Meridian College Spring School 2012 English Home Language
Programme 1 October : Othello by William Shakespeare Plot overview:
2 October: Animal Farm by George Orwell Plot overview:
3 October: Focus on Paper 1 Comprehension:
All slides are available on www.enlishmaniacs.co.za Username: meridian
Othello by William Shakespeare Plot Overview The play opens in the powerful city state of Venice, famous as a center of trade and banking and for its military might. It is in the early hours of the morning, and two men â€” Roderigo, a young gentleman and former suitor of Senator Brabantio's daughter Desdemona, and Iago, an ensign who claims to have been passed over for promotion by Othello â€” are outside Senator Brabantio's house to tell him the news of his daughter's elopement with Othello, the Moor. After sharing the news of the secret marriage in words calculated to alarm him, the treacherous and vindictive Iago quickly departs, leaving Roderigo to confirm the story. Feigning friendship and concern, Iago then meets with Othello and tells him of Brabantio's reaction. Brabantio, Othello, and Desdemona appear before the Duke of Venice. Although Brabantio accuses Othello of seducing his daughter by witchcraft, Othello explains that he won Desdemona by telling her his adventures, and Desdemona, called to testify, convinces the senators that she has freely gone with Othello and married him for love. The Duke appoints Othello as general of the defense forces against the Turks, and he must leave for Cyprus immediately. Desdemona requests permission to accompany Othello to Cyprus. With the Duke's permission, Othello arranges for Desdemona to follow him later in another ship with Iago, whom he mistakenly believes is a trusted friend, and Iago's wife, Emilia. Iago convinces Roderigo that Desdemona will soon tire of Othello and that he should follow her to Cyprus. To himself, Iago decides to make use of Cassio, the man he deeply resents and who received the promotion he himself wanted, as the instrument to destroy Othello. In Cyprus, Iago plots against Othello, planting the seed of doubt about Desdemona's fidelity and implicating Cassio as her lover. Using Roderigo, Iago arranges a fight that ultimately results in Cassio's demotion. Believing that his chances of reinstatement are better if he has Desdemona plead his case to her husband, Cassio, with Iago's help, arranges for a private meeting with Desdemona, who promises to speak on his behalf to Othello until his reconciliation with Othello is achieved. As Cassio leaves, Iago and Othello appear. An Othello notice Cassioâ€™s speedy departure, and Iago quickly seizes the opportunity to point out that Cassio seems to be trying to avoid the Moor. Desdemona immediately and enthusiastically begins to beg Othello to pardon Cassio, as she promised, and will not stop her pleading until Othello, preoccupied with other thoughts, agrees. The moment Desdemona and Emilia leave, however, Iago begins to plant seeds of doubt and suspicion in Othello's mind. Othello, beset by uncertainty and anxiety, later demands of Iago some proof that Desdemona is unfaithful. Using a handkerchief that Desdemona later innocently drops, Iago convinces Othello that she has been unfaithful, and he stages a conversation with the innocent Cassio that further hardens the Moor's heart against his wife and her supposed lover. Convinced of his wife's betrayal and enraged and grieving, Othello rushes into action,
making an agreement with Iago that he, Othello, will kill Desdemona, and Iago will dispose of Cassio. Desdemona, true to her word to Cassio, continues to plead on his behalf, unknowingly confirming to Othello her unfaithfulness. He accuses her of falseness, and Desdemona, not knowing what she has done to offend, can only assure him that she loves him. Meanwhile, the gullible Roderigo has abandoned all hope of Desdemona, but Iago urges him to kill Cassio and rekindle his hopes. Late that night, they attack Cassio in the street, but it is Cassio who wounds Roderigo. Iago rushes out and stabs Cassio in the leg. Othello, hearing Cassio's cries for help, believes that half of the revenge is completed and hastens to fulfil his undertaking. Desdemona is in bed when Othello enters. He tells her to pray a last prayer as he has no wish to kill her soul. Realizing that he plans to murder her, Desdemona protests her innocence of any wrongdoing. Knowing that he doesn't believe her, she begs him to let her live just a little longer, but he smothers her with a pillow. Emilia, Desdemona's servant and Iago's wife, upon discovering the ruse, raises the alarm and declares Iago a liar before Montano and Gratiano. She explains how Desdemona's handkerchief came into Cassio's possession, and when she refuses to be quiet, Iago stabs her. Cassio, wounded, confirms Emilia's story. A soldier to the last, Othello stands on his honor. Knowing that this is the end, he asks to be remembered as "one that loved not wisely but too well." Then he stabs himself and falls on the bed beside his wife, where he dies. Character Analysis a. Othello Othello is a romantic hero in the true sense, a soldier who has travelled the world, seen amazing sights, been commended for his great valour and who finally has found love and happiness in a relationship which is as surprising and romantic as the rest of his life has been. But he is also a simple man, a soldier, whose own principles of loyalty and honesty make it hard for him to perceive malice in others. As the hero of the play, most of the action revolves around Othello. It is his elopement with Desdemona that begins the play, and makes possible Iagoâ€™s plan to bring about his downfall. The following actions are taken by Othello as the play unfolds:
Act + Scene + Line
Othello promotes Cassio to lieutenant over Iago, thus earning the hatred of the ensign.
