Andrey Yushkov Editor-in-Chief of ARMS
t is a great honor to me to remind you that this year we will celebrate the 70th Anniversary of Normandie-Niemen Regiment creation, which fought successfully for French and Russian independence during World War II. We have to commemorate the cherished memory of soldiers who struggled and gave their lives in order to give the freedom for our nations from fascist plague. During that difficult period, our nations were together. So, it will be right, if we will say that this date is a symbolic for military and technical cooperation between Russia and France, united by Arms brotherhood. It is a pleasure to mention that nowadays the military and technical cooperation between our two countries develops in multilateral and continuous way. Only two years ago on EuroSatory-2010 Exhibition an agreement on licensed production of thermal imaging devices in Russian Vologda optical-andmechanical plant â€œVOMZâ€? was signed. Currently, we can see that it is a modern and dynamically developing production. This is not the only example. Our countries are linked by longterm productive cooperation in the field of space exploration for peaceful purposes. In 2012 the French Guiana Kourou Space Centre will start the launches of Russian Soyuz-type rockets. It will carry into orbit the satellites and other space vehicles for peaceful space exploration. This magazine, related to EuroSatory-2012 International Exhibition will hopefully introduce our readers with Russian Defense Industry projects as well as with some aspects of cooperation between our countries in the field of high technologies. Bonjour! Bonjour!
C O N T E N T S
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ROSOBORONEXPORT promotes Thales in Vologda
PUBLISHING HOUSE MOSCOW
Director General Valeriy Stolnikov Deputy Director General Vladislav Prischenko Marketing Director Leonid Belyaev
VOMZ & Thales Cooperation
Space exploration in a Russian manner
REPRESENTATIVE OFFICE IN SANKT-PETERBURG Commercial Director Anna Ogneva Editor-in-Chief of A4 Press Publishing Alexander Diachenko Editor-in-Chief of ARMS Andrey Yushkov Editors Denis Kungurov Vladimir Rechmensky Designers Maria Marakulina Alena Kurtova Photographer Sergey Voronin Print manager Olesya Lazareva GRAPHIC ARTS Photo JSC Corcern ''Granit-Electron'', Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, www.army.lv, www.shipspotting.com. Circulation: 5000 The magazine is registered in the Committee for Press of the Russian Federation. Certificate № 016692 as of 20.10.1997. Certificate № 77-15450 as of 19.05.2003. Any material in this publication may not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher. The editorial staff’s opinion does not necessarily coincide with that of the authors. Advertisers bear responsibility for the content of provided materials.
ARMS, 2012 ADDRESS 58/10, Leningradskoe Shosse, Moscow, 125057, Russia Tel.: + 7 495 459 90 72 Fax.: + 7 495 459 60 42 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Office 1V, 2/6, Moskovsky prospect, Saint Petersburg, 190031, Russia Tel.: +7 812 310-47-35 Tel./fax: +7 812 310-61-46
Weapons 10 NIMI improves tank ammunition 12 Kalashnikov is More Than Just an Automatic Rifle, it is Truly a Miracle
20 Spektr6E software/ hardware complex 24 GkNIPAS innovative developments: ammunition against terrorists and helicopters
BUSINESS 28 One Billion For Malaysian Sky
SHIPBUILDING 32 Russian Navy’s White Elephants 36 Conventional Submarines in Nuclear World 44 The age of extensive confrontation
www.interarms.ru p. 28
RUSSIA AND FRANCE
ROSOBORONEXPORT PROMOTES THALES IN VOLOGDA What is the status of another project announced before and related to QWIP matrix technology-based thermal imaging devices production in Russia? — Currently, this project is at the level of coordination – the advisory procedures concerning ways of program realization are performing. What perspectives are expected within the military-technical cooperation between Russia and France? How can the experience in the field of high tech cooperation be an example for realization of announced State programs on innovative development of our country?
ROSOBORONEXPORT Deputy Director General Igor Sevastyanov for ARMS magazine hat results have been achieved during the last two years within the framework of RussianFrench joint innovative project on licensed production of thermal imaging optical devices?
— The Vologda optical-and-mechanical plant “VOMZ” started licensed production of new “Catherine FS” thermal imagers. Besides that, the new modern service centre for its maintenance was created. All works are performing within the frames of State Defense Order 4
ARMS Defence Technologies Review
and foreign customers requirements. All facilities are employing due to acceptable volume of production. What results in the nearest future are expected from this project? What about plans related further development of this project? — We will continue the further development of cooperation in this direction, including increase of transferred technologies localization depth. It is expected that a number of contracts will be signed during the “Eurosatori-2012” Exhibition.
— Cooperation between Russian Federation and France is developing dynamically. We work in-touch with all French large manufacturers in different directions, including land-based projects. Licensed production of thermal imaging devices in Vologda is a good example of foreign technologies implementation, especially in lagging industries. Furthermore, we want to build our relations not only in “Seller – Customer” way, but we hope also for high-scaled cooperation. It will include the Joint Research and Development projects as well as the modern equipment development for third countries. Russia has all required technologies, scientific and industrial facilities for this partnership.
RUSSIA AND FRANCE
RUSSIA AND FRANCE Inaugurationof «Catherine-FC» Licensed Production Center at VOMZ
VOMZ & THALES COOPERATION Aleksandr Korshunov, General Directorof VOMZ, JSC
ARMS Defence Technologies Review
SC "Vologda opticaland-mechanical plant». is one of the most up-todate enterprises of defense industry complex of the Russian Federation, it specializes in production of sophisticated optic-mechanical and optic-electronic devices for military and civil purposes, upgrading, and new products developing. In October 2011 VOMZ celebrated its 40th anniversary. Within four decades VOMZ gained a firm reputation of a safe and reliable partner both in Russia and abroad. Cooperation between VOMZ &
Thales – one of the world leaders in higher technologies at a defense market – started in 2006. Trial supply of thermal imaging cameras «CatherineFC» was the first step in establishing a long term business partnership. The first negotiations for organization of «Catherine-FC» Maintenance and Repair Center on the basis of VOMZ were held with participation of FSUE “ROSOBORONEXPORT”. VOMZ & Thales specialists had to do a lot for creation well-developed infrastructure since: providing the Center with non-standard equipment, production startup of this equipment,
RUSSIA AND FRANCE supply of component parts and necessary technical documentation. Close cooperation with French partners allowed VOMZ, JSC to inaugurate the «Catherine FC» Maintenance and Repair Center on October, 15 2008. Success of Maintenance Center foundation inspired VOMZ to intensify business partnership with French company “Thales” At International Exhibition “Russian ExpoArms-2009” in Nizhniy Tagil with participation FSUE “ROSOBORONEXPORT” Memorandum of establishing the only thermal imaging camera licensed production in Russia was signed. Inauguration of thermal imaging camera «Catherine FC» assembly section was held at Vologda optical-and-mechanical plant on July, 9 2010. Thermal imaging camera «Catherine-FC» is applied in sights “ESSA”, “PLISSA”, “Sosna-U” for T-90, T-80, T-72 tanks. Members of Ministry of industry and commerce, JCS “ROSOBORONEXPORT”, State Corporation “Russian Technologies”, participated in the ceremony of inauguration. French delegation was headed by the Ambassador of France Jean de Gliniasty, mayor of Elancourt Jean-Michel Fourgous, and general director of «Thales» company JeanJacques Guittard. «Thales» company started working in Russia in 1975, and partnership with VOMZ cleared the way to new production spheres. This cooperation is not only an adoption of new production processes of innovative devices, but also guaranteed orders for VOMZ. French specialists as well as users themselves have confirmed that VOMZ products conform fully to international standards in quality and technical characteristics. The 100-th «Catherine-FC» thermal imaging camera was assembled and certificated in October 2011. The new «Catherine-XP» (next generation) Licensed Production contract is to be signed at international salon «EUROSATORY-2012». Such collaboration is a fine example of mutually beneficial partnership between Russian and French companies.
RUSSIA AND FRANCE
SPACE EXPLORATION IN A RUSSIAN MANNER Some of the world market industries use specific innovative equipment, and the Russian manufacturers maintain their stable positions in this field. Moreover, often they become technological “trend-makers”. Joint Stock Company “Cryogenmash” is one of such Russian enterprises that historically became one of the world industrial and scientific leaders. The brightest historical landmarks of the company innovative activity are referred to space projects. Furthermore, the space experience allows the company to use its skills in production of exclusive alternative equipment which has a high export rate. All above mentioned words proof that the country goes on with the development of national abilities in machine-building innovative industries.
Guiana Space Centre
SPACE INNOVATOR owadays JSC "Cryogenmash” is one of the largest Russia`s air separation technologies and equipment manufacturer, industrial gas supplier and developer of integrated projects on associated, natural and liquefied natural gas (LNG) conversion. 80 percent of annual industrial gas volume in Russia is producing on Cryogenmash equipment. The company delivers up to 40 percent of its equipment for export. A little knowledge of Cryogenmash history will be enough to know that its activity at all times was linked to development of high technologies in Russia. A number of large-scale national industrial programs and breakthrough projects have been realized due to direct participation of the company. They are: the implementation of oxygen steelmaking technology, the large-scale chemistry and superconductivity technologies development, the design of innovative equipment for LNG production and so on.
ARMS Defence Technologies Review
The company is proud of its participation in space projects, especially in design of liquid propellant loading systems for space rockets. Propellant loading and thermal conditioning systems designed by Cryogenmash operate at Russian Plesetsk and Baikonur launching sites as well as at Indian ISRO (Centre SHAR) upper stage cryogenic support system, liquid oxygen loading and thermal conditioning system at “Sea Launch” project (USA), KSLV start-up thermal conditioning system (the South Korea). In October, 2011 the equipment designed by Cryogenmash was successful during the first launch of “SoyuzSTB” boost rocket at Guiana Kourou Space Centre. The rocket delivered two spacecraft for Galileo European satellite navigation system. The Guiana Kourou Space Centre (Centre Spatial Guyanais) is located North-Eastward of South America, at a distance of 50 km from the capital of Guiana – Cayenne. The company gained its worldwide recognition due to participation in Galileo international project. Besides European Union, the following countries joined the project: China, Israel, the South Korea, Ukraine and Russia. It is expected that Galileo project will start its operation within the period from 2014 till 2016, when 30 satellites (27 operational and 3 stand-by satellites) will be carried into orbit. It is planned that the Kourou Space Centre will be the main launching site for this project. The new constructed Soyuz launching complex in Guiana Space Centre is one of the most up-todate complexes in the world. Its liquid oxygen and nitrogen storage and loading system designed by Cryogenmash
is the best one in its class. Equipment designed by Cryogenmash is operating not only at space launching sites. The cryovacuum complexes manufactured by this company support the thermo vacuum tests of spacecraft large assemblies and units with simulation of space conditions. One of them is the largest Europe`s space simulator with volume of 10 000m³. Cryogenmash has equipped the Russian testing centers with a number of cryovacuum and vacuum chambers for testing the airlock and egress systems, crew salvage devices, space suits, as well as for preflight training of spacecraft crews and flight personnel. ENERGETIC BURAN The Cryogenmash specialists say that the largest project of their company in space industry was the liquid hydrogen and oxygen cryogenic storage and loading systems complex designed for Energia rocket-based system with Buran shuttle spacecraft. The complex provided the storage of 4 600 ton of liquid oxygen and 370 ton of liquid hydrogen, as well as hydrogen cooling to 16.5 Kelvin degree and oxygen cooling to 79 Kelvin degree, and cryostatting of spacecraft propellant tanks during loading and pre-launch preparation procedures. Solution of this problem became real after use of unique spherical tanks with volume of 1 400 m³, as well as use of unique high efficiency heat exchanger with capillary-porous coating and ejector devices. Cryogenmash projects became worldwide known due to specific character of its scientific and high technology products. Furthermore, participation in na-
RUSSIA AND FRANCE tional programs at all times was a good catalyst for company development. For example, the works on Energia/ Buran project allowed Cryogenmash JSC to get a global unique experience in development and manufacture of cryohydrogen equipment. Works on Soviet TOKAMAKs and other projects for fundamental sciences enriched the company`s experience in development of helium equipment. It is clear that such projects require an ad hoc approach, especially taking into account the fact that Cryogenmash is not the assemble plant tasked to realize someone`s drafts. The company develops each type of its equipment providing the complex scientific-experimental operational cycle, including its construction, testing and manufacture. FOREVER UNIQUE The review of Cryogenmash activity shows us that the company at all times was a unique Russian machine-building enterprise. It is capable to produce equipment that could be produced only by a small number of companies in the world. As an example, the liquid helium, hydrogen and rare gases are related to elite trends of world cryogenics and indicate the level of country`s technological development. Cryogenmash doesn`t have any serial production because all equipment produced by this manufacturer is high technological and unique. Creation of such equipment requires large investments. In 2008, shortly before the global economic crisis, the Cryogenmash Joint Stock Company joined the Gazprombank group. This event saved the company during the crises as its main customers were the metallurgy and large-scale chemistry enterprises which suffered from global crises more than other companies and that resulted in cancellation of their investments in high tech equipment. Started by Cryogenmash, but cancelled by its customers, the projects became problematic for the company. In this situation Gazprombank helped the company to provide regular financing. In recent years the situation in world market improved. In 2011, the number of signed contracts in contrast with 2009 increased by ten times. In 2012, the company estimates that the total volume of sales will be more than 4 billion
Rubles, it 1.5 times higher than in 2007 pre-crises year. The current order portfolio maintained by Cryogenmash is at the rate of 5 billion Rubles. ON THE WAY OF DEVELOPMENT The technological evolution of Cryogenmash is on the fast track. The company established as an oxygen plant, after a while launched its own equipment manufacture in order to provide the industrial gas production. It helped the company to break the monopoly of foreign manufacturers. Moreover, with the passage of time the foreign manufacturers began to use the conceptual ideas of Peter L. Kapitsa, realized by enterprise designers and technologists. In addition, we have to say that Cryogenmash at all times used advanced innovative equipment. Currently, the company modernizes its air separation manufacture as it is the largest power consumer at the enterprise. As experts say, the up-to-date air separation equipment designed by Cryogenmash have better characteristics of energy efficiency than the ones operated from 15 to 20 years or in some cases – from 30 to 40 years. As a result, the government can get additional economic benefit that could save the funds for building of a large power station. At the same time the company develops its new markets. Recently, a number of low/large-capacity liquid natural gas generators have been designed. These units are capable to provide sufficient LNG equipment of typical projects supply in order to provide the outlying settlements and low-capacity energy industry by natural gas. Another ongoing typical project is a loading and liquid LNG generating systems for heavy carriers. It is expected that above mentioned systems will be used by Russian oil and gas companies. Besides that, Cryogenmash continue to develop the new generation ozone plants. In the short term, the preproduction model will be designed, and introduction of this equipment into the world market will begin. It is wrong belief that LNG equipment designed by Cryogenmash can be used only abroad. In Russian town of Primorsk, for example, Cryogenmash constructed the LNG intake, storage and regasification complex for isolat-
ed production of electric (5.6 mW) and heat energy (6.0 mW) in light oils export terminal. The complex includes the LNG storage with total volume of 330 m³ which consists of three reservoirs with volume of 63 m³ and two modular storage systems with volume of 63 m³, covered by expansion coil, heating units, pipe lines and reinforcing wires that provides the terminal power equipment with regular natural gas supply. The similar equipment was delivered for Igora fitness centre in Leningrad region. The company managers say that nowadays Cryogenmash offers not only its equipment but also can provide “onsite” delivery. It means that the company along with plant or unit construction provides all operations concerning equipment use by long-term contract which includes such points as industrial gases sale – oxygen, nitrogen, argon and so on. Realization of two similar projects already started, another one is at the level of construction. According to new contracts, the company will deliver large-scale cryogenic air separation systems for Novolipetsk Steel Company (NLMK companies group), VIZ-Stal Limited Liability Company (NLMK companies group), Donetsk Metallurgical Plant and Rosneft plants. Within the framework of the new generation TOKAMAK creation large-scale ITER international project, Cryogenmash provides the design of vacuum chambers for test of new TOKAMAK units which to be delivered for participating countries. Within the last year a number of largescale projects have been realized. The new complex of oil refinery and petrochemical plants in Nizhnekamsk (TANEKO) was equipped by two Ad-16 cryogenic air separation systems with internal compression of products and capable to produce up to 16 000 m³ of nitrogen per hour by each unit. Yuri Sokolov
Gas-holders of Liquid Oxygen and Nitrogen at Guiana Space Centre
WEAPONS Sergey Rusakov, Director General Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Mechanical Engineering Research Institute”
NIMI IMPROVES TANK AMMUNITION
he Tehmash stand at Russia’s exposition displays,among other various types of ammunition, a 125 mm tank ammunition suit and munitions for the BMP-3 IFV developed by the Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Mechanical Engineering Research Institute”(NIMI). As Sergey Rusakov, Enterprise Director-General, said “the choice of products on display is determined by their prospective promotion to the Middle East countries operating a large fleet of Soviet - and Russian-buil anks and now very anxious to acquire Russian armor”. According to him, the prospective customers will soon be offered an upgraded tank ammunition load developed by NIMI, “In terms of reliability, effectiveness and lethality our ammunition compares to the world’s best counterparts. This is 10
ARMS Defence Technologies Review
attained thanks to very rigorous Russian standards operative in the area of artillery rounds development and due to developers’ rich expertise,”
S.Rusakov noted. He said that NIMI is developing a new generation of tank ammunition both tor standard and upgraded tanks.
