major damage to property. In some buildings are located brand when the water level reached. Minimum flow rates are tied to long-term period without precipitation, accompanied by depletion of groundwater reserves. Neither fallen precipitation for the basin can not stop their decline. It is especially during the summer as a result of intense evaporation and water retention in dry basis. In winter, precipitation accumulation as a result of the snow cover. Mountain streams are more limited low flow in winter. temperature of river water in an average year coincides with the course of air temperature in an average year. The lowest temperatures are in January and February, the highest in July and August. The most balanced, where a significant proportion of the runoff underground supply. The water in some streams due to large differences in altitude basin and hence a large drop in relatively large aquosity retains the characteristics of the headwaters of the temperature regime. Large tanks to balance the influence of water temperature at a considerable distance from them. first ice phenomena occur usually in November. Last occurrence is usually from February to April Continuous ice cover, will create an average of one month, from early December to early January In mild winters will not create at all, but in the solid takes up to several months. Check out ices is from the first half of February to early April in the land of small dams - the Čutkovská and HRABOVSKÝ stream. They were built for the needs of the textile industry. Were put into operation in 1942 and, 1965. Groundwater is Ruzomberok territory in terms of geological structure is p42


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very colorful. The section is situated in Liptovsky Basin, Low Tatras and Big Fatra. Therefore, there are different conditions for the establishment and collection of groundwater. Geological structure of the area significantly determines the nature of the hydrogeological conditions of the area. Individual hydrogeologic units vary the characteristics of the ground, circulation, chemizmom regime and groundwater. most extensive and najsúvislejšie crystalline core areas are located in Smrekovica. More favorable conditions are in granitoid rocks, as in schist and other rocks. Their cracks are open and extend to greater depths They have good permeability, therefore the locus focus substantial groundwater reserves. The crystalline rocks are numerous springs, but their yield is generally small. In the Smrekovica prevalent source of fracture character in the zone of weathering. Their yield reaches up to 2 ls-l. For the chemistry of groundwater is generally symptomatic of low mineral content. The predominant type is a calcium-bicarbonate water. Are acidic to slightly alkaline reaction and are very soft to soft. Total dissolved solids is less than 100 mg. l-first limestone and dolomitic rocks occur mainly in the basin Revúcej. A significant proportion accounted for Middle and Upper Triassic limestones and dolomites. Their chapped and easy solubility of limestone in water, allows enlarging cracks, thereby increasing throughput and also there is more room inside the rocks. For special way of presence and movement of groundwater in limestone rocks we call the karst groundwater. The relatively large size and thickness of limestone rocks, their permeability, necessitated the creation of sources with high yield, what other rocks anywhere severe leakage. They’re called. karst springs or fountains. They are interesting not only for its yield, but also the regime. Good permeability of rocks allows rapid infiltration of rainwater, which is also reflected in the change in yield. Some respond quickly to rainfall, others react more slowly depending on the depth of water circulation. The most important fountains in the territory of the fountains on the left side of the valley Deep (Jazierce), which is captured for the water supply of Ruzomberok. overall mineralization varies between 150 to 600 mg. l -1. Mineral substances are highly dominant cations Ca2 + and Mg2 +., The anions HCO3-. and SO42-. Other Mesozoic sedimentary rocks except limestone and dolomite in this area have great significance for the occurrence of groundwater. For circulation and accumulation of groundwater Paleogene very favorable conditions have carbonatic breccias, conglomerates and organogenic limestone basal Paleogene litofácie, which together with Triassic carbonates Basin and adjacent orographic units form a complex with watered fissure and fissure-karst permeability. It is clear that in the administrative area of no significant presence. The water chemically to calcium-magnesium-hydrocarbonic with mineralization in the range from 0.3 to 0.6 gl -1. clays are impermeable to water. They generally occur a few hearty spring. Only sandstones, which are partially pore and fissure permeability, sporadically accumulate small amounts of groundwater. The administrative area of occupy only a small part. Coverage sources varies in tenths liters. The waters are a type p43