Iago tells Roderigo this in: Act 1, Scene 1, lines 7-31
Othello elopes with Desdemona.
Iago informs Brabantio of this in: Act 1, Scene 1, lines 85-91
Othello leads the Venetian army to Cyprus to defend the island against the Turkish threat.
The Duke asks Othello to do this in: Act 1, Scene 3, lines 47-48
Othello demotes Cassio for brawling on the island.
Othello does this in: Act 2, Scene 3, lines 232-235
Othello starts to believe Iago’s lies that Desdemona is unfaithful.
Othello reveals this in: Act3 Scene 3, lines 243-244 and 257-276
Othello swears revenge and seeks for ‘ocular proof’ of Desdemona being unfaithful.
Othello asks Iago this in: Act 3, Scene 3, lines 357-361
Othello confronts Desdemona about the lost handerkerchief.
This confrontation takes place in: Act 3, Scene 4, lines 47-93
Othello refuses to believe in his wife’s innocence.
Othello has a conversation with Emilia on the topic in: Act 4 Scene 2, lines 1-22
Othello kills Desdemona.
Act 5, Scene 2, lines 77-85
Othello realises the truth – that he has been misled by Iago, and has murdered an innocent woman.
Emilia tells Othello about the handkerchief in: Act 5, Scene2, lines 224-228
Othello kills himself.
Act 5, Scene 2, lines 337-355
Aspects of Othello’s Character The G_ _ E _ A L
The N_ B L _ M _ N
The M _ _ R
The L_ _ E R
The _ _ I E _ D
The _ O _ T
The C_ _ K O _ D
The M _ R _ E R _ _
b. Iago The views expressed about the villainous Iago since Shakespeare first created him have been as numerous as the critics who have written about him. He is a wonderfully conceived and executed character, whose ability to appal and horrify has not lessened with time, even in our cynical age. The Big Question about Iago always remains: why did he do it? What were his motives for masterminding the terrible tragedy which befalls Othello and Desdemona? If Othello is the man around whom the actions unfold, Iago is the man who, working always behind the scenes and out of sight, makes things happen. He is like a spider, weaving a web of intrigue from which his victims will not escape with their lives. How does he achieve his aims? Look at the following events for which Iago himself is responsible:
Act + Scene + Line
Iago alerts Brabantio to Desdemona’s elopement, in an attempt to upset his General’s happiness before it has even begun.
Iago calls Brabantio in: Act 1, Scene 1, lines 78-80
Iago keeps Roderigo continually on a string, promising him that he is approaching Desdemona on his behalf, and thus gets money for his schemes.
Iago tells Roderigo to give him money and keep his faith in him in: Act 1, Scene 3, lines 357-364
Iago orchestrates the brawl in which Cassio loses his lieutenancy.
Iago tells the audience about this plan in: Act 2, Scene3, lines 42-54
Iago suggests that Cassio go to Desdemona for help – and at the same time suggests to Othello that if Desdemona is too pressing in her suit for Cassio, that there is reason to suspect that the two are having an affair.
Iago tells Cassio to do this in: Act 2, Scene 3, lines 296-307
Iago provides “proof” – of his own making – to Othello of his wife’s unfaithfulness
Othello sees the handkerchief held by Cassio in: Act 4, Scene 1, line 156
Iago swears to help Othello get revenge for the perceived wrong which Desdemona has done by killing Cassio.
Act 4, Scene 1, lines 205-206
Iago sets up another brawl in which Cassio is wounded and Roderigo killed by Iago himself.
Iago tells Roderigo what to do in: Act 4, Scene 2, lines 228-237
Iago kills Emilia after she had told the truth on him.
Iago warns Emilia to keep quiet in: Act 3, Scene 2, line 217
Iago is taken away to be tortured.
Lodevico tells Othello this in: Act 5, Scene 2, lines 329-336
Iago refuses to speak and give reasons for his actions.
