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Bio.Plastic Fluctuant city Urban Morphogenesis Lab Design Tutors: Claudia Pasquero Filippo Nassetti Tommaso Casucci History Theory Tutor: Emmanouil Zaroukas Members: Chen Wang, Tianyu Liu, Jiangmin Qiu, Chang Su

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Bartlett School of Architecture | March Urban Design | RC 16

Urban Morphogenesis Lab Design Tutors: Claudia Pasquero Filippo Nassetti Tommaso Casucci History Theory Tutor: Emmanouil Zaroukas Members: Chen Wang, Jiangmin Qiu, Tianyu Liu, Chang Su

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Contents

1_Recipe Experiment 1.1 Experiment method 1.2 Different recipe 1.3 Proporty

2 _Behavior experiment 2.1.1 Airflow experiments 2.1.2 Digital simulation 2.2.1 Fiber experiments 2.2.2 Digital simulation

3_Material system 3.1 Linear Structure 3.1.1Wire Shuttle Structure 3.1.2 String Column Structure 3.2 3D Print Casting 3.3 Sphere Casting

4_Wrinkle protocols 4.1 Wrinkle pattern study 4.2 Material flow 4.3 Facade study

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Bartlett School of Architecture | March Urban Design | RC 16

Abstract Plastic is an essential part of human's daily life, but traditional petroleum-based plastic need at least 200 years to be degraded, which may cut the circulation. However, bio-plastic, a new material is designed to be biodegradable and once disposed could degrade within 6 months. Bio-plastic becomes an increasingly popular material in our urban culture addressing issues created by the extensive use of petroleum based plastic. It is a kind of plastic that is derived from renewable biomass sources, such as starch, agar or gelatin that could be reused from food waste. In this sense, the research suggests a way to locally re-metabolize domestic waste and other organic food waste. So, bio-plastic is not only a new material for us, but also a mediator for us to relook and rethink the urban problem. The research poses two questions, one that is methodological and the other that is practical. In an nutshell the question what it would mean to start thinking problems of Urban scales within the scope of material exploration and therefore what is bioplastic’s capacity to address issues at the scale by assembling patterns and behaviors from scales previously unexplored. The research poses the question of bioplastic’s capacity to address issues in the urban domain in scales previously unexplored. In order to do this a series of tests were set to explore material composition and to evaluate their performance in terms of their strength, flexibility and mechanical properties. Thus, starch based plastic composed by glycerol and vinegar is becoming research’s main material. Emergent morphologies are explored by different shaping and casting methods. Morphological features of bioplastic affected by temperature, gravity, air force and so on were analyzed and summarized regarding their structural capacities. Wrinkle emerged by airflow experiment which became the main study subject of urban research. Meanwhile, the reciprocal relation with urban protocols, material systems were investigated exploiting the properties and affordances emerged of the wrinkled patterns. In order to understand and visualize the research, digital simulations and analog modeling are the key to the design procedures. They are both structured upon an individual algorithm by starting from certain specific inputs, and then critically reflect on the outcomes. Based on the feedbacks, the merits and demerits of the algorithm are evaluated and thus are used in sublimating the next modeling. Wrinkled processes and patterns are the emergent products of bio plastic’s behavior, which is because of tension that causes by expansion and contraction. A behavior of push and pull intrinsic to materiality operates as a diagrammatic mechanism through which the urban dynamics are seen through that point of view. Through this kind of new diagram derived from wrinkle, the urban forces are redescribed through a pull and push behavior instead of traditional urban design logic that sees, maps and operates on buildings, green spaces, roads, etc. From this perspective, the urban problem is different and the relation between bio sphere and urban sphere losing its currency and the focus is places on new urban protocols, new distinctions, antagonisms and encounters that are able to create a new consciousness regarding the capacities and affordances, at the scale of the urban, of the newly developed material that of bioplastic. The aim of this project is to think how bio-plastic can actually create the conditions that people can rethink the urban issues. It tried to use bio-plastic as the mediator to relook and rethink the urban problem, attempted to use its special morphology to extend the new function of city, and redefine the urban protocols. It is an approach to the urban conditions through the constitution of a new metabolic circuit that draws on existing forces, relations and materials.

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CHAPTER 1 RECIPE EXPERIMENT 1.1 Principle and Process // Recipe Principle // Recipe Process

1.2 Recipe Experiment

// Starch base bioplastic // Gelatine base bioplastic // Agar base bioplastic

1.3 Material Behavior

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// Recipe Experiment In this chapter, we divide the whole system of Bio-plastic into two systematic steps. In the first step, we started our bio-plastic research by referring to different articles, papers, and case studies. We tried various methods of processing bio-plastic. Compared with cultivating the mycelium of mushrooms to grow with agricultural waste or electrolyzing soapy water to produce available organic ingredients, we chose a relatively easy and safe way to produce bio-plastic, which has been less demanding regarding instruments. It only needs to mix heat and cool several types of common macromolecules in life, such as starch, agar, gelatin, vinegar, or glycerin. In the second step, after testing a series of recipes and evaluating their performance in terms of their strength, flexibility and mechanical properties, starch based plastic, (composed by glycerol and vinegar) is becoming research’s main material. Furthermore , through the test of different drying methods, such as heating, air drying, and freezing, air drying was ultimately selected to become the mainly way to dry the bio-plastic, based on considering the convenience and material behavior.

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//City metabolic model Since a diversity of organic waste was found in the city, the way how city metabolize waste can be redefined by bio-plastic. There are four type of organic waste: Vegetable, fruit, animal-derivatives and by-product. All of these can be transformed into the inputs of bio-plastic: starch, gelatin, agar, vinegar, glycerol and additives. According to different wastes’ features, the properties of material varies. Finally, starch is chosen to be the main resource of producing bio-plastic.

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Input

1000,000-4000,000 tons/year 200 GBP/person

vinegar

leaves

beet root

orange peel

coffe

cola

By-product

egg shell

tallow

raspberry

Animal derivatives

blackcurrant

apple

palm

Fruit

soybean

malt

tomato

pumpkin

carrot

sweet potato

corn

potato

Vegatable

additives

starch

glycerol

output

Bio-plastic Polycaprolactone water

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//principle of bioplastic Bioplastic is the use of chemical reaction in chemical modification , reducing the hydroxyl of starch, changing the original structure, so as to change the corresponding properties of the starch, thus turn it into thermoplastic . Bioplastics include plastics that are biodegradable and made for renewable biomass sources. Bioplastics that are made from renewable biomass are usually made from vegetable starch and glycerin and are called starch-based bioplastics. Essentially, bioplastics are built upon long polymer chains (really large molecules made of monomers) that result from biomass starch mixed together with biomass glycerol under heat.

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// Process of making bioplastic Choose a right recipe,and place all the primary material ready. Mix all of the ingredients together and stir. Keep mixing until there are no clumps, and heat the mixture to 95 C or to when it starts to froth. Stir the mixture while heating it, and once it is at the right temperature or starts to froth, remove the heat and keep stirring. Next stage is to carefully pour the mixture directly into the mold. We use a tray as the container. How long it will take to dry will depend on the temperature and humidity in the room, and how thick the final product is. It may take several days to totally dry.

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// Experiment Process

step 1: set zero

step 2: weigh starch

step 2: starch 40g

step 4: set zero

step 5: weigh vinegar

step 6: vinegar 15g

step 7: set zero

step 8: weigh glycerol

step 9: glycerol 13g

step 10: water 400ml

step 11: pour out starch, vinegar and glycerol

step 12: mix up all the ingredients

step 13: set up a plate

step 14: flatten the bio-plastic

step 15: wait bio-plastic dry

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//About recipe We divide recipe of producing bioplastic into three parts. All the recipe includes four parts: raw material, plasticizer, water and additive. First one is using starch. We use corn starch as the raw material,whilst glycerin and vinegar as plasticizer. In this part of experiment, we also add additives such as cola, banana peel or orange peel. Second serious of experiments are using gelatin as raw material. We use Control Variable to choose the amount of primary material. In the third serious of experiments, we use agar and try to explore more possibility of bioplastic.

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Understanding of Starch-based bio-plastic // Basic Recipe: Starch 30g, Glycerin 10ml, Water 180ml, Vinegar 15ml

Air Dry + keep stay in plate

Moist

Bake in oven

Air Dry + lift from plate

Smell

Strengh

Flexibility

Touch

Pellucidity

Outlook

Casting

Air Dry 1

Good

Good

move a little

Air Dry 2

Good

Nice

shrink and moves

Bake in oven

Nice

Perfect

shrink and moves

Simple starch based bioplastic can be made at home. Pure starch is able to absorb humidity. Flexibiliser and plasticiser such as glycerine can also be added so the starch can also be processed thermo-plastically. The characteristics of the resulting bioplastic can be tailored to specific needs by adjusting the amounts of these additives. Starch-bioplastic show different property under different recipes and drying process, but generally these kind of bioplastic shows stability and it is easy to control fomation.

