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J O U R N A L

110th IATDP ANNUAL CONFERENCE OCTOBER 2020 New Orleans, LA

Policies and Practices for Schools During Natural Disasters: Confronting the Needs of Displaced/ Homeless Students Using Screencasting Technology to Increase Student Engagement

www.iatdp.org

THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR TRUANCY AND DROPOUT PREVENTION

FALL 2019

VOLUME 60, ISSUE 01

ISSN 2689-372X IATDP JOURNAL - IATDP.ORG | PAGE 1


Editors Note There is a lot happening around the world with attendance. The need to spotlight these many varied projects is necessary. Instead of just examining truancy and dropout, countries are examining the global impact of attendance on children. This includes their mental health and psychological well-being in addition to their environments. However, we do not want to just regurgitate what has been done but to explore what can be done, highlight what is being done, and provide a forum to disseminate this information. The revised version of the IATDP Journal allows such a platform for practitioners, educators, students (especially doctoral or post-doctoral scholars), truancy and attendance officers, and researchers to share best or emerging practices. This journal is for you. We want to hear about your vision, research, and work on the ground with community partners. In this issue, we give space to discussions on policies for schools during natural disasters, understanding juvenile delinquent behavior through social bonding, and the use of screen casting technology to increase student engagement. Let’s start sharing. Please consider sending your submissions for peer review and inclusion in the next journal issue. Dr. Carolyn Gentle-Genitty Email: cgentleg@iu.edu Dr. Corinne Renguette Email: crenguet@iupui.edu

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Carolyn GentleGenitty, PhD is a tenured Associate Professor in the School of Social Work at Indiana University. She brings over 30 years of experiences working with youth, at-risk, truancy, and dropout. She is one of the co-founders of the International Network on School Attendance (insa.network). Her work in school social bonding, truancy, and engagement is available in peer reviewed journal articles, books, discussion blogs, and more on work done in the US, Caribbean, and internationally.

Corinne Renguette is Program Director and Associate Professor of Technical Communication in the Purdue School of Engineering and Technology at IUPUI. She holds a Ph.D. in applied linguistics and certificates in technical communication and Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. She has designed and taught a variety of face-to-face, online, and hybrid courses in English for specific purposes, applied linguistics, and technical and scientific communication. Her interdisciplinary research interests include intercultural technical communication, UX, evaluation and assessment of educational technologies, and inclusion across the curriculum, especially in STEM education.


IATDP 2020 OFFICERS

Dona Mitchell President

Edward (Ed) Foster Immediate Past President

Dominque Cash First Vice President

Calvin Burrow Second Vice President

Melissa Holley Third Vice President Carolyn Gentle-Genitty, PhD Past President

Brian Hartsell Treasurer

Keith LeLeux Executive Director

Susan Holloway Secretary

Jackie Williams Parliamentarian

Tony Terry President Elect

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CONTENTS

Policies and Practices for Schools During Natural Disasters: Confronting the Needs of Displaced/Homeless Students

1

Understanding Juvenile Delinquent Behavior through Social Bonding

11

Using Screencasting Technology to Increase Student Engagement

19

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Policies and Practices for Schools During Natural Disasters: Confronting the Needs of Displaced/Homeless Students

Jason Ward Grand Canyon University Jeff Cranmore Grand Canyon University

Families and students face natural disasters each year. While they attempt to put their lives back together, schools can play a powerful role in supporting these families, not only with a quick return to the educational setting, but in serving as a centralized location for receiving community, state, and federal support. This paper will provide a review of previous research on the roles of schools in times of disasters, including federal mandates, and will offer schools best practices to ensure educational, physical, and emotional needs of students that suffer through disasters are met to their fullest extent.

INTRODUCTION

T

he 2017 hurricane season spawned devastating storms along the East and Gulf coasts. Shortly after the convergence of these storms, the West coast experienced debilitating wildfires that sent a shockwave throughout local communities. Families lost homes, jobs, and sense of normalcy

in their lives. Schools can assist families by providing a smooth transition back to school after such an event. Students may be in temporary housing or shelters for some time, and it is easy to forget about students returning to their education; but having a clear path back to a school setting

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may be an important step to help students. The intent of this article is two-fold. First, we aim to draw attention to a growing concern, the displacement of students and their families due to the increasing number of natural disasters hitting our local communities. Second, we propose a number of best practices that local and state school districts can promote and/or implement so as to keep our focus on our primary mission, educating our children. During these difficult times, students and their families are more focused on making sense of what has occurred and rebuilding what they had.

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education accessible to our students by either bringing that education to them or providing alternatives that will best meet their needs. As Maslow (1962) clearly articulated, when lower level needs are impacted, higher level needs cannot be fully realized.

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During these difficult times, students and their families are more focused on making sense of what has occurred and rebuilding what they had.

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As such, we must focus on making PAGE 2 | IATDP JOURNAL - IATDP.ORG

IATDP.ORG While efforts

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immediately after a major disaster, it is an ongoing process that may take months. This article will discuss a number of simple tasks that can make a significant difference if disaster hits. First, school districts can ensure that they are following the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act of 1987. Second, school districts can differentiate access to education to meet individual student needs as appropriate to the situation. Third, districts should develop partnerships with their respective communities and governmental agencies so as to better assist with the varying needs that may exist. Finally, school districts can provide effective communication and training to all stakeholders including teachers, administrators, parents, and other interested stakeholders. At times, making education and resources available to our students places us out of normal day-to-day practice. For this reason, we must challenge ourselves to have a plan in place prior to disaster striking. Literature Review Extended time away from school can lead to a higher risk of dropping out. Prior research suggests that disasters, major social changes, and other factors can lead to students dropping out of school. Students who are disadvantaged or who already have low college expectations often choose work over school, as they can see that as a way of bettering themselves (Lee & Staff, 2007). Further, in Ethiopia, it was found that children experiencing death or illness of family/household members were much less likely to return to elementary school (Woldehanna & Hagos, 2015). Unexpected Disasters Disasters have a major influence on the educational system (Winters, 2007). Disasters may include natural disasters such as fires, flooding, earthquakes, landslides, storms, and other extreme conditions. Other times, disasters man

be the results of actions and may include toxic spills, acts of terrorism, and even financial/economic ruin. Whatever the cause, school systems are affected. These disasters impact school attendance, school completion, and the ability for some families to pay for their children’s education (Winters, 2007). Furthermore, as students are forced to relocate, receiving school districts are often faced with additional financial burdens such as increasing the student population without additional funds for facilities, teachers, textbooks, or supplies. This does not include the emotional and psychological support often needed by students who face trauma. Federal support from FEMA and the McKinney-Vento Education for the Homeless Children and Youth Program have not always been sufficient in covering additional costs to receiving school districts (Gay, 2008; Winters, 2007). In 2005, Hurricane Katrina left thousands of students without school options. Over 35,000 students in Mississippi had no school to return to after the hurricane. Additionally, 135,000 students from New Orleans were sent to 15 different states to continue their education. Often, receiving schools had to improvise on the nature of services they provide due to such a large influx of additional students. While educational goals were met, social and emotional goals were often overlooked. Very little was provided in terms of dealing with trauma, shifts in cultural changes, displacement of friends and family, and learning their identities in new schools (Gay, 2008; Gibbs et al., 2014). Similar patterns may be seen in response to Hurricane Sandy on the East Coast in 2012 and Hurricane Harvey in Texas in 2017 (Texas Education Agency, 2017). Students and families have also been displaced after Australian bush fires. A review of programs to assist those displaced found that programs tended to IATDP JOURNAL - IATDP.ORG | PAGE 3