Act 5, Scene 2, lines 302-303
Aspects of Iago’s Character The S_ B _ RDI _ _ TE
The H _ _ ES _ MAN
The Clever STR _ _ E _ IST
The CY _ _C
The EG _ _ I S_
The MA _ _ PUL_ _ _R
The OP _ _ _UNI_ _T
Animal Farm by George Orwell Background Orwell was a Socialist: Socialist: someone who believes that the government should own businesses so that everyone will be equal . Orwell’s major inspiration for writing Animal Farm came from his intense hatred for injustice and political lying. He desired a society in which separate classes would not exist. Animal Farm is a fable and an allegory. Most fables have two levels of meaning. On the surface, the fable is about animals. On the second level , however, the animals represent types of people or ideas. The way the animals interact and the way the plot unfolds say something about the nature of people or the value of ideas. Any type of fiction that has multiple levels of meaning in this way is called an allegory. Animal Farm also takes the form of a satire. A satire is a composition making fun of something, usually political. Animal Farm makes fun of political society after the Bolshevik Revolution. Communism arose in Russia when the nation’s workers & peasants rebelled against and overwhelmed the wealthy and powerful class of capitalists & aristocrats. This was based on Karl Marx and his The Communist Manefesto. Irony results when there is a disparity between what an audience would expect and what really happens. Orwell uses a particular type of irony – dramatic irony. He relies on the difference between what the animals understand and what we, the audience, can conclude about the situation at Animal Farm. We know just what the animals know, but we can see so much more of its significance than they can. The conclusions we reach that the animals never quite get to – that the pigs are decadent, corrupt, and immoral – are all the more powerful because we arrive at them ourselves, without the narrator pointing these things out directly George Orwell uses his novel to comment on events in Russian history, Communism, and revolutions in example: The Russian Revolution, the peasants’ revolt, the rise of totalitarianism and the Moscow purge trials. Orwell uses dramatic irony to create a particularly subtle satire. Satire stages a critique of an individual, group, or idea by exaggerating faults and revealing hypocrisies. The dramatic irony of Animal Farm achieves this aim indirectly. We see the hypocrisy that the animals don't and therefore understand in this backward fashion that the book is deeply critical of the pigs.
HISTORICAL PARALLELS THE NOVEL
1. Manor Farm
2. Mr. Jones
2. Tsar Nicholas
3. Russian people
5. Old Major
6. The 7 Commandments
6. Communist Manifesto
7. Principles of Communism
8. Animal rebellion
8. Bolshevik Revolution (Oct 1917)
9. Mr. & Mrs. Jones flee
9. Russian nobility flee into exile.
10. Moses the raven leaves
10. Exit of organised religion
11. Animal Farm 12. Boxer’s loyalty
11. Soviet Russia 12. Loyal peasants & workers the backbone of the new order. 13. Party members start to take advantage of their positions 14. Pravda (“Truth”) – propagandist newspaper toes the party line 15. Struggle for power: Stalin VS Trotsky
13. Pigs start to get privileges 14. Squealer – propagandist 15. Struggle for power: Snowball VS Napoleon 16. Battle of the Cowshed 17. Mollie leaves 18. Plans for the windmill 19. Snowball a traitor 20. Rationing increases 21. Windmill collapses in a storm 22. Commandments changed 23. Animal Farm to trade with neighbours 24. Hens rebellion
16. Counter revolution, led by General Kornilov 17. Comfort – loving middle classes flee to the West 18. Plans for Industrialisation (Stalin’s First Five Year Plan) 19. Trotsky denounced as a traitor 20. Famine due to collectivisation programme in agriculture 21. First Five Year Plan fails 22. Corruption of Marxist principles 23. Russia to trade with the West
25. Hens starved into submission
24. Kulaks (wealthy peasants) oppose collectivisation 25. Kulaks killed or deported in millions
26. Napoleon’s dogs
26. The secret police
27. “Traitors” tried and executed 28. Napoleon sells timber to Frederick 29. Frederick attacks Animal Farm 30. Battle of the Windmill
27. Political purges in which many loyal Bolsheviks were killed 28. Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact 29. Operation Barbarossa – Hitler invades Russia 30. World War II
31. Moses returns
31. Church reappears
32. Farmers’ party at Animal Farm 33. Animals can’t see the difference between men and pigs
32. Teheran Conference – Stalin & Western (capitalist) Allies 33. Growing resemblance between the oppression of Western capitalism and the oppression of Russian communism
Plot summary Manor Farm is a small farm in England run by the harsh and often drunk Mr. Jones. One night, a boar named Old Major gathers all the animals of Manor Farm together. Old Major says that all animals are equal and urges them to join together to rebel. He teaches them a revolutionary song called “Beasts of England.” Old Major dies soon after, but two pigs named Snowball and Napoleon adapt his ideas into the philosophy of Animalism. Three months later, the animals defeat Jones in an unplanned uprising. The farm is renamed “Animal Farm.” The ingenuity of the pigs, the immense strength of a horse named Boxer, and the absence of parasitical humans makes Animal Farm prosperous. The animals post the Seven Commandments of Animalism on the side of the barn. A fight for power soon develops between the two pigs Snowball and Napoleon. The rivalry comes to a head over Snowball’s idea to build a windmill. At the final debate about the windmill, Napoleon summons dogs he has secretly reared to be his own vicious servants and has them chase Snowball from Animal Farm. Napoleon tells the other animals that Snowball was a “bad influence,” eliminates the animals’ right to vote, and takes “the burden” of leadership on himself. He sends around a pig named Squealer, who persuades the animals that Napoleon has their best interests at heart. Three weeks later Napoleon decides they should build the windmill after all. The animals set to work, with Boxer leading. Focusing on the windmill reduces the productivity of the farm, and all the animals but the pigs get less to eat. The pigs begin to trade with other farms, move into Mr. Jones’s farmhouse, and start to sleep in beds. This confuses the animals who considered this forbidden behaviour. But when they check the Commandment about beds, it reads: “No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets.” Over the next few years, Animal Farm battles with its human neighbours. The windmill gets destroyed first by a storm and then by a human attack. Napoleon blames all catastrophes on the “traitor” Snowball, and uses fear tactics, information control, and deadly purges of anyone he considers an enemy to strengthen his power over the farm. Meanwhile, the pigs secretly continue to rewrite the Commandments and all of Animal Farm’s history to support their lies. They give the animals less food and demand more work, while eating more and working less themselves. The other animals, duped by the pigs’ misinformation, continue to consider themselves part of a great revolution. When Boxer, the most devoted worker on the farm, is no longer able to work, the pigs sell him to a glue factory and use the proceeds to buy whiskey.