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Glycerin 15ml

Air dry+ stay in the plate

Air dry+ lift from plate

Oven bake

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Glycerin 10ml

Glycerin 5ml


Egg peel

Orange peel

Banana peel

Cola

Rice

Sawdust

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Understanding of Gelatin-based bio-plastic // Basic Recipe: Gelatin 8g, Glycerin 2ml, Water 40ml

Air Dry + keep stay in plate

Moist

Bake in oven

Air Dry + lift from plate

Outlook

Casting

Good

Good

move a little

Air Dry 2

Good

Nice

shrink and moves

Bake in oven

Nice

Perfect

shrink and moves

Air Dry 1

Smell No

Strengh

Flexibility

Touch

Pellucidity

Gelatine based plastic has a obviously advantange -drying totally only need 1 hours - while starch bioplastic need at least 2 days and another advantage is that it is in high rigidity. It is pretty suitable for casting. On the other hand, galetine bioplastic lack of selfformation process. In ohter words, it is always flat and be the shape of plate or other substratum, which means it lack of multiformity of material.

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Glycerin 1ml

Glycerin 2ml

Galetine 6g

Galetine 8g

Starch 8g

Starch 6g

Glycerin 4ml

Galetine 10g

Starch 10g

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Understanding of Agar-based bio-plastic // Basic Recipe: Agar 3g, Glycerin 2.4 ml, Water 420 ml

Air Dry + keep stay in plate

Bake in oven

Air Dry + lift from plate

Pellucidity

Moist

Strengh

Casting

Touch

Flexibility

Moist Air Dry 1

Smell

Strengh

Flexibility

No

Air Dry 2

No

Bake in oven

No

No

No

Touch

Pellucidity

Outlook

Casting

Ok

Good

move a little

Nearly no

Nice

shrink and moves

No

Perfect

shrink and moves

Agar bioplastic produces a pretty good hard, inflexible bioplastic. Another advantage is that it only need a very small amount of plasticizer(glycerol). However, the drying process take too many time, it need at least 4 days of totally dry. In addition, as it really hard at end, in the meantime, it means that it lack of flexibility and elasticity.

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Water 320ml

Glycerol 0ml

Glycerol 6.4ml

Water 560ml

Glycerol 0.6ml

Glycerol 4.8ml

Water 640ml

Glycerol 3.2ml

Glycerol 6.0ml

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//Property of different recipes After testing three different recipes (agar, starch, gelatin), we systematically compared their coefficients and properties. For agar based recipe, its drying takes a relatively short time (approximately one day), it has better transparency, greater compressive capacity, and it is easy to fold. But, its hardness is low, it has poor ductility, and it is easy to break when shaping. For gelatin based recipe, its drying time is very short, basically can be achieved immediately dry, but it is more humid, and its ductility, hardness, strength, flexibility, and plasticity are relatively poor. Therefore, when we have not had time to shape it, as long as we stop heating, it will dry and fixed. Not only that, the thinner gelatin based bio-plastic is hard to move from the container, but, Because the water content is larger, the thicker gelatin based bio-plastic is easy to break. For starch based recipe, it has a high degree of transparency, strong hardness, good compression capacity, ductility and foldable property. And most importantly, it has a greater ability to shrink. However, it takes a long time to be completely dry (about three days). Therefore, by comparing their different performance, we finally chose a starch based recipe with shrinkage and stretch properties. Because we can better control its shape, and can use it more widely.

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Starch-based bioplastic Pellucidity

Strengh

Moist

Casting

Touch

Flexibility

Galetine-based bioplastic Pellucidity

Strengh

Moist

Casting

Touch

Flexibility

Agar-based bioplastic Pellucidity

Strengh

Moist

Casting

Touch

Flexibility

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CHAPTER 2 MATERIAL BEHAVIOR 2.1 Airflow Influence // Wind Direction // Threads Direction

2.2 Fibre Influence

// Stipe Fibre

// Wood paper


// Material Behavior In this chapter, in order to better understand the properties and performance of the bioplastic, we did the performance control experiment. For this purpose, we did the physical research, together with the digital simulation and found the influence factors of patterns. In the first step, we did the airflow experiment, through the wind direction test, wind strength test, and different cell lines influence text, we control every variable and found their characteristics. We found that, the patterns and wrinkles of bio-plastic would grow along the lines. Also, different parts of bio-plastic would generate different characteristics. For example, the smooth without wrinkled parts of bio-plastic, on one hand, are more toughness, which can be folded at any time, on the other hand, are not anti-force. In the second step, based on above experiments, we have already understood bioplastic’s basic characteristics and the factors which can affect its behaviors. So, we proceeded with the fiber experiment, attempted to transform it to more complex shape. First, we added different fibers, such as branches, soft wood, paper board, and cloth rope, to the bio-plastic and we devised a series of experiments controlling variable while exploring how different fibers affected its behaviors. Addtional to that, we used sensor to monitor data in order to better research and control the behavior of bio-plastic. Further, we used a robot to transform manual workflow to automatic workflow and accelerate the production of bioplastic components.

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// Airflow experiment apparatus In order to test the performance of bio-plastic and the impact of external force on it, we did the airflow experiments and controlled the variables strictly. We made a detachable, adjustable experimental device for a series of comparative experiments. Each experimental device consists of a main bio-plastic-filled shelf with adjustable height, two hair dryer-filled shelves with adjustable height and two identical hair dryers. The whole set of devices in the form of a combination, and it can freely adjust the height, so we can control a series of control variables, such as wind direction, and wind strength.

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// Airflow experiment apparatus

hair dryer

acylic board

thread bar

acylic board

nut

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// Property of bioplastic According to different features of bioplastic, it could divide into four parts, flat area without wrinkle, crooked area without wrinkel, flat area with wrinkle, crooked area with wrinkle. Each area has different property on stress(Îą), shearing force(Ď„), elasticity modulus(E), fatigue strength, yield limit

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Flat + No Wrinkle

Flat + Wrinkle

Crooked + No Wrinkle Crooked + Wrinkle

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Flat + No Wrinkle

stress(α)

yield limit

shearing force(τ)

elasticity modulus(E)

fatigue strength

Flat + Wrinkle

stress(α)

yield limit

shearing force(τ)

elasticity modulus(E)

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fatigue strength


Crooked + Wrinkle

stress(α)

shearing force(τ)

yield limit

elasticity modulus(E)

fatigue strength

Crooked + Wrinkle

stress(α)

shearing force(τ)

elasticity modulus(E)

yield limit

fatigue strength

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//Airflow experiment apparatus In this step, we did a series of comparative experiments about wind direction with two hair dryers, such as top wind, side wind, corner wind, and diagonal wind. We also did a four corners wind experiment to observe the different behavior between various wind strength. Then, we used cotton thread to do the fiber influence experiments. We used cotton thread to do different cells, such as small square grid, medium square grid, large square grid, contour line, and magnet field line, together with the influence by two diagonal wind. We found that, the place where the wind blows along, will grow the patterns along the wind direction. And, the greater the wind is, the smaller the folds are. From the cotton influence experiments, we found, the patterns grow in the direction of the cotton thread.