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of calcium-magnesium-hydrocarbonic. Not highly mineralization - up to 1 g / l. are moderately hard to hard. Quaternary sediments are important battery groundwater area. They are characterized by a relatively high permeability ( Gross, P., Köhler, E., 1980). Groundwater level is directly connected with rivers. They are located along the scale and Revúcej . floodplains on the scale and Revúcej there are more objects to the observation level and groundwater contamination. groundwater. The floodplain Revúcej it’s like. objects located on the right bank of the river - the area of the former Benzinol and to Kaufland supermarket. Observation wells on the right bank of the river Revúca already been made in r. , 1972. The level of groundwater in boreholes located at the brickyard is at a depth of 4, 0 m to 4.60 m. town in the land are not significant sources of mineral and thermal waters. More or less mineralized water, however, can be found in different places but its yield is low.

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IX FAUNA OF

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ast coniferous and mixed forests and extensive altitude range (485-1530 m) makes the large prevalence mountain (montane) fauna with many rare and protected species. To this day, still live here all the large carnivores - bear, wolf and lynx in the countries to the west of us have long since died out. Fatra is the Low Tatras mountain range with the second highest number of bears. Each year bear hunting permits, which is of great interest from hunting guests. Practiced the so-called. protective hunting birds, they do damage to huts, or beehives. Wolf and lynx are important predators of deer, roe deer and wild boars. Killed by wolves in Liptove in the late 19th century. Since then, there occurred only sporadically. At the beginning of 80th years of the last century, settled here but again, due to the introduction of wolf conservation at the time of rearing. Today is chotár Ruzomberok place where wolf territories bordering fishing families living in the western part of the Fatra and Low Tatras. Frequency largest feline - bobcat recently declined somewhat, because he now protected by law. Seeing a wolf or lynx in the wild is an extreme rarity, because these cats are among the animals najplachejším. The small carnivores are common fox, pine marten, skunk, weasel and stoat. Thanks to numerous locations with rocky terrain near the pastures, meadows and fields there are good conditions badger. Marten is less common, but normally lives even in peripheral areas of the city. Is a rare wild cat, because winters with high layer of snow it difficult for the main hunting prey - small rodents. There is a more even keel-back otter protected. Prelovuje all flows, even i Vah and REVÚCA in the city. Penetrates us and East Asian beast - raccoon dog by their fur imported into the European part of Russia. Weeding young birds and mammals, so it can be fished all year. Artio represent important hunting species - deer, roe deer and wild boars. Deer hunting is very popular among hunters. Every year there hunting guest caught several quality trophies. Deer live mainly on forest edges, clearings and mountain meadows. Feral pigs are kept close to the fields and meadows, where they have better foraging opportunities. Lately, they are less to do with their higher state of natural enemies of wolves and bears. When Cernova had foresters 21.12.1980 and the incidence of major European