WEAPONS Close to completion is development of new rounds with cargo projectiles for field artillery. A new generation of 100 and 130 mm rounds is being developed tor naval artillery. Sergey Rusakov pointed out that recently NIMI has been working intensely on a program of a comprehensive restoration of inservice standard ammunitions. “We have been doing such work for the Russian army over the last few years. Talks are underway with various customers for modernization of ammunition”, he said. In the 80 years of its existence NIMI has developed more than 1.000 models of ammunition, many of which still serve with scores of armies across the world. Twelve licenses have been sold to foreign countries for 9 types of ammunition developed by the Institute. The rounds developed by NIMI feature the highest reliability. Today NIMI is the principal supplier of production ammunition in Russia The main types now in productionare subcaliber armor piercing rounds, multi-role shaped-charge rounds, high explosive fragmentation rounds, including extended range models with basebleed units, anti-aircraft and anti-ASM rounds, cargo rounds, communications-jammer rounds, special purpose rounds for illumination and smoke laying, and civil use rounds for protection against hail. Today NIMI offers the following to foreign customers:
- delivery of modern rounds for 125 mm tank and antitank guns, for BMP IFV 100 mm guns, for 122, 130 and 152 mm field artillery, and for 100 and 130 mm naval artillery systems: - transfer of licenses for production of rounds; - technical aid in organizing the production and operation of rounds; - modernization of rounds, and NIMIdeveloped products for use m an expanded temperature range; - co-development of rounds to meet
customer requirements, including 155 mm caliber rounds; - development of new types of weapons, such as intellectual engineering ammunition with cargo cluster warheads: the Institute’s technology and services in comprehensive restoration of ammunition with expired shelf life (inspection of stocks, study on ammunitions’ conditions, selection of repair method, rounds upgrade, organization of repair facilities, replacement of rounds’ individual components, extension of rounds’ guaranteed shelf life and operational life). As exports go, NIMI Institute plans to work on: - a new generation of rounds for the main fleet of inservice tanks; - cluster rounds for field standard 152 mm caliber artillery systems; - high-precision rounds for standard 152 mm field artillery systems. - a new generation of rounds for naval artillery systems.
FSUE “NIMI” www.nimi.su e-mail: email@example.com Tel.: + 7 (495) 459-99-00 Fax: + 7 (495) 452-14-06
KALASHNIKOV IS MORE THAN JUST AN AUTOMATIC RIFLE, IT IS TRULY A MIRACLE As we say the IZHMASH, we think the ‘Kalashnikov’ in fact. However, the famous Russian arms factory, which has marked its 205th anniversary, does not imply solely Kalashnikov automatic rifles. The IZHMASH research and manufacturing association produces a wide range of small arms, which are capable of successfully handling tough challenges, not only those that are to be faced by the mass army, but also by the special forces and police. At present, the manufacture includes small arms put into service in more than 100 countries worldwide. The interest from abroad in the unique weapon by IZHMASH is fairly well-founded. Saiga 12
he Kalashnikov rifle has stopped to be simply a weapon, as it has become a cult object. It has been copied, cloned, imitated, it is pictured on state emblems; you may encounter poems, songs, limericks composed, and jokes told about it, too. For example, Dmitry Rogozin, Russian Deputy Prime Minister, who visited the IZHMASH recently could not restrain himself from telling Mikhail Kalashnikov an anecdote that he had often heard while working in the office of the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Russia to NATO: “Nowadays, optimists learn English, pessimists learn Chinese, and realists learn how to operate the Kalashnikov rifle”. As the saying goes, behind every joke there is some truth. Despite the fact that mass production of ‘Kalashnikov series’
ARMS Defence Technologies Review
was started by IZHMASH in as early as 1949, good knowledge of operating this rifle is most useful for any fighter in any country in our days, too. Rumors saying that the Kalashnikov has become obsolete are rather premature. All ingenious is simple and durable. The idea behind the creation of this weapon will survive decades to come. This weapon is so simple and convenient that no one has managed so far to outgo the parameters of durability, reliability, combined with accuracy high enough for battle fire conditions. Moreover, after 1949 this weapon was modernized several times and became the basis for a large unified family of small arms, which earned the best reviews around the world. Modification of the AK never stops, which implies its constant development and improvement. Today, the AK family of weapons meets all pos-
sible expectations of army and police troopers. The main generally acknowledged advantages of Kalashnikov rifles: - Trouble-free operation in difficult operating conditions (low or high temperatures, pollution, high humidity, etc.); - Durability; - Ease of operation, assembly and disassembly of weapons; - Prompt activation of shooting mode and reloading; - Ease of deployment, maintenance and repair; - Accessibility of the main parts and mechanisms facilitating a checkup, cleaning, lubrication and preparation to fire. AK and AKS automatic rifles (more commonly known worldwide as the AK47 and AKS-47) used with the intermediate - or automatic rifle’s - 7.62x39
WEAPONS KALASHNIKOVS OF FOURTH GENERATION
cartridge were the first generation of ‘Kalashnikov series’ weapons. As a result of the modernization of weapons with regard to improving performance, accuracy of fire and manufacturability, the second generation came into being, featuring the AKM, AKMS automatic rifles. In 1974, the third generation of ‘Kalashnikov series’ weapons entered the service, represented by AK74, AKS74 automatic rifles, RPK74, RPKS74 hand machine-guns and their modifications featuring the 5.45x39 automatic rifle cartridge, which allowed boosting quite much the ballistic characteristics of the weapon. The beginning of the fourth generation was laid by the AK74M 5.45-mm automatic rifle adopted by the Russian army in 1993. Being equipped with a folding plastic buttstock and the side bar to set the day and night optical sights upon, AK74M is capable of replacing the AK74, AKS74, AK74N1, AKS74N1 automatic rifles. The main advantages of AK fourth generation automatic rifles, compared to their predecessors (both of domestic production and foreign-made similar weapons), are as follows: - Increased strength of the locking device allows the use of newly developed higher-impact ammunition; - Left-folding buttstock provides the convenience of handling the weapons while in movement on the march, in
transport and airborne operations. Among other improvements to the design of automatic rifles in the years that came, we can mention the increase in the barrel and receiver rigidity, the introduction of lock at the return spring guide rail, holding the receiver cover from spontaneous separation at firing with the under-barrel grenade launcher. The fourth generation includes the AK74M automatic rifle modifications, Kalashnikov automatic rifles of the ‘one hundredth’ series tailored for the bullets 7.62*39, 5.45*39 and 5.56*45, developed also in the early 90s. The first one in the ‘one hundredth’ series was an AK101 automatic rifle (Index 6P43), made to be used with the 5.56*45 NATO cartridge. Its compact ‘companion’, the AK102 (Index 6P44), featuring a shortened barrel, was significantly more unified with the ‘long-barreled’ gun than in the case of AKS74U and AKS74 automatic rifles of the previous generation. This advantage is fully applicable to the AK105 small-sized automatic rifles (Index 6P47) for 5.45*39, and the AK104 (Index 6P46) chambered for 7.62*39, the ‘bigger brother’ of which, the AK103 automatic rifle (Index 6P45) replaces the old AKM, the popularity of which among consumers has consistently remained the same, but at a new level of technology. The refinement of the automatic rifle complex was conducted on sever-
al fronts: the cartridge together with JSC ‘Barnaul Cartridge Plant’ and FSUE ‘TSNIITOCHMASH’; the use of different types of sights (optical, optoelectronic and collimating), as well as the joint use of existing rifle grenade launchers and grenades to them, including the prospective ones. As a result of this work, we can speak about a new generation of not only automatic rifles but also the gun and grenade launcher complexes and ‘cartridge-weapon-sight’ complexes. This complexity makes a significant
Mikhail Kalashnikov Legendary Russian Constructor of the assault rifles.
Performance Characteristics of automatic rifles, ‘one hundredth’ series Automatic rifle
Weight with empty magazine, kg
Weight with loaded magazine, kg
Weight of empty magazine, kg
Length without bayonet-knife with unfolded buttstock, mm
Barrel length, mm
Length of sight radius, mm
Muzzle velocity, m per sec
Rate of fire, rounds per min
Combat rate of fire, rounds per min
40 / 100
40 / 100
40 / 100
40 / 100
40 / 100
Accurate firing range, m
Range of direct shots at a target of 50 cm
Magazine capacity, rounds
WEAPONS difference between the ‘one hundredth’ series of Izhevsk automatic rifles and the ‘clones’ offered in the market by various foreign manufacturers, including those who do not have an agreement on production of Kalashnikov automatic rifles. The ‘one hundredth’ series automatic rifles aroused wide interest in such security forces as the Interior Ministry, FSS and border troops. The appearance of these automatic rifles has attracted considerable interest among foreign customers, too. The US famous weapons expert Peter J. Kokalis, after having acquainted with the innovations of ‘one hundredth’ series, could not help noting that they ‘represent a reasonable improvement of the world’s most popular automatic rifle, the design of which has proved a thousand times its reliability and survivability at the battlefields of numerous wars’.