focus on individuals, schools, families, social, and community needs (Gibbs et al., 2014). The review also found that most resources were focused on secondary students rather than elementary or pre-school aged students. While programs such as these are necessary to support those facing loss of home and schools, they often focus on meeting immediate needs. In 2011, massive earthquakes hit New Zealand and Japan. While the degree and magnitude of the earthquakes had very different impacts on the regions, school leaders noted several similar concerns, primarily the safety of children during the time of emergency, the importance of clear leadership and planning, and a calming presence in these leaders (O’Connor & Takahashi, 2014). School leaders in New Zealand noted several policies that should be in place to address immediate concerns of students during a disaster situation: • Make sure there are paper rolls for checking school attendance in case the computers go down. • Have more than one agreed upon emergency evacuation area that everyone knows about. • Make sure you are aware of who is on site and where people are at all times. • Have more warm clothing, as some children may be there for a long time waiting; have more food and water ready. • Have extra cell phones around; have books and games for children to stay occupied while they wait for their parents. • Have a texting/SMS system set up for all parents so, with the push of one button, all parents can be informed of what is happening at the school. Have that system set up on more than one phone and on different networks. • Have a list of up to six names of people who can come and collect the child in the event of an emergency. (O’Connor & PAGE 4 | IATDP JOURNAL - IATDP.ORG

Takahashi, 2014, p. 45). During disasters, schools are often a central hub in the community for resources, support, and information (Mutch, 2014). Preparing school leadership to deal with the influx of individuals and families during times of crisis, and with additional students after times of crisis, requires planning and support. Planning and drills that involve all stakeholders, including school personnel, emergency response teams, community support, and students, go a long way to prepare schools to be the crisis support system that they are often need to be. Educational Programs Educational programs that focus on resilience and emergency preparation are a major factor in preparing families for unexpected disasters. Bailie (2014) noted that “children can change longterm behaviour [sic] to build more resilient communities, and resilient children will become resilient adults” (p. 13). Another study found that students felt disaster training was important and that creating and practicing preparation plans were an important aspect of the training (Bolton, Dirks, & Neuwelt, 2014). The study also noted that some of the barriers to preparedness came from the cost of maintaining current survival supplies for low socio-economic families, the lack of communication between various cultural groups within the community, and the need to have emergency training and messages available in a wide variety of native languages. The study by O’Connor and Takahashi (2014) also suggested the need to provide for the social and emotional needs of students, to build resiliency, and to help prepare for other disaster situations.

McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act


Signed into law in 1987, the McKinneyVento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) provides avenues for students to have continuous enrollment in schools if they lose their residence (McKinney–Vento Homeless Assistance Act, 1987). The MVA provides schools with the federal policy and access to funding for support for students including shelters, transitional housing, and work programs. The policy outlines specific duties for schools with regard to children who are experiencing homelessness, specifically duties that provide educational stability (Taylor Wilkins, Mullins, Mahan, & Canfield, 2016). Homelessness is defined as “individuals who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence” (MVA, 1987). Under this definition, children qualify for MVA services if they meet any of the following qualifications: (a) Children sharing housing due to economic hardship or loss of housing, (b) Children living in motels, hotels, trailer parks, or campgrounds due to lack of alternative accommodations, (c) Children living in emergency or transitional shelters, (d) Children whose primary nighttime residence is not ordinarily used as a regular sleeping accommodation (e.g. park benches, etc.), and (e) Children living in cars, parks, public spaces, abandoned buildings, substandard housing, or bus or train stations. Students who must evacuate their homes due to natural disasters meet this federal definition and, therefore, if they attempt to enroll, they must be immediately enrolled in school. One provision specifically covered in the attempt to maintain educational stability is the ability to immediately enroll, even without educational records. For schools, this is often contrary to enrollment practices. However, academic and medical records are not required for these students. This also includes identification, such as drivers’ licenses and birth certificates. Key enrollment personnel, such as registrars, front office staff, and school counselors, need to be aware of this exception. At times

of large scale disasters, reminding these key personnel of the school’s obligation may be helpful. At the time of enrollment, students who qualify for MVA assistance immediately qualify for free and reduced lunch programs under the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Besides providing for nutritional needs, this qualification is used to allow high school students access to the SAT and ACT at no cost, as well as access to college application fee waivers. Students may also qualify for support with school supplies and even transportation services if they are not located within the district. This support stays in place even if the student moves to another location. Students do not have to continually move schools, even if temporary shelters move to other locations. School Records Accurate scheduling of students in classes without school records can be challenging. Students’ grade level, course enrollment, and special services are contained in school records or cumulative folders. In some cases, schools may have sustained major damage and may have lost physical records. As more schools move to electronic records, some items may be recovered, but this can still take time. If possible, the receiving school should ask for the medical records, transcripts, birth certificates, and any records for accommodations, such as Individual Education Plans (IEPs), 504 paperwork, or Response to Intervention (RtI) plans. As a best practice, receiving schools may take students and families at their word regarding academic placement and services. These may be verified later, when records do become available. Certain accommodations, such as SAT and ACT records, may be available through those companies. Other records, such as state level testing accommodation, may also be available through state databases, but this is not always the case. The school can call meetings for 504 and RtI at any time. IATDP JOURNAL - IATDP.ORG | PAGE 5


Qualifications for special education may require additional preparation. While these instances of large scale disasters are traumatic on all students and families, one particular group that may face immediate challenges are graduating seniors. As seniors are in the process of applying for college, financial aid, and scholarships, sudden movements in schools cause many issues in those applications. New seniors are often not ranked or do not have a GPA at their new campus, which are requirements for most college applications. School counselors can write specific letters to colleges to explain the students’ circumstances and the cause for lack of records. These students may have to request records be sent from previous schools, including SAT and ACT scores that are linked to their previous school district. These students may have to go through non-traditional applications that allow the current school to advocate on their behalf. This leads to several recommendations for schools. Schools should have a plan to accommodate new students if they are relocated to their campus. Yearly training of administrators, counselors, and registration staff keeps practices consistent and compliant with all federal laws. The school may wish to have informational packets available for families to explain their rights and outline state and federal protections that are in place. Finally, schools may wish to have information ready for new enrollees to outline local services such as medical facilities, and basic services such as laundry, transportation, and other household needs. Schools need to have proactive plans in place to support students and families in times of disasters and emergencies. Policies and procedures that are developed with care and thought before they are needed will often be more thought out than those that are developed in the middle of a crisis. By looking at previous disasters and PAGE 6 | IATDP JOURNAL - IATDP.ORG