As the years pass Animal Farm prospers. The pigs become increasingly human. Eventually the Seven Commandments are replaced by one maxim – ‘All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others’. Napoleon hosts a dinner party for neighbouring farmers to show off Animal Farm and looking through the window the animals could no longer tell the difference between them. Themes The Inevitability of Totalitarianism Orwell uses a cyclical structure in Animal Farm, which helps advance the idea of totalitarianism’s predictability. The novel begins with Jones as autocratic tyrant and ends with Napoleon not only in Jones’s position, but in his clothes as well. Over the course of the novel, Napoleon essentially becomes Jones just as Stalin becomes an autocrat after pretending to espouse equality and freedom. Orwell cements this idea in the book’s final scene, where he writes, “Twelve voices were shouting in anger, and they were all alike. No question, now, what had happened to the faces of the pigs. The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already it was impossible to say which was which” (139). The circularity of Orwell’s story prevents the reader from imagining a better future for Animal Farm. After all, even if another Rebellion were to take place, its leaders would eventually come to emulate Napoleon. Intelligence and Education as Tools of Oppression At first, the pigs are loyal to their fellow animals and to the revolutionary cause. They translate Major’s vision of the future faithfully into the Seven Commandments of Animalism. However, it is not long before the pigs’ intelligence and education turn from tools of enlightenment to implements of oppression. The moment the pigs are faced with something material that they want—the fresh milk—they abandon their morals and use their superior intellect and knowledge to deceive the other animals. The pigs also limit the other animals’ opportunities to gain intelligence and education early on. They teach themselves to read and write from a children’s book but destroy it before the other animals can have the same chance. Indeed, most of the animals never learn more than a few letters of the alphabet. Once the pigs cement their status as the educated elite, they use their mental advantage to manipulate the other animals. For example, knowing that the other animals cannot read the Seven Commandments, they revise them whenever they like. Propaganda Squealer represents a totalitarian government’s propaganda machine. Eloquent to a fault, he can make the animals believe almost anything. This fact is especially clear in Squealer’s interactions with Clover and Muriel. Each time Clover suspects that the Seven Commandments have been changed, Squealer manages to convince her that she is wrong. After the executions, Napoleon abolishes the singing of “Beasts of England” in favour of a new anthem, the lyrics of which contain a promise never to harm Animal Farm. In this
propagandist manoeuvre, Napoleon replaces the revolutionary spirit of “Beasts of England” with the exact opposite, a promise not to rebel. In addition to being a source of manipulation, propaganda is an agent of fear and terror. Orwell demonstrates this quite clearly with Napoleon’s vilification of Snowball and his assurances that Snowball could attack the animals at any minute. He uses similar fear tactics regarding Frederick and Pilkington. The most egregious example of propaganda in the novel is the maxim that replaces the Seven Commandments: “All animals are equal / But some animals are more equal than others.” The idea of “more equal” is mathematically improbable and a nonsensical manipulation of language, but by this time, the animals are too brainwashed to notice. Violence and Terror as Means of Control Terror comes also in threats and propaganda. Each time the animals dare to question an aspect of Napoleon’s regime, Squealer threatens them with Jones’s return. This is doubly threatening to the animals because it would mean another battle that, if lost, would result in a return to their former lifestyle of submission. Jones’s return is such a serious threat that it quashes the animals’ curiosity without fail. The other major example of fear tactics in the novel is the threat of Snowball and his collaborators. Napoleon is able to vilify Snowball in the latter’s absence and to make the animals believe that his return, like Jones’s, is imminent. Snowball is a worse threat than Jones, because Jones is at least safely out of Animal Farm. Snowball is “proved” to be not only lurking along Animal Farm’s borders but infiltrating the farm. Napoleon’s public investigation of Snowball’s whereabouts cements the animals’ fear of Snowball’s influence.