The fighting properties of Izhevsk automatic rifles can be seen from the following example. In autumn 2011, in the premises of the State Demonstration and Testing Center of the FSUE ‘TSNIITOCHMASH’ in the suburban Klimovsk, Moscow Region, comparative tests of the AK 74M automatic rifle were conducted versus its foreign counterparts - M16A1 and M16A4 assault rifles, by riflemen of different skills. We found that the rifle M16A1 had an advantage over the AK 74M in single shooting at a stationary (inactive, with no lateral movement) target, due to the greater length of the barrel (about 100 mm) and sighting line, dioptric sighting device, better parameters of ammunition fire accuracy. However, when shooting with red-dot sight AK 74M showed almost equal results with the rifle M16A1; and yet in close battle the
promptness of laying the gun and opening fire can be much more vital than accuracy, demonstrated in the shooting range. For all other checks - burst shooting, shooting in various difficult conditions, the AK 74M had a clear advantage over similar products. With respect to reliability, especially in difficult shooting conditions, practice has put everything in its place a long ago; you have to admit that the reliability of the system, even the latest versions of the M16 has not got any closer to that of the AK system. The same advantages apply to the long-barrel automatic rifles of the ‘one hundredth’ series. As for small-size specimens, then you can expect a certain equality. Suffice it to say that the rifle M16A1 loses in accuracy of burst fire versus its short-barreled ‘clone’ M4 (M4A1). Performance Characteristics of automatic rifles, ‘one hundredth’ series
NIKONOV AUTOMATIC RIFLE
Under present conditions, an important factor in fire fighting is the ability to defeat the enemy with the first short and precise burst. Professional studies have shown that the solution of this complex problem might be brought about through a 5-10 increase in the accuracy of fire bursts from unstable positions: walking, standing, kneeling, with no supports. In 1994, Gennady N. Nikonov, design engineer of IZHMASH, managed to solve this difficult problem. His automatic rifle with a fundamentally innovative scheme of off-set recoil momentum has been adopted for use under a ‘Nikonov 5.45-mm automatic rifle of 1994’ or AN 94 designation. The AN 94 automatic rifle features a gas engine for automation and locking system with a rotating bolt. The design separates the firing unit and casing, and the firing unit is installed in the casing under the ‘gun-carriage’ pattern. The weapon features three types of fire. When firing a fixed burst, the firing unit gets into its rearmost position after two rounds, done at a high rate (1,800 rounds per min), and the bullets leave the barrel before the automatic rifle shifts, influenced by the recoil force. It is also possible to conduct single shots and burst firing at a normal rate of fire (600 rounds per min). 14
ARMS Defence Technologies Review
The reliable operation of the feeding ‘ahead of the rest’, and that effect mechanism is provided by a double- may extend for even 20 years! acting pattern of cartridge feeding. Two-stand button-type non-automatThe off-set recoil momentum fire ic safety catch with a wide key is mountautomation, firing with fixed bursts ed within the trigger guard, the selector at a super-high rate, dioptric sight- of fire type is on the left side above the ing device with long sight line, com- trigger. On the left side of the casing, plex muzzle device (which plays the there is a bracket made for mounting role of the muzzle brake, compensa- optical, red-dot or night sight. tor and flash suppressor) - all these The plastic casing with a forearm are to increase the probability of hit- made the gun handling more comting the target with the first burst. As fortable. Made of impact-resistant a result, the Nikonov automatic ri- plastic are the right-folding buttstock fle is significantly superior in com- and pistol grip. bat efficiency to well-known serial- Combat qualities of the AN have ly produced specimens of individ- been tested through its operation in ual automatic weapon in the world. the Russian army, including special According to experts, Nikonov is purpose units. Performance Characteristics of AN-94 Cartridge
Weight without magazine, bayonet-knife, belt
Length without bayonet-knife with unfolded buttstock
Length without bayonet-knife with folded buttstock
Length of sight line
900 m per sec
Rate of fire
1800/600 rounds per min
Accurate firing range (with a mechanical eye-sight)
Range of direct shots at a target of 50 cm height
WEAPONS ‘HAUTE COUTURE’ BY KALASHNIKOV
The legendary AK system has laid a basis for the creation of a number of automatic and semi-automatic weapons of various types and sizes, designed for different tasks, and included into the Special Forces weapons system. The principle of unification, i.e. creation of a family of weapons for different purposes and calibers based on the same design, has perfectly justified itself in the history of ‘Army Weapons’, but is equally applicable to special weapons of ‘cop’ destination. We can verify this by considering several new designs, offered by IZHMASH for special units of law enforcement agencies. Smooth-Bore Carbines In the 1990s, the IZHMASH developed a series of rifled and smooth bore semi-automatic rifles under the general title of ‘Saiga’ on the basis of the Kalashnikov system. The smoothbore carbines (semi-automatic rifles) were designed for hunting and for security structures, and, respectively, had a variety of lay-outs, be it barrel caliber and length, or magazine capacity, types of buttstock and forearm, sighting devices, applicability of extra accessories etc. The application capabilities of combat smooth-barrel weapons attracted the interest of law enforcement agencies. To fight at short ranges, the smoothbore guns of the 20th and 12th gauge (‘hunting’ calibers) are considered by many experts as more preferable than the rifled ones. They are capable of firing with shot, grapeshot, canister-shot, bullet and special cartridges (such as ‘lachrymatory’ compounds). It is notable, too, that firing with shot at short distances allows to securely hit a live target, due to the distribution of ‘shell’ volume. The use of large shots or buckshot can provide sufficient stopping and killing effects. At the same time, a relatively soft lead shot does not give much bounce. Shooting with bullets extends the capability of smooth-bore weapons and allows at the same low-range distances to hit targets behind light shelters, in cars, smashing in doors; the use of flexible ‘traumatic’ ammunition en-
ables to knock a target out of action without dangerous lesions. Rapid loss of damaging effect by shot and bullets fired with the smooth barrel, combined with a low propensity to bouncing, reduces the risk of injuring random people. Such weapons are the most effective in close encounters, in conditions of constraint environment: when storming buildings, fighting inside rooms, underground communications, etc. Traditionally, to create a combat shotgun, the choice was made for the most reliable models of weapons of ‘hunting’ gauges with the magazine-fed lay-out, but over time semiautomatic weapons began to attract more and more attention. Domestic gunsmiths were apt to offer the most reliable basic system, the system of AK. In 2003, the family of Saiga semiautomatic (self-loading) carbines sprouted a gun of the 12th hunting gauge, named ‘Saiga-12 Isp.030’, the development of the commercial ‘Saiga-12K’, equipped with a sidefolding buttstock and pistol grip. This design became the basis for the semi-automatic ‘carbine special’, adopted by the interior bodies under the decree of the Government of the Russian Federation dated July 14, 2006 as part of a special small-arms complex SSK-18.5: the complex included two semi-automatic smoothbore carbines and ammunition to them. The carbine with a constant under-barrel magazine was designated as 18.5 KS-P, and the carbine with a detachable box magazine, created on the Saiga basis as 18.5 KS-K (18.5-mm carbine special with a box magazine.) The number ‘18.5’ in the designation of weapons is related to the fact that the 12-gauge shotgun corresponds to the bore diameter of about 18.5 mm. The weapon retained both the gas automation and barrel locking by turning the bolt. The design and dimensions of the corresponding bolt components were modified according to characteristics of a rifle cartridge. The return mechanism carries a movable plate that covers the passage slot for
the loading handle when the guard is off. The shock-type firing mechanism allows for single fire only, and is provided with non-automatic safety device. Another interest-provoking thing is the guard mounted on the pistol grip from the left, accessible to the thumb of a hand holding the handle and locking the trigger. In case of close combat, this allows to hold a gun with a cartridge in the chamber and the main guard turned off and, if a quick shot is needed, just rotate the lever with your thumb, release the trigger and make a shot. The gun can fire with the buttstock both unfolded and folded. When running out of ammunition in the magazine, the bolt stop (bolt delay) is automatically activated, that can be switched on and off manually, with a magazine detached. The muzzle sight tie-down is combined with the gas chamber. The receiver provides a detachable bracket mounting for installation of an 3(64).2012
WEAPONS optical or red-dot sight. The receiv- cartridges equipped with rubber shot to 50, with lead bullets up to 90 er cover is mounted on a hinge, and bullets of traumatic action. It is pos- meters. carries a Picatinny rail, which allows sible to use other special ammuni- The quick change of magazine, semithe use of an optical or collimating tion - cartridges with enhanced pen- automatic reload mode, large magasight with the buttstock folded, too. etration bullet, grapeshot rounds, zine capacity make the ‘Saiga-12’ the The Picatinny-type rail under the gas special grenades (tear gas, light-and- best weapon for law enforcement in the urban environment. The first chamber enables the gun to be sup- noise, etc.). The 18.5 KS-K smooth-bored shot- deliveries of ‘Saiga-12’ to the U.S. plied with a laser pointer or tactical light. The carbine is equipped with gun has attracted interest not only of law enforcement services started in a plastic folding buttstock (with a the Russian Interior Ministry, but also January 2012. As for the ‘civilian version’ of the carrear shock absorber), a pistol grip of foreign experts. and forearm. The replaceable rub- The Saiga shotgun by its perfor- bine, ‘Saiga-12K’, it currently remains ber shock absorber does not only re- mance characteristics is far superi- the most popular smooth-bore shotduce the recoil impulse perceived or to its foreign competitors. That gun of the 12th gauge, used by the by a shooter, but also enables regu- is why there is a special demand majority of teams world-wide for lating the length of the buttstock to for ‘Saiga’ in the United States of practical shooting competitions. In fit his anthropometric data. The slot- America. Against its competitors in early 2012, Design and Engineering ted nozzle serves as a muzzle flash its segment, the ‘Saiga-12’ is distin- Center developed a new modificasuppressor and allows shooting with guished for the reliable performance tion of IZHMASH ‘Saiga-12’ for the the barrel resting against an obsta- of automation, perfect precision of needs of the Practical Shooting cle, for example, in case of destruc- barrel manufacture. The optimum Federation of Russia. It will SOON betion of door locks with a shot. There range of the rifle is as follows: with come a serial model and will be availare also offers of optional nozzles for lead shot up to 35 m, with grape- able to a wide range of sportsmen. firing with propelling cartridges, etc. The cartridges are fed from a dePerformance Characteristics of the a carbine rifle 18.5 KS-K Carbine tachable box magazine. The mouth of the magazine’s receiver makes its Caliber, mm 18.5 mounting more reliable and faciliCartridge 12/70, 12/76 tates the replacement of the magazine by-touch. The gas automation is Weight without magazine, kg 3.8 operable with all types of ammuniLength with unfolded buttstock, mm 970 tion of the 12th gauge. Length with folded buttstock, mm 725 The adopted carbine ammunition Barrel length, mm 430 includes that of lethal (deadly) and The optimum range, m: non-lethal damage. The first group is represented, for example, by KSP-P - Lead shot 1800/600 rounds per min cartridges with lead bullets, and KSP- Lead buckshot 700 m BP with armor-piercing bullets, the - Lead bullet 440 m second one is made up by KSP-RP IZHMASH SUBMACHINE GUNS
In the system of weaponry of police units and Special Forces, sub-machine guns are also in high demand. The low power of pistol cartridge limits the range by 150-200 m for aimed shooting, but provides a compact and easily controled weapon, developing a high rate of fire in close combat. The slow velocity pistol bullet is less inclined to bounce, rather than the bullet of intermediate (automatic rifle) cartridge, the range of its deadly effect is much smaller; thus it reduces the risk of damaging random people, not involved in a shootout. In addition, the pistol cartridge with a relatively low level of gas pressure in the barrel and the muzzle velocity of a bul16
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let lower or slightly higher than the speed of sound, facilitates the use of silencers, as ‘silence’ or at least ‘low noise’ of the shot plays an important role in work of the special forces. Fairly understandable is the interest of a special purpose formation towards the improvement of the submachine guns and the emergence of new models that meet both the more complex conditions of warfare, and the current level of technology. One of the latest IZHMASH developments for special forces units is a VityazSN sub-machine gun. The formation of requirements for the weapon and its development involved directly officers
of the Interior Ministry Vityaz special forces detachment. The design of weapons has been unified by at least 70% with the serial AK 74M. The Vityaz new sub-machine gun, presented by IZHMASH weapons design center, was designated as PP-19-01. Later came the Vityaz-SN version (Vityaz-Spetsnaz, or ‘KnightSpecial Forces’, as it is also called) to become more uniform in parts and units with the AK ‘one hundredth’ series produced by IZHMASH. The Interior Ministry entered the Vityaz-SN into service after a decree issued by the Government of the Russian Federation on June 24, 2005
WEAPONS The automation of a submachine gun Performance Characteristics of the Vityaz-SN Submachine Gun operates by using the free bolt recoil Caliber, mm 9 energy. The bolt rod provides room for Cartridge 9x19 (7N21, 7N31) the return spring. The relatively big bolt travel helped alleviate the effect of the Weight with empty magazine, kg 3.0 recoil momentum upon the weapon Length with unfolded buttstock, mm 698 and shooter, reduce the rate of fire, and Length with folded buttstock, mm 458 thus improve the handling of the weapMuzzle velocity, m per sec 23.75 on. The reloading handle is rigidly conRate of fire, rounds per min 370 (7N21) nected to the bolt, and the shape and size of the handle are designed for ease Types of fire 700 of operating it in the field environment, Combat rate of fire, rounds /per min 40/120 while wearing gloves. The ‘classic’ layAccurate firing range, m 200 out and good balance of the weapon Magazine capacity, rounds 30 provide stability when shooting. The hammer-type trigger mechanism with a flag safety selector is very similar to shooting device, eliminating the dis- buttstock. There are Picatinny rails to install the various sights, lights, pointers. the basic automatic rifle and allows for charge flame therewith. To supply the Vityaz-SN with an optical, Sniper Weapons conducting single and automatic fire. Non-automatic weapons of special The submachine gun has a left-folding collimating or night sight, the standard frame-type metal buttstock, similar to bracket on the left side of the receiv- purpose produced by IZHMASH are er (dovetail-type attachment) or the represented mainly by magazine-fed AKS 74U or PP-19. The weapon can use 9x19 cartridges of Picatinny type rail on the receiver cov- sniper rifles. foreign and domestic production, and er can be used. The Picattiny rails pro- SV-987.62-mm Sniper Rifle In the modern combat environment, the Vityaz-SN can fire 7N21 cartridges vided on the submachine gun forearm with bullets of enhanced penetration can mount light illuminator, laser point- it becomes of particular importance to take the opportunity of ‘surgically precapacity or 7N31 cartridges with armor- er, front holding handle. piercing bullets, which is a unrepeat- The Vityaz submachine gun was tak- cise’ hitting of small targets at medium en as a basis for the development of ranges (up to 1000 m) or more, with the able advantage of the weapon. The cartridges are fed from the dou- the IZH-9x19 self-loading carbine. This implementation of the ‘one goal one ble-row detachable box magazine of is an export version, designed for ad- shot’ principle. This work is done by a sector shape. The magazine lock-up mirers of sport shooting with weap- snipers armed with modern weapons is reinforced with a neck below the re- ons, made on the basis of combat ones. complexes with improved shooting acceiver. With the use of a special clip, two The low recoil momentum of the pistol curacy. The best gun option for the magazines may be coupled to accel- cartridge contributes to better marks- sniper is a magazine-fed weapon using the advanced sniper rifle cartridge erate the magazine change. To supply manship. Such a carbine can be used in securi- of long rifle capacity and a greater sight the magazine with cartridges, one can use 15-round containers, similar to the ty structures. The IZH-9x19 magazine is magnification. The magazine-type laysimilar in size and shape to that of the out eliminates the pulsed loads typical AK 74 magazine. The iron sight consists of a muzzle Vityaz-SN, but its capacity is limited to of semi-automatic mode, unloads the sight with a safety and curve-slide sight. 10 rounds in accordance with the re- barrel. Moreover, there is no sound proThe pistol grip, forearm and hand- quirements for weapons for the civilian duced by automation parts and there guard are made of cast nylon, black in market. The carbine also has a folding is a capability to control the bolt movecolor. The Vityaz-SN has encompassed all the recommendations of gunmen who worked with submachine guns. This has manifested in a wide range of removable parts and accessories, enabling to adapt weapons for the solution of fire tasks in various environments. The muzzle of the weapon barrel can mount a slotted flash suppressor. It can be replaced with a muffler (another designation is the ‘silent and flameless fire device’, PBS). When firing with cartridges featuring the bullet velocity above the sound speed, the sound muffler plays the role of a low-noise 3(64).2012
WEAPONS ment (which helps, for instance, avoid sparkling of discharged cartridges, chamber the cartridges more carefully). A recommendable example of this type of weapon is the SV-98 magazinefed rifle. Along with the 7N14 cartridge with a bullet of increased penetrating action (although the cartridge 7N1 can also be used), it makes up the 6S11 sniper complex, adopted in 2003 for units of the Interior Ministry. The rifle also proved to be useful in the course of the antiterrorist operation in Chechnya. This complex is designed to destroy the emerging, moving, open and masked single targets (including enemy sharpshooters) at a distance of 1,200 meters. It is not difficult to understand that the SV-98 is a high accuracy sniper rifle for top-class specialists. The rifle barrel is made by way of cold radial forging and processed with honing and internal stress relieving. The barrel is fastened inside the receiver in cantilever fashion and hung loosely, i.e. does not touch the rifle bed and is not loaded with a rifle bipod mount. To improve the accuracy of shooting, the barrel is not chrome plated. The barrel muzzle features a thread for mounting the muffler (PBS silent shooting device), silencer (PMS low-noise shooting device) or a flame arrester. If these devices are not mounted, the thread is closed with a sleeve. The sliding rotary breechbolt has three lugs in the front and a reloading handle deflected down in the rear. The firing mechanism is a slapper-type. The slapper with the mainspring is located in the bolt. The slapper is cocked by turning the reloading handle in the moment of unlocking the bolt, which
ARMS Defence Technologies Review
Performance Characteristics of the SV-98 Sniper Rifle Caliber, mm
9x19 (7N21, 7N31)
Weight, unloaded, without PMS silencer, sight and accessories, kg
7.62 x54R (7N14, 7N1)
Weight with an optical sight and the PMS silencer, without accessories
Length without PMS silencer, mm
The length with PMS silencer, mm
Barrel length, mm
Combat rate of fire, rounds per min
Accurate firing range, m:
- With a telescopic sight
- With an open sight
Magazine capacity, rounds
increases the weapon security in the process of reloading. The trigger mechanism is assembled in a separate casing attached to the receiver. The trigger mechanism is distinguished for its smoothness and low noise operation, short trigger travel. A non-automatic flag guard is mounted from the right behind the bolt handle; it locks the sear, trigger and bolt. The cartridges are fed from the double-row detachable box magazine not outstanding from the bed, of 10 rounds with double-row arrangement. The magazine body is molded from glassreinforced polyamide and strengthened with metal liners and has a pushing lever mechanism. When mounting a magazine, a special vertical rod pressed into the receiver docks its correct position. When attaching a magazine, the latch mounted on the rod interlocks with a metal sleeve in the hole
of the magazine body, and the magazine is pressed tightly to the receiver. This provides a simple, stable and secure magazine attachment to the rifle. The optical sight mount is attached on top of the receiver to the Picatinny rail. The main sighting device is the pancratic 1P69 (‘Hyperon’) of 3x10x42 type. The device provides automatic setting of sight angles of at a range of 100 to 1000 meters. The rifle can mount the PKS-07 permanent 7-fold magnification optical sight. There is an above iron sight, including a muzzle sight with a safety and a variable sight, designed for a range of 100 to 600 m. A series of 10 shots at a distance of 300 meters, according to the manufacturer, gives the deviation of hits in the range of 50-70 mm. Therefore, the patterning of this rifle lies within 0.6-0.7 MOA and meets modern requirements for sniper rifles. The bed is made of a molded plywood board. The buttstock is adjustable in length, and the ‘cheek’ (comb, the cheek support) and the buttstock end are adjustable in height and transverse displacement. A cut in the buttstock is designed for holding it with the left hand when shooting. In front of the forearm the longitudinal rod mounts a height adjustable bipod, in the stowed position its legs are placed inside the forearm. The buttstock features an attached adjustable rear support. So that the shooter does not carry the weapon with its sight, there is a reinforced carrying handle attached to gun bed. The rifle is offered with an optional plastic bed, too.