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representative deer - elk. Apparently wandered here from northern Orava, respectively. from Poland. From Los Liptov disappeared in the Middle Ages as a result of logging and forest conversion to cropland. Interesting are infrequent occurrences chamois (mountain Tlstá, Ľubochnianka, Ludrovská Valley). This is a zatúlancov of cultivated farming Alpine chamois, which brought in the years 1955-1962 national forests in the Gader Valley Turks. The small mammals such as squirrels, hrdziaky, redheads, Aardvark plain, shrews (plain and small), living on the edges of the forest dormouse rarer and more common throughout the forest zone species - Dormouse top, hazel hazelnut, marsh vole and shrew vrchovský. The last two are typical of mountain forests, wetlands and scrub zone. At such places they live and rare relic of the Ice Age - myšovka Vrchovská and endemic species of the Western Carpathians - Tatras Aardvark. The fields and meadows voles and krt. When dulovnice live streams and water rat, in the foothills and on forest edges and in that whole area and several species of bats. Less frequently the hare, the fields but performs up to ridge positions. In addition to small mammals and birds, there is an important component of the diet of lynx. inhabit mountain forests important gallinaceous birds - grouse and hazel. woodcocks over the past number decreased as a result of old felled forests in places they tokanísk. On bare lives and less common grouse. Jariabka found wherever growing hazels and various shrubs, whose catkins, buds and fruits are his favorite food. Very many as forest songbirds like finches, kolibkáriky, warbler, robin, ubiquitous wren, titmouse, rabbits, kôrovník Would-be intruders, vrchárka blue, crossbills, bullfinch, Čížik and thrushes (pale, thrush, black and kolohrivý) . Rarely are black redstart top, collared and nuthatch . Whooping voice is heard Orešnica speckled , especially when you consistently bear the winter supply of hazelnuts. Are common jay and wood pigeon, is less common cavity nesting birds - Pigeon plúžik . A typical mountain forest bird raven eats mainly large carnivores prey remains, or outcast hunted deer hunters. The woodpeckers are represented prominent mountain species-toed woodpecker , black woodpecker and white-backed woodpecker . Current woodpecker nesting birds are big and žlny (gray and green). Heal the little woodpecker, middle and hnedkavý. Of owls live here Tawny Owl, Long-eared owl and eagle owl , as well as rare mountain species - Ural owl, boreal owl, and our smallest owl - Eurasian pygmy owl . Nest here and our largest bird of prey - eagle. seen on grassland areas often hunt Lesser Spotted Eagles . Grouse are common buzzard , sparrow hawk, hawk and kestrel. infrequent is an ordinary beekeeper, devouring larvae from nests of wasps, bees and bumble bees. The typical rock is a rare bird Murárik Red-. nesting here in the past and skaliar varied . Its nesting and foraging habitats but, unfortunately, no longer present overgrowing forest (Monk) and construction of houses and allotment gardens (miners). On the ridge meadows (Smrekovica, raspberries) and live more “alpine” birds - pipit (Vrchovská and meadow) and places rocky terrain and vrchárka reddish (Salatin, Choc). Small kŕdlik vrchárok regularly winters in the p48


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ski area at Malin and collects food residue discarded people. Interestingly nesting colony of swallows allied landing at the rock quarry where dakedy to over 100 nesting pairs. Mining of dolomite, however, decreases the extent of soft sandstone layers in the overburden, in which the Bank Swallow dig burrows for nesting. Today, we have vegetate only 10-15 pairs. On balance (iv city) commonly nest Mallard and performs well in higher valleys (Revúca, Trlenská, Vlkolínsky meadows). When the waters nest inconspicuous kalužiačik small . Weights is important migration routes of birds. At the spring and autumn move here you can see various kinds of long, drawn birds. Similarly as in the winter when freeze dam and wintering waterfowl move to running water balance, they can be admired in the city. Fishermen worry heron and especially cormorants . In other winters flocks of cormorants (100-400 units) daily prelovovali the balance wintering fish, even in the midst of Ruzomberok. The high power consumption (0.6 kg per day) is significant damage to the fish. Previously he was a cormorant in Liptove only distinguished guests and still be protected by law. Therefore, at the request of the Slovak Fishing Union authorized the Ministry of Environment in 2006, regulatory hunting and scaring cormorants blasting. In addition to live streams Aquarius with gray wagtail and fish can be seen here and timid black stork . Small fish often caught and nehojný, exotically colored kingfishers . In the coastal plantations attract attention flute singing and striking coloration close relative Hyla - Červenák crimson. fields and the meadows are not healing partridges, quails and corncrake . Reptiles are represented by the sand lizard and viviparous . From here south penetrates the thermophilic as wall lizard , reaching the northern border expansion here in Slovakia. On forest edges may encounter a harmless lizard - Slow fragile. Persons him from ignorance often killed. The most famous snake is a viper , which is in the higher and cooler altitudes occurs in a little-known black colored form. When the waters live snake beans. occurs everywhere where he finds a puddle of puppy frogs and salamanders, which are its main food. On sunny points lower elevations (travertíny - Jazierce, Bukovina) live and rare smooth snake. They hunt mainly small lizards and snakes. This protected species is also valid for the life of your color which reminds adder. The amphibians live here three prominent salamanders. In beech forests salamander , in whole forest area beautifully colored salamander vrchovský and unobtrusive, but rarer Carpathian newt . They can be seen during breeding in puddles and slaboprietočných waters of mountain valleys. All are protected. Of frogs are common frog brown, Yellow-bellied fire-bellied toad and common . Is less common toad green and rare tree frog common. V 30 the last century lived in Ružomberku rare and hrabavka speckled, green frog and salamander great. Marsh under Kuskova villa, where they lived, however, fell victim to dryness and urban areas. Weights has always been rich in fish. For a long time, however, was degrading Ruzomberok almost dead water, pollution effluents from pulp mills. Construction of sewage treatment has improved water purity, which is positively reflected in the increased p49