emergencies, we can learn from other schools to create best practices to put in place plans that will support the entire community if and when these plans are needed. Best Practices for Overcoming Challenges As we consider these challenges, it is necessary to identify some best practices that may assist in meeting the needs of displaced youth within our local communities. Identifying challenges is only a part of the battle. Understanding how to best respond to the challenges via meaningful solutions is where our emphasis should be placed. Here, we have identified a number of challenges and the best practices that can be implemented to overcome those challenges and ensure that children’s educational needs can be met, even when faced with unexpected disasters. Immediate Enrollment As students arrive at school to enroll, if it is determined that they meet MVA eligibility, they must be enrolled immediately, regardless of having all necessary paperwork. This enrollment also qualifies for immediate enrollment in federal NSLP and access to MVA assistance. While this is the law, it also provides immediate assistance in the form of nutrition, transportation, and access to education. Remember that loss of home to any disaster is an automatic qualifier for MVA. Registrars, front desk personnel, and counselors should receive yearly training on these practices, with additional reminders as various disasters occur. Flexibility Due to Loss of Records Students and families who have lost their homes often do not have the necessary school records to enroll. Transcripts, accommodations, and medical records may take weeks or months to arrive to the


receiving schools. School officials should ask probing questions to determine the class placements. What classes were you in? Did you receive any services? Have you passed all of your previous classes (at the high-school level especially)? These answers can help students be placed in close approximation to their previous classes; however, as records become available, changes may need to be made. Development of a 504/RtI A 504 Educational Plan is created and afforded to students with some form of a disability (Kim & Samples, 2013); however, does homelessness qualify as a disability? A case can be made for this when a child has experienced trauma from losing a home due to a natural disaster. There is certainly going to be a degree of PostTraumatic Stress Disorder. If for no other reason, providing a student with a 504 that has been negotiated between school personnel and the parents will demonstrate the school district’s desire to meet the needs of affected student. Similarly, RtI provides another method to regularly track vulnerable students (King & Coughlin, 2016). Alternative Educational Placement Alternative instructional settings may be a viable alternative for some families and students. Depending on the nature of the individual familial needs, an alternative learning setting could be considered. Possibilities include homebound instruction, computer-based instruction, and evening or afternoon schooling. While homebound education is generally applied to students who have a defined physical, psychiatric, or medical need (Phillips, 2013) and alternative education is typically designated for the behaviorally challenged (Porowski, O’Conner, & Luo, 2014), expanding one’s educational options due to home displacement in the event of natural disasters will, in tandem, further bolster the mission of any educational agency

by meeting the needs of every individual learner without prejudice. Ensure Emotional and Social Support While federal, state, and community resources often focus on support for meeting basic needs such as food, shelter, and clothing, emotional support is often overlooked. Students and families who survived a major disaster will have to deal with the loss of their home, their community, and their way of life. Schools and communities can serve these families by ensuring that culturally relevant support systems are in place to help families grieve and begin adjusting to a new way of life that includes new locations, friends, and different school expectations. Teaching resiliency skills is also important (Bailie, 2014; Bolton, Dirks, & Neuwelt, 2014). Community Organization and Government Agency Partnerships The African proverb “It takes a village...” cannot be overstated. The value of schoolcommunity-government partnerships is essential when attempting to meet the varying needs of the students and families we serve (Blank & Villarreal, 2016; Kronholz, 2016; Ruth, 2017). The greatest mistake a district (or any agency) can make is to assume that problems are best resolved at the micro-level with limited resources. Expanding one’s network increases opportunities to meet the needs of our students and their families. Transition to a Cloud-Based Record Management System A cloud-based records management system has already been adopted in the medical field (Haskew et al., 2015; Wang, Xu, Shi, & Fang, 2015); however, there are some school districts throughout the United States who have opted for this responsible option to protect their student data, though a significant departure from print records has not yet been seen (Meyer, 2013). IATDP JOURNAL - IATDP.ORG | PAGE 7


Such a system provides a reliable safeguard for student data that protects the integrity of the data the school districts regularly collect. Community Training for Teachers and Administrators Preparing teachers, administrators, and staff for the aftermath of natural disasters is one of the most important resources a district can provide. Teachers receive an abundance of training related to fire and lock-down drills; however, natural disasters are less understood, especially considering the psychological and physical lasting effects. Teachers and administrators need to better understand what resources are available, what community partnerships have been forged, and how to identify students of all ages who may need these resources and services (Amato, 2017). Taking an “all-hands on deck” approach will better ensure that a district’s level of preparedness is high during these times of need. Parent Awareness Training Parents and other community members also need to be informed of the resources and services the school district provides. As articulated previously, parents and students do not have time to “shop around” for resources to aid them during time of need (Dudley-Grant, Mendex, & Zinn, 2000). The focus of the school district is to become a disaster relief resource for our students and their families. Providing a seminar or other similar training for the parents and other interested community members will help to ensure the community is well prepared in the aftermath of a natural disaster. Relax State Testing/Graduation Requirements While there has been a quiet surge of parents who opted their children out of state-mandated testing (Bennett, 2016), it seems plausible to offer such an option to those children who have been identified PAGE 8 | IATDP JOURNAL - IATDP.ORG

as homeless. We propose taking this a step further by relaxing the graduation requirements for those who have been recently deemed homeless due to a documented natural disaster. These youth will have experienced a tragedy and do not need to be required to continue pursuing graduation requirements under even more challenging circumstances. It would be appropriate for school districts, with guidance from state administrators, to determine an appropriate path forward for them. Any adjustments to state testing and graduation requirements will require state board approval. Though this “best practice” is highly recommended or encouraged, independent school districts cannot supersede state-mandated graduation or assessment requirements. Conclusion Recently, we have seen back-to-back natural disasters that have left families without power, shelter, food, and potable water. These occurrences have resulted in communities relying mostly, if not solely, on relief organizations such as the Salvation Army. While these organizations have met some of the lower level needs of those affected, in most cases, the educational needs of the school-aged children were not met or even considered. School districts can play an active role with our local communities in four significant ways. First, school districts can ensure that they are following the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act of 1987. Second, school districts can differentiate access to education to meet individual student needs as appropriate to the situation. Third, districts should develop partnerships with their respective community and governmental agencies so as to better assist with the varying needs that may exist. Finally, school districts can provide effective communication and training to all stakeholders including teachers, administrators, parents, and other


