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I NTERNATI ON A L B R E WIN G ISSU E

THE JOURNAL OF TH E B R E W E R S ASSOC IATI ON VOL .37 | N O. 2 | M AR C H /APRI L 202 0

L ft a r O C g’s N H O N LCO S Brewinwing o e Gr A ER ch i N E B


FEATURES THE

NEW BREWER | Vol. 37, No. 2

74

March/April 2020

84

92

100

74 | Non-Alcohol Beers: Craft Brewing’s Growing Niche Better, innovative products constitute one reason why non-alcohol beer sales are surging. These long-neglected brews are also appealing to new markets.

BY GREG KITSOCK

84 | Methods for Brewing Non-Alcohol Beer Consumers are increasingly looking for healthier, lower calorie options and are usually surprised to find that alcohol content is a major source of calories in beer.

BY KEITH VILLA

92 | Brew Like a Farmer: Working with Kveik Yeast In an excerpt from Historical Brewing Techniques: The Lost Art of Farmhouse Brewing, the author takes a closer look at the proper care and handling of kveik yeast.

BY LARS MARIUS GARSHOL

100 | A Noble Cause: German Hop Industry Adapts to Challenges New cultivars are the first steps in an ongoing effort by German hop breeders to adapt their fragile landraces to challenges from climate change and market preferences.

BY HORST DORNBUSCH & WALTER KÖNIG

112 | Craft Beer in Brazil Brazil is entering its own “golden age” of craft beer, with more than 1,000 breweries currently operating in the largest country in South America.

BY PETE SLOSBERG

120 | Alamo City Sipping: San Antonio Hosts Craft Brewers Conference San Antonio’s population has swelled by nearly 25 percent in the past two decades, and the craft beer industry has grown alongside America’s seventh-largest city.

BY LANCE HIGDON

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GERMAN GE G ER RM MAN AN H HOPS OPS OP

A NOBLE CAUSE German Hop Industry Adapts to Challenges BY HORST DORNBUSCH & WALTER KÖNIG

F

or centuries, the German hop world has been dominated by the country’s indigenous landraces—Hallertauer Mittelfrüh, Hersbrucker, Spalter, and Tettnanger. Many brewers describe the elegant, refined aromas of these varieties as “noble.”These heirloom hops have all but defined the character of classic European lagers. However, several recent trends in the world’s hop markets, as well as accelerating changes in the earth’s climate, are threatening the long-term agronomic and economic survival of these hallowed landraces. Modern craft brewers have been clamoring for more assertive and flavor-intense varieties for years, and the more flavor-restrained, but aroma-intense landraces have a hard time competing. At the same time, temperatures in the key central European hop regions—Germany, Czechia, France, Poland, and Slovenia—have been rising and rainfalls have been declining, creating challenging growing conditions. German hop breeders are trying to cope with these developments while preserving both the classic aromas and agronomic-economic viability of their landraces

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for the future. Much of this work is being done at the Hopfenforschungszentrum (Hop Research Center), established in 1926 about 37 miles (60 km) north of Munich in the tiny village of Hüll. Some 82 percent of all hops currently under cultivation in Germany have been bred in Hüll, which lies in the center of Germany’s largest hop-growing region, the Hallertau.

A ‘NOBLE’ NAME The term “noble,” though seemingly intuitive, is not without controversy. It evolved only recently, in the 1980s, primarily as a marketing term. In its narrowest meaning, it refers to the four classic German landraces. In a broader, more common interpretation, it also includes the aroma landrace Saaz from Žatec, Czechia, and the low-alpha landrace Strisselspalt from Alsace, France. Some brewers even use the term for a set of particular characteristics instead of a select group of varieties, allowing them to incorporate several additional aroma hops from around the world into the noble family, includin varieties from Australia, Great Britain, New Zealand, Poland, Slovenia, the UK, and the United States.

Some brewers reject the concept of “nobility” altogether as being too vague. Broadly speaking, “noble” denotes a type of hoppiness in which spicy, herbal, fruity, and grassy aromas predominate, in contrast to two other geographically determined types—American, often defined as piney, resinous, citrus, and pungent; and English, known as earthy, black currant, floral, and fruity-spicy.Within that framework, the most commonly accepted characteristics that distinguish noble hops include one or more of the following attributes: • Low total alpha acid content (as a percent of the hop’s dry weight) • Low cohumulone content (as a percent of total alpha acids) • Large amount of total oil (in ml/100g) • Large amount of farnesene and/or caryophyllene (as percentages of total oil) • Large amount of citrusy- and woody-tasting linalool Nobility in central European landraces may also have genetic underpinnings, because German Spalter and Tettnanger hops, as well as the Alsatian Strisselspalt, are related to Czech Saaz, while German Hersbrucker

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is related to Strisselspalt. Of the four German noble landraces, only Hallertauer Mittelfrüh is not related to the Saaz group or to any other hop family.The present-day differences among the related European landraces are probably the result of clonal variations during their long periods of separate, regional evolutions from what might have once been a common ancestor. It is also likely that there have been natural crosses of these terroir hops with different local wild male plants. (For more on hop terroir, see the November/December 2019 The New Brewer.) Parenthetically, the Styrian Savinjski Golding from Slovenia, which some brewers also regard as noble, is a terroir-adapted descendant of the British Fuggle, despite its Golding name.