WEAPONS In order to protect the visual field of the sight from thermal ‘mirage’, the barrel can mount a wide nylon strap, and the PMS silencer may have a special visor over it. The silencer (low-noise shooting device) reduces the sound pressure level and eliminates the flash of shot flame. The new 7N14 sniper cartridge of 7.62x54R type came as a development for the 7N1 cartridge and features a bullet of increased penetrating capacity with hardened sharp-pointed core and exceeds the 7N1, mostly, in its capability to hit targets wearing individual body armor. To carry the SV-98 with its dismountable accessories and fittings, a soft carrying case was designed, which can be also used as a sniper mat when expanded. There are also optional versions of the rifle remade for ammo 7.62x51 (.308 Win) and .338 Lapua Magnum with the mounting of the respective sights. The rifle version chambered for .338 Lapua Magnum (which became very popular for sniper weapons) ensures hitting targets protected by body armor at ranges up to 1200 m. NE-99 Small-Caliber Sniper Rifle For exquisite marksmanship at short distances up to 50-70 m, the IZHMASH gunsmiths undertook the initiative to develop a SV-99 rifle to be used with the 5.6-mm rimfire cartridge of .22 LR type. The use of such a low-power cartridge results in the reduced weapon size and weight, low recoil momentum, low level of muzzle pressure and modest muzzle flame. The soft 5.6-mm naked bullet features the high enough stopping power, virtually no bounce, but its low penetration capacity severely restricts its range of tasks and requires contact with unprotected body areas. Such rifles are applicable, for ex-
ample, in localities where the aimed fire is conducted actually within the width of a street; they are well suited to operations for freeing hostages (especially if the sniper has to operate within a close space); can be used for instructional and training firings at ranges up to 100 m. This is a special weapon for law enforcement agencies. The SV-99 rifle was developed by Vladimir F. Susloparov on the basis of the Biathlon-7-2 biathlon rifle well proven during world-class competitions, and its kin Sobol hunting rifle, both models produced by IZHMASH. The rifle barrel is manufactured by cold radial forging; the bore has 6 grooves and no chrome plating (to improve the accuracy of fire). The sliding breechbolt of direct motion locks the barrel bore with a hinge-lever device, which forms along with the bolt the slider-crank locking mechanism. It allows to quickly reload the weapon with a short move back of the wrist using the reloading handle located from the right. In addition to the ability of increasing the combat rate of fire, is also reduces the noise of the bolt. The firing mechanism is a trigger-type, with a coil mainspring and a separate drummer placed in the belt. The trigger mechanism provides a preliminary pull-off. The firing mechanism is assembled in a separate casing and is equipped with non-automatic safety device. The work of the mechanism almost does not affect the aiming and is
Performance Characteristics of NE-99 Sniper Rifle Caliber, mm
Weight, unloaded, and without sight, kg
Length with the buttstock and silencer, mm
Length with the silencer, mm
Barrel length, mm
Accurate firing range, m
Magazine capacity, rounds
5 or 10
distinguished for a low noise. The rifle is fed from a single-row detachable box magazine of 5 rounds capacity. The magazine does not outstand of the gun bed. There is an option of equipping the rifle with a bigger magazine of 10 rounds capacity. The optical sight is attached on top of the receiver with the dovetail mount. It is possible to use the PO 4x34 or PO 6x42 optical sights. The rifle bed is made of nutwood with the adjustable vertically and horizontally rear cushion and ‘cheek’ (buttstock length adjustable up to 20 mm). The metal rail in the forearm can mount an adjustable bipod or hand support; such supports are used both in sports and sniper weapons. At the bottom of the buttstock there is a cassette for two spare 5-round magazines. As the requirements for the rifle suggested the possibility of operation in confined spaces, the buttstock was made detachable, and it can be replaced with a wooden pistol grip, a solution that is not often encountered in the sniper weapon, but useful in conducting special operations. The kit of the SV-99 rifle includes a removable silencer (PBS), since the 5.6mm cartridge is well suited for creating both short distance high-precision weapons, and ‘silent’ weapons as well. The PBS silencer reduces the noise level to what is comparable to the shot of an air rifle. The SV-99 rifle is very convenient and boasts good accuracy; at a distance of 100 m the rifle with the mounted silencer is capable of making a series of 10 shots within a circle of 4-4,4 cm diameter, and at 50 m within 1.5 cm. Each of the weapons of the IZHMASH production presented here has a margin to upgrade and can be tailored according to the customer requirements. S. Fedoseev 3(64).2012
INNOVATIONS Vladislav Lyapin, JSC «RPA RusBITech» General Director
SPEKTR-6E SOFTWARE/HARDWARE COMPLEX Its employment in planning Air Defense, Air Force and Ground Forces combat operations 20
ARMS Defence Technologies Review
resent-day military operations and combat actions are extremely complicated. In a modern combined-arms operation, each side may have several thousand land-based vehicles, more than one thousand aerial targets (aircraft, missiles, UAVs), thousands of air defense weapons (air defense missile systems, radars, electronic intelligence and warfare systems) as
well as satellite intelligence systems. Considerable part of such weapon systems has long range, quick response and formidable fire power capabilities. In such conditions, inefficient and untimely decisions and combat plans lead to disastrous consequences. The complexity of modern military operations and combat actions as well as limited time for their elaboration make it impossible to use traditional methods for timely CONOPS (operation planning) development. Methods of planning and scenario development based on the sequential analysis of employing separate forces and means of army branches and their further fusion into single plan under time constraint conditions allow to prepare only 1-2 alternative warfare variants (action strategies) without checking them on rationality. The problem of timely and efficient CONOPS development can be solved with the use of information systems which allow computer aided development and modeling of all possible forms and methods of involved forces engagement. This ensures rapid development and multiversion warfare analysis in order to formulate the most efficient CONOPS variant. The exportoriented Spektr-6E software/hardware complex designed by Research and Production Association Russian Base Information Technologies (NPO RusBITech) has such capabilities. The Spektr-6E software/hardware complex is designed for computer aided warfare planning for air defense
and air force units with the purpose of gaining and maintaining air superiority in combined-arms and joint operations (combat actions) as well as planning operations of ground forces. In addition, the complex provides planning and conducting of operational and combat training events at all levels. The Spektr-6E ensures solving the following combat planning tasks (pic.1): - organization of HQ (C2) activity for operations (combat actions) planning; - assessment of the situation; - development of variants (action strategies) for forces engagement; - evaluation of developed warfare variants (action strategies) on the base of modeling results; - planning of C2 and interaction activity; - planning of operations (combat actions) support; - control of C2 official’s activity. The Spektr-6E software/hardware complex is a combination of software and hardware equipment integrated into one local network (pictures 2 and 3). It has standard automated working stations (WS) occupied by respective command and control officers or functional groups. The number of WS depends on the level (ranking) of the command and control component and can be 20-30 and even more. The Spektr-6E’s general software provides the work of special software components under control of Windows XP operating system with standard updates and Microsoft application pack-
Picture 1 – Combat planning tasks solved by Spektr-6E
Picture 2 – Hardware components of Spektr-6E
Picture 3 – Software components of Spektr-6E
Picture 4 – Using Spektr-6E in decision making and operation (combat actions) planning
ages or Astra Linux Special Edition dedicated operating system with embedded information protection solutions. The Spektr-6E has the following special software components: the modeling system, information/computing tasks and unified means of integration with armed forces command and control automation systems connected with a common database. The main feature of the Spektr-6E is its ability to create the model of battlefield in all spheres (on land, at sea and in air and space) displaying realistic conditions and combat actions. This approach allows developing different variants (action strategies) of warfare and correctly estimating their results. The Spektr-6E’s WS connected into a common network to solve associated information-calculation tasks employ the common model of operational-tactical environment created by the modeling system. Such an approach ensures joint team work of command and control officers in military operations and combats actions operational planning. In order to build up the virtual battlefield, the complex has a database of military equipment, infrastructure facilities, standard combat units, communications and C2 means objects. The models of combat units repre-
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sent their structure in full detail down to models of true-life weapons as well as command and control and communications systems. The list of weapons systems and combat units models is to be agreed on with the customer in each case. Digital maps of various data formats that should also be approved by the customer are the base for combat area models. The modeling system ensures creation of variants (action strategies) of opposing forces’ deployment and actions, different options development for their activity, simulation modeling and obtainment of desired combat actions indexes as well as display 2D (and
even 3D – for single tactical situations) battlefield models. The complex’s information-calculation tasks provides organization of warfare planning, assessment of the situation, development of opposing forces action strategies and deals with command and control, communications and maintenance issues. The complex allows solving the following combat planning tasks (pic.4): - working out organizational documents for preparing of operations (combat actions); - creating models of combat environment; - calculating the necessary indexes for assessment and comparison the opposing forces on the base of information-calculation tasks; - elaborating different variants of combat actions and estimating their approximate results with the use of analytical models; - presenting the details of the chosen options and estimating their results using simulation modeling techniques; - detailed investigation into the issues of command and control, communication and maintenance using information-calculation tasks. Elaboration of organizational documents for operation (combat actions) preparation starts with time calculation. For this purpose available and directive times are input into the dedicated computing module. Time calculations as well as timetable graph development for operation (combat actions) preparation are carried out using computer-aided methods and basing on work standards for command and control components.
INNOVATIONS Other operational documents are worked out in the same way. They can be adjusted and further used to monitor the process of operation (combat actions) preparation. Combat environment modeling employs the models of infrastructure and standard military units available in the database. Combat units are deployed on the selected area of the digital map in standard march or battle formations (pic.5). If needed, the composition and battle formations of combat units’ models are corrected and military equipment is replaced. Models of military groupings are built by establishing superior/subordinate relations between command and control components (posts) and smaller military units. The software/hardware complex allows storing many battlefield scenarios and retrieving any of them to create the needed battlefield model. The combat environment is assessed with the use of information-calculation tasks by calculating the operational strength of the troops, proportion of opposing forces and their density, respective striking ranges and reconnaissance and fire zones of air defense and other military groupings. Combat operations are planned by working out different options of combat actions and estimating their approximate results using analytical models of ground troops, air force and air defense forces. Selected options are specified and modeled using the combined arms simulation model. The results of the modeling are displayed on the screens of WS in the proper format and printed if necessary. After that, respective officers estimate these results using selected criteria, choose the most reasonable and promising options and adopt the battle plan for the military grouping. Picture 6 demonstrates an example of estimating different options of an air defense operation. Then, the computing unit is used to address command, control and communications, intelligence, camouflaging, engineer support, NBC protection and other issues. Thus, during planning the Spektr6E allows solving the following air defense and ground troops combat employment tasks:
a) comprehensive evaluation of enemy air defense, air force and ground forces groupings armed with various weapons systems and revealing their weak and strong sides by means of detailed assessment of their combat characteristics. b) actions of enemy air force and land troops prognosis including forecasting - main directions of enemy air force and ground forces attacks; - methods of artillery, missile and aircraft attacks; - methods of suppressing enemy air defense systems. c) contingency planning of military operations by air defense and land forces with recommendations on the following issues: - management of operational strength and combat formation of air defense and land units; - setting attack directions and operational procedures for ground forces
and methods of enemy engagement; - building an air defense system in the combat zone (region or state); - comprehensive maintenance of combat operations; - establishing command and control of the troops. Creating a virtual combat environment covering all spheres of battle (on land, at sea, in air and space) and representing realistic conditions and weapons systems, the Spektr-6E software/hardware complex allows raising the number of factors considered in the process of combat planning and decision taking by 2-3 times and reducing the time of planning significantly. Thus, it helps largely raise the efficiency of combat planning and decision taking.