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number and quality (species composition) stocks. Thanks to the natural flow of nature, without major technical changes and preserve coastal vegetation, here and now live across Liptov species-richest fish communities. In section Kraľovany Bešeňová 1998 found the incidence of 24 kinds of fish and other 8 kinds of the literature. Orava with Váh is now the longest continuous, uninterrupted river dams section (90 km), with the greatest incidence of salmonid fish - salmon. Almost every year caught by fishermen in the balance several hlavátok weighing more than 15 kg, and even in the city. Ružomberok today is probably the only city in Europe, where it can be admired at the time of spawning salmon meter from the bridge to the confluence with the balance Revuca. The largest salmon (22.0 kg, 126 cm) in 1995 Ružomberku caught fishing guest at the Humenného company Mondi SCP. Liptovským record of the Danube salmon caught in 2001 in Stankovany (26 kg, 136 cm). Also living here nice individual clings and brown trout . It occurs as rainbow trout and brook trout . Less is represented by a barbel. Are more abundant undermouth, chub and ide maloústy , which are the main food hlavátok. Rare is the coati migratory known long migration strokes. Just dams reduce the possibility of its occurrence. The small fish live here: Cereb, frightening deer, roach, noodle and goby (bieloplutvý and pásoplutvý). rare protected species from the sole of the Siberian and 50th the last century, there lived a bearded and gudgeon pin is low. Conservationists, in an effort to restore the population of a small Nursery school (called restitution), imported stamps from Turco and released them to the confluence with Váh and Orava in the influent Ľubochnianka. The balance living and non-native fish floated from dams (Orava, Liptovská Mara), or penetrate here from the dam Krpeľany: bleak, asp, chub dark, bream, pike, hrebenačka snorting, perch and zander . Hate and thresholds built in the past (Revúca, Ľubochnianka) blocking food and spawning strokes and almost impossible to natural spawning. Good water quality will contribute to an increase in the population of Cancer river. From the world of insects to mention at least more pronounced beetles. They are especially rare alpine schnauzer living in old beech forests and very rare schnauzer zemolezový . Both are protected by law. Up here penetrating type of floodplain forests schnauzer musky . Its larva develops in the wood of old willows. In addition to the many standard schnauzer are even more types bystrušiek, weevils, liskaviek, Kováčik and many others. Rich is also the world of butterflies. Conspicuous are several links, ohniváčiky, Baton Blue, fritillary, proprietary Jason, vidlochvosty, and others. The world of insects is noticeable especially on hot summer days when the air is saturated with the scents of flora blooming in meadows, clearings and along streams, which are a great attraction for insects. The large group of shellfish takes everyone striking cyan coloring important species gasteropoda Carpathian mountain forests.

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X CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