Focus on Paper 1 Comprehension Implement the following reading strategies: • • • •
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Skim the text to establish the meaning thereof. Read the text through once again. Then read ALL the questions. Then read the text again. (Learners might think that they are “wasting time” doing this, but if you start answering before you really understand both the text and the questions, then you are actually wasting time). Scan the text to look for specific required information without carefully reading through it. Read with comprehension to understand the purpose of the text. Read thoroughly through the text to understand the content and to write down the required information.
Answering of questions: • Write down the numbers of the questions as stated in the question paper . • Answer questions directly. Don’t write long and comprehensive answers.
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Write neatly. Paraphrase the words of the text when asked to answer in your own words. When two/three facts/points are required don’t give a range. When one-word answers are required don’t give a whole sentence. For true/false or fact/opinion questions give also the reason/ substantiation/motivation/quotation. P.E.E. – POINT, EVIDENCE AND EXPLAIN!!!!!
Question 1 Read Text 1, taken from the online Times Magazine and answer the questions to follow.
TEXT 1 The Era Of The E-Reader 1. Amazon, the online retailing giant, did more than any other company to turn the sale of digital books into a real business with the 2007 launch of the Kindle electronic reader. The company has sold an estimated 1.7 million units of the handheld device in the U.S., and it is getting ready to ship millions more. On October 6, Amazon announced that it would soon begin selling Kindles — complete with a key feature that allows users to wirelessly download e-books from Amazon — in more than 100 countries. 2. Success breeds imitators. Amazon is about to be attacked by a squadron of would-be Kindle killers that are being brought to market by some of the biggest names in consumer electronics and publishing. To complicate the increasingly competitive landscape even further, Apple and, according to rumor, Microsoft are working on tablet computers that could prove to be handy e-readers but with more functions and features, such as video-display capability and full Web browsers. The year "2009 is a breakout year for e-readers," says Sarah Rotman Epps, an analyst with Forrester Research. "But we are still in the early stages." 3. The early stages have lasted a long time. E-readers have been around for more than a decade, but the devices were not popular due to high cost, proprietary display formats and the reluctance of book publishers to sell digital versions of their bestselling titles. Now, just as digital music was driven into the mainstream by Apple's iPod and iTunes, Amazon's Kindle and online bookstore, which sells more than 350,000 titles, are proving there is a mass market for e-books. Total industry revenue from digital-book downloads has risen 149% this year, according to the Association of American Publishers, while e-reader sales are expected to reach 3 million by December 31 2009, according to Forrester Research. Almost a million of the devices could be sold during the upcoming holiday season alone. In 2010, sales are projected to double, to 6 million. 4. That kind of growth is hard to come by in the recession-wracked technology industry, and a crowd is starting to gather. Around the world, at least 17 e-readers
are in development or already on the market. Among the better-known entrants is Asustek â€” the Taiwanese company practically invented the netbook category with its ASUS Eee-PC, and it is working on a product called the Eee-reader that it hopes to have on the market in time for Christmas. South Korea's two powerhouse consumerelectronics companies, Samsung and LG Electronics, are wading in too. Samsung earlier this year introduced a reader called the Papyrus* in South Korea; reports circulating in the technology blogosphere say LG is developing a prototype. Meanwhile, Japan's Fujitsu has released the world's first dedicated e-reader with a color screen, although so far the device is only available in Japan. 5. It is not just tech companies that are joining the fray. Bricks-and-mortar bookseller Barnes & Noble, which in the U.S. offers access to 750,000 e-books on its website, is rumored to be pondering the development of its own e-reader to rival the Kindle. Major newspaper and magazine publishers, which are suffering mightily from the loss of subscribers and advertisers to the recession and the Internet, are also getting involved. News Corp. chairman and CEO Rupert Murdoch, owner of the Wall Street Journal, is reportedly considering a deal with Japanese consumer-electronics giant Sony, which in 2004 introduced the first commercially viable e-reader, to use a blackand-white display technology called electronic ink (also used by the Kindle). Sony is rolling out a new family of e-readers, including a pocket-size version and one with a large screen that's geared toward newspapers and magazines. 6. One reason e-readers are getting traction is that competition is driving down prices. Amazon has cut the price of the Kindle by $100 over the past six months, to $259. As e-readers proliferate and price disparities narrow, manufacturers are trying to differentiate their products by adding features such as MP3 players and touch screens. 7. At the same time, new display technologies are emerging that promise to improve battery life and make devices more portable and easier to read. U.K.-based Plastic Logic hopes to introduce next year the first e-reader with a plastic screen that will reduce glare and be less prone to cracking when dropped by ham-fisted owners. Electronic-ink technology is set to move from black and white to color by the end of 2010. Even video is on the horizon. "We will see a range of models start to appear over the first half of 2010" offering "a range of different reading and productivity experiences," says Neil Jones, CEO of U.K.-based Interead, which in May launched a $249 e-reader called the COOL-ER. 8. Newcomers will have a hard time breaking Amazon's chokehold in the U.S., where the company controls 60% of the e-reader market, according to Forrester Research. But the edge Amazon gained when it launched the Kindle could be blunted by evolving technology and changing consumer needs. Currently, more people read ebooks on their smart phones than they do on dedicated devices like e-readers. 9. And there is the looming threat posed by next-generation tablet computers. Apple, the king of cool handheld devices, is rumored to be readying a tablet computer with all the functions of a laptop as well as iPhone-like touch capabilities for release early
next year. Microsoft has been secretive about its plans for a tablet, but a video making the rounds of the blogosphere show a dual-LCD-screen prototype that closes like a book. "E-readers are a transitional technology," says Rotman Epps of Forrester Research. This means that just as the e-reader is taking off, it may be becoming obsolete. Papyrus*: A thick paper-like material produced from the pith of the papyrus plant. Ancient Egypt used this plant as a writing material . Adapted from the online Times Magazine.