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// Airflow experiment overview

wind direction test

EXP1 //top wind

EXP6 //small grid

EXP2 //side wind

EXP7 //medium grid

EXP3 //corner wind

EXP8 //large grid

EXP4 //diagonal wind

EXP9 //contour line

EXP5 //4 corner wind

EXP5 //magnet field line

cotton thread interference

hair dryer

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Wind direction test //wrinkle pattern

wind direction: top hair dryer number: 2 blow time : 30min pattern finish time: 20min

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Wind direction test //wrinkle pattern

wind direction: corner hair dryer number: 4 blow time : 30min pattern finish time: 20min

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Wind direction test //wrinkle pattern

wind direction: corner hair dryer number: 2 blow time : 30min pattern finish time: 20min

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Wind direction test //wrinkle pattern

wind direction: side hair dryer number: 2 blow time : 30min pattern finish time: 20min

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Wind direction test //wrinkle pattern

wind direction: diagonal hair dryer number: 2 blow time : 30min pattern finish time: 20min

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Cotton thread interference //wrinkle pattern

cotton thread layout pattern: square grid size: 3cm hair dryer number: 2 blow time : 30min pattern finish time: 20min

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Cotton thread interference //wrinkle pattern

cotton thread layout pattern: square grid size: 7cm hair dryer number: 2 blow time : 30min pattern finish time: 20min

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Cotton thread interference //wrinkle pattern

cotton thread layout pattern: square grid size: 5cm hair dryer number: 2 blow time : 30min pattern finish time: 20min

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Cotton thread interference //wrinkle pattern

cotton thread layout pattern: magnet field lines grid size: varies hair dryer number: 4 blow time : 30min pattern finish time: 20min

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// Micro photogragh of bio-plastic pattern

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// Micro photograph of irregular pattern

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// Micro photogragh of bio-plastic pattern

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// Micro photograph of irregular pattern

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// Micro photogragh of bio-plastic pattern

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// Micro photograph of irregular pattern

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//Airflow experiment wrinkle simulation Airflow experiment: We did the airflow experiment by using hair dryer to blow the bio-plastic from edges of plate, and found the wrinkle emerged after expansion and contraction. Then, we changed the position of hair dryer and used string to affect the wrinkle emergence, and found the wrinkle grow along the string. In order to understand this phenomenon better, we did digital simulation to research the wrinkle formation. From airflow experiment, we found that external factors can make the wrinkle structure more complex and variable. We saw four mainly properties of the airflow bioplastic, which were flat, crooked, with wrinkle or with no wrinkle. And after testing them, we found that flat with wrinkle was most potential one because of the high strength and elasticity, which became the main study subject of urban research.

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How does the wrinkle simulation work

1

2

3

anchor the edge

create the mesh

4

5

extend length of curve

anchor the potins

6

add attractor

wrinkle surface emerge

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Wind direction test simulation //wrinkle pattern

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grid: 150*150 wrinkle hight: 0-8mm pattern area: 80%

grid: 150*150 wrinkle hight: 0-8mm pattern area: 70%

grid: 150*150 wrinkle hight: 0-8mm pattern area: 80%

grid: 150*150 wrinkle hight: 0-8mm pattern area: 60%


Wind direction test simulation //wrinkle pattern

grid: 150*150 wrinkle hight: 0-8mm pattern area: 50%

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wind direction test simulation //wrinkle pattern

grid: 150*150 wrinkle hight: 0-8mm pattern area: 60%

grid: 150*150 wrinkle hight: 0-8mm pattern area: 60%

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grid: 150*150 wrinkle hight: 0-8mm pattern area: 60%

grid: 150*150 wrinkle hight: 0-8mm pattern area: 60%


wind direction test simulation //wrinkle pattern

grid: 150*150 wrinkle hight: 0-8mm pattern area: 50%

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// Wrinkle simulation research After observation wrinkle pattern behavior, we found that some parameters would affect wrinkle formation. We did systematic digital simulation by using grid (triangle, square, and hexagon) as the basic parameter, and found the hexagon simulation was more similar to the physical one because its degree was 120. Moreover, during the digital simulation, we found external factors such as points and lines also can affect the growth or density of wrinkle, so we changed the range of lines and found the same regulation with airflow experiment that strings could guide the wrinkle.

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Wrinkle simulation | grid

generation: 1 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: triangle size: 0.5 dimension: 50*50 height: 2.65 collision: 0.3 length: 0.75

generation: 1 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: square size: 0.5 dimension: 50*50 height: 4.45 collision: 0.3 length: 0.75

generation: 1 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.5 dimension: 50*50 height: 5.42 collision: 0.3 length: 0.75

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Wrinkle simulation | generation 1 //mesh grid: hexagon //constrain elements: NA

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generation: 1 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.35 dimension: 70*70 height: 1.51 collosion: 0.3 length: 0.525

generation: 1 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.35 dimension: 70*70 height: 3.96 collosion: 2.0 length: 0.525

generation: 1 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.35 dimension: 70*70 height: 7.03 collosion: 3.0 length: 0.525

generation: 1 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.35 dimension: 70*70 height: 2.93 collosion: 0.3 length: 0.525

generation: 1 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.35 dimension: 70*70 height: 3.95 collosion: 2.0 length: 0.525

generation: 1 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.35 dimension: 70*70 height: 6.96 collosion: 3.0 length: 0.7

generation: 1 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.35 dimension: 70*70 height: 1.51 collosion: 0.3 length: 0.525

generation: 1 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.35 dimension: 70*70 height: 5.12 collosion: 2.0 length: 0.525

generation: 1 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.35 dimension: 70*70 height: 7.67 collosion: 3.0 length: 1.05


Wrinkle simulation | generation 2 //mesh grid: hexagon //constrain elements: NA

generation: 2 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.5 dimension: 50*50 height: 2.43 collosion: 0.3 length: 0.75

generation: 2 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.5 dimension: 50*50 height: 5.04 collosion: 2.0 length: 0.75

generation: 2 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.5 dimension: 50*50 height: 9.56 collosion: 3.0 length: 0.7 5

generation: 2 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.5 dimension: 50*50 height: 3.65 collosion: 0.3 length: 1.0

generation: 2 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.5 dimension: 50*50 height: 6.54 collosion: 2.0 length: 1.0

generation: 2 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.5 dimension: 50*50 height: 13.54 collosion: 3.0 length: 1.0

generation: 2 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.35 dimension: 50*50 height: 5.54 collosion: 0.3 length: 1.5

generation: 2 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.5 dimension: 50*50 height: 7.56 collosion: 2.0 length: 1.5

generation: 2 constrain elements: NA mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.5 dimension: 50*50 height: 17.32 collosion: 3.0 length: 1.5

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// Wrinkle simulation under constrain elements Resolution of wrinkle is decided by the dimension and size of the basic grid, more grid represent more wrinkle might emerge. We also find there are several constrain elements that might cause the change of wrinkle pattern. Points is one of the important factor. Firstly, we use random points to constrain wrinkle. Less number of points can creat a more uniform and larger wrinkle pattern. Secondly, lines can also be a effect factor, wider the line is, less wrinkle area it is.

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Wrinkle simulation | constrain elements_random points //generation 1 //mesh grid: hexagon

generation: 1 constrain elements: random points points number: 6954 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.5 dimension: 50*50 height: 4.45 collosion: 0.3 length: 0.75

generation: 1 constrain elements: random points points number: 3521 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.5 dimension: 50*50 height: 4.45 collosion: 0.3 length: 0.75

generation: 1 constrain elements: random points points number: 752 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.5 dimension: 50*50 height: 4.45 collosion: 0.3 length: 0.75

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Wrinkle simulation | constrain elements_points //generation 1 //mesh grid: hexagon

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generation: 1 constrain elements: points point constrain strength: 10 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.35 dimension: 70*70 height: 1.58 collosion: 0.65 length: 0.7

generation: 1 constrain elements: points point constrain strength: 10 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.25 dimension: 70*70 height: 2.73 collosion: 2.0 length: 0.70

generation: 1 constrain elements: points point constrain strength: 10 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.25 dimension: 70*70 height: 5.54 collosion: 3.0 length: 0.70

generation: 1 constrain elements: points point constrain strength: 10 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.25 dimension: 70*70 height: 1.85 collosion: 0.65 length: 0.70

generation: 1 constrain elements: points point constrain strength: 10 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.25 dimension: 70*70 height: 2.53 collosion: 2.0 length: 0.70

generation: 1 constrain elements: points point constrain strength: 20 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.25 dimension: 70*70 height: 4.66 collosion: 3.0 length: 0.70

generation: 1 constrain elements: points point constrain strength: 10 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.25 dimension: 70*70 height: 2.27 collosion: 0.65 length: 0.70

generation: 1 constrain elements: points point constrain strength: 30 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.25 dimension: 70*70 height: 3.61 collosion: 2.0 length: 0.70

generation: 1 constrain elements: points point constrain strength: 30 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.25 dimension: 70*70 height: 5.34 collosion: 3.0 length: 0.70