interested stakeholders. While our goal is not to infuse politics into this article, we will always be stronger together. References Amato, V. (2017). After the storm subsides. EMS World, 46(11), 24-26. Bailie, H. (2014). Educating the educators: A national emergency management project. Ethos, (1), 12-17. Blank, M. J., & Villarreal, L. (2016). How partnerships connect communities and schools. Education Digest, 81(8), 16-25. Bolton, P., Dirks, K., & Neuwelt, P. (2014). Natural hazard preparedness in an Auckland community: Child and community perceptions. Pastoral Care in Education, 32(1), 23-41. doi:10.1080/02643944.2014.881909. Dudley-Grant, R., Mendez, G., Zinn J. (2000). Strategies for anticipating and preventing psychological trauma of hurricanes through community education. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31(4), 387-392. ETS Research Report Series. (2016). Opt Out: An Examination of Issues. Princeton, NJ: Bennett. Gay, G. (2008). Teaching children of catastrophe. Education Digest, 73(9), 40-44. Gibbs, L., Snowdon, E., Block, K., Gallagher, H. C., MacDougall, C., Ireton, G., & Waters, E. (2014). Where do we start? A proposed post-disaster intervention framework for children and young people. Pastoral Care in Education, 32(1), 68-87. doi:10.1080/0264 3944.2014.881908. Haskew, J., Ro, G., Saito, K., Turner, K., Odhiambo, G., Wamae, A., & Sugishita, T. (2015). Implementation of a cloud-based electronic medical record for maternal and child health in rural Kenya. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 349-354. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2015.01.005 Kim, D., & Samples, E. (2013). Comparing individual healthcare plans and Section 504 Plans: School districts’ obligation to determine eligibility for students with health related conditions. The Urban Lawyer, 45(1), 263-279. King, D., & Coughlin, P. K. (2016). Looking beyond RtI standard treatment approach: It’s not too late to embrace the problem-solving approach. Preventing School Failure, 60(3), 244-251. Kronholz, J. (2016). Teacher home visit: School-family partnerships foster student success. Education Next, 16(3), 16-21. Lee, J. C., & Staff, J. (2007). When work matters: The varying impact of work intensity on

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high school dropout. Sociology of Education, 80(2), 158-178.

Maslow, A. H. (1962). Toward a Psychology of being. Princeton: D. Van Nostrand Company. McKinney–Vento Homeless Assistance Act of 1987 (Pub. L. 100-77, July 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 482, 42 U.S.C. § 11301 et seq.) Meyer, L. (2013, April 4). Kentucky moves 173 school districts to cloud-based ERP. The Journal. Retrieved from https://thejournal.com/Articles/2013/04/04/Kentucky-Moves173-School-Districts-to-Cloud-Based-ERP.aspx?p=1. Mutch, C. (2014). The role of schools in disaster preparedness, response and recovery: what can we learn from the literature? Pastoral Care in Education, 32(1), 5-22. doi:10.1080/ 02643944.2014.880123. O’Connor, P., & Takahashi, N. (2014). From caring about to caring for: Case studies of New Zealand and Japanese schools post disaster. Pastoral Care in Education, 32(1), 42-53. doi:10.1080/02643944.2013.875584. Phillips, K. (2013). Homebound education. Research Starters: Education (Online Edition). Porowski, A., O’Conner, R., & Luo, J. L. (2014). How do states define alternative education? Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic. Ruth, M. (2017). Assessing the outcomes of school-based partnership resilience intervention. South African Journal of Education, 37(1), 1-13. Taylor Wilkins, B., Mullins, M. H., Mahan, A., & Canfield, J. P. (2016). Homeless liaisons’ awareness about the implementation of the McKinney--Vento Act. Children & Schools, 38(1), 57-64. doi:10.1093/cs/cdv041. Texas Education Agency. (2017). Hurricane Harvey Resources. Retrieved from https://tea.texas.gov/About_TEA/Other_Services/Weather_and_Disaster/Hurricane_ Harvey_Resources/. Wang, C., Xu, X., Shi, D., & Fang, J. (2015). Privacy-preserving cloud-based personal health record system using attribute-based encryption and anonymous multi-receiver identity-based encryption. Informatica, 39 (4), 375-382. Winters, C. (2007). Planning for disaster: Education policy in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Multicultural Education, 15(2), 39-41. Woldehanna, T., & Hagos, A. (2015). Economic shocks and children’s dropout from primary school: Implications for education policy in Ethiopia. Africa Education Review, 12(1), 28-47.

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Understanding Juvenile Delinquent Behavior through Social Bonding

Carolyn Gentle-Genitty Indiana University

Social control theory is often used to understand the many facets of social bonding opportunities and juvenile delinquency behavior. Various theories have been used to help explain delinquent behaviors and the reason for such actions against the community such as strain, differential association, social learning, symbolic interaction, and social control theories. However, social control theory and its four elements of social bonding (attachment, involvement, commitment, and belief) seem to be the most effective for understanding the dynamics of why young individuals participate in delinquency.

Four Constructs of Social Bonding

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he four constructs of social bonding form very early in the education life cycle of a student, often middle school. Social Control Theory (Hirschi, 1969) postulates that the higher the presence of these four constructs - attachment, involvement, commitment, and beliefs - the higher the level of social bonding. When Hirschi (1969) delineates his own four constructs of social bonding, he describes attachment as affection or close relationships with others. This element suggests that youth with stronger attachments are less likely to participate in delinquent activities and violate school and society rules and laws because they are actively engaged. The youth who do not feel attached to persons or entities within society may not be engaged in opportunities that build social bonds; thereby, they do not embrace society’s, the parents’, or the schools’ values and norms, as they have less or no stake in school. The second major element is commitment. Hirschi describes this element as the investment made in conventional activities such as peer relationships and school activities. When youth invest time, energy, and personal resources into school, they are less likely to abandon it (Hirschi, 1969). Therefore, youth, and students of

middle-school age who feel committed and invested in school via academics, extracurricular activities, leadership opportunities, and relationships with a good teacher, friend, or peer group, may be less likely to disengage from school and engage in delinquent activities. The third element is involvement. Involvement speaks directly to what individuals find themselves doing to keep busy and deterred from delinquent activities. The more they are invested and engaged in prosocial, structured activities (study habits), like school or leadership in a club or sports team, the less likely they are to engage in deviant activities. They simply do not have the time because they are invested in pro-social activities. However, when they cannot find or are not involved in conventional activities that bring them joy and where they feel like they belong and are needed, they are more likely to invest in unconventional activities. The last of the four elements of social bonding is belief. Beliefs are often not formally written but still serve as the moral conscience of society and determine right from wrong. This speaks to the degree to which youth have IATDP JOURNAL - IATDP.ORG | PAGE 11


belief in the value of what society has to offer in the way of conventional activities and whether those ways and values are fair. Moral education is seen as having a direct effect on students’ decisions to participate in delinquency (Siegel & Senna, 2007). Many values are taught in the home and are often emphasized in the school and community arenas. The societal belief in the value of education is a key factor in choosing (or not choosing) to be delinquent. Many children engaged in delinquency do not yet believe that without an education they will have limited opportunities. Although to some, the four constructs may seem different and new, Lipsitz (1984) previously presented a similar framework for understanding children at this developmental stage. She pointed out that there are seven needs of middle school including 1) positive social integration, 2) meaningful participating in school and community, 3) physical activity, 4) diversity, 5) competence and achievement, 6) structure and clear limits, and 7) selfexploration. These seven needs articulate

specific steps schools can take to meet the needs of their students and assist in spelling out what Hirschi’s constructs represent. For instance, attachment is clearly present when Lipsitz calls for positive social interaction with peers and adults, involvement when Lipsitz calls for meaningful participation in school and community activities, and commitment when Lipsitz asks that schools to provide opportunities for students to explore diversity and self-exploration and to show competence and achievement to meet their personal needs for connection. Beliefs is the last of Hirschi’s four constructs and is also addressed by Lipsitz’ needs. Lipsitz discusses the schools’ provision of clear limits, rules, and norms in the school’s organizational structure to help the child value school. Both Lipsitz and Hirschi offer different organizing frameworks to address the needs of adolescents (See Table 1).

