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Works Cited Abrajano, Marisa, and Craig M. Burnett. “Do Blacks and Whites see Obama through race-tinted glasses? A comparison of Obama’s and Clinton’s approval ratings.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 42.2 (2012) (June 2012): 363+. Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 16 May 2012. This article is published online in Gale U.S History in Context, but was also published in the Presidential Studies Quarterly. This article identifies the differences between Clinton’s and Obama’s overall approval ratings from blacks and whites. Also, more relevant, it points out a clear racial gap between blacks and whites--especially within the context of a political setting. It assesses the problems one would find with its source--that most African-Americans vote for the Democrats while most whites vote Republicans--and then asserts that those concerns are not pertinent because its statistics are solely based on overall approval rating for each. This is a clear analytical source based on statistics, and would certainly cause the average reader to believe that there are racial issues that stem the discrepancies of the black and white approval ratings. Marisa A. Abrajano has a PhD in American Politics from NYU and she is in the Department of Political Science at University of California at San Diego. Craig M. Burnett also has PhD in Political Science from the University of California at San Diego, and has a B.A from University of California at Santa Barbara for history and political science. He now teaches at Appalachian State University as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Government and Justice Studies Akhtar, Faiza. “Foreign Students Are Feeling Less Welcomed.” The New York Times 7 Apr. 2002: 7. Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 15 May 2012. This article is from the New York Times, and was retrieved from the database, Gale U.S. History in Context.


Especially important, considering the topic of this source, is the fact that it was written in 2002--a year after the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center. This article identifies the nature of which Middle Eastern foreign students who entered the U.S post-and-prior-to 9/ 11 were treated. Offers an interesting perspective on the American societal and political response to these attacks, emphasizing treatment on Middle Eastern students. Quotes this article posited suggest a bigoted treatment of them, even in some cases forcing them to leave. Rather than solely offering an analytical stance on the American society’s attitude to these students, the personal quotes that are actually from them leave a much grander effect on the intended audience--who is probably anyone who desires to ascertain information on the current event in America, or in the world. Written by Faiza Akhtar, a journalist who wrote for the New York Times for 6 years.

Archibold, Randal C. "Pre-emption, Not Profiling, in Challenge to Arizona." New York Times 8 July 2010: A15(L). Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 30 May 2012. “The Amazing True Story of the First Black and White Comedy Team in the History of Show Business. And the Last.” Tim & Tom: An American Comedy in Black and White. The University of Chicago Press, 2008. Web. 28 May 2012.

"Barack Obama." Newsmakers 2007 Cumulation. Ed. Laura Avery. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 30 May 2012. Blow, Charles M. “Obama’s race war.” New York Times 31 July 2010: A19(L). Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 24 May 2012.


Byram, Jennifer S. “Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986.” Major Acts of Congress. Ed. Brian K. Landsberg. Vol. 2. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. 184-85. Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 15 May 2012. Carr, David. “Media Hype for Lin Stumbles on Race.” The New York Times. N.p., 19 Feb. 2012. Web. 16 May 2012. Culver, Kathleen B. “Los Angeles Riots.” Dictionary of American History. Ed. Stanley I Kutler. 3rd ed. Vol. 5. New York: Charles Scribners’ Sons, 2003. 155. Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 15 May 2012. This article is written for the Dictionary of American History, and it was retrieved online from the Gale U.S History in Context database. A detailed summary of the important events which occurred during the LA race riots. Rather than being analytical, the author gives factual-based content such as the main figures, the cost, and the instigation of such riots. Impressive insight into the occurrences during the LA riots of 1992, offering explanations as to how and why race and racism played roles in the start of and during the riots. Also, this source details events that happen after the riots had occurred. To support the evidence given in the article, the author posits an image at the end of a policeman with a gun, seemingly in LA during the riots. Kathleen B. Culver is a journalism professor at the University of Wisconsin. Deane, Pamala S. “The Jeffersons.” St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. Ed. Tom Pendergast and Sara Pendergast. Vol. 2. Detroit: St. James Press, 2000. 536-37. 2 vols. Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 15 May 2012. This article is found online in the database Gale U.S History in Context and found in the St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. It summarizes the sitcom,“The Jefferson’s”, and emphasizes the racial context and viewpoint from which society saw it. Also, it gives a very brief analytical paragraph


about how the sitcom “All in the Family” was able to create “The Jefferson’s”. Not only does this article give racial context to “The Jefferson’s” show, but it also gives an interesting description African-American reactions to the sitcom--while also describing the impact of the show on society. At the end, the article posits a picture of three important characters in the show, whose identities are not specified. Pamala S. Deane is an Assistant to the Director, Academic Affairs at School of Languages, Literatures, and Cultures, and has written a biography called “James Edwards: African-American Hollywood Icon”. Eagan, Margan. “Media Spin on Barack is Missing Big Picture.” The Boston Herald 23 Mar. 2008: 009. Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 24 May 2012. Eastman, John C. “Papers, please: does the constitution permit the states a role in immigration enforcement?” Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy (Spring 2012): 569+. Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 21 May 2012. This article was retrieved from the database Gale U.S History in Context; however, it was first written for the Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy. This article scrutinizes the Arizona Immigration Law, analyzing whether or not it is actually unconstitutional. This source posits a multitude of statutes, laws, and former Supreme Court cases, and draws comparisons between them and the most recent Arizona immigration law. The article mostly judges the law from analyzing past court documents, not from the author’s personal opinion, making this article, in some respect, non-biased. Moreover, the author copies sections of several factual documents and places them in the article before generating an opinion. Clearly, this article was intended for audiences seeking information on the facts of the Arizona immigration law, while also looking for Arizona’s justification. Furthermore, the ability of the author to pinpoint a