Wrinkle simulation | constrain elements_field lines //generation 1 //mesh grid: hexagon

generation: 1 constrain elements: lines point constrain strength: 0.1 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.35 dimension: 50*50 height: 2.31 collosion: 0.3 length: 0.75

generation: 1 constrain elements: lines point constrain strength: 0.1 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.35 dimension: 50*50 height: 4.01 collosion: 2.0 length: 0.75

generation: 1 constrain elements: lines point constrain strength: 0.1 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.5 dimension: 50*50 height: 6.75 collosion: 3.0 length: 0.75

generation: 1 constrain elements: lines point constrain strength: 0.2 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.35 dimension: 50*50 height: 2.36 collosion: 0.65 length: 0.75

generation: 1 constrain elements: lines point constrain strength: 0.2 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.35 dimension: 50*50 height: 3.88 collosion: 2.0 length: 0.75

generation: 1 constrain elements: lines point constrain strength: 0.2 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.35 dimension: 50*50 height: 7.85 collosion: 3.0 length: 0.75

generation: 1 constrain elements: lines point constrain strength: 0.3 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.35 dimension: 50*50 height: 2.34 collosion: 0.65 length: 0.75

generation: 1 constrain elements: lines point constrain strength: 0.3 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.35 dimension: 50*50 height: 4.16 collosion: 2.0 length: 0.75

generation: 1 constrain elements: lines point constrain strength: 0.3 mesh grid: hexagon size: 0.35 dimension: 50*50 height: 8.37 collosion: 3.0 length: 0.75

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// Fibre Experiment After understanding the basic properties of the plastic, we want to test the influence of external forces or external material on it. First, we tried the most natural and organic material, tree stipe. In the first experiment, we used tree stipe to place a series different cells. In the second experiment, we used different density of tree stipe to place random shape. From these two experiments, we aimed to see the influence by the shape and density of the tree stipe on the bio-plastic behavior. Then we used wood paper to instead of tree stipe and test their properties. Because, contrast with the tree stipe from nature, the shape of the wood paper, such as length and diameter, can be better controlled by us. In the third experiment, we used wood paper to place the line that is perpendicular to the border, the line that is parallel to the border, and the line that has the sharp angle to the border, in order to test edge folding. In the fourth experiment, we did the dying test through dyeing fiber material and dyeing bio-plastic, because we wanted to observe the movement and changes of color during bio-plastic drying, which might be helpful for understanding the formation of bio-plastic's certain characteristics. Finally, we did a matrix experiment with four horizontal experiments and four vertical experiments, did the wind strength control experiments and interior structure control experiments respectively. We try to use more intuitive data to show the impact of wind strength and fiber on bioplastic behavior.

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cell

stipe

density

edge folding

dying

wood paper

interior structure

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//Reacting With The Tree Branches //Different Cells Experiment After the experiments about using lines to control the growth of patterns and wrinkles, we have basically understood the characteristic of bio-plastic, that the texture grows along the lines. In next step, we wanted to explore, whether the other properties of bio-plastic will be affected when the fibers become harder, such as the degree of curl or the overall shape. We tried to control the tree branches’ placements so as to control the texture of the synthetic fibres and the curl of bio-plastic. Additionally, we placed the tree branches in different cells and therefore got different results. According to the experiment, we found that at the intersection of fibers, the bio-plastic will undergo a greater degree of deformation. From the perspective, we can see, when the angle of intersection is smaller, the protrusion of bio-plastic due to the deformation is greater.

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// cell test 1 Cell type: rectangle Fiber length: 6cm Folding height: 1-3cm

//cell test 2 Cell type: rectangle Fiber length: 6cm Folding height: 2-4cm

//cell test3 Cell type: polygon Fiber length: 5-6cm Folding height: 1-2cm


//Reacting With The Tree Branches //Different Density Experiment Concerning the characteristic and weaving principles of bio-plastic, we thought about reacting bio-plastic with other fibre material to create a new material which could make up for the shortages. For example, it might be harder, more stylized, and three-dimensional. For this purpose, we did the different density experiments about tree branches. We tried to test how different fibre density influence the behaviours of bio-plastic. We found that, when the fibre density was higher and higher, bio-plastic became more and more curly. In addition, we also found, different placement of the tree branches, may also affect the shape of the bio-plastic. Among them, the cross display of tree branches can make bio-plastic show the maximum bending and stretching. By filling up the space between the bio-plastic with fiber, we can step by step got a very hard material. In this way, we can control the strength and flexibility of bio-plastic directly and naturally.

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//fiber density test 1 Fiber number: 40 Average folding height: 2cm

//fiber density test 2 Fiber number: 60 Average folding height: 4cm

//fiber density test 3 Fiber number: 80 Average folding height: 6cm


//Reacting With The Substitute //Different Substitute Material Experiment After testing different density and cells of tree branches, and observing the different behaviours of bio-plastic, we had a basic understanding of the influence of natural fibre on plastic forms. In the next step, we tried to use other substitute material to instead of tree branches in order to make the new performance of bio-plastic more beautiful and natural. We explored wood paper, which becomes soft after soaking in the water, and can change shapes optionally, but becomes hard after drying. By using this specialty of wood paper, we connect it with the contractility and deformation of bio-plastic, and finally found that, wood paper can better control the crook of bio-plastic. Because the water-absorbing quality of wood paper can combine with the characteristics (dehydration and shrinkage) of bio-plastic, and ultimately shape the mold of bio-plastic.

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//edge folding test 1 Fiber and edge relationship: vertical Edge behaviour: 2 large folding + 2 flat

//edge folding test2 Fiber and edge relationship: parallel Edge behaviour: 4 medium folding

//edge folding test3 Fiber and edge relationship: acute angle Edge behaviour: 4 small folding


//Reacting With The Natural Dyeing //Different Dyeing Experiment After determining the wood paper can change and control the bio-plastic form, we attempted to put the rope as another fibre material for testing. On the basis of testing the performance of hemp rope, we also carried out the dyeing test, and divided the experiment into two parts. First part is hemp dyeing experiment, we tried to dye the fiber and through the penetration of color on the fiber, attempted to add the stratified color to the bio-plastic. We added the juice from beet root and coffee into hemp rope, and see the flow of the color through the patterns on the bio-plastic. Second part is bio-plastic dyeing experiment, we used juice from beet root to dye the bio-plastic and observed that, when the bio-plastic is drier and drier, the color of the dye becomes more and more transparent. Additionally, with the deformation of the bio-plastic, the dyeing color becomes uneven and stratified, which is beautiful and miraculous.

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//dying test 1 Dying substance: coffee Dying material: fiber

//dying test 2 Dying substance: beet root Dying material: fiber

//dying test 3 Dying substance: beet root Dying material: bio-plastic


//Fibre Matrix Experiment After a series experiment about testing the behavior and characteristic of bio-plastic, we had a basic understanding of the factors that affect the shape of the plastic, such as the type of fiber, the density of the fiber, the placement of the fiber, and the strength of the hot wind. So after that, we did the control and comparative experiment Matrix. First, in the horizontal direction, we controlled the degree of hot wind by controlling the number of hair dryer. We strictly control the experimental variables, from left to right, each column was placed zero, one, two, and three hair dryers. Second, in the vertical direction, we controlled the fiber from none to more and more. We tried to compare the effects of wind and fiber on bio-plastic form, by controlling the two variables in the horizontal and vertical directions, using more data and more intuitive methods.

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Fiber and pattern matrix

Increase fiber number

Increase wind generator number


EXP 1 Fiber number: 0 Hair dryer number: 0

EXP 2 Fiber number: 0 Hair dryer number: 1

EXP 5 Fiber number: 30 Hair dryer number: 0

EXP 6 Fiber number: 30 Hair dryer number: 1

EXP 9 Fiber number: 60 Hair dryer number: 0

EXP 10 Fiber number: 60 Hair dryer number: 1

EXP 13 Fiber number: 90 Hair dryer number: 0

EXP 14 Fiber number: 90 Hair dryer number: 1


EXP 3 Fiber number: 0 Hair dryer number: 2

EXP 4 Fiber number: 0 Hair dryer number: 3

EXP 7 Fiber number: 30 Hair dryer number:2

EXP 8 Fiber number: 30 Hair dryer number: 3

EXP 11 Fiber number: 60 Hair dryer number: 2

EXP 12 Fiber number: 60 Hair dryer number: 3

EXP 15 Fiber number: 90 Hair dryer number: 2

EXP 16 Fiber number: 90 Hair dryer number: 3


// Edge folding of triangle fiber inside of bio-plastic


// Interior fiber folding triangle fiber inside of bio-plastic


// Active bending simulation We simulate how the surface bending by digital method. We set a serious of experiment by using different numbers of fans and adding different number of fiber. We also made digital simulation related on every single experiment to understand principle of active bending. The first four simulations are bending surface with no fiber, whilst the rest of the simulations are affected by fiber. We use curve to act as fiber and constrain the surface. Also multiple attractors represent different numbers of fans.