1.1 Quote two words which prove that this article is taken from the Times Magazine printed in America. 1.2 Of which company is the Kindle a product? 1.3 What does the author mean when he says “[s]uccess breeds imitators”, (par.2). 1.4 Identify and explain the figure of speech used in “Amazon is about to be attacked by a squadron of would-be Kindle killers that are being brought to market by some of the biggest names in consumer electronics and publishing”, (par.2). 1.5 Compare and contrast the Kindle device with the device soon to be created by Apple and/or Microsoft. 1.6 Quote a clause that proves that e-readers have been in the process of making for the last 10 years. 1.7 Give three reasons why e-readers were slow in taking off in the market. 1.8 Formulate the growth of the selling of e-readers from 3 million in 2009 to 6 million in 2010. Only write down the percentage. 1.9 Why do you suppose the Taiwanese company, Asustek, wants to introduce their product in time for Christmas? 1.10 Say whether you consider the name of the South Korean e-reader, the Papyrus, to be effective. Motivate your answer. 1.11Explain why newspaper and magazine publishers are experiencing trying times. 1.12Say whether the following sentence is meant to be understood literally or figuratively. Explain your answer. “Even video is on the horizon” , (par. 7). 1.13 Say whether the following statement if TRUE or FALSE. Quote to prove your answer. E-readers are the only means by which one is able to read electronic books. 1.14 To what well known product today does the following sentence refer? “Apple, the king of cool handheld devices, is rumored to be readying a tablet computer with all the functions of a laptop as well as iPhone-like touch capabilities for release early next year.” (par.9). 1.15 Discuss the difference in the denotation and connotation of the word “cool”, (par.9). 1.16 Your parents want to buy you an e-reader in order to motivate you to read more. By using Text 1 as your only reference, say whether it will be better for your parents to buy the Kindle from Amazon or wait until a product that offers
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“a range of different reading and productivity experiences” are released. You have to present a substantial motivation for your answer. 1.17 Using your own words, explain what Rotman Epps means when he says “E-readers are a transitional technology”, (par.9). 1.18 Can you predict what these e-readers can evolve into?
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Question 1: Comprehension Memorandum 1.1 “rumor”, “color” 1.2 The Kindle is a product from Amazon. 1.3 The author means that once a company has managed to produce a successful product, other companies will produce a similar product. 1.4 Metaphor: The author compares the people who will immitate the Kindle product to a troop of soldiers. These soldiers will eventually kill the Kindle as other products will swamp the market and Kindle sales will drop. 1.5 Both the Kindle and the Apple/Microsoft device will be able to read e-books. The Apple/Microsoft device, however, might include more functions while the Kindle essentially focuses on e-books only. 1.6 “E-readers have been around for more than a decade”. 1.7 E-readers were not popular due to high cost, proprietary display formats and reluctance of publishers to sell digital versions of their titles. 1.8 100% 1.9 Asustek wants to release their product in time for Christmas as that would ensure optimal sales. Most people spoil their relatives with Christmas gifts and the e-reader from Asustek will be the ideal gift. 1.10 Yes. As papyrus was used in ancient Egypt as writing material, this would suffice as a name for an e-reader as the e-reader is in fact substituting the paper on which a book is printed. 1.11 Publishers are experiencing trying times as people do not subscribe to newspapers or magazines any longer as they can browse the news for free via the internet. As of result of the recession, companies cannot afford to advertise in newspapers or magazines which again results in higher printing costs for the publishers. 1.12 Figuratively: the author means that the ability of watching videos on these electronic devices will soon be possible. 1.13 False: “Currently, more people read e-books on their smart phones than they do on dedicated devices like e-readers.” 1.14 The text refers to the Apple iPad. 1.15 The denotation of the word “cool” referst to the temperature of an object. The connotation of the word “cool” refers to the attitude or values that accompany a certain product. 1.16 Own answer. The learner has to refer to both products in order to substantiate the answer. 1.17 Rotmann Epps means that e-readers are the beginning of revolutionary technology and will serve as a shape-shifter, a device that will be ever-changing as technology improves. 1.18 Own answer.