judge’s errors demonstrates that this source is not too one-sided. The author, John C. Eastman, a well-renowned professor and politician, formerly was the Dean of Chapman University School of Law. “Ego.” American Decades Primary Sources. Ed. Cynthia Rose. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 632-36. Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 28 May 2012. “Families.” Encyclopedia of Race and Racism. Ed. John Hartwell Moore. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. 455-458. Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 28 May 2012. “Finally, some clarity on the Trayvon Martin case--no, not about what happened in Sanford, Fla., but about what got misreported by the media.” National Review 30 Apr. 2012: 6. Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 16 May 2012. This source was retrieved from the database Gale U.S History in Context, and was also written in the newsletter, National Review. This article gives a brief analysis of how NBC has misreported the events in the Trayvon Martin case. It offers an opinion that the media desired a huge story, and propagated the ideas racism to get that story. In addition, the source offers evidence to support the claim. This source quotes the transcript of the 911 call from George Zimmerman, and includes the excisions that NBC made on the Today show which make Zimmerman seem racist. The article clearly urges its intended audience--the average conservative American--to calm down and ignore the media’s hyperbole. The author is not specified.

Ford, Richard T. "Stop Playing the Race Card." Christian Science Monitor. 06 Mar 2008: n.p. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 29 May 2012.


Glanton, Dahleen, and Dawn Rhodes. "Hoodies in Solidarity." Chicago Tribune. 31 Mar 2012: 1. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 30 May 2012. “Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA).” Encyclopedia of Race and Racism. Ed. John Hartwell Moore. Vol. 2. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. 151-53. Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 15 May 2012. “The Internet Age (1980-Present).” Gale Encyclopedia of U.S History. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 27 May 2012. Lewan, Todd. “Attitudes toward multiracial Americans evolving.” USA Today. Gannet Co. Inc, 15 June 2008. Web. 20 May 2012. <http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2008-06-15race_N.htm>. This article was written for USA Today, and was posted online on the www.usatoday.com website. It offers an interesting analysis of how Americans have changed their perspective on multiracial people--giving examples that are found in everyday society to suggest racism. It also shows that Americans--especially whites-have become to accept a society with numerous races, and then gives statistical evidence, such as approval ratings on interracial marriage, to support its claim. However, it still gives impressive recent statistics which show that racism is still alive today, despite the progress society has made. Also, the source proposes that multiracial celebrities, especially Obama, indicate a transformed orthodox American thought concerning multiracial people. The interesting assessment that Americans have altered to become more accepting of multiethnic cultures is backed-up with statistical and factual-based evidence. The author, Todd Lewan, is an Associated Press writer and has been with the Press for the past 24 years. He has earned multiple awards for his book, “The Last Run”.


“Linsanity Postgame Cold Open.” Saturday Night Live. NBC Unviersal. NBC, n.p., 2012. NBC.com. Web. 16 May 2012. <http://www.nbc.com/saturday-night-live/video/linsanitypostgame-cold-open/1386272>. “Millennials’ Judgments About Recent Trends Not So Different.” Pew Research Center 7 Jan. 2010: n. pag. PewResearchCenter Publications. Web. 27 May 2012. “Muhummad Ali.” Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale, 1998. Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 28 May 2012. Peters, Katherine McIntire. “Administration weighs response to Arizona immigration law.” Govexec.com. N.p., 27 Apr. 2010. Web. 21 May 2012. “Racism in the 21st Century.” USA Today 5 May 2004: 12A. Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 24 May 2012. “Racist Attacks Increase Against Asian-Americans.” San Franciso Chronicle 5 Aug. 1996: A2. Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 23 May 2012. Rainey, James. “Ample Coverage, but Little Clarity.” Los Angeles Times [Los Angeles] 1 Apr. 2012: A.10. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 17 May 2012. <http://sks.sirs.com/cgi-bin/hstarticle-display?id=SMICDS-06182&artno=0000339953&type=ART&shfilter=U&key=trayvon%20martin&title=Ampl e%20Coverage%2C%20but%20Little%20Clarity&res=Y&ren=N&gov=N&lnk=N&ic= N>. Redistricting Data. United States Census. United States Census Bureau, n.d. Web. 27 May 2012. Reid, Tim, and Tom Dressen. 47th and Drexel Routine. DNS. Youtube. Web. 20 May 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K27f6AM2_hg&feature=related>.


Saulny, Susan. “The New Face of America.” The New York Times Upfront: The Newsmagazine for Teens 14 Mar. 2011: n. pag. Scholastic.com. Web. 27 May 2012. Smith, Will. “Papa’s Got a Brand-New Excuse--Episode 97.” Dir. Shelley Jensen. Fresh Prince of Bel-Air. Comp. David Zuckerman. 9 May 1994. Youtube.com. Web. 28 May 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PrJQ1YBya0c>. “Soon after the Trayvon Martin killing garnered national headlines, a variety of activists advocated vigilante justice.” National Review 28 May 2012: 12. Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 16 May 2012. Tucker, Jill. “Charter Schools split by race, study finds.” San Francisco Chronicle 5 Feb. 2010: A1. Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 24 May 2012. Zimmerman, George, and 911 Operater. “NBC producer’s editing of 911 call in Trayvon Martin case misleads viewers - FlackCheck.org .” Youtube.com. Web. 29 May 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xf_AtDnVhyA>.

"Barack Obama." Newsmakers 2007 Cumulation. Ed. Laura Avery. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 30 May 2012.


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