Picture 5 – Building the model of combat environment and planning operations of air defense and army troops on Spektr-6E
By V.R.Lyapin, JSC «RPA RusBITech» General Director, Ph.D in Technical Sciences, active member of the Academy of Military Sciences.
Picture 6 – Example of analyzing air defense variants
INNOVATIONS Russian State Research and Production Enterprise «Bazalt» as it is used worldwide. However due to its new round the functional area for this armament was expanded because of radically new technology in warhead composition. Hereby we are talking about Explosively Formed Projectile Charges. So the new round was developed for the old and well-known RPG-7 and in fact its ballistic characteristics have been fully remained in order to provide the same aiming procedure as for standard rounds excluding any additional calibration. The general operational procedure for this «smart» round as follows. When the tandem-type warhead meets obstacle the following EFP Charge explosion forms the EFP warhead from special shape metal protection and perforates the obstacle making the hole for grenade follow-through damageThe Federal Governmental Enterprise «State Governmental causing element. Afterwards it follows Scientific-Testing Area of Aircraft Systems» (FKP GkNIPAS) is a well- into the space behind the obstacle or known in Russia and abroad unique scientific test and manufactur- inside the shelter and exploding with ing complex. It was established by Stalin`s order at the beginning of time-delay at the same time destroythe Great Patriotic War and by now it is one of the leading scientific ing the sheltered enemy personnel or test ranges designed for ground testing and development of dif- any other targets. The high explosive grenade could ferent airspace and aviation equipment systems. On this ground located 60 kilometers from Moscow many aircraft and helicopter be replaced by neuro-paralytic, flash emergency escape systems started their life as well as the range is or any other ones. It is very effective in antiterrorist operations, especially used for aircraft armament tests. when it is tasked to release the hostages at the same time killing the tert is important to say that which made it possible to develop rorists. This round is able to perfothe range capabilities are new kinds of ammunition. The use of rate the metal obstacles with 0.6 mm not limited only by tests. Explosively Formed Projectiles (EFP) in thickness at an angle of 15 degrees, It has also its own experi- warheads is the distinctive feature of bricklaying obstacles with up to 0.5 m thickness or concrete obstacles mental design office with these developments. with 35 cm thickness. professional staff experienced in ae- GSH-7VT ATTACK ROUND WITH Moreover this ammunition can be ro and hydrodynamics, thermodynam- FOLLOW-THROUGH DESTRUCTIVE used separately. It is required to use ics, elasticity, plasticity and other dis- ELEMENT TO RPG-7V2 GRENADE the magnet or any other device in orciplines. During the last decades the LAUNCHER staff performed a number of indepenThere is no need to represent the der to fix the round on its obstacle. dent researches and developments RPG-7 grenade launcher produced by If the distance fuse will be used the
GKNIPAS INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENTS: AMMUNITION AGAINST TERRORISTS AND HELICOPTERS
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INNOVATIONS Multifunctional attack round General View of the Round
Warhead Arrangement Scheme Detonator Safety Device
Meeting with Obstancle
Combat Destructive Element
EFP Charge Detonation
Delayed Action Detonating Primer
Grenade Follow-Through into the Space behind Obsrancle
same results will be reached as well as nition designed to destroy the enemy air targets. It is widely known that porwhen grenade launcher used. At present time according to table antiaircraft missile systems are Russian national regulations the adver- very effective against low-flying air tartising passport and export view pass- gets in tactical combat operations as it port have been obtained. It allows to provides 0.7-0.8 defeating ratio if the provide the delivery of this round to flying objects altitude is higher than foreign countries within the frame of 100 m. Being aware of it the pilots can hide behind the terrain features or permilitary-technical cooperation. form their flights at nap-of-the-earth ANTIHELICOPTER MINE – THE altitude in order to provide the effec«SMART» AMMUNITION Another innovative development tive maneuver at the area of portable is antihelicopter equipment – the antiaircraft missile systems operation. In such a situation the low-flying ground-mounted engineering ammuhelicopter can be affected by another «surprise» - the antihelicopter mine. The acoustic system of this equipment can acquire a target at a distance of some hundreds of meters due to helicopter rotor blades noise detection because
each model of vehicle has its own noise frequency. At this moment all operational components are to be activated including the microwave sensor. When helicopter enters the microwave sensor detection area then the mine explosion follows. The warhead of mine is designed as a block of Explosively Formed Projectile Charges. At the moment of mine explosion the EFP warhead is forming and moving to its target at a speed of 2 km per second and capable to affect the vital parts of helicopter. This equipment can be used: ■ to protect the civil and military installations from attacks of helicopters; ■ to protect the seaside areas if helicopter-landed assault is possible; ■ to block the helicopter landing sites (HLS), enemy airfields and areas for alternate and dispersal airfields; ■ to prevent the helicopter mine clearing activity simultaneously with antitank mines; ■ to influence psychologically on helicopter pilot in order to force him to fly at high altitude where the antiaircraft systems operate effectively. Oleg Pronin Director of FKP «GkNIPAS».
ONE BILLION FOR MALAYSIAN SKY Malaysia saves military expenses but ready to spend money on Air Defense build-up Russian companies were successful on DSA-2012 Exhibition in Malaysian capital Kuala Lumpur. Besides traditionally high interest of Asian military to Russian arms, Rosoboronexport signed a contract worth USD 35 million for air-to-air missiles delivery to Malaysian Air Force. Moreover, a good perspective for the development of Asian-Pacific arms market was evaluated. Military authorities of some countries took an interest in Russian armor expressing their appreciation to its high quality. So, military representatives from Brunei displayed a sincere interest in T-90MC tank. All characteristics of the tank were demonstrated on interactive monitor eld from 16 to 19 April, the Exhibition traditionally offered a wide spectrum of military aspects such as Army and Special Forces equipment, the worldâ€™s cuttingedge sophisticated hardware and electronic warfare in land, air & sea, training and simulation systems, and even battle
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field healthcare products technology. Under auspices of Russian Technologies State Corporation, seventeen Russian companies took part in DSA-2012, as well as such key players as Rosoboronexport, Russian helicopters, Joint Shipping Corp., Rosatom, Uralvagonzavod and Instrument Design Bureau.
Russian companies and enterprises made information available on 415 models of the latest pattern, featuring multi-role Su-35, Su-30MK fighters, MiG-29M and MiG-29M2 combat jets, Il-114 MP multi-purpose patrol aircraft and Yak-130 jet trainer/light attack aircraft. Russian helicopters were widely displayed ranging from Mi-171Sh military transport and Mi-26 heavy transport helicopters to Mi-28NE gunship, Mi-35 attack/low-capacity troop transport and Ka-52 scout-attack helicopters. The participants and visitors could acquire a detailed info on T-90C battle tank, BMPT tank assistance combat vehicle, BMP-3M infantry fighting vehicle, BTR-80 and BTR-80A armored carriers, Khrizantema-S selfpropelled tank destroyer, Kornet E laser guided anti-tank missile complex, and Krasnopol M2 guided weapon system, RPO-A/RPO-D/RPO-Z/ RPO PDM-A Shmel infantry rocketassisted flamethrower, TOS-1 Heavy Flamethrower System. The Air Defense was represented by BUK-M2E and TOR-M2E Air-Defense systems, Tunguska-M1 & Panzir-C1 gun/missile systems, Igla-C man-portable infrared homing SAM. The Navy in its turn was represented with Tornado class missile boat, Gepard-3.9 patrol vessel, Mirazh and Mangust class patrol boats, Murena-E air cushion landing boat, Project 636 diesel-electric and Amur-1650 submarines. MISSILES AT THE COST OF RM 100 MILLION Totally 841 companies from 43 countries took part in the Exhibition. The largest expositions hold Malaysia (54 companies), USA (40), Great Britain (30), Australia (26), Germany (45), Turkey (23), France (30), China (15), Italy (19), and South Korea (17). The host of the DSA-2012, the Malaysian Government, took a keen interest in the weapons and signed contracts worth RM 357.2 million. Four of the contracts valued RM250.8 million are for the supply of ammunition, rocket propelled grenades, disposable light anti-tank weapons and smoke grenade launchers for the Malaysian Army. The other contract is especially important for Russia as it covers the supply of 35 RVV-AE medium range
BUSINESS missiles worth RM106.4 million for the Royal Malaysian Air Force's Sukhoi Su30MKM multi-role combat aircraft. Minister of Defense Ahmad Zahid Hamidi witnessed the signing ceremony. Ahmad Zahid told reporters later that the value of the contracts signed this year was lower due to global economic crises and its grave consequences to Malaysia. He said the five contracts signed today, were to maintain the operational capabilities of the Armed Forces, while the modernization of assets would be based on the government’s financial allocation. It should be mentioned that nowadays Malaysian leadership is a hardto-please customer. Since 2009 the Government of Malaysia has been searching the ways to replace Russiamade MiG-29M with the other producer’s multi-role combat aircraft, for example Eurofigter Typhoon. Currently Typhoon fighters are in the service of Great Britain, Italy, Austria and Spain Air Forces. In June, 1994 Malaysia purchased 18 MiG29N fighters value of $ 380 million (RM 1.3 billion). Minister of Defense Ahmad Zahid Hamidi stated that his office explored the aircraft possibilities and performances worldwide. As he saying, the Ministry is checking different companies’ packages, including pay time and technologies offers. “The decision is not taken yet” - unveiled the Minister to Arsenal magazine on April, 17 as DSA-2012 Exhibition was on the way. Today Malaysia wants its sky and coast line be fully secured, that’s why the expenditures on Air Defense to be continued. Moreover Composites Technology Research Malaysia entered into contract with Insitu Pacific Pty Ltd. on ScanEagle UAVs delivery and maintenance. The UAVs worth RM 10 million will patrol the state border in Sabah state. The Russian delegation scored success as well. Viktor Komardin, Rosoboronexport Deputy CEO, told the Arsenal magazine on 16 April 2012 that the delivery of BUK middle-range air-defense system to Malaysia can start as early as 2016. “Currently we put our efforts on marketing, and hope it would result in signing a contract by 2015, and in
the year of 2016 the first deliveries would come”, - said Viktor Komardin at DSA-2012. According to him, procurement money for Malaysian Army has been already allocated till 2015. That is the reason why the talk can be turned towards purchasing and new weaponry deliveries only for the period from 2015 to 2020. Mr. Komardin highlighted that there is no such an arm or a branch as Air Defense in Malaysian Army. Air Defense is incorporated with Air Force, which is focused nowadays on buying aircraft, not missiles. According to Rosoboronexport’s estimates, Malaysia can allocate up to $1 billion on Air Defense procurement. The Deputy CEO, Nikolay Demiduk, considers contract on RVV-AE airto-air missile delivery for Malaysian MoD as “a primary achievement of the Exhibition”. As per contract, the first shipment should have been delivered by the end of the year. “As a rule first shipment should be in place in 6 to 9 months as a contract been signed”, - said Deputy Head of Rosoboronexport. The RVV-AE medium-range air-to-air guided missile, entered the Russian service in 1994, is intended for roundthe-clock all-aspect engagement of various air targets such as aircraft, helicopters, and cruise missiles, in harsh ECM environment and weather conditions.
TANK FOR SULTAN Military specialists from Brunei and Malaysia displayed a sincere interest in Russian T-90MC tank. Interactive presentation was specially organized for Brunei delegation. In general, Russian military industrial establishment was an eye appeal for Sultan of Brunei, especially Air Defense installations, coast defense systems and high-speed boats. The contracts in these areas can emerge in the nearest future. Nikolay Demiduk thinks that Brunei in addition to tanks can purchase BUK and TOR Air Defense systems as well. Moreover the development missile for TOR could destroy the targets not only at a range of 10 km as for now, but far more, even at 20. Besides that His Majesty perfectly understands that his country should be secured not only in the air but at sea as well. In this regard Brunei MoD checks the possibility of buying Russian BAL coast defense system and Molnia and Mirazh high-speed boats that can engage the targets at long range. Malaysian military have already noted Russian high-quality Armor. For example it should be mentioned that T-90MC capabilities far beyond the ones of the Polish “Solid” tank, which is the modernized version of the Soviet T-72. At present 46 tanks of that version are in service with Malaysian Army, and the talks are held to invite Russian technicians to update them.