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užomberok the cadastre, which extends from an altitude about 485 m to 1530 m above sea level Smrekovica Climatic characteristics depend on the topography and the related altitude. For a relatively small distances are large differences in elevation, that impact on temperature, precipitation, wind direction and strength. In terms of temperature conditions of the territory belongs to the temperate climate, just above the edge of the land asked over 750 m intervene in cold climate areas. Temperate climatic zone, is about balance. Average temperature is higher than 6 ° C. Over the Mountain decreases and reaches the mountains only 0 to -2 ° C (Shammai, F., Valovič, Š., 1981). Jan. resides usually the coldest month of the year, but frequent changes in weather conditions, it may also be in February or December January temperatures reaching in average - 4.8 ° C. The warmest month is July (sometimes August or June). In July, the average monthly temperature in balance is 16-17 ° C and the mountains of 7-13 ° C. The temperature decrease with height in winter (January) is 0.3 ° C per 100 m in summer (July) 0.7 ° C per 100 m in height (Shammai, F., Valovič, Š., 1981). In winter the valley Liptovian characteristic temperature inversion, which is cooler than lower altitudes of. Then the heavier cold air near the ground and fills the basin and river valleys. Inversions in winter can take a few days and go back to a height of 2 km. In summer, nocturnal inversion, reaching up to several tens of meters and crumble when warmer air near the ground and begins to climb up. Number of days with inversion reaches more than 148 days. (Shammai, F., Valovič, Š., 1981). Ružomberku in with such a situation we encounter quite often. The Calvary we see often in mist stuck high chimneys plants. Temperature inversions are unfavorable factor in terms of air pollution, because the inversion layer prevents the dispersion of air pollutants in the air and there is an increase in the surface layer of air pollutants in the air. absolute highest measured temperature in the basin exceeded 30 ° C (in the months of May to September). At the climax of the summer can reach 35 ° C. Towards the mountains fall to a peak around 20 ° C. In winter the maximum temperature (January) achieves as extreme in. basin to 11 °


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C and 5 ° C. The peaks Low in the valley in winter drops to - 32 ° C. The lowest value was measured as - 37 ° C. Temperatures below 0 ° C may occur in the summer (except for the month of July) on ridges throughout the year. Tropical days with temperatures above 30 ° C occur only in extremely hot letách, on average, less than 3 days in a year. Summer days with a maximum temperature above 25 ° C occur each year, an average of 29 days a year. For the hot summer their lives even more, and about 60 days for a cold summer just around 11 days. Freeze days with minimum temperatures below freezing in the winter months occur regularly with a duration of 26-29 days in a month. In these days is around 150 Frost days, except warmest month of July were recorded in all months. Their number is increasing towards the mountains. Skating days with maximum temperature below 0 ° C well-characterized strain of winter. The annual average was found 40 days with frost all day. In some years, there may be a 80, or even less than 23 days. Their presence is recorded in November after March Most days falls on icy January days with strong frost with minimum temperatures below - 10 ° C occurs. annual average of 34, but it can also be 70 or 7 days. They occur from November to March, occasionally in September and April daily operation temperature can be characterized by the fact that the evening 21.hod. temperature is higher than about 7.00 in the morning. h. The lowest temperature occurs in the morning around sunrise and highest around 14.hod. (Shammai, F., Valovič, Š., 1981). Wider growing season with temperatures more than 5 ° C lasts 200 to 212 days. Closer vegetation period with a temperature more than 10 ° C lasts 138-152 days. air contains a certain amount of water vapor. By considering the amount of humidity. Annual course of relative humidity in depressions opposite to ambient temperature. The highest values occur in winter (October to March) and lowest in summer (April to September) in areas up to 1400 m above position over 1400 meters are running realatívnej humidity for low cloud cover in these positions varies considerably. The average annual relative humidity in Ružomberku is 76% (Shammai, F., Valovič, Š., 1981). Cloudiness is usually determined as a percentage of estimated sky coverage. In the Ruzomberok average amount of cloud in the sky% coverage is usually around 65% (Shammai, F., Valovič, Š., 1981). High cloud resides in the winter months and is related to the inverse thermal stratification. daily running of the cloud can be observed two modes. In the cold half of the year accounted for most cloud morning hours. During the day the air is warmed and the cloud dissipates, so tonight is the minimum cloud. In the warm half of the heated air sun set pieces clouds arise. Maximum cloud is observed in the afternoon and a minimum in the morning. In the mountains there all year summer mode with maximum cloud in the afternoon (Shammai, F., Valovič, Š., 1981). Duration of sunshine is recorded in hours. For Liptovsky Hradok the annual average of 1,764 hours. Maximum monthly average falls on August, the lowest in December (Shammai, F., Valovič, Š., 1981). Approximately similar values will apply to Ruzomberok. During cold half of the year (October-March) are p54