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// fibre // no wind generator

// fibre // one wind generator

// fibre // two wind generator

// fibre // three wind generator

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// fibre // no wind generator

// fibre // one wind generator

// fibre // two wind generator

// fibre // three wind generator

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// bending edges

Surface bending from two opposite corners.

Surface bending from four corners.

Surface bending emerge on the edges and form the wavy.

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CHAPTER 3 WRINKLE PROTOCOLS AND SYSTEM 3.1 Linear Structure //Wire Shuttle Structure //String Column Structure

3.2 3D print Casting 3.3 Sphere Casting

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//Material System An attempt to transfer the bio-plastic from two-dimensional film to self-supporting material, by developing four different technologies, is the focus of this section. As a layer of thin film, bio-plastic is soft and fragile so it shows no structural capacity effcient enough for large scale aggregations and structures. Therefore, we explore two characteristics for a material to be able to support itself and be constructed into 3D structures: it should be hard and stiff; and it should be able to remain in a specific shape that we choose. So, the self-supporting system can be achieved as long as this material becomes hard and can retain its shape.

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Technique 1.1 Linear Structure - Wire Shuttle Structure //experiment principle Linear shuttle structure is made by piano string. Take a 60 % humidity bio-plastic on the top of the linear shuttle structure. The linear shuttle structure is form by gravity and in an arc-shape. As time goes by, bio-plastc become dry and therefore it uses it shrink forces to constrain the structure.

wire linear structure

wrap bioplastic on the sturcture

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put bioplastic on the sturcture

wire structure shrink with the help of bioplastic


Linear shuttle structure--humidity and fiber test

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// humidity test 1 Frame type: linear shuttle Bio-plastic humidity: 80%

// humidity test 2 Frame type: linear shuttle Bio-plastic humidity: 60%

// humidity test 3 Frame type: linear shuttle Bio-plastic humidity: 40%

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Linear structure --fiber // linear frame + triangle fiber

//Fiber test 1 Frame type: linear shuttle Material pattern: Yes Fiber type: triangle Bio-plastic humidity: 0%

//Fiber test 2 Frame type: linear shuttle Material pattern: Yes Fiber type: linear Bio-plastic humidity: 0%

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Technique 1.2 Rotate structure //experiment principle

degree:0

degree:30

degree:60

degree:90

On the basis of the previous substratum, liear frame, we continue to improve this model. In order to test how the bioplastic can affect the thread, we made a new structure. In order to crate a better connect joint, we change two endpoints from the collection points of linear into a circle. Two circles loft into a cylinder. We divided the circle into 12 parts, each part means 30 degree. Thread connect two sides together and form parallel lines. As the bioplastic can shrink by itself, Thread will also be compressed by the material. If the structure rotate for 30 degree , thread can more easily to be shrinked. The high degree it rotate, the smaller radium the cylinder will be.

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//Rotate structure model with dry bio-plastic

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//Technique 2 Moulding experiment //experiment principle

Bio-plastic keep the proporty of plastic, which means it could be the shape of substratum during the process of from liquid state to dry material. A algorithm was set to build a mathematics surface generated by different noise, which represent the wrinkle pattern of bioplastic. Then the model was printed out by 3D printer, and reverse mould from ABS to plaster. Bio-plastic liquid was poured onto it to mould the shape and keep the wrinkle pattern by wind blowing. In the end, a large piece of bio-plastic was built and showed the charater of wrinkle and noise.

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// Mould generation process

algorithm: perilin noise grid:596*420 heigt domain: -0.916-0.955

algorithm: simplex noise grid:596*420 heigt domain: --0.990-0.974

algorithm: perilin + simplex noise grid:596*420 heigt domain: 0.002-0.734

algorithm: sine

algorithm: perilin + simplex + sine filter grid:596*420 heigt domain: -1.000-1.000

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Casting

//From digital mould to physical mould

size: 140*140mm height domain: 0- 5cm material: plaster + wood ash

plaster substratum : abstract wrinkle surface

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pouring bio-plastic on the top of substratum

bio-plastic flowing on the surface


// Mould details

perspective

front view

right view

left view

back view

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// Casting Testing-Mould details

size: 140*140mm height domain: 0- 4cm material: plaster + wood ash

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front view

left view

right view

back view


// 4 Units Combination

Unit 1-Perspective view

Unit 3-Perspective view

Unit 2-Perspective view

Unit 4-Perspective view

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//Inflatable sphere experiment When we have already learned that the external force can impact bio-plastic’s behaviors and properties, we tried to find a self-support structure without any external factor like fiber. We attempted to use inflatable sphere to casting bio-plastic. First, we printed four layers of liquid bio-plastic on the surface of inflatable sphere, and then pierced and removed the sphere after it dried, which can make it a self-support structure without any external stuff. We selected it as the main production Method, because inflatable sphere could make bio-plastic from flat sheet to three-dimensional model and also show the wrinkle patterns.

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// Sphere Casting progress

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

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// Wrinkle on Bio plastic sphere

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// Wrinkle on Bio plastic sphere

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// Wrinkle pattern on the sphere

In the former experiments, we tested wrinkle pattern on the flat surface or used different constrain elements to control the form. With the sphere casting experiments, wrinkle emerge on the three-dimensional become achievable. Using the same algorithm, wrinkle pattern can cover the sphere and also show the variety change. After observing the wrinkle pattern on the sphere in different stages, size and degree of shrink changed as time goes by. In the simulation, we also shows the same trendency.

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wrinkle test 1 basic grid: haxegon on sphere grid size: 0.5 collision strength: 1.0 wrinkle length: 1.5 constrain elements: NA

frame5

frame10

frame15

frame20

wrinkle test 2 basic grid: haxegon on sphere grid size: 0.5 collision strength: 2.0 wrinkle length: 1.5 constrain elements: NA

frame5

frame10

frame15

frame20

wrinkle test 3 basic grid: haxegon on sphere grid size: 0.3 collision strength: 1.0 wrinkle length: 1.5 constrain elements: NA

frame5

frame10

frame15

frame20

wrinkle test 4 basic grid: haxegon on sphere grid size: 0.3 collision strength: 1.0 wrinkle length: 1.5 constrian elements: square lines constrain range: 0.2

frame5

frame10

frame15

frame20

wrinkle test 5 basic grid: haxegon on sphere grid size: 0.3 collision strength: 1.0 wrinkle length: 1.5 constrian elements: field lines constrain range: 0.2

frame5

frame10

frame15

frame20

wrinkle test 6 basic grid: haxegon on sphere grid size: 0.3 collision strength: 2.0 wrinkle length: 1.5 constrian elements: field lines constrain range: 0.2

frame5

frame10

frame15

frame20

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// Sphere research After a series of material behavior experiments, we attempted to transfer the bio-plastic from two-dimensional film to self-supporting material, by developing four different stages of the experiments, including unit property experiment, sphere clustering experiment, sphere close packing experiment, and deformation experiment. Since, as a layer of thin film, bio-plastic is soft and fragile so it shows no structural capacity efficiency enough for large scale aggregations and structures. Therefore, we explore two characteristics for a material to be able to support itself and be constructed into three-dimensional structures: it should be hard and stiff, and it should be able to remain in a specific shape that we choose. So, the self-supporting system can be achieved as long as this material becomes hard and can retain its shape. First, in the unit property experiment, after we decided to use inflatable sphere as a single unit, we planned to test how the external forces can affect the formation of bio-plastic dome. we tested bio-plastic dome in four different layers under the pulling forced caused by the inflatable sphere, and concluded that, the thickness of bio-plastic dome is highly related to the deformation degree and hardness, and four-layer coated bio-plastic was ultimately selected as unit. Then, we went into second stage, sphere clustering experiment, making a combination. We built a two meters high sphere cluster forming into a surface, tried to observe its performance after the deflation. But the outcome of the sphere cluster combination came with the problem that we cannot effectively control its final form, because there was no systematic way to connect each sphere. After giving up the method of printing bio-plastic on the overall assembly model, we did sphere close packing experiment, tried the method about printing the bio-plastic to the monomer and then assembling it. We designed nine components by using three different scales of sphere, and listed all the possibility combination between each two component by digital simulation. Then, tested one column of the sequence in physical model, by using three-unit sphere as a component to build cluster. Finally, we chose the center symmetrical component, which was three spheres packing, as our basic component, and combined hundreds of them together into a larger dome. Finally, by achieving understanding the formation of both single and cluster spheres, we tested deformation experiment, tried to explore how the external condition can not only cause the change of formation but also the property of the material.