Hirschi (1969) 4 Constructs

Lipsitz (1984) 7 needs of Adolescents

Attachment

Positive social interaction

Involvement

Meaningful participation in school and community, physical activity

Commitment

Diversity, competence, and achievement

Beliefs

Structure and clear limits, self-exploration

Table 1 – Organizing Framework Similarities

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Applying the Theory to Understanding Delinquency Social control theory is ideal for understanding delinquency because it has become one of the major theories in understanding delinquent and youth antisocial behaviors, in general (Eith, 2005). Hirschi (1969) determined that connections to people in the creation of a relationship are important factors in delinquency. In other words, social bonds matter. Hirschi posits, the absence of inhibition or the lack of strong positive relationships and the presence of weak social bonding, especially to school, facilitates engagement in various forms of antisocial behaviors (Brezina, Piquero, & Mazerolle, 2001; Hirschi, 1969; Sigfusdottir, Farkas, & Silver, 2004). A lack of opportunities for connection and social bonding is then purportedly linked to student disengagement and participation in delinquency. When these bonds are absent or weak, there is no one to influence the young person away from the negative behaviors; thereby, there is no bond to break (Brown et al., 2005; Glueck & Glueck, 1950). Toby (1957) has termed this lack of bonding as lack of stakes in conformity. Those who have less to lose because they are not attached or committed are more likely to take risks. Early social control theory espoused that this risk is based both on personal decisions to not comply and on labeling of the noncompliant behavior (Reiss, 1951). Ideally, there is a presumed correlation of social bonding to delinquency and engagement. However, this relationship may be impacted by certain societal, personal, and school demographics that help to create or inhibit this relationship (Eith, 2005). For youth who are exploring their own identity and finding their own sense of self, opportunities for social bonding are an essential ingredient to their academic and future success (Brough, 1990; Brunsma, 2006; DeMedio, 1991; Dorman, Lipsitz, & Verner, 1985; Eccles, Lord, Roeser, Barber,

& Jozefowicz, 1999; Jung & Gunn, 1990; Manning, 1993; Toepfer, 1988; Zins, Weissber, Wang, & Walberg, 2004). Is the Change Individual or Community? While social control theory proposes that strong personal bonds deter delinquency, it is also a theory driven by individual behavior, choice, and action. This brings into question the need to include community and structural community factors. The theory was not originally a way to answer why people break the norms of society, such as through delinquent activities, but why some people did not break those norms – a strengths perspective. Yet, researchers continue to refer to this theory as one of the first theories to examine social bonding as a primary predictor of delinquency, and the four constructs of social bonding identify protective factors for school-aged children, with influence from the family and community (Crosnoe, Erickson, & Dornbusch, 2002; Eith, 2005; Maddox & Prinz, 2003). Researchers like Hoffmann (2002) and Kornhauser (1978) suggest that social bonds are impacted by deteriorated structural and community-driven factors that further facilitate involvement in negative behaviors (Bursik & Grasmick, 1983; Peeples & Loeber, 1994). Evidently, the location where one lives and spends most of their childhood (the school environment over 6-8 hours a day) influences behavior (Catalano, et al., 1998; Catalano & Hawkins, 1996; Goetz, 2003; Hawkins & Weis, 1985; Herrenkohl, Hawkins, Chung, Hill, & BattinPearson, 2001; Sheidow, Gorman-Smith, Tolan, & Henry, 2001). In the literature on dropouts and chronic truancy, some of the variables that directly influence the behavior include interactions in the family, peer group, community, personal characteristics, religious community, and factors in the school environment (Geenen, Powers & LopezIATDP JOURNAL - IATDP.ORG | PAGE 13


Vasquez, 2001; Herrenkohl, et al., 2000; Johnstone, 2002; Mizelle, 1999; Roderick, 2003). In a longitudinal study, Werner and Smith (2001) added that emotional support needs to be provided to youth both in and outside the home. Support is emphasized because the students are experiencing many changes, both physical and psychological, and the results usually impact their scholastic ability (Gutman & Midgley, 2000; Johnstone, 2002; Werner & Smith, 2001). For example, “troubled youths who grew up in poverty, but who were socially and intellectually competent, profited more from naturally occurring opportunities that opened up for them into adulthood” such as mentoring (Werner & Smith, 2001, p.180). Similarly, the Chicago Youth Development Survey suggested that poor family functioning, impoverished communities, and limited social networks can be mitigated by strong school support and students’ social bond to the school (Sheidow, et al., 2001). In the end, some studies have argued that students most at-risk, living in povertystricken communities, and from singleheaded or poor functioning families are less likely to succeed (Clark, 1994; Clark & Clark, 1984; Fine, 1991). The reality is that with a supportive community and with appropriate measures of creating stakes for a child to stay in school, value school, and be committed and attached to what school represents, any child can be successful regardless of previous situations and background. Clearly, social bonding manifests itself in various ways and accounts for many factors that may explain why some youth engage in delinquency. We see this through truancy and dropout but we can make a difference if we look beyond the truancy and drop out numbers and begin to respond to the needs of our children as they grow and learn. Education is still the key, but social bonding matters. Student Bond = Student Success.

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Cyntoia Brown was born to an alcoholic, teenage mother who was also a victim of sex trafficking. Cyntoia experienced a sense of isolation, low self-esteem, and alienation that drove her straight into the hands of a predator. She became a victim of sex trafficking and at the age of 16 was arrested for killing a man who had solicited her for sex. She was tried as an adult and was sentenced to life in prison without chance of parole for 51 years. She was the featured speaker at this year’s 109th Annual IATDP conference. Cyntoia hopes that her story will inspire others and shine a light on the injustice that people still face on a daily basis, especially the injustice to women and children in American prisons.


