2.3 Etiological Theories This section covers all etiological theories that have been laid out in relation to the cross-ethnic results in the epidemiology of schizophrenia. I initiate with biological and hereditary genetic factors and then turn to psychosocial explanations. 2.3.1 Biological Explanations Enlarged cerebral ventricles A large number of conducted pathophysiological studies have established through brain scans that schizophrenia is seen in the ventricle of the human brain. Figure 5. Brain Scans of a Normally Functioning Patient and a Schizophrenia Patient
Note: As shown on a coronal MR brain scan, the right brain Coronal MR scans from a normal comparison subject (left), and chronic schizophrenic (right). Note increase in CSF in right amygdala- hippocampal complex (image taken from the Harvard University Schizophrenia Project).
Under an MRI scan, the size of the cerebral ventricle of a schizophrenia patient is much larger than a non sufferer. It has also been suggested that there is a disruption in the functional circuits in brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenia patients (Mueser and McGurk, 2004). These pieces of evidence led neuroimaging 54
Thesis from Brunnel University, United Kingdom, London