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//Unit property experiment After we decided to use inflatable sphere as a single unit, we planned to test how the external forces can affect the formation of bio-plastic dome. First, we tested bio-plastic dome in four different layers under the pulling forced caused by the inflatable sphere, and concluded that, the thickness of bio-plastic dome is highly related to the deformation degree and hardness, while the other two brittleness and tenacity are not quite relevant to it. Then, we tested four bio-plastic domes in four different layers which can bear different number of loads, and found out, the weight that the bio-plastic can bear is an exponential growth due to the increase of thickness.

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Bearing experiments | Layers

6 weights 39 grams

8 weights 52 grams

22 weights 143 grams

181 weights 1176.5 grams

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Sphere close packing cluster

//Sphere clustering experiment After the basic study of single bio-plastic dome, we went into second stage, making a combination. We built a two meters high sphere cluster forming into a surface, tried to observe its performance after the deflation. But the outcome of the sphere cluster combination came with the problem that we cannot effectively control its final form, because there was no systematic way to connect each sphere.

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Sphere close packing cluster

A1A1

B1B1

A3B1

B1C1

A2B1

B2C1

A1B1

C1C1

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//Sphere sewing method Sphere close packing experiment: After giving up the method of printing bio-plastic on the overall assembly model, we tried the method about printing the bio-plastic to the monomer and then assembling it. We designed nine components by using three different scales of sphere, and listed all the possibility combination between each two component by digital simulation. Then, tested one column of the sequence in physical model, by using three-unit sphere as a component to build cluster. Finally, we chose the center symmetrical component, which was three spheres packing, as our basic component, and combined hundreds of them together into a larger dome.

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//Sphere sewing method

single bio-plastic sphere

two sphere clusters sewing method

three bio-plastic clusters sewed together

three bio-plstic spheres sewing method

three bio-plstic spheres formed into a cluster

two clusters sewed together

three bio-plstic clusters sewing method

four bio-plstic clusters sewing method

four bio-plastic clusters formed into one component

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Basic component sewing process

1. Choose the single bio-plastic sphere

4. Determine the angle of the connection

7. Cut off the line

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2. Determine the position of the connection

5. Add the third bio-plastic sphere

8. Tie a knot

3. Sew two bio-plastic spheres together

6. Sew three bio-plastic spheres together

9. Form three bio-plastic spheres into a cluster


Basic component composition process

1. Choose the cluster

4. Determine the angle of the connection

7. Cut off the line

2. Determine the position of the connection

5. Add the third bio-plastic sphere

8. Tie a knot

3. Sew two bio-plastic spheres together

6. Sew every gap

9. Form clusters into large dome

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Basic component reinforcement process

transparent ring

three bio-plastic spheres with rings

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transparent ring attached to be an external edge of bioplastic sphere

three bio-plastic spheres connected by sewing rings

transparent ring sewed on bio-plastic border

two bio-plastic clusters connected by sewing rings


Basic component reinforcement process

1. Determine the length of the transparent ring

4. Form a reinforced unit

7. Cut off the line

2. Manufacture transparent ring

5. Connect two bio-plastic spheres by sewing rings

8. Tie a knot

3. Sew the transparent ring on bio-plastic border

6. Add the third reinforced unit

9. Form a reinforced cluster with transparent rings

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// Hanging structure of Bio plastic sphere cluster

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// Bio plastic sphere cluster

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// Deformation experiment appratus By achieving understanding the formation of both single and cluster spheres, in this stage, we explored how the external condition can not only cause the change of formation but also the property of the material. Again, we began with single sphere, we used water and wind in different temperature separately, to erode the bio-plastic, and saw how they triggered the deformation.We found the obvious result from the outcome of the formation, that both the water and hot wind can increase the hardness and brittleness in the bioplastic, and they can also affect the deformation in different extend. Following this lead, in order to observe the change process better, we started to build an apparatus to systematically control the volume as well as speed of the water. We carried out two experiments, controlled variables except water temperature, and increased the volume of the water to push the formation of the cluster sphere into an extremity. Not only that, in each cluster, there is a gradient volume control from front to back. And in order to show a better gradient deformation in one cluster, we built up a large dome with hundreds of spheres, showing the gradient deformation from out to center.

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Ddformation apparatus

Top shelf

Hook

Liquid bag

T control filter

Column Pvc pipe

Panel with holes

Panel holder Bio-plastic Material holder

Water tank

Bottom shelf

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Deformation physical apparatus

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Deformation progress

Times 1 mins

Times 6 mins

Times 11 mins

Times 6 mins

Times 2 mins

Times 7 mins

Times 12 mins

Times 17 mins

Times 3 mins

Times 8 mins

Times 13 mins

Times 18 mins

Times 4 mins

Times 9 mins

Times 14 mins

Times 19 mins

Times 5 mins

Times 10 mins

Times 15 mins

Times 20 mins

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Test 1 //Water temperature: 10℃ //Water volum: 1000mL //Time: 20min

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Test 2 //Water temperature: 80℃ //Water volum: 1000mL //Time: 20min


Test 3 //Water temperature: 10℃ //Water volum: 1500mL //Time: 30min

Test 4 //Water temperature: 80℃ //Water volum: 1500mL //Time: 30min

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Water deformation experiments //Water Temperature: 10°C

Volume: 1000ml

Volume: 1500ml

Volume: 2000ml

Volume: 1500ml

Volume: 2000ml

//Water Temperature: 10°C

Volume: 1000ml

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Water deformation experiments //Water Temperature: 10°C

Volume: 1000ml

Volume: 1500ml

Volume: 2000ml

Volume: 1500ml

Volume: 2000ml

//Water Temperature: 10°C

Volume: 1000ml

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// Connection between wrinkle and sphere cluster

In order to make bio-plastic sphere cluster a self-supporting construct material, we test to build small cluster to large cluster and even larger than a wall. We choose a small area from large wrinkle pattern and combine small sphere cluster together to make a larger one.

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// Variation of bio plastic wall

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// Variation of bio plastic wall

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// Sphere packing variation of bio plastic wall

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// Sphere packing variation of bio plastic wall // Sphere packing variation of bio plastic wall

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// Bio plastic wall on the light box

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// Wrinkle pattern of Bio plastic sphere cluster

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//Wrinkle protocols After studying the properties of the bio-plastic, fully understanding its production process and method, and strictly controlling its shape, we hope to apply the bio-plastic to the urban. On the one hand, we want to use its real and visible structural support performance, together with its biological and environmental protection performance, to metabolize waste, and produce healthy infrastructure which can be reused. On the other hand, we want to bring the vision about forces’ expansion and contraction from bioplastic’s wrinkle behavior, to redefine urban protocols. First, From the former deformation experiments and digital simulation, we found the rules of bio-plastic’s wrinkle deformation, that wrinkle pattern will dynamically change according to the amount of rainfall or temperature or input. It means that, the structures or urban infrastructure built by bio-plastic are flexible, fluctuant, and can be eventually degraded, whether through natural climate change or by adding some human power. Therefore, in the new bio-plastic metabolic system, there is a circulation of the input and output of the bio-plastic production. We attempt to use urban waste in an optimal way, reduce urban energy loss, and as far as possible to achieve the energy circulation. Meanwhile, by studying the wrinkle façade on building, we tried to use bio-plastic inflatable sphere together with wrinkle property in real scale. Combined with above waste data, we chose IKEA in East London, tried to build a fluctuant building skin, which is environmentally friendly, reusable, and can do the common evolution with nature, ecology in the future.

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// Tension A physical phenomenon named ‘expansion and contraction’ explains why bio-plastic can shrink. There are two forces altogether, including pushing forces and pulling forces, acting on it and making it a variable material. We can also understand such forces as ‘tension’. Same as the algorithm we are using to simulate the wrinkle pattern, ‘tension’ of the material become a key point to study. According to the traditional urban design theory, the city is considered to have a series of top-down hierarchies, which start from the region to the community to the street and then to the building etc. However, we can see the self-similar reproduction of the house in many traditional settlements, which is quite like the breeding of the biological creatures. The formation of this kind of city is considered as a self-organized formation, which embodies a bottom-up collective wisdom.Creatures, materials and objects serve as agents, through the computer program, can be better understood and hence to fit into the city morphogenesis.