His Majesty Sultan of Brunei Darussalam Hassanal Bolkiah and Minister of defense Dr. Ahmad Zahid Hamidi are on the site of Rosoboronexport
BUSINESS “We had discussions pertaining to modernization, and if the Polish would agree, than Russian engineers can upgrade them up to T-90 level”, - Rosoboronexport Deputy Director General pointed out. In April Russia will sign a $100 million contract with Indonesia for 37 BMP-3Fs delivery, Viktor Komardin, Rosoboronexport Deputy CEO, communicated to journalists on Thursday. Seventeen BMP-3Fs are already delivered the country. “Signing a contract with Indonesia for BMP-3Fs delivery is on the agenda in April. Its value exceeds $100 million”, told Mr. Komardin to Arsenal magazine at DSA-2012. He emphasized that the contract is concluded in the frame of a 5-year term loan of $1 billion, extended to Indonesia by Russian Federation. In the frame of this loan, the deliveries of Mi-17, Mi-35 helicopters, BMPs, and aircraft ammo come true. $ 300 million are already assigned from the loan for the moment. “We remind to our Indonesian colleagues not to delay the contract, as life of the loan would vanish in 2013”, - said Mr. Komardin. In addition, Indonesia is issued with other Russian (non-governChief of Malaysian Army general Dato’ Seri Panglima Hj Zulkifli
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mental) loan. In the frame of this loan, the fighters are delivered. Mr. Komardin told as well that Russia and Indonesia are on the way to establish a maintenance center in Indonesia for BMP vehicles. SUMMARY Russia’s 2012 plan to sell weapons abroad is 35-37 per cent completed, as Mikhail Petukhov, Federal Service for Military-Technical Cooperation (FS MTC) Deputy General Director kindly informed “Arsenal” magazine on April, 18 at DSA-2012. Mikhail Dmitriev, FS MTC General Director, at the beginning of the year reported that overall 2012 plan for selling Russian weaponry abroad is $13.5 billion. 35/37% of the plan is more than $4.5 billion. “In 2011 we overcame $ 13 billion, this year our plans are more ambitious. 3537 per cent of the plan is already realized for now”, - said Mr. Petukhov. As he saying, “serious weaponry deliveries” worked well at the beginning of 2012. He stated that plan fulfillment was counted only upon final shipment was done. “There is no doubt about the plan to sell weapons to be completed this
year”, - said Mr. Petukhov. Viktor Komardin highlighted Rosoboronexport was not going to lower the prices.” We will not sell our weapons cheap. Our weaponry is costly, and last year contracts witness that our production is much in demand”, - Deputy Head of Rosoboronexport told us. Totally eleven Memorandums on Understanding worth RM 5 billion were signed at DSA-2012. Traditionally, some countries displayed counterfeit production that hits hard at Russian weapons trading business. Here we talk about Chinese and Bulgarian copies of the Russian brands. “There are some countries that make their living by selling counterfeit production. Chinese did not diminish it, same with Bulgarians”, - unveiled Mr. Demiduk. Deputy Head of Rosoboronexport stated that some countries developed new methods and strategies in selling counterfeit. For example, the sellers do not display weapons openly, but invite a potential client to private negotiations. Denis Izmaylov
Heavy nuclearpowered missile cruiser "Pyotr Veliky"
RUSSIAN NAVY’S WHITE ELEPHANTS Current state of the nation’s economy and shipbuilding industry contradicts with big plans on refit of in-service cruisers and construction of new carriers. ussian Federation is the largest country in the world: it occupies a territory measuring 17 million 98 thousand square kilometers. Also, it has the world’s longest sea border spreading over 37 thousand kilometers, and its land border adds another 21 thousand kilometers. Russia is washed by the Arctic and Pacific waters, as well those of the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas. Inside this huge territory there is a myriad of natural resources available in fairytale proportions. Their value is estimated at US$ 140 trillion, roughly three times US GDP and some 200 Russia’s. Russian share in the world’s
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known oil reserves is 23%, natural gas 33%, coal 50% and timber 23%. Annual income from oil exports is estimated at US$ 300billion. A capable navy shall provide protection of these territories and treasures from wouldbe aggressors. But today the Russian navy keeps a low profile: its ships are rarely seen off their bases and even so in the international waters. The local shipbuilding industry is not living its best times. Rates of warship production in 2011 saw a drop of 15% to previous year, according to vice- pre Dmitry Rogozin, whose responsibilities in the Russian government cover military industrial complex. He spoke at the govern-
mental meeting on Russian navy future in February 2012, and stated that the respective volumes produced under state defense orders, at Rouble 106.7 billion (a US dollar exchanges for some 30 Roubles), also saw a reduction, that of 15.7%. The whole of the shipbuilding industry’s income registered a 16.2% drop, down to Rouble 211.5 billion. At the same time, Rogozin continued, the Russian navy assets have dwindled down to a level “very close” to an absolute minimum just enough to solve the navy’s tasks. “The navy needs a speedy renewal of its inventory”, the speaker concluded. Among problems observed in the industry he
SHIPBUILDING mentioned “insufficient funding, outdated manufacturing equipment and shortage of skilled personnel”. The 2005 shipbuilding program called for construction of 30 corvettes, 20 frigates and six destroyers. Its materialization did not go well. Rogozin reminded that some time ago Vladimir Putin asked the ministry of defense to prepare a revised version of the longterm shipbuilding program. But, the vice- premiersaid, “the program is not ready yet”. This year three new ships for the Russian navy were laid. Among them there is a third hull of Project 22350 frigate, the Admiral Golovko. Also, there is a third hull of the Project 11356 frigate, the Admiral Makarov. Finally, there is a Project 20385 corvette, the Gremyashiy. In addition, metal was cut on hull parts for the Gromkyi, a seventh corvette of the Project 20380. In the Indian context, it is interesting to notice that the head ship of the Project 11356 (also referred to as Project 11356R) in its version for the Russian navy was laid in December 2010 under the name of Admiral Grigorovich. It is being built alongside with Indian warships of the Project 11356 Series II. Second ship for the Russian navy, the Admiral Essen, was laid in July 2011; the Admiral Makarov followed in February 2012. It became known that Yantar shipbuilding plant will construct six frigates of the type for the Russian navy with first delivery due in 2014. They will carry the Caliber cruise missiles, medium range antiaircraft and antisubmarine missiles. The case of the Project 11356R is the first one in history when a customized Indian warship provided base for a new Russian navy ship. Second such case is more recent example of Russian defense ministry placing an order for Sukhoi Su-30SM multirole fighters based on customized Indian Su-30MKI. By displacement, ability to operate at rough seas and duration of autonomous operations the above mentioned frigates and corvettes are not any near to the Soviet-era cruisers. The latter are expected to serve the Russian navy in the role of flagships for a long time. Nuclear submarines form the core of the Russian navy’s strike force.
Admiral Golovko (project 22350) is on the Kaliningrad’s shipyard Yantar. department. For effective operations at sea and near home bases, however, the submarines need protection and assistance from surface combatants. The navy operates about twenty thirdgeneration fast attack submarines of the Project 971, Project 945 and Project 671RTMK – these are primarily “torpedo” U-boats with added capability of launching Granat (Russia’s Tomahawk-alike) missiles from torpedo tubes. The Granat became operational in 1984 with the 3M10 missile. The 1.7-tonne turbojet weapon had a range of 3,000km. Russia also has a handful of surface and underwater “carrier-killers” armed with the P-700 Granit systems. According to open sources, the Northern fleet has three Project 949A submarines and the Pacific Fleet five. The Granit employs 3M45 cruise missiles which are no longer in production and considered outdated. The KR-93 turbojet engine accelerates the 7-tonne, 10-meter-long weapon with a 750kg warhead (cumulative, vacuum or nuclear charge) up to Mach 2.5. For effective employment at maximum advertized ranges of 500-600km, the Granit’s missiles need target designation from aircraft or spacecraft. The Russian navy no longer operates the Tu-95RTs designator aircraft, while the Legend-M satellite constellation has much degraded since fielding in 1983. In theory, long-range targeting can be provided by Kamov deck helicopters, particularly the Ka-31 equipped with the powerful Oko radar. The Granit is also found on the Admiral Kuznetsov, Russian navy’s on-
ly carrier, and the Project 1144 series nuclear powered cruisers. The newest of those is the Peter the Great. The 23,800-tonne cruiser went into commission in 1998. She was preceded by sister ships Ushakov, Lazarev and Nakhimov. The Russian navy also has three Project 1166 cruisers with gas-turbine propulsion, the Moscow, Varyag and Ustinov. These are armed with the Bazalt or Vulcan anti-ship systems in service since 1975 and 1982 respectively. Their 3M70 missile with maximum firing range up to 700km shares Granit’s targeting problems. After a long search through many Granit replacement options, the decision makers have chosen a combination of the Onix and Caliber. The Caliber is non-exportable version of the Club-N/S that already equips the Indian navy Project 1135.6 Talwar-class frigates and Project 877EKM submarines. Both are able to employ three baseline missile types: the 91R antisubmarine (carries a torpedo, either APR3M or MPT-1UM), 3M54 anti-ship and 3M14 land-strike. Besides, the non-exportable system can also fire longerrange RK-55 Granat missiles (Russia’s evolved Tomahawk) and their (further evolved) derivatives, the Biruza. Compared to the [exportable] 3M14, the [non-exportable] Granat has much longer firing ranges. The 3M54 differs in having a third stage (in addition to booster and cruise turbojet) running on solid-fuel and accelerating to 1,000 m/sec. This version can be fired from either surface ship or submarine if her torpedo tubes can house this 8.2mlong weapon. Without the third stage, 3(64).2012
SHIPBUILDING the 3M54 weighs 1.8tons instead of 2.3 and has length of 6.2 meters. The P-800 Onix (export version called Yakhont) employs 3M55 ramjet-powered missiles. These weapons are nearly 9 meters long and weigh 3 tons without booster [air launched version, also known as the Alfa] or 4 tons with it. The missile accelerates to 750m/sec and has firing range of 150-300km depending on altitude profile. It has a radar homing head able to detect a cruiser at a distance of 75km. The Onix provided platform for development of Indo-Russian BrahMos Aerospace PJ-10. Both Caliber and Onix are found on the K-329 Severodvinsk, the lead vessel of the Project 885 fast attack submarine attributed to the fourth generation. She is outfitted with eight vertical SM-346 silos (10m-long, diameter 2m) each capable of housing either four Onix or five Caliber missile containers. The Russian navy expects the K-329 to go into commission by the year-end. Three Onix or four Caliber missile containers can be squeezed into one Granit launch site – the latter needs rather inexpensive rework to house the insertions. And this is the key to the Project 1144 modernization. The cruisers will keep their machinery, but will get newer combat management systems and sensors to serve the new missilery. According to Moscow-based newspaper Military Industrial Courier, the Project 1144 refit and modernization is aimed at keeping the world’s largest nuclear powered cruisers in service and making them a universal warships carrying powerful missilery and able to solve a wide range of missiles in Aircraft carrier Vikramaditya (former “Admiral Gorshkov”) has been procured by India.
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the open sea. These missions include: destruction of enemy carriers, air defense of own task forces, land-strikes at coastal targets with cruise missiles. The newspaper writes that the cruisers will get new radars, fire control and communication systems, as well as modern electronic warfare means. In relation to the Granit silos, the source states that during modernization of those, provision shall be made to enable them launch various missiles those intended for use against submarines. Due to smaller sizes of the newer missile types, the existing silos shall be able to house some 80 missiles instead of 20 previously. In addition, the cruisers will have separate air defense systems derived from land-based long-range S-400 SAM and those with shorter ranges for self-defense. The Military Industrial Courier makes a prognosis that such refit and modernization can expend the cruisers’ active service till 20302040. The source further writes that the work on the Admiral Nakhimov has commenced with the view of completion in 2015. This third Project 1144 cruiser went into commission in 1988; she is anchored at Severodvinsk harbor now. Destiny of her sister ship built in 1984, the Admiral Lazarev, will be decided later. First in the series, the Admiral Ushakov was decommissioned long ago; she shall be scrapped shortly. The newspaper touches on some available air defense options. It mentions the Rif-M, a further derivative of the S-300F (which is itself a naval version of the land-based S-300P). Besides, the Altair company is pictured as developing a more advanced
air defense complex for installation on cruisers and destroyers. It shall be able to provide air cover for a task group in case of a massive aerial attack by aircraft and missiles. The complex shall be able to fire at six to eight targets simultaneously at a distance exceeding 120km. it is referred to as the Redut, and is believed to be a naval derivate of the land-based Vityaz. Both will employ a number of missiles, including the 9M96E and 9M96E2 developed by Fakel design house. All four Project 1144 cruisers were built at the Baltic Plant in St. Petersburg. However, they are unlikely to undergo refit and modernization there. Under current international agreements, the Baltic Sea has a nonnuclear status. The Russian navy does not deploy atomic charges on warships and does not place orders for construction of nuclear-powered vessels in the area. The most probable site for the work is the Sevmash Dockyards in Severodvinsk, Russia’s largest shipbuilding enterprise. It is located near the far northern border with Finland. The company had difficult times in 1998-2003 when orders ran low. Yet the company’s management refused massive laid-offs, instead trying to keep workers in place by serving free dinners during working hours to all staff and distributing food to their families. This measure saved a core of the enterprise’s competent staff until financial situation improved. Russian leaders Vladimir Putin and Dmitry Medvedev have been frequent visitors to Severodvinsk, helping the city and local enterprises ease their financial, technological and social problems. Today, Sevmash directly employs 27,000 people, with average monthly salary slightly above US$ 1,000. The management considers this figure as “sufficient” to keep the employees’ families above the poverty line. With recently won orders for Project 955 and Project 885 submarines, the share of domestic military orders in the company’s portfolio has risen above 70%. Sevmash plans to complete work on the Indian navy’s carrier, the Vikramaditya, in May and send it to sea for trials in June. This ship, with full displacement in excess of 45,000
SHIPBUILDING tons, was produced as refit and modernization of an ex-Soviet navy heavy weight cruiser, the Admiral Gorshkov. At DefExpo’2012 it become known that, in addition to the Vikramaditya, Russia will hand over to the Indian navy three more ships this year. These are the head vessel of the Project 11356 (Talwar-class) Series 2 armed with BrahMos cruise missiles, a second such frigate and an overhauled Project 877EKM diesel-electric submarine with the newly added capability of launching cruise missiles when submerged. The frigates come from the Yantar shipbuilding plant, the aircraft carrier from Sevmash Dockyards, and the submarine from Zvezdochka. The United Shipbuilding Corporation (Russian acronym OSK) hopes for more sales in India, where it works on a total of ten collaborative programs in the sphere of scientific research, all in frame of government-to-government agreements on military-technical cooperation. According to media reports, last year the corporation commenced process of joint development of a new aircraft carrier. It would feature so called “common unified platform” meeting specification of both the Russian navy and the Indian navy. The new carrier was among other systems in the Weapons Procurement Program in 2011, but for some reason the respective line was put in deletion in 2012. Speaking at DefExpo’2012, OSK president Roman Trotsenko emphasized that the long and productive cooperation between our nations in the naval sphere continues. Technology transfer is something that we see as a priority, he said. Trotsenko especially mentioned manufacturing technologies that are required by the Indian partners. Russian shipbuilding industry has amassed huge experience in the given area during “many years” of warship production. Trotsenko also mentioned the theme of the unified carrier platform as a next step in development of Indo-Russian collaboration. He said this goes in line with Russia’s national interests and Indian Defense ministry procurement plans, and may facilitate the process of establishing new joint ventures between Russian and Indian companies. The draft design of the next genera-
Project 949A. tion carrier shall be ready by the yearend. This shall enable commencement of its construction in 2016-2018 in the view of completion in 2023. Drawing a line under all these grand plans and dreams, it might be worth to notice that the current state of the Russian economy is far from brilliant, and its dependence on the world’s market for fuels and raw materials export increases. At the same time, the once-strong Soviet defense industrial
complex is now only a shadow of what it was fifteen years ago. So, whatever great ideas on arms-race might be in minds of the Kremlin strategists, the current state of the national economy and the industry does not allow Russia to restore once-lost strategic balance of naval forces with the United States and its NATO allies. Vladimir Karnozov
SHIPBUILDING Whale's jump
CONVENTIONAL SUBMARINES IN NUCLEAR WORLD n those days when funds for defence are limited and under watchful eye of the public, the Russian navy faces a dilemma on whether to proceed with procurement of dieselelectric submarines. There are some doubts whether Russia should continue funding R&D and acquisition of such vessels in the time when the US, UK and France abandoned such practices long ago. The three lead-
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ing shipbuilding nations of the West do not buy conventionally powered submarines for the navies of their own. Instead, they spend their money on perfecting and building nuclear submarines. In contrast, China and India – the two developing countries possessing the atomic technologies – continue to buy both conventional and nuclear powered U-boats. Both are Russia’s long standing customers and in the need of Russian expertise.