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A summary tests our ability to select the important details and our competence in writing good English. As far as possible, use your own words, not the words of the original selection. Check the wording of the question paper carefully to see if these points should be written in fragments (words and phrases) or in full sentences. Your final summary should be one paragraph. The sentences must flow well. Work on logical connectors and links between sentences. Be careful of the style in which you write: the style must be appropriate for the purpose for which the summary is written. The summary in the exam will require you to use not more than a specific number of words. The number of words used must be stated in brackets at the end – for example [98 words]. You could use your planning of the summary in a table form, writing the quotes and then your own words in the second column. Marks allocated are 10 marks in total: 7 for facts and 3 for language. However, if more language errors are identified the marks for your facts will be decreased.
Read Text 2, taken from www.voices.yahoo.com , and follow the instructions below. Instructions: Summarise this article by mentioning the various ways in which one can resolve to technology in order to educate oneself. You must use full sentences. Your summary must be in the form of one coherent paragraph. You must use the correct register. You may write no more than 100 words. You must provide an accurate word count at the end of the summary. Use your own words. Cutting and pasting of information is not acceptable.  TEXT 2 Twenty years ago if you had wanted to learn about cutting edge wireless communication technology, you would have had to sign up for some high level courses at a major university. Training and information used to be expensive. Thankfully those days are gone. If you are looking for a new job, trying to start your own business, or simply curious, you should know about these completely free resources for teaching yourself just about anything you want. If you are an iPhone/iPod owner, you are likely familiar with iTunes, but a surprising number of people do not know about iTunes U, an iTunes-based system for completing courses online. Many major universities offer free classes through iTunes U, and all their material is conveniently available from your portable Apple device. With iTunes U you can watch videos, read notes and listen to audio samples from courses plus it integrates nicely with
iBooks in case you want to purchase the textbook for reference. Khan Academy is a non-profit organization with the goal of " providing a high quality education to anyone, anywhere." One of the best things about Khan Academy is that they take their courses a step further, offering modules to practice the skills taught in their videos as well as access to coaches and volunteers who can answer questions you might have. If you are looking to give back, you can quickly sign up to help your fellow students by offering coaching in an area you already know. There are a surprising number of educational videos on YouTube. Some are recordings of university lectures, and some are just good-hearted people who took the time to pass their knowledge on to the world. The nice thing about YouTube videos is that you can pause and revisit them any time you have access to a computer with an internet connection. You can also share them easily with your friends to show off the latest piece of knowledge you picked up. There is also the community-managed online encyclopedia which is one of the most linkedto websites on the internet. While some have been skeptical about its accuracy, it has shown itself to be generally as accurate as most printed encyclopedias. If you want a broad base of information about a variety of topics, Wikipedia is probably one of the best places to start. Programming skills are one of the most highly-demanded in today's marketplace. Codecademy offers free online training and practice for anyone who is ready to take the plunge. This year is really a breakout year for the website as they have gathered almost 400,000 people who have committed to learn code in 2012. There is an art to making the most of search engine results, but it is probably the fastest way to find what you're looking for. As I always say, "when in doubt, Google it!" Adapted from the website www.voices.yahoo.com
Visual Literacy Question 1 Study the advertisements A and B, which are used in the promotion of reading, and answer the question to follow. A.
Disccuss whether these advertisements can be considered to be successful in its campaign considering the AIDA principle. Your answer has to refer to both advertisements.
Question 2 2.1 Study the graph below, which indicates different countriesâ€™ use of blogs on the internet, and answer the questions to follow.
2.1.1 According to the graph, which country/s make/s the least use of blogs?
2.1.2 Divide the countries into their geological settings. Which hemisphere, collectively, reads blogs more often? Motivate your answer. 2.2 Study the pie-chart below and arrange the different genres of texts from most popular to read to least popular to read. 2.3 Study the bar-graph below and answer the questions to follow.
2.2.1 Why does the heading of the graph include “and the United States” in brackets? 2.2.2 Which two countries’ females read the same amount of texts?
(2) (2) 
Question 3 Read the cartoon strip below and answer the questions to follow.
3.1 Supply the definition of the term “stereotype”. 3.2 In your opinion, can one say that the cartoonist has successfully stereotyped the teacher? Motivate your answer. 3.3 Comment on the scale on which the characters were drawn in this cartoon.
(1) (2) (2)
3.4 How do we know Calvin is asking a question in frame 1? 3.5 Contrast Calvinâ€™s emotions and attitudes depicted in frames 2 and 4. 3.6 Who do you consider to be the target audience of this cartoon? Give a reason for your answer. 3.7 What is the intention of this cartoon? 3.8 What is the setting of this cartoon?