References Brezina, T., Piquero, A. R., & Mazerolle, P. (2001). Student anger and aggressive behavior in school: An initial test of Agnew’s macro-level strain theory. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38(4), 362-386. Brough, J. A. (1990). Changing conditions for young adolescents: Reminiscences and realities. Educational Horizons, 68(2), 78-81. Brown, E. C., Catalano, R. F., Fleming, C. B., Haggerty, K. P., Abbott, R. D., Cortes, R. R., & Park, J. (2005). Mediator effects in the social development model: An examination of constituent theories. Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 15(4), 221-235. Brunsma, D. L. (Ed.) (2006). Uniforms in public schools: A decade of research and debate. Lanham, MD: Rowan & Littlefield Education. Bursik, R. J. & Grasmick, H. G. (1983). Neighborhoods and crime: The dimensions of effective community control. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Catalano, R. F., Berglaund, H. L., Ryan, J. A. M., Lonczak, H. S., & Hawkins, J. D. (1998). Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. Social Development Research Group: University of Washington. Retrieved March 16, 2006 from: http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/ PositiveYouthDev99/index.htm. Catalano, R. F., & Hawkins, J. D. (1996). The social development model: A theory of antisocial behavior. In J.D. Hawkins, (Ed.) Delinquency and crime: Current theories (pp.149-197). NY: Cambridge University. Clark, A. S. (1994). Dropping out in America: A national dilemma. In OERI Native American Youth at Risk Study, 1-13. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Clark, S. N. & Clark, D. C. (1984). Creating a responsive middle school through systematic long-range planning. NASSP Bulletin, 68(473), 42-51. Crosnoe, R., Erickson, K. G., & Dornbusch, S. M. (2002). Protective functions of family relationships and school factors on the deviant behaviors of adolescent boys and girls: Reducing the impact of risky friendships. Youth & Society, 33(4), 515-544. DeMedio, D. L. (1991). Using the unique developmental traits of middle school students to build effective curriculum. Paper presented at the meeting of the National Middle School Association, Louisville, KY. Dorman, G., Lipsitz, J., & Verner, P. (1985). Improving schools for young adolescents. Educational Leadership, 42(6), 44-49. Eccles, J. S., Lord, S. E., Roeser, R. W., Barber, B. L., & Jozefowicz, D. M. (1999). The association of school transitions in early adolescence with developmental trajectories through high school. In J. Schulenberg, J. L. Maggs, & K. Hurrelmann (Eds.) Health risks

IATDP JOURNAL - IATDP.ORG | PAGE 15


and developmental transitions during adolescence (pp. 283-320). NY: Cambridge University. Eith, C. A. (2005). Delinquency, schools, and the social bond. NY: LFB Scholarly Publishing. Fine, M. (1991). Framing dropouts: Notes on the politics of an urban public high school. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Geenen, S., Powers, L. E., & Lopez-Vasquez, A. (2001). Multicultural aspects of parent involvement in transition planning. Exceptional Children, 67(2), 265-282. Glueck, S. & Glueck, E. (1950). Unraveling juvenile delinquency. Oxford: Commonwealth Fund. Goetz, E. G. (2003). Clearing the way: Deconcentrating the poor in urban America. Washington D.C.: Urban Institute. Gutman, M. L. & Midgley, C. (2000). The role of protective factors in support of the academic achievement of poor African American students during the middle school transition. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(2), 223-248. Hawkins, J. D. & Weis, J. G. (1985). The social development model: An integrated approach to delinquency prevention. Journal of Primary Prevention, 6, 73-97. Herrenkohl, T. I., Hawkins, J. D., Chung, I. J., Hill, K. G., & Battin-Pearson, S. (2001). School and community risk factors and interventions. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds). Child delinquents: Development, intervention, and service needs (pp. 211-246). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkley, CA: University of California. Hoffman, J. P. (2002). A contextual analysis of differential associations, social control, and strain theories of delinquency. Social Forces, 81(3), 753-785. Johnstone, K. (2002). The transition to high school: A journey of uncertainty. Retrieved March 7, 2006 from http://www.aare.edu.au/02pap/joho22562.htm. (1-8). Jung, P. W. & Gunn, R. M. (1990). Serving the educational and developmental needs of middle-level students. NASSP Bulletin, 74(525), 73-79. Kornhauser, R. (1978). Social sources of delinquency. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Lipsitz, J. (1984). Successful schools for young adolescents. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. Maddox, S. J. & Prinz, R. J. (2003). School bonding in children and adolescents: Conceptualization, assessment, and associated variables. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 6(1), 31-49.

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Manning, M. L. (1993). Developmentally appropriate middle level schools. Wheaton, MD: Association for Childhood Education International. Mizelle, N. B. (1999). Helping middle school students make the transition into high school. ERIC Digest, [Electronic Source] Retrieved March 7, 2006 from http://www.spannj. org/BridgeArchives/helping_middle_school_students_m.htm. Peeples, F., & Loeber, R. (1994). Do individual factors and neighborhood context explain ethnic differences in juvenile delinquency? Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 10, 141-157. Reiss, A. (1951). Delinquency as the failure of personal and social controls. American Sociological Review, 16, 196-207. Roderick, M. (2003). What’s happening to the boys? Early high school experiences and school outcomes among African American male adolescents in Chicago. Urban Education, 38(5), 538-607. Sheidow, A. J., Gorman-Smith, D., Tolan, P. H., & Henry, D. B. (2001). Family and community characteristics: Risk factors for violence exposure in inner-city youth. Journal of Community Psychology, 29(3), 345-360. Siegel, L. J. & Senna, J. J. (2007). Essentials of criminal justice. (5th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Learning Inc. Sigfusdottir, I., Farkas, G., & Silver, E. (2004). The role of depressed mood and anger in the relationship between family conflict and delinquent behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33(6), 509-522. Toby, J. (1957). Social disorganization and stake in conformity. Journal of Crim Law & Criminology, 48, 12-17. Toepfer, C. F. (1988). What to know about young adolescents. Social Education, 52(2), 110- 112. Werner, E. E. & Smith, R. S. (2001). Journeys from childhood to midlife: Risk, resilience, and recovery. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University. Zins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Wang, M. C., & Walberg H. J. (Eds.). (2004). Building academic success on social and emotional learning: What does the research say? NY: Teachers College.

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WHO SHOULD ATTEND? The 110th IATDP Conference, slated for New Orleans, LA aims to gather input from educators, researchers, students, public health, and all those engaged in education to come together for change with a keen focus on intervention for students. Who should attend? Principals, School Professional Counselors, Administrators, Child Welfare Workers, Local Law Enforcement, School Resource Officers, Mental Health Professionals, Psychologists, Healthcare Professionals, Community Agencies and any person interested in fostering change for students.

1. Submission must be in English

HOW TO SUBMIT YOUR JOURNAL MANUSCRIPT email articles to: cgentleg@iu.edu

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2. Each submission must be in APA format inclusive of headings, in-text citations, and references 3. Paper must have a long title, short title, an abstract (200 words) and keywords (3-4) to accompany your article 4. Tables and Charts must be in high resolution colors and can be left in manuscript or attached separately to submission 5. Manuscript should be 8-12 pages in length 6. Authors name, affiliation, country, and contact information must be included. Please identify the corresponding author separately


Using Screencasting Technology to Increase Student Engagement

Shaunna Waltemeyer Grand Canyon University Jeff Cranmore Grand Canyon University

Maintaining a high level of student engagement is key element in increased school completion rates. While student engagement is often a challenge with high school students, it can be even more so with students attending a virtual school. New technologies are available that allow teachers to provide both audio and video feedback to students. This paper reviews screencasting software programs that can be used to build more authentic relationship with students – both face-to-face and virtually. The program can be used for classroom demonstrations, modeling steps of instruction, and providing individual feedback. This tool can be used to increase student-teacher relationships, which can, in turn, lead to higher completion rates of students.