Prediction can be made: if Beijing and New Delhi continue with acquisitions of conventional submarines built in Russia, the local military will buy a quantity also. In one of its recent public statements, the Kremlin said that development of military organization will remain a state policy priority. Big funds will be channeled for national defence until 2020: at least 2.8% of GDP. Substantial funds have been allocated for the implementation of
SHIPBUILDING the programme: over 23 trillion rubles [US dollar 800 billion]. By 2015, the share of new armaments must increase to 30 percent, and by 2020 – to above 70 percent. Throughout 2011 and the first half of 2012, large domestic orders for military equipment have been awarded to local manufacturers. In particular, the share of domestic military orders in the order portfolio of Russia’s largest naval equipment enterprise, Sevmash, has risen above 70%. During 2011, another prominent company, the Admiralty Shipyards, laid down three improved Project 636 diesel-electric submarines for the Russian navy’s Black Sea fleet. The Defence Ministry intends to increase the order up to six hulls. In other words, Russia continues to procure conventional submarines. But in the terms of financial values, respective orders are overshadowed by those for nuclear vessels. In terms technical, the immediate future of the Russian diesel electric submarines takes its shape in the Project 677 design codenamed Lada. Early June shall see departure of the Saint Petersburg from the Admiralty Shipyards in the city of St. Petersburg, where the vessel was built, to the Arctic waters for deep water trials. The Saint Petersburg is the head vessel of the Project 677; the Amur 1650 is the latter’s export derivative. The Lada was conceived by General Designer Yuri Kormilitsin at “Rubin” Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering. Earlier he headed development of the Project 641B, 877 and 636 diesel electric submarines and certain nuclear programmes. The Amur’s primary competitor is the Type 214, an export derivative of the baseline Type 212 in service with the German Navy. Also, strong competition is provided by the Scorpene. Although the French Navy operates only nuclear-powered submarines, DCNS has been successful with the Scorpene sales to foreign customers: a pair of such submarines went to Chile, another pair to Malaysia. Six such vessels are to join the Indian navy. They are being constructed locally in India under license-production contract with Mazagon Dock Ltd (MDL).
Sevmash headquarters The shipbuilders of Germany, France and Russia are locked into a fierce battle in India which seeks to buy six conventional submarines. Nothing new: these three have been competing for submarine orders round the world for decades. Each of the three has its
strong and weak points. Broadly speaking, the West Europeans are considered better at air-independent propulsion (AIP) technologies. The Germans claim their Type 212 can move submerged at speed of three knots for nearly 14 days. This is made possible through the use of
Project 677 head vessel Saint Petersburg
SHIPBUILDING 300kWt AIP, based on fuel cells, and the use of stored oxygen. Since 1998, Howaldtswerke Deutsche Werft has been supplying Type 212 U-boats to German and Italian navies with eight deliveries, so far. The exportable Type 214 is larger, with displacement of 1,960t against 1,450t. Nine deliveries have been made to Portugal, Republic of Korea and Greece. Early sales success was somewhat marred by media reports about numerous design deficiencies. The U-boats tended to be unstable when surfaced, especially in strong winds, their AIPs produced lower output and overheated. There were reports of water leaking into hydraulics, periscope vibrations, cavitation, which decreased the propeller’s efficiency, and certain onboard sensors worked unstably. In 20102011, the RoK Navy reportedly withdrew submarines from active service temporarily for repairs, as nearly 30 cases of loosing bolts were discovered on three vessels. Arguably, the Type 212/214 was very advanced and innovative design for the turn of the century and yet it could not escape the inevitable teething problems. Most of them are believed to have been cured. Rightfully, the German product is widely considered front-runner in the ongoing completion. France has already won Indian order for six Scorpene vessels. Increasing the numbers to 12 may be beneficial to local partner MDL. France does not operate Scorpene
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for itself, but Portugal and Malaysia operate them in a simplified 1,500-t version without AIP. KD Tunku Abdul Rahman and KD Tun Razak completed in 2009, for the Malaysian Navy, reportedly had problems when getting submerged. Contract worth over two billion Euro raised concerns in the country. Claims were made against certain government members, adding to DCNS’ charges of corruption made earlier. DCNS has produced unique type of AIP called MESMA (Module d’Energie Sous-Marin Autonome). MESMA makes use of a steam turbine. Steam is generated by combustion of ethanol and oxygen stored under pressure of 60 atmospheres. There is only one submarine actually outfitted with MESMA, the Pakistan Navy’s third hull of the Agosta 90B class. The S137 Hanza differs from her sister ships in having displacement of 2,050 tons against 1,760, and comes equipped with a 200kW MESMA. Reportedly, she did not manage to develop the advertised four knots, her actual speed falling one knot behind the promise. Naturally, use of compact steam turbines predetermines relatively low efficiency, in range of 15-26 per cent compared to 42-46 per cent for the German AIP solution and 50-55 per cent for the Russian. The latter two centre on use of fuel cells and electrochemical generators and have power output in the region of 300-350 kW, just enough to make three-four knots under water.
The Russian submarines have better chances in a duel situation. In this respect, the current production Project 636 (06363) is pictured as prevailing over the contemporary German and French designs. The newer Amur 1650 is even better, due to more powerful acoustic system, lesser noise and lower displacement: 1,765t against 2,350t. As an added bonus, the Russian submarines can be equipped with Club-S missile system from Novator, an export version of the Caliber on the Russian Navy ships. The Club-S can fire three types of missiles, the anti-ship 3M-54, the anti-subma-
rine 91R and the land-strike 3M-14. Today, such missilery is available only from Russia. In the course of their refit and modernization, the Indian Navy Project 877EKM submarines have been obtaining the Club-S. Next step in that direction is the integration onto submarines of the BrahMos Aerospace PJ-10 supersonic cruise missile able to strike at stationary and moving surface targets, such as warships. Based on the Russian systems known under names of the Onix, Alfa and Yakhont, the Indo-Russian PJ-10 has a launch weight of four tons and
firing range nearly 300km. In the case of a diesel electric submarine, the PJ-10s can find place in a special compartment amidships of the stretched hull, aft of the conning tower. The one would house a number of vertical launch containers. Models of the Amur 1650 exhibited at international show how this will be done. Russians designers can smoothly integrate the BrahMos on their ships, as they have a rich experience in vertical launches. More importantly, the PJ-10 is a derivative of the Onix system in use on the Project 885 Yasen fast-attack submarine.
Photo of INS Project 877EKM
The Russian weaknesses are chiefly aftermaths of the system crisis in their defence industrial complex that developed after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Meeting offset requirements is particularly an issue. Negotiations on the matter of offset need active participation of Russia’s integrated structures such as the United Shipbuilding Corporation (OSK) and Russian Technologies State Corporation. In many ways, Chinese and Indian orders are critical to the future of the Russian military shipbuilding. They provide a considerable addition to the domestic orders. From a manufacturer’s point of view, foreign orders is the butter on the bread from the local buyers. India is expected to lease one more Project 971, with respective governmental decision expected shortly. Also, there are some chances for the Project 636, a previous generation diesel electric submarine in relation to the Project 677 Lada and the Amur 1650. It has been popular with China, which added six improved ships in 2004-2006 to a pair acquired in 1997-1998. Besides, China has commenced building cop-
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ies known as the Yuan class. Meantime, media reports emerged recently stating that China is experiencing troubles with getting its “home grown” submarines up to modern standard – they are too noisy. In these reports the German MTU diesels and their local copies are pictured as being two generations behind the world’s level. This creates new opportunity for Russian suppliers in the sense that they may expect additional Chinese orders. Algeria ordered two Project 636 vessels in 2009 – they have been completed and are ready for delivery. Vietnam has signed for six. Last year, the Admiralty Shipyards in St Petersburg laid down the Novorossiysk and the Rostov-uponDon for the Russian Navy’s Black Sea Fleet. The local customer has ordered four more improved Project 636 (06363) vessels. The Project 636 was on offer in India sometime ago. Today, however, the Russians bid in the ongoing competition there with the more modern Amur 1650. Such a decision was influenced by the Russian Navy commander’s order dated 6 May 2010,
on inclusion of the St Petersburg, the head vessel of Project 677, into inventory of the Baltic Sea Fleet, supplemented by ritual hoisting of the Russian Navy flag. Development of the Lada and Amur commenced in the mid-1980s. It was meant to be a sort of interceptor, able to defeat US fast-attack submarines, operating off Russian coasts which were trying to detect and then shadow Russian strategic nuclear submarines on deterrent patrols. For this purpose, the Project 677 was made quieter and smaller than its predecessor Project 636, yet equipped with much more powerful acoustic sensors. At the turn of the century, the Admiralty Shipyards laid down two series hulls, the Kronshtadt and the Sevastopol for the Russian Navy, and a third for export. The Admiralty Shipyards reports that first two hulls are 40 per cent and 10 per cent complete respectively, while the export hull is ready for outfitting with systems. This creates good foundations for fulfilling would-be foreign orders, should overseas customers buy the Amur 1650.
SHIPBUILDING In 2011, Sevmash declared its intent to built diesel-electric submarines along with the Admiralty Shipyards. Based in Severodvinsk, Northern Russia, the company specializes in nuclear-powered submarines, with 128 units having been built so far. The company says that, without slowing down construction of nuclear-powered submarines for the Russian Navy, it can produce at least one diesel-electric submarine for export customers annually. This statement comes along with another one: Sevmash and its patron OSK are talking to the Russian defence ministry on construction of three to four improved Project 636 submarines for the Russian Navy. Initially, the customer wanted to take six units from the Admiralty Shipyards, but latter was booked to capacity with previous orders, including that from the Vietnamese Navy. The importance of Sevmash is that, it adds considerably to the Russian export capabilities, especially in terms of production quality, and fulfilling industrial offset requirements. With workforce of 27,000, it is not only the largest shipbuilder in Russia, but also the best equipped and financially stable. In November 2011, the Russian defence ministry awarded OSK and Sevmash orders for construction of four Project 955A Borey-A strategic nuclear submarines, in addition to three Project 955 Boreys, already built in Severodvinsk. The customer had ordered five Project 885M Yasen-M nuclear fast-attack submarines, in addition to the head vessel, now under sea trials. The exact sum of these contracts has not been made public but it is known that the Alexander Nevsky, a second Boreyclass vessel, was build under contract worth Rouble 23 billion, which equates to USD 0.75 billion. The Saint Petestburg, head vessel of the Project 677, has been undergoing sea trials for nearly six years already. These highlighted issues that need to be resolved before the Project 677 goes into full scale production. It is a standard Russian practice that head vessel of a brandnew type goes through vigorous testing before permission is given for mass manufacture. For instance,
a previous generation Russian design had a four-year operational trails period on two ships during which the navy made nearly thirty major and half-a-thousand minor claims, and these were subsequently addressed and resolved by the industry before launching the type into quantity production. Since entering service, Saint Petersburg sailed Baltic waters regularly every year, for trials and working out war tactics. Work on preparations of improved design for the Russian Navy is proceeding well, in view of the completion date of 2013. Today, AIP is the hottest issue for Russian conventional submarines. Due to huge investments in new technologies in the Soviet times, the Russian scientists have amassed large experience in fuel cells, and have tried them on submarines and spacecraft, and more recently, on unmanned air vehicles. However, the Russian shipbuilders do not have exportable projects of AIP-equipped submarines that might be offered off-the-shelf to foreign customers. In February 2012 the Russian navy confirmed its interest in further
improved Lada. Then- Russian navy commander Admiral Vladimir Vysotsky said the head vessel should continue her operational trials. At the same time he stated that Lada’s propulsion system needs further improvement. So that the next two hulls, the Sevastopol and the Kronshtadt being completed at the Admiralty Shipyards, should use a redeveloped propulsion system featuring an air independent propulsion. “Our key task is to create non-nuclear submarines with locally-developed air-independent propulsion. We have already achieved some positive results. [AIP] development goes at high speed, even above our expectations”, Vysotsky was quoted as saying. The Admiral was referring to bench prototype under tests at Rubin. The design house experiments with reformation of diesel fuel so as to eliminate the need in onboard storage of hydrogen for fuel cells. Vysotsky further said the completion of the follow-on Project 677 hulls is “worth it” since the submarine has some potential for further improvement. “If we install the new propulsion into
PLAN's Project 636 submarine at Admiralty Shipyards
Photos of Indian submarines the Lada, it will get new functions and capabilities, and, in the end, we will get a good ship”. First example of completely operable AIP shall be ready for installation into submarine hulls in 2014. That time the Rubin company said bench testing of a technology demonstrator unit were complete. Their purpose was to attest technologies on generation of hydrogen onboard the submarine through reformation of diesel fuel. The hydrogen is fed to an electrochemical generator charging the submarine’s batteries. Next step is construction of a full-size AIP in 2012-2013. This work is being done by Rubin under the company’s initiative, in reply to requests of potential foreign customers. In India, the Amur 1650 is offered with a new type of AIN. By the time the tender committee comes to the selection process of the most suitable supplier, work on shaping Amur 1650’s AIP should be complete. In the respective competition, the Amur 1650 is offered with AIP that employs fuel cells and reforming of diesel fuel for hydrogen by means of electro chemical generator. This solution permits to escape the need of storing hydrogen onboard submarines, as the Germans do, and rather generate it, as necessary. This eases issues with coastal infrastructure and crew safety. Although the Rubin company continues to invest into AIP technolo42
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gies, the Russian thinking is that underwater time of conventional diesel can better be enlarged by increased capacity of accumulator batteries. The classic acid batteries are giving way to newer ion-lithium. As of now, the Saint Petersburg is equipped with a classic battery, but in future, it will be replaced by ion-lithium, when latter gets available. It is expected that the Amur-1650 with ionlithium batteries can get a two fold increase in underwater time – from 9 days currently up to 16-18. Russian and European shipbuilders are divided not only on AIP issues. Another example illustrating difference in their approaches is a duel scenario. Starting from the Project 641B, the Soviet (and then Russian) thinking was focused on lowering acoustic fields so that diesel-electric submarines could be effectively employed on defence of naval bases and coastal waters against US fastattack submarines, seeking to shadow Russian strategic nuclear submarines. The Soviet Union invested heavily in powerful acoustic sensors that would enable its submarines to detect enemy ships at greater distances, and allow for timely execution of evasive maneuvers or firstsee-first-strike sort of action. Acoustic signature can be decreased by means of employing electrical motors on permanent magnets. The Russians and the Germans
went that way, brining to life, motors like Siemens Permasyn on Type 212/214, a unitary engine for ‘creeping’ towards target, economic cruise and full speed. This has been a new direction in conventional submarine development, which met numerous difficulties. Higher-than-advertised noised levels were reported for RoK and Helenic navy vessels. In turn, the Russians managed to achieve noise levels, but still worked on their SED-1 motor, trying to make it deliver the full advertised power. During sea trials of St Petersburg, underwater speed tended to increase, but it is still some two-three knots below specification. The Project 677 features state-ofthe-art Lira acoustic detection system from Elektropribor company, complete with huge quasi-conformal antennae. As a result, the Saint Petersburg fared better in simulated duels with previous-generation submarines. The Lira has demonstrated stable work in Baltic waters but still needs checking in deeper ocean waters. Following completion of the Saint Petersburg modernisation and repairs, the ship will go to the Arctic for testing purposes in 2012. During public discussions on future of the Russian Naval forces in the time when the Russian Navy was choosing between the improved Project 636 and Project 677, to equip the Black Sea Fleet, lots of informa-
SHIPBUILDING tion became available on results of Saint Petersburg testing. This included making public certain facts about her teething problems such as that with SED-1. Bits of that information have been skillfully used by interested parties in a campaign against the newer Russian project, seemingly in an effort to decrease its chances in the global marketplace. Immediate target is India. In the meantime, this country continues development of its “home grown” nuclear submarine called Advanced Technology Vehicle. The head vessel, Arihant, is at sea, undergoing sea trials. Besides, under a special deal between Kremlin and New Delhi, the Indian Navy has accepted a Project 971 submarine. The ship’s name is Nerpa, tactical number K-152. After completion and acceptance trials in Russia, she has been ferried to India and is now serving as INS Chakra. The Indian Navy may have as many as five or six nuclear-powered submarines in 2020. This would be a big development, but the need for modern conventional submarines will remain. As of today, the Indian navy operates four Shishumar class submarines of the German Type 209 and 10 Russian-built Project 877EKM attributed to the Sindhughosh class. It used to have eight older Russian submarines of the Foxtrot class. But the last of those, the INS Vagli, retired in 2011 after 36 years of service. Of the existing fleet, only four submarines are expected to remain operational in 2020 and none in 2025. According to the local defence procurement practices, suitable companies from major exporting countries are invited to bid in open international tenders. In the course of the ongoing completion for six conventional submarines, India issued Request for Information (RFI) in 2010. Request for Proposal (RFP) is expected any time soon. Selection of the collaborator country is due by 2014, and the delivery of the first vessel by 2016-2017. India has plans for 24 new non-nuclear submarines, of which, 12 shall be built locally and 12 by the collaborator. Vladimir Karnozov 3(64).2012
THE AGE OF EXTENSIVE CONFRONTATION Who and where in Russia was engaged in development of the missiles against aircraft carriers and nuclearpowered cruisers
Vehicle-mounted missiles of the C-75 Dwina air defense system equipped with surface-to-air missiles
The history of our domestic defense-and-technical developments counts lots of little-known pages including those related to the miraculous achievements in NIOKR area and advanced technologies development. Thus, for instance, not everyone knows that the national heavy engineering giant – “Uralmashzavod” – for the purposes of the State’s defense power enhancement has distinguished itself not only in the area of tanks, self-propelled guns and field artillery construction, but it has participated in development and creation of missiles against nuclear-powered submarines and aircraft carriers. Whereas, Uralmash’s designers and technologists have solved a lot of sophisticated engineering and technological tasks.