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Tension _ Push and Pull definition | field lines catalog //2 points

attractor number: 2 field charge: + + force representative: push, push

attractor number: 2 field charge: + force representative: push, pull

attractor number: 2 field charge: + o force representative: push, push

attractor number: 2 field charge: - force representative: pull, pull

attractor number: 2 field charge: - o force representative: pull, push

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attractor number: 2 field charge: + + force representative: push, push

attractor number: 2 field charge: + force representative: push, pull

attractor number: 2 field charge: + o force representative: push, push

attractor number: 2 field charge: - force representative: pull, pull

attractor number: 2 field charge: - o force representative: pull, push


Push and Pull definition | field lines catalog //3 points

attractor number: 3 field charge: + - o force representative: push, pull, push

attractor number: 3 field charge: + - o force representative: push, pull, push

attractor number: 3 field charge: + + o force representative: push, push, push

attractor number: 3 field charge: + + o force representative: push, push, push

attractor number: 3 field charge: - - o force representative: pull, pull, push

attractor number: 3 field charge: - - o force representative: pull, pull, push

attractor number: 3 field charge: + o o force representative: push push push

attractor number: 3 field charge: + o o force representative: push push push

attractor number: 3 field charge: - o o force representative: pull, push, push

attractor number: 3 field charge: - o o force representative: pull, push, push

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// New vision to redefine urban protocol from material behaviors

Wrinkle, as the special behavior of bio-plastic, it shows the balance of pulling and pushing forces, which could extend to the new function of urban. We can redefine the urban by different vision, not by defining the streets, buildings or something else but by a view of tension. We can use the computer to simulate wrinkle’s expansion and contraction, and research how different strengths of different forces influence the patterns. And in order to explain the push and pull in the urban, we can do the field of material flow by digital simulation, the field lines are connected by negative and positive poles, it can represent the different tension, which means, nature elements, urban elements or any kind of flow can be translated to field lines. In this way, we can use the computer to simulate the flow of all the things in the urban, use information to dialogue with them, use the “tension� to find the rules of their existence, and then study the relationship within the urban. The wrinkle protocols determine relations, encounters and conflicts within the urban that seek new responses and construct new visions.

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Site 1 landuse type: industry 32% public 40% private 28%

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Data map: site 1 //wind direction //waste value

158


Field lines generation //wind direction //waste value

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// Wrinkle pattern dynamic change under material flow

In order to explain the pushing and pulling forces in the urban, we did the field of material flow. Field lines are connected by negative and positive poles, which can be used to represent different tension. Nature elements, urban elements or any kind of energy flow can be translated to field lines. This kind of new language, together with force of tension,close the gap between material and urban scale. We’ve found the rules of wrinkle deformation in the physical experiments means that the wrinkle pattern will dynamically change according to the amount of rainfall or temperature or input. Wrinkle pattern can be interpreted as the wrinkle growth or wrinkle deformation at different stages. Deformation tendency shows the similar result of the physical model. It is assumed that wrinkle can increase or decrease or biodegrade dynamically due to different external factors.

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Field lines density //lines numer //urban decay

lines number: 22 decay: 1.5

lines number: 36 decay: 1.6

collision strength: 2 length: 2 curve constrain range: 0.2

collision strength: 2 length: 2 curve constrain range: 0.2

lines number: 50 decay: 1.7

collision strength: 2 length: 2 curve constrain range: 0.2

lines number: 75 decay: 1.8

collision strength: 2 length: 2 curve constrain range: 0.2

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Wrinkle pattern test //curve constrain range //height

162

constrain elements: field lines curve constrain range: 0.1 size: 0.35 dimension: 90*60 height: 8.56 collision: 0.3 length: 1.0

constrain elements: field lines curve constrain range: 0.2 size: 0.35 dimension: 90*60 height: 8.87 collision: 0.3 length: 1.0

constrain elements: field lines curve constrain range: 0.3 size: 0.35 dimension: 90*60 height: 8.87 collision: 0.3 length: 1.0

constrain elements: field lines curve constrain range: 0.1 size: 0.35 dimension: 90*60 height: 8.05 collision: 0.3 length: 1.5

constrain elements: field lines curve constrain range: 0.2 size: 0.35 dimension: 90*60 height: 8.87 collision: 0.3 length: 1.5

constrain elements: field lines curve constrain range: 0.3 size: 0.35 dimension: 90*60 height: 8.87 collision: 0.3 length: 1.5


Wrinkle pattern test //curve constrain range //height

constrain elements: field lines curve constrain range: 0.1 size: 0.35 dimension: 90*60 height: 8.56 collision: 0.3 length: 1.0

constrain elements: field lines curve constrain range: 0.2 size: 0.35 dimension: 90*60 height: 8.87 collision: 0.3 length: 1.0

constrain elements: field lines curve constrain range: 0.3 size: 0.35 dimension: 90*60 height: 8.87 collision: 0.3 length: 1.0

constrain elements: field lines curve constrain range: 0.1 size: 0.35 dimension: 90*60 height: 8.05 collision: 0.3 length: 1.5

constrain elements: field lines curve constrain range: 0.2 size: 0.35 dimension: 90*60 height: 8.87 collision: 0.3 length: 1.5

constrain elements: field lines curve constrain range: 0.3 size: 0.35 dimension: 90*60 height: 8.87 collision: 0.3 length: 1.5

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Input Output circulation | dynamic biodegrade //input //waste transformation //material flow

collision strength: 1.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.5 wrinkle length: 0.10

collision strength: 1.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.5 wrinkle length: 0.15

collision strength: 1.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.5 wrinkle length: 0.20

collision strength: 1.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.5 wrinkle length: 0.25

collision strength: 1.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.5 wrinkle length: 0.30

collision strength: 1.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.5 wrinkle length: 0.35

collision strength: 1.5 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.5 wrinkle length: 0.10

collision strength: 1.5 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.5 wrinkle length: 0.15

collision strength: 1.5 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.5 wrinkle length: 0.30

collision strength: 1.5 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.5 wrinkle length: 0.35

collision strength: 1.5 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.5 wrinkle length: 0.20

collision strength: 2.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.2 wrinkle length: 0.10

collision strength: 2.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.2 wrinkle length: 0.15

collision strength: 2.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.2 wrinkle length: 0.20

collision strength: 2.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.2 wrinkle length: 0.25

collision strength: 2.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.2 wrinkle length: 0.30

collision strength: 2.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.2 wrinkle length: 0.35

collision strength: 2.5 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.2 wrinkle length: 0.10

collision strength: 2.5 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.2 wrinkle length: 0.15

collision strength: 2.5 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.2 wrinkle length: 0.25

collision strength: 2.5 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.2 wrinkle length: 0.30

collision strength: 2.5 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.2 wrinkle length: 0.35

collision strength: 2.5 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.2 wrinkle length: 0.20

164

collision strength: 1.5 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.5 wrinkle length: 0.25


Input Output circulation | dynamic biodegrade //input //waste transformation //material flow

collision strength: 2.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.1 wrinkle length: 0.10

collision strength: 2.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.1 wrinkle length: 0.15

collision strength: 2.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.1 wrinkle length: 0.20

collision strength: 2.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.1 wrinkle length: 0.25

collision strength: 2.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.1 wrinkle length: 0.30

collision strength: 2.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.1 wrinkle length: 0.35

collision strength: 3.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.1 wrinkle length: 0.10

collision strength: 3.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.1 wrinkle length: 0.15

collision strength: 3.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.1 wrinkle length: 0.20

collision strength: 3.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.1 wrinkle length: 0.25

collision strength: 3.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.1 wrinkle length: 0.30

collision strength: 3.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.1 wrinkle length: 0.35

collision strength: 1.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.1 wrinkle length: 0.10

collision strength: 1.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.1 wrinkle length: 0.15

collision strength: 1.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.1 wrinkle length: 0.20

collision strength: 1.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.1 wrinkle length: 0.25

collision strength: 1.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.1 wrinkle length: 0.30

collision strength: 1.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.1 wrinkle length: 0.35

collision strength: 2.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.4 wrinkle length: 0.10

collision strength: 2.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.4 wrinkle length: 0.15

collision strength: 2.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.4 wrinkle length: 0.20

collision strength: 2.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.4 wrinkle length: 0.25

collision strength: 2.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.4 wrinkle length: 0.30

collision strength: 2.0 constrain elements: field lines constrain range: 0.4 wrinkle length: 0.35

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// Height of wrinkle pattern represents value of waste

After analyzing the growth of different wrinkle pattern under different stages, we think it's a goog way to represent urban waste quantity. Large and higher wrinkle represent higher quantity of waste in this area. By using this method to evaluate waste level, we can classify different area and select which areas are suitable for the design. Organic waste is no more a waste byproduct of our urbanity. However, once it is used properly, it actually is the raw material of a new metabolic process.  The wrinkle protocols determine relations, encounters and conflicts within the urban that seek new responses and construct new visions. The section of wrinkle pattern of three stages can show the quantity clearly whilst crosssection of certain height gives us a clue of higher density area which suitable for constrction. We test two differnet height and it comes out totally different result of waste value.