Introduction While as a nation, we continue to see graduation rates climb, some school systems continue to struggle with student completion. The average public high school graduation rate remains near 85%, while virtual high school graduation rates across the nation average a 40% graduation rate (GradNation, 2016). The annual report also showed that while virtual schools make up only 1% of all US high schools, they have the highest percent of low graduation schools. Iachini, Buettner, Anderson-Butcher, and Reno (2013) noted in their study of student re-engagement that after dropping out of high school, nearly half of their qualitative sample noted the importance of personalized teacher interaction in building engagement and relationships. The study also found that nearly half of all participants listed lack of support from teachers as a major reason they had been unsuccessful in their previous schools. Literature Review The importance of positive teacher interaction in building relationships has been documented to engage students (Corso, Bundick, Quaglia, & Haywood,

2013; Remmen, & Frøyland, 2014). In virtual settings, teacher interaction with students can be more challenging. Kirby, Sharpe, Bourgeois, and Greene (2010) noted that online students often report certain disadvantages, such as “feelings of isolation, technical problems, less contact with fellow students and institutional staff, low motivation, and problems in communicating and being able to contribute to class discussions” (p. 163). Parsad and Lewis (2009) stated that communication restraints in online and blended education resulted in text as a primary form of feedback. Although text is often considered an effective form of communication, it does lack vocal and visual cues, thus making it difficult to create a personal and social presence (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000). Instructors teaching composition or courses requiring written assignments historically struggle in providing effective feedback as a means to address mistakes and guide revisions (Thompson & Lee, 2012). McCarthy (2015) stated “…high quality and timely feedback, both in formative and summative form, IATDP JOURNAL - IATDP.ORG | PAGE 19


are crucial features for enhancing effective student learning and in developing strong relationships between staff and students” (p. 153). One unique challenge of online education is building rapport between the instructor and student. According to Glazier (2016) the lack of rapport in the online classroom can lead to poor student performance, disconnecting from the course and instructor, and eventually dropping the class entirely. Crook et al. (2012) stated video feedback should include four main elements: student engagement, efficiency, timeliness, and quality. Impact of Video Feedback Borup, West, Thomas, and Graham (2012) recounted a study on blended learning that included 22 students and nine teachers in which “...participants generally viewed video feedback to be more effective at establishing instructor social presence because instructors could better speak with emotions, talk in a conversational manner, and create a sense of closeness with students” (p. 232). Video feedback allows for the use of visual cues, which helps the student identify their instructor as a real person and use more conversation (Silva, 2012). Evans (2013) stated some online and blended learning instructors began incorporating asynchronous feedback in video format into their classrooms as a way to increase the social dynamic, even if the feedback is primarily related to course content.

2016). Thompson and Lee (2012) surmised video feedback “…does not allow students to ask questions as they would in face-to-face, phone, or video conference, hearing the voice of the teacher going through the paper establishes a personal connection and rapport, creating a sense of availability” (para. 37). McCarthy (2015) reported that a majority of students found video feedback to be a positive advantage in that it is more personal, includes explanation on what was done correctly and incorrectly, and is similar to face-to-face feedback. According to West and Turner (2016) video feedback is an “…effective means of increasing student engagement and exposing them to a more detailed explanation than they would normally be receiving. Providing similar depth/quality of illustrative feedback in written form may be considerably more onerous and may fail to stimulate the more visually oriented recipient” (p. 408). Using the screencast video feedback approach allows the instructor to highlight key areas of opportunity related to format and content in order to correct mistakes in future assignments (Soden, 2017). Student Engagement and Social Connections

According to Henderson and Phillips (2015), the majority of students valued video feedback as they found it to be West and Turner (2016) stated that video individualized, personalized, specific, caring, feedback with accompanying narration, clear, and motivating. Additionally, students provides personalized assignment feedback found video feedback to be a valuable tool the student can view at a convenient time in completing future assignments and as often as necessary to understand and specific strategies to understand and apply apply the comments. Based on qualitative course objectives (Henderson & Phillips, feedback, students found personalized 2015). video feedback easy to understand, informative, and specific; it highlights According to Borup et al. (2012), students assignment objectives that need attention found video feedback to be more personal and offers a greater amount of feedback and effective compared to similar text in a short amount of time (West & Turner, feedback due to the ability to see facial PAGE 20 | IATDP JOURNAL - IATDP.ORG


cues, non-verbal mannerisms, and voice tone and inflection. Student insights concluded that video feedback from the instructor made it “feel more like it’s coming from a person” and that the instructor “cared about us” (Borup et al, 2012, p. 242). Thompson and Lee (2012) continued to explain that “…audiovisual feedback has the potential to motivate students and increase their engagement in their own learning rather than just to assess the merits of a written product or prompt small-scale revision” (para. 13). Building rapport between online instructors and students is an important element of student success. Glazier (2016) explained that establishing rapport can be accomplished through instructor availability, personalized instruction, technology feedback tools, and maintaining positive and collaborative communication. Laaser and Toloza’s (2017) research provided several suggestions to increase the level of student engagement of video feedback including keeping the length short, adding a personal message, and speaking in a quick and enthusiastic manner. Borup, West, and Graham (2012) stated “It may be possible to more effectively provide this human/technology balance by manipulating the communications medium to involve more video that could provide visual and audio cues not expressed in text” (p. 4). Borup et al (2012) found the use of video feedback allowed students to see their instructor’s personality through facial expressions, hand gestures, and tone of voice. Disadvantages of Video Feedback Borup et al. (2012) stated that providing video feedback is not without drawbacks in that instructors need to be in a quiet setting with few audio and visual distractions. Additionally, Borup et al. (2012) explain that students may find the visual nature of video feedback to be

distracting. Although some instructors find video feedback time-consuming and cumbersome, the positive student response and engagement outweigh any potential drawbacks (Thompson & Lee, 2012). McCarthy (2015) stated that it requires “a comparatively large file size, greater staff workload to produce feedback files, is slower to distribute, [and] requires digital access to view the feedback” (p. 164). Laaser and Toloza (2017) explained early attempts to incorporate video as a teaching tool in the online classroom were somewhat unsuccessful due to instructor/student lack of knowledge of technology, high cost of development, and scarce resources. However, technological advances in video feedback tools mean they are much more simple, straightforward, and user-friendly. Henderson and Phillips (2015) reported instructors found using video to be more time-efficient and allowed for higherquality assignment feedback than standard text comments. Screencasting Screencasting technology allows the instructor to capture live video by incorporating the desktop and voice/video recordings. Several free screencasting programs are available, such as: Ezvid Video Maker, Game Bar on Windows 10, TinyTake Microsoft Expression Encoder 4, VLC, Open Broadcaster Software, Screen O Matic, and Loom. One screencasting program available to instructors interested in video feedback is Loom. This program is available for a free download via www.useloom. com and is presented as “The ultra-flexible communication tool with endless use cases” (useloom.com, 2017). Some of the possible uses for Loom include consulting, customer service, education, information technology, employee training, sales, and marketing used by over 400,000 team members in over 170 countries (useloom. com, 2017). For educational purposes, Loom allows instructors to provide a variety of feedback options including video IATDP JOURNAL - IATDP.ORG | PAGE 21