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HISTORY OBJECTIVE MILITARY AND DEFENSE NEEDS ithin the second half of the fifties of the previous century, the new generation of submarines has appeared in the world and characterized with high velocity, self-guided ballistic missiles able to precisely hit the ships and any other targets at long ranges. Therefore, the submarine force has become much more menacing than it previously was. Because a single submarine could devastate vast territories using its missiles with nuclear warheads, to destroy a city or an industrial area, to inflict the irrecoverable damages to transport infrastructure apart from the military facilities. In this case the military designers (by the way, on both sides of the “iron curtain”) have commenced their active work on counter-weapons against the occurred threat. In the other words – how to destroy such powerful and dangerous submarines. The first effective anti-submarine was created in USA. On May 1, 1962 the American destroyer has launched the anti-submarine missile ASROC in Pacific Ocean. According to the documents, the missile has flown 3650 m, then ran into the water and the warhead of about 1.5 kilo ton has successively exploded at the depth of 200 m. That was enough for destruction of any submarine. In the same year the anti-submarine weapons system ASROC was commissioned in US Navy. The new missiles were able to carry either self-guided torpedoes or depth charges with conventional and nuclear charges. ASROC’s range of fire was up to 11 km. However, the simple engineer’s supposition states: the nuclearpowered submarine could be destroyed using the missiles launched from the torpedo tubes of another submarine. In early sixties in USA they were developing the anti-submarine missile SUBROC launched from the conventional 533 mm torpedo tube. The idea of American engineers was like that: after being launched from the torpedo tube
at a safe distance from the friendly submarine the engine is started, the bottom cover is detached, and the self-guided missile continues its movement towards the enemy submarine: first – under the water as a torpedo, and after escaping from the water – as a missile with hypersonic speed to the set target. At the reference path point the reversible engine is started by the command of onboard control system, and the charge itself is detached from the missile. So “delivered” nuclear depth charge continues its flight along the ballistic path following it using the aerodynamic stabilizers. After submersion the charge is exploded at the preset depth. Casualty radius of the charge explosion with TNT equivalent from 1 to 5 kilo tons shall be equal to 5-8 km, maximum flying distance is 56 km. The SUBROC missiles were expected to be used in submarines of Thresher type, and then Permit and Sturgeon types. However, Soviet engineers kept pace with these activities. On October 13, 1960 the Soviet Council of Ministers has adopted the resolution on development of the first “Snowstorm” missile system of “submarine-air-submarine” type. Its construction was assigned to “Uralmashzavod” by that time acquired the extensive industrial experience, but it was unlikely related to missiles construction.
“URALMASH” IS RECONSTRUCTED Construction of any sophisticated machine of a new type requires at least two component parts – wellselected design bureau and production capacities able to implement the designers’ ideas. On February 13, 1958 Victor Krotov has become the Director of “Uralmashzavod”, and previously worked as the Director of Sverdlovsk Engineering Works
HISTORY “Urals” being the first computer in the Middle Urals. For missile subassemblies production (first of all their bodies welding) the two shops were reconstructed. Saying more: in spring 1962 the new huge building for experimental missile production was commissioned at the Works, and the laboratories for altitude chambers and missile test equipment were constructed nearby.
named after M.I.Kalinin. He came to “Uralmashzavod” from the position of the Head of Defense Industry department of Sverdlovsk Sovnarkhoz (National economy council). It seems the top positioners have come to the decision that the Uralmash’s production and processing services will also participate in the missile armament construction. The more so, because the well-experienced “defense expert” was nominated as the Director. And shortly after his nomination the additional capacities were brought (or truly returned) into “Uralmashzavod”, namely the defense-purpose plant No.9 together with OKB-9 in due time detached from the Works. At once the new defense-purpose line appearance was appreciated at the Works. Modernization of artillery production has started; at the same time the capacities for missile construction were provided. As far back as 1959 the long-term preserved engineering building for OKB-9 was completed (previously the designers worked terribly squeezed on the fifth floor of the Works managerial building). The new building has accommodated the then technological wonder – electronic computer 46
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FIRST MISSILES OF “URALMASHZAVOD” “Uralmashzavod” has started its “missile” topics with the booster engines (powder boosters) PRD18 production using the third-party drawings, and the engines were designed for the newly commissioned ground-to-air missiles S-75 “Dvina”. Of course, the new business was not very easy: according to veterans, the defective welded seams were initially detected, but welding experts of the Works have solved all the issues quite operatively and the engines were constructed in series. By the way, the final assembling of “Dvina” missiles was organized next door, at the Engineering works named after M.I.Kalinin. And soon Uralians discussed in whisper the certain combat result of their work: on May 1, 1960 the American reconnaissance aircraft was defeated over Sverdlovsk, and the missile pieces were marked with OTK mark of Kalinin works. Two Uralmash work-
ers were awarded that time with decorations: V.V.Krotov, the Works Director, and P.G.Kopysov, the foreman of the shop where PRD-18 was constructed. The upgrading of tactical “Vulture” missile of “ground-to-ground” type created in Moscow-region Kaliningrad (now Korolev) was the first independent work of OKB-9 designers in the area of missilery. Uralmash engineers were assigned to revise the missile design and to replace the liquid engine with the solid engine, with modernization of ballistic characteristics and creation of new nozzle set. The experts of OKB-9 have successfully completed the engineering side of the task, but the missile production was transferred to another plant due to unavailability of sufficient production capacities at the Works at that time. “ONEGA” EXPERIENCE Somewhile Uralmash armorers used to deal with jet-driven Army “Onega” system with solid guided missiles. It was the first experience of independent construction of a missile with above-ground equipment. The implemented work was gigantic. It should be mentioned that on the basis of a shop the new sections were organized within the shortest possible terms: the section for solid engines production, for aluminum welding, for plating, for machining of such materials as titanium alloys, molybdenum, graphite
HISTORY and even tungsten. For the purpose to obtain the calibrated geometry of thin-walled engines’ bodies a lot of equipment for thermal processing, welding and machining was delivered and a portion thereof was acknowledged as inventions in terms of its specifications. The extrusion technique was tested for the first time, namely the cold straightening within the special mold through creation of high hydraulic pressure inside the cylinders. The method was later used while producing any other missiles, as well as that at Motovilikhinskie plants for tubes production for the “Grad” rocket systems. The special milling machine for body elements processing and the test stands for vibration resistance tests of the assemblies and missile itself were developed by their own efforts. They have suffered a lot with the technology for application of light but efficient thermal insulation coatings. The dual “Onega” launchers were mounted on tracked and wheeled chassis, and the design has later become the primary one for the similar machines designing at the other plants. The missile itself was equipped with inertial control system, in the modern terms it was rather bulky and not very reliable. After the missile completion it was tested on the firing range Kapustin Jar. But all works related to the missile system were terminated under the resolution of USSR Government because the similar “Moon” system was concurrently under development at the other plant and the latter system had displayed more reliable results. At the same time the Uralmash project of the solid rocket probe MR12 appeared to be very successful. The rockets and launchers were tested in different climatic conditions and have played very important role in operations with air sampling in course of nuclear explosions at high altitudes. In 1966 the MR-12 rocket (at that time the project was transferred from “Uralmashzavod” to ZiK) was exhibited at VDNH of USSR and it was awarded with Golden medal. The rocket was so good that the French government has ad-
dressed to the USSR Government for its joint use. Several years together with French experts the MR-12 rocket used to be launched for the upper atmosphere research in the Northern latitudes (including those on Heisa Island), in Southern aquatic areas of the World ocean and at the equator. “SNOWSTORM” FOR “SALMON” Underwater missile system (PRK) “Snowstorm” has become the latest Uralmash product of missilery. The system was developed by analogy with the American SUBROC, but it was multipurpose one – it could be effectively used for aircraft carriers defeating since they are almost impossible to be hit by conventional torpedoes since they are covered with a fleet. Uralmash designers have created the missiles of two calibers: 533 and 650 mm (“Snowstorm-53” and “Snowstorm-65”). “Snowstorm-53” was 8.2 m long and represented the analogue of the American SUBROC missile, and “Snowstorm-65” was 11.3 m long. The helical self-guided small-scale torpedo was used as the warhead with the charge of the ordinary explosive and effective range of 8-10 km. Officially, the chief designer of “Snowstorm” system was F.F.Petrov, but the main volume of engineering developments was produced under the leadership of his deputy Nicolay Kostrulin. For operative res-
olution of any technical issues in course of “Snowstorm” construction the Director of Uralmashzavod has timely (for three months) relieved chief engineer Pavel Malkov and chief technologist Yuri Kondratov of all other works. It should be noted that, according to the eyewitnesses, the leaders worked at the missiles by 14-16 hours a day together with all other workers. Yuri Kondratov was surprised with the following picture: at the section
of steering parts some workers were milling the steering parts profiles from the solid plate of pure tungsten using the carbide tool hardly
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“biting” into the material. It was extremely labor intensive operation, and each missile had four parts like that one. The chief technologist of Uralmashzavod told Fedor Petrov: “The plate could be used for production of tens thousands of tungsten-containing cutters. Why couldn’t we make the steer of the ordinary or alloyed steel and to coat it with tungsten, and we have a number of coating techniques?” And in several days the designers have created the latticed steering gears, and two steers instead of four ones. They became easier for production in welded option made of profiled strip bars, whereupon the technologists have learned how to coat them with heat-resistant materials. The experts have selected the original heat-resistant materials, and the engine nozzles were molded in die molds. “Uralmashzavod” was given the firing range in Crimea for the missiles testing, near Feodosiya. The field was fenced with barbed wire, the torpedo tube was installed for the missiles launching, and the han-
gar for storage and assembling of the missiles was constructed. First launches were not very successful, but then the missiles had followed all commands. However the test program was not completed – in 1964 all missile tasks were transferred from “Uralmashzavod” to ZiK together with production and laboratory bases, designers and technologists participated the “Snowstorm” project. Nicolay Kostrulin has become the deputy chief designer of ZiK Veniamin Lyuliev in marine programs and had completed the “Snowstorm” program. On August 4, 1969 RPK-2 “Snowstorm-53” with 81R missile was commissioned in USSR Navy. The missiles were mounted even on the very modern submarines of 671RT project “Salmon”. Later on, under the leadership of Nicolay Kostrulin the effective missile systems were developed: RPK-6 “Waterfall” and RPK-7 “Wind” with longer range of fire, with the deeper launch depth, and the self-guidance systems. Yuri Sokolov