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// Height of wrinkle pattern represents value of waste

Value 1

Value 2

Value 3

Value 4

Value 5

Value 6

Value 7

Value 8

Value 9

Value 10

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// Wrinkle data

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// Waste value of wrinkle height

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// Wrinkle density

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// High wrinkle density areas

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//Wrinkle Facade study Sphere could shape the liquid bio-plastic into the solid structure,we also did a series of experiment to confirm its ability of self-supporting.This kind of shaping method gives bio-plastic itself could be the bonding agent in order to cennect multiple bio-plastic unit. Using this method, the combination of bio-plastic sphere cluster could be a real structure as a building material. Bio-plastic wall with wrinkle pattern can be used as the facade of architecture. Here we choose building of Bartlett as the design object to test the wrinkle facade. Wrinkle pattern of different stages shows the result of changing dynamicly. We also test different cover methods and presenting methods.

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// Facade study

wrinkle pattern in vertical line

wrinkle pattern in contour line

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Wrinkle Facade dynamic change //cover without corridor

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

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Wrinkle Facade dynamic change //Covered windows

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

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// Wrinkel pattern facade

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// Wrinkel pattern facade

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// Vertical parallel blinds of wrinkel pattern

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// Vertical parallel blinds of wrinkel pattern

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// Facade study application

IKEA is the landmark building in the site and it also locates in the center of Lee valley. IKEA've partnered with a number of charities who will try to give customers old furniture a new life with local families in need of some support. If not reusable, furniture will be disassembled and recycled with the lowest environmental impact. So we can easily get construction material and housing waste from nearby area.

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// Facade study of IKEA

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// Facade study of IKEA

basic grid: 120*40

basic grid: 120*40

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// Facade study of IKEA

basic grid:240*80

basic grid:240*80

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Sphere packing facade

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Sphere packing facade

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Appendix

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(Flo Hucault, Zero Waste at Home)

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London’s household waste performance

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Supermarket distribution map high density media density low density

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Restaurant distribution map high density media density low density

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Residential Density map

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Water in leaves Band math expression: (B8-B11)/(B8+B11) B8: NIR B11: SWIR

normalized difference water index

// Mapping of Natural Metabolic Waste As for natural metabolic waste, we mainly focus on leaf pollution. By using ESA map, the most density areas can be located in the whole London. Then we narrowed down the area to Lea valley as it has the most severe natural metabolic waste pollution. After that, several natural features like wind, water flow and waste transportation routes are parameters that affecting the location of fallen leaves. As this waste is the main resource of the bio-plastic inputs, the final positions of fallen leaves are the places where produce bio-plastic. Plus, Workshop operation model can be introduced to the site to let community get involved in bio-plastic production.

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//Leaves density extracting process

Grid: 149*105

Grid: 74*52

Grid: 37*26

Grid: 29*21

Grid: 21*15

Grid: 18*13

Grid: 49*35

Grid: 24*17

Grid: 16*11

//Leave density extracting process After define the areas that produce leave waste, a grid was introduced into the site to help extract the most severe areas that suffer from leaves waste. By increase the size of cells within grids, points that represent leaves location can be extracted through this procedure.

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Leaves distribution map leaves location

201


Wind statistics in London

N

NNW

NNW

NNE

NW

NE

N

NW

N

NNW

NNE

NNE

NW

NE

NE

WNW

ENE

WNW

ENE

WNW

ENE

W

E

W

E

W

E

WSW

ESE

WSW

ESE

WSW

ESE

SE

SW SSW

S

SSW

January

NNW

N

NNE

NNW NE ENE

W

E

WSW

ESE

S

NE ENE

W

E

WSW

ESE

SSE

SSW

February

NNW

N

S

NW

NNW NE

N

NW

WSW

ESE

WSW

ESE

SE

SSW

NE ENE

W

E

WSW

ESE

S

SE

SW SSW

SSE

NW

NNW NE ENE

W

E

WSW

ESE SE

SW SSE

NE

WNW

ENE

W

E

WSW

ESE SE

SW SSW

S August

SSE

NNE

NW

NNE

NW

WNW

S

N

NNW N

SSE

November

July

March

NNE

NNE

WNW

SE

SW

SSE

N

NE

E

SW

SSE

S

NW

W

April

SE

NNW

E

S

ESE

NNE

W

SSW

WSW

October

ENE

N

E

SSW

WNW

NNW

W

SSE

ENE

S

ENE

SW

WNW

SSW

NE

June

NNE

NNE

WNW

SE

SW

N

NW

WNW

SE

S

NNW

NNE

NW

WNW

SW

N

SSE

September

May

NW

SSW

SSW

SSE

S

SE

SW

SE

SW

SSE

NE

WNW

ENE

W

E

WSW

ESE SE

SW SSW

S

SSE

December

Statistics based on observations taken between 09/2009 - 01/2017 daily from 7am to 7pm local time. You can order the raw wind and weather data in Excel format from our historical weather data request page. This is the wind, wave and weather statistics for London City Airport in England, United Kingdom. Windfinder specializes in wind, waves, tides and weather reports & forecasts for wind related sports like kitesurfing, windsurfing, surfing, sailing or paragliding. The wind statistics are based on real observations from the weather station at London City Airport. You can also order the raw wind and weather data on our historical weather data request page (for example for an insurance case, to better plan your vacation etc). The arrows point in the direction that the wind is blowing.

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Wind distribution map wind force wind direction

203


London waste disposal map

Waste Sites of all Facility Type

204

Waste Sites (>30,000 tonnage/year)

Waste Sites (>10,000 tonnage/year)


Waste disposal station

//waste disposal station According to waste disposal station location, the transportation flow map indicate the possible track of bio-plastic transportation. Areas that close to the transportation flow should be given the priority to make bio-plastic production happen.

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Wrinkle simulation

Wrinkle simulation //wrinkle on site //resolution 8 //wrinkle on site //leave density

//resolution:8 //leave density + waste disposal area

//wrinkle simulation –leave density Based on final fallen leaves location, the wrinkle pattern simulation on site demonstrate where the bio-plastic production take place. Different resolution map represent different quantity of bio- plastic production.

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Wrinkle simulation simulation Wrinkle //wrinkle on site

//wrinkle on 8site //resolution //waste disposal area //resolution:8 //leave density + waste disposal area

//wrinkle simulation –waste disposal area Based on waste disposal area, the wrinkle pattern simulation on site demonstrate where the bioplastic production take place. Different resolution map represent different quantity of bio-plastic production.

207


// wrinkle simulation --leave density + waste disposal area Combining leave density map and waste disposal area, the wrinkle pattern simulation on site demonstrate where the bio-plastic production take place. Different resolution map represent different quantity of bio-plastic production.

208


Water flow rain water flow trace

209


//Case study of bioQs workshop In order to combine our project with the site better, we want to really apply the bio-plastic to the city genuinely. We hoped that the bio-plastic can not only exist as a structure, but also change people's way of life. We chose one operation case study about bioQs Workshop. The reason why we chose this institution is that the operation of it is positive and healthy. It collects discarded wood products in the community, factory or shopping mall, and provides equipment, technology and space. As long as people become the members and pay the fee regularly, they can use the discarded wood products for creation there, whether it is furniture or ornaments. For bioQs, all the steps there are organic, which means it can reuse the waste and improve people's attitude towards life. Therefore, we tried to learn from its operation, and put our bio-plastic into people's lives. We hoped that in the future study, we can more precisely control the impact factors of bio-plastic form, so that the various forms of plastic data We hope that in the future study, we can more precisely control the impact of plastic form factors, so that we can make the various forms of bio-plastic digitization. Then, we bring our project into the community in the form of workshop, people can bring their own kitchen waste, according to our production process, do the bio-plastic creation.

210


211


Partical simulation

212


Partical simulation

213


Output simulation of Robot

214


Test of Robot wrinkle drawing

Final wrinkle drawing of Robotic Arm

215


Output simulation of Robot

216


Test of Robot

217


Output simulation of Robot

218


Test of Robot

219


// Wrinkle structure in landscape scale

220


// Shrink forces of bio-plastic on linear structure

221


222


With the completion of the deformation test, we found that varying degrees of collapse and different types of wrinkle pattern in the digital simulation can coincide and correspond.

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