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frequent mists of radiation in the early morning hours and to reduce the duration of sunshine. In the summer half of the emerging cloud kopovitú afternoon is more sunshine in the morning. Average number of clear days in Ružomberku is 34.8 and 134.7 cloudy days per year (Shammai, F., Valovič, Š., 1981). has more sunshine area with a higher elevation than the basin area. haircuts have a great time and territorial variability. At least a portion of rainfall at the scale where annual totals reached about 711 mm. The amount of rainfall is increasing at every 100 m in diameter 60-80 mm. Their number increases in the mountains at 900 1000 mm. The largest monthly total occurs mostly in July, the lowest in February. On the winter months falls from 15.1 to 17.2% of rainfall. Summer rainfall is generally abundant, often associated with the storm, the winter are protected Kotlínová position relatively small (Shammai, F., Valovič, Š., 1981). The summer months account for 37.1 to 40.3% of the annual total. Rainfall in autumn are slightly larger than the spring (21.4 to 22.5%). Mean number of days with precipitation in 1.0 mm or more in the Vah valley is about 110 days, towards the mountains rising at 112-116 days in the mountains is around 140 days. In the summer semester thus falls from 58.5 to 62.9% of annual precipitation. Most precipitation falls in the liquid state (Shammai, F., Valovič, Š., 1981). maximum daily rainfall is above 100 mm occur during the summer semester. The highest hourly rainfall during the summer months are between 14 and 20 yesterday, the lowest in the morning. The highest daily rainfall was recorded in Ružomberku 06.29.1958 and amounted 105.0 mm (Shammai, F., Valovič, Š., 1981). Important is also monitoring periods of drought. The most common periods of drought occur in March and October and periods of rainfall in May, June and July Number of days with thunderstorms in the basin is 20 to 30, in the mountains is more than 30 days and the fells more than 35 days (Shammai, F., Valovič, Š., 1981). During the winter months, precipitation falling mostly as snow and create a blanket of snow. Their yield compared to other seasons is the smallest in Liptovsky basin solid precipitation is falling in 37-50 days. The share of snow increases with altitude, so snow can be recorded from an altitude of about 1300 m above in any month of the year, hence the middle of summer. The average first day with snow in Ružomberku accounted for 22.11. and the last at 25.3. In the mountains it’s been since mid-October Snow cover alternating warmer and colder periods begin and end. Later, creates permanent snow cover, the amount of which is gradually increasing. Usually peaked in February. median first day with permanent snow cover falls in Ružomberku at 30.12. and the last at 14.2. Average number of days with snow cover in Ružomberku 70, 113 highest and lowest 15 days. The city has an average of 43 days per year with snow cover of about 10 cm or more and an average of 21 days with snow cover of 20 cm and more. Absolute maximum snow depth measured in Ružomberku was 90 cm. (Shammai, F., Valovič, Š., 1981). Wind patterns are subject to both general air circulation and by orographic ratios. Multiform relief means that the Town may have different wind conditions. With p55


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this large variability should be counted in the city. Ruzomberok Wind patterns, at the intersection of two lines of valleys, characterized by flowing west to the effects of orography deformed. Flow entering the valley of the scale to Liptov is accelerating entry into a wide Liptov but its speed is reduced, which results in occurrence of calm in locations around the scale. Ružomberok true for the number of days with no wind is about 130 Near the peaks can be observed effects of exposure to flow. The city dominates the western-dominated flow (22%). Less important are the South (12.5%) and easterly winds (12.2%), followed by northerly winds (8.7%). Other wind directions are only a small representation. Annual average wind speed reaches 1.8 m. s -1. The strongest winds are south-west. Winds with the force of more than 7.9 meters. s-1 are the most north-westerly direction, then west and southwest. Ružomberok has an annual average of 4.1 days with high winds (over 10.8 m.-1) and 0.2 on the turbulent wind (ie more than 17.2 m. S-1). Strong winds blow up in January and March At least wind is February, July and August with increasing altitude increases the impact factors of general circulation and reduces the influence of local thermal circulation (Shammai, F., Valovič, Š., 1981). In the narrow valleys of the prevailing wind direction intended valley.

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