tutorials and personal videos on specific assignments. Loom is quick and easy to install by accessing their “One-Click Install� and following the step-by-step instructions. There is also a short video for those in need of visual instructions (useloom.com, 2017). Statement of Problem The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of screencasting, a technology that can be used to increase engagement in both face-to face and virtual settings. Screencasting offers the opportunity for teachers to use video and audio elements to record feedback for students. This feedback can be viewed multiple times by students and gives may offer a more personal connection between teachers and students. Screen capture technology allows the teacher to record any audio commentary while they record any corrections they make.

the teacher the opportunity to make videos that can demonstrate instructional practices. This could include solving math problems, balancing chemical equations, or any process that requires multiple steps. Again, these videos can create a library of instructional videos and strategies that can be viewed multiple times by students. Individual Feedback With screencasting, teachers can provide detailed audio and visual feedback on student work. As an example, a teacher grading a paper can make corrections using track changes while simultaneously providing audio commentary. The teacher could correct sentence structure while talking about the purpose of the changes. These multiple modes of feedback can work with students who are visual or audio learners to support their different learning styles.

Findings

Conclusion

In an educational setting, virtual or faceto-face, screencasting offers the ability for instructors to provide audio and video feedback for assignments. The program can be used for classroom demonstrations, modeling steps of instruction, and providing individual feedback. Each of these videos can be retained and viewed multiple times by students.

The primary purpose of this paper was to explore how technology can help bridge the distance in virtual learning to foster higher student engagement. The use of video and audio media provides for multiple student learning preferences and helps foster more of a connection between distance learners and teachers. There are several possibilities when using screencasting as a classroom tool. Many of the proposed ideas can be greatly expanded by individual teachers.

Classroom Demonstration With classroom demonstration, teachers can create videos that show students how to accomplish certain tasks. This can include showing students how to submit assignments, access material or library resources, or how to use the classroom features. The teacher can create an online library of these types of demonstrations as a permanent resource.

Modeling Instruction The screen capturing technology offers PAGE 22 | IATDP JOURNAL - IATDP.ORG

More extensive research, including empirical studies, may be needed to determine the specific impact of the use of screencasting in virtual classrooms. These studies may seek to measure possible increases in student engagement. Additionally, studies of other technologies are needed to explore ways to increase student engagement in all online programs, including secondary and higher education.


References Borup, J., West, R. E., & Graham, C. R. (2012). Improving online social presence through asynchronous video. Internet and Higher Education, 15(3), 195-203. Borup, J., West, R. E., Thomas, R. A., & Graham, C. R. (2012). Examining the impact of video feedback on instructor social presence in blended courses. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 15(3), 232-256. Corso, M. J. Bundick, M. J., Quaglia, R.J, Haywood, D.E. (2013). Where student, teacher, and content meet: Student engagement in the secondary school classroom. American Secondary Education, 41(3), 50-61. Crook, A., Mauchline, A., Maw, S., Lawson, C., Drinkwater, R., Lundqvist, K. ... & Park, J. (2012). The use of video technology for providing feedback to students: Can it enhance the feedback experience for staff and students? Computers & Education, 58(1), 386-396. Evans, C. (2013). Making sense of assessment feedback in higher education. Review of Educational Research, 83(1), 70-120. Garrison, D.R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87-105. Glazier, R. A. (2016). Building rapport to improve retention and success in online classes. Journal of Political Science Education, 12(4), 437-456. GradNation. (2016). 2016 Building a grad nation report: Progress and challenges in raising high school graduation rates. Retrieved from http://gradnation.americaspromise. org/report/2016-building-grad-nation-report Henderson, M. & Phillips, M. (2015). Video-based feedback on student assessment: Scarily personal. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 31(1), 51-66. Iachini, A. L., Buettner, C., Anderson-Butcher, D., & Reno, R. (2013). Exploring students’ perceptions of academic disengagement and reengagement in a dropout recovery charter school setting. Children & Schools, 35(2), 113-120. Kirby, D., Sharpe, D., Bourgeois, M., & Greene, M. (2010). Graduates of the new learning environment: a follow-up study of high school distance e-learners. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, (3), 161-173. Laaser, W. & Toloza, E. A. (2017). The changing role of the educational video in higher distance education. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(2). McCarthy, J. (2015). Evaluating written, audio and video feedback in higher education summative assessment tasks. Issues in Educational Research, 25(2), 153-169. Parsad, B., & Lewis, L. (2009). Distance education at degree-granting postsecondary IATDP JOURNAL - IATDP.ORG | PAGE 23


institutions: 2006-07. World Wide Web Internet and Web Information Systems. Retrieved from: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2009/2009044.pdf.

Remmen, K. B., & Frøyland, M. (2014). Implementation of guidelines for effective fieldwork designs: Exploring learning activities, learning processes, and student engagement in the classroom and the field. International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, 23(2), 103-125. Silva, M. L. (2012). Camtasia in the classroom: Student attitudes and preferences for video commentary or Microsoft Word comments during revision process. Computers and Composition, 29(1), 1-22. Soden, B. (2017). The case of screencast feedback: Barriers to the use of learning technology. Innovative practice in higher education, 3(1), 1-21. Thompson, R., Lee, M. J. (2012). Talking with students through screencasting: Experimentations with video feedback to improve student learning. The Journal of Interactive Technology & Pedagogy, 1. West, J. & Turner, W. (2016). Enhancing the assessment experience: Improving student perceptions engagement and understanding using online video feedback. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 53(4), 400-410.

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The International Association for Truancy and Dropout Prevention (IATDP) is an association of educators, government officials and stakeholders whose history of truancy and dropout prevention efforts date back to 1911. IATDP’s mission is to create a partnership which facilitates the dissemination of information, emerging practices and research designed to support learning and increase high school graduation rates. The goal of IATDP is to improve the efforts of practitioners to reduce the number of students that elect to dropout of school by sharing our common experiences and intervention strategies.

BECOME A MEMBER TODAY www.iatdp.org

IATDP JOURNAL - IATDP.ORG | PAGE 25

IATDP Journal - Volume 60, Issue 01  

The revised version of the IATDP Journal allows such a platform for practitioners, educators, students (especially doctoral or post-doctoral...

IATDP Journal - Volume 60, Issue 01  

The revised version of the IATDP Journal allows such a platform for practitioners, educators, students (especially doctoral or post-doctoral...

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