(2) (2) (2) (1) (1)  
Language Read the book review on The Hunger Games below and answer the questions to follow. 1.
The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins is a dystopian novel written for young adults. Even though the main audience targeted is mostly young adults, the book has struck chords with parents as well and has been a best seller since it came out.
North America has been destroyed and is now run by the powerful Capital and is divided into 12 districts (district 13 has been destroyed due to a rebellion). In district 12 ace hunter Katniss Everdeen, a 16 year old girl, carves out a meager existence for herself, her younger sister Prim and their widowed mother. In order to keep the 12 districts aware of who runs the county, the Capital arranges a game to the death each year in an elaborate arena. Each district holds a drawing of one boy and one girl to go as tributes. When her sister is picked, Katniss exercises her option to volunteer for the games. Along with Katniss comes also Peeta, the baker's son, who grew up with her.
3. Katniss and Peeta must fend for themselves against natural elements, the Gamemakers and the other contestants whose only option is to kill or be killed. 4. I can certainly see why the book was such a hit. The novel struck many chords and many themes (teenage anguish, love, work, poverty and more), was an easy and quick read, as well as full of action. 5. Ms. Collins built a fantastical and believable world where the United States is no more and instead the country is now called Panem which is run from "The Capital". The story progresses quickly and fluently with well defined characters that have lame names. Don't tell me that the baker's son is named Peeta by accident. 6. I can certainly understand how the YA crowd fell head over heels for this novel. 7. For me though, and I understand perfectly well I'm not the target audience, the love triangle was clichĂŠ, but I loved the violence and speed of this novel. The constant suspense kept me turning page after page as, I assume, most of those who read the book. Once I got over my name prejudice, I even liked the protagonist - a bow and arrow wielding female Wilhelm Tell, how can you not like her? 8. Ms. Collins' prose is efficient in a no-nonsense style filled with humor which causes the book
to become addictive. Like any good story, you are immersed in the universe built around you, yet you know it is not real but you can't stop reading. 9. That being said, there were some aspects of the book which were too convenient, when Katniss babysits Peeta in the second half of the book, the stuff she needs floats down from the sky. That might be passable for the intended audience, but not for me. Also the ending was a bit disappointing. I especially disliked the mutated werewolves but, since this is part of an extremely successful trilogy and the audience certainly stuck around to find out what happens - who am I to say anything? Adapted from www.seattlepi.com.lifestyle/blogcritics Question 1 1.1 Identify and explain the use of the punctuation marks printed in bold. 1.1.1 North America has been destroyed and is now run by the powerful Capital and is divided into 12 districts (district 13 has been destroyed due to a rebellion). (2) 1.1.2 The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins is a dystopian novel written for young adults. (2) 1.1.3 Along with Katniss comes also Peeta, the baker's son, who grew up with her. (2) 1.1.4 Ms. Collins’ prose is efficient in a no-nonsense style filled with humor which causes the book to become addictive. (4) 1.1.5 ...since this is part of an extremely successful trilogy and the audience certainly stuck around to find out what happens - who am I to say anything? (4) 1.2.1 In paragraph 7, the author makes mention of the word “cliché”. Supply the definition of a cliché. (1) 1.2.2 Using your own words, explain what part of the novel the author found to be a cliché in the novel. (2) 5.4. “Once I got over my name prejudice, I even liked the protagonist - a bow and arrow wielding female Wilhelm Tell, how can you not like her?” Explain the meaning of “prejudice” by making reference to the quoted sentence. (2) 5.5.1 Supply the definition of a “pun”. (1) 5.5.2 “Along with Katniss comes also Peeta, the baker's son, who grew up with her... Don't tell me that the baker's son is named Peeta by accident.” Identify and explain the pun which appears in the above sentences. (2) 5.6 Change the following paragraph into reported speech. Start with, The author said... I can certainly see why the book was such a hit. The novel struck many chords and many themes, was an easy and quick read, as well as full of action. (5) 5.7 “North America has been destroyed and is now run by the powerful Capital”, (par.2). Say whether this sentence is written in active or passive voice. Give a reason for your answer. 5.8 Why do you suppose the author of this passage chose to write this sentence in the voice stipulated in your answer above. (3) 5.9 In paragraph 7 the author says that he is “not the target audience”. Who is the intended audience of this novel? Quote to prove your answer. (2)
5.10 What is the purpose of this text? (1) 5.11 Say whether this text is an example of subjective or objective writing. Motivate your answer. (2) 5.12 Ms. Collins built a fantastical and believable world where the United States is no more and instead the country is now called Panem which is run from ‘The Capital’.” Say whether this sentence contains a concord error. Motivate your answer. (1) 
The END!! We hope you’ve enjoyed our English sessions. All of the best for the final exams!!