THE FUTURE OF NOBLE HOPS The classic Hallertauer Mittelfrüh exemplifies why noble hops are still treasured but also threatened. In typical years, this hop has a low 3 to 5.5 percent alpha acid value; a total oil content of 0.7 to 1.3 ml/100g; and a cohumulone content of 18 to 28 percent of total alpha acids. Traditionally, Hallertauer Mittelfrüh has been the hop of choice for delicate European lagers with bittering values generally in the mid-20s, as well as for standard American (light) lagers with adjuncts and bittering values of 7 to 10 IBU, just above the human taste threshold. The recipes and their sensory evaluations on page 106 show the subtle, desirable aromas that noble hops and their descendants can contribute to beers with a delicate hop-malt balance. In hot, dry growing seasons, however, both alpha acid and oil values tend to drop significantly for many varieties, including noble ones, as do yields. This is especially true for landraces that have adapted optimally to their surroundings over centuries. As their environment changes, negative effects on their quantitative and qualitative growth patterns become inevitable.Table 1 shows how the average temperature in the Hallertau has increased during the past century. Likewise, Table 2 (page 102) shows how hot years can dramatically affect hop yields. Table 2 also shows how several recently introduced, Hüll-bred varieties can withstand hot conditions. For traditional landraces, such losses in yield between a normal and a hot growing season can be almost 60 percent. With newer varieties such as Hallertau Blanc, on the other hand, losses may be close to zero. While the superior aroma attributes of noble hops are an asset for many applications in the brewhouse and fermentation cellar, their naturally low alpha values are limiting. For instance, it simply would not be practical to use a central European landrace as a bittering hop in a high-IBU American IPA. The large amount

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The trial fields at the Hüll Research Center are affectionately known as hop kindergartens.

of kettle and whirlpool trub alone would make this prohibitive from a process perspective. In this context, the Alsatian Strisselspalt shows perhaps the greatest limitation, because it usually has the least amount of alpha acids of any of the “nobles,” even dropping below 1.5 percent in some years. In breweries where IPAs are king, it is obvious why a bittering hop with many times more alpha acids than most noble European varieties is much more practical and cost-effective. For central European hops to stay relevant in the current environment, therefore, it is not surprising that noble hop breeding efforts like those in Germany are also underway in Alsace, as well as in Czechia and Slovenia. (For more about new Alsatian hop varieties, see the March/April 2019 The New Brewer.) In addition to dealing with low alpha acid values, especially in bad years, central European hop growers also struggle with an increase in several diseases and pests to which most North American varieties are either highly resistant or immune. With

rising summer temperatures, some pathogens are expanding their territory north. The citrus bark cracking viroid, for instance, which can reduce yields by up to 10 percent, was believed to exist primarily in the hop yards of Slovenia and the citrus fields of southern Europe and the Middle East but has recently been spotted in German hop gardens. Overall, a lack of disease resistance is one of the reasons why yields per acre in European hop gardens are often well below those in the United States. For the low-yielding Hallertauer Mittelfrüh, for instance, average yields in a normal year tend to be about 1,115 lb/acre (1,250 kg/ha) compared to an average yield in the Pacific Northwest of 1,981 lb/acre (2,221 kg/ha) for all hop varieties (data from 2019). Broken down into aroma and bittering varieties, the former tend to yield as much as 1,900 lb/acre (2,130 kg/ ha) in the United States, while the latter may yield up to 3,000 lb/acre (3,360 kg/ha). Hallertauer Mittelfrüh in particular is susceptible to verticillium wilt, a pest that

TABLE 1: RISING TEMPERATURES IN THE HALLERTAU IN °C (°F) Time Interval

April

May

June

July

August

Avg. Apr. - Aug.

50-year average 1927-1976

7.5 (45.5)

12.0 (53.6)

15.4 (58.7)

16.8 (62.4)

16.0 (60.8)

13.5 (56.3)

40-year average 1961-2000

7.5 (45.5)

12.0 (53.6)

15.4 (58.7)

16.8 (62.4)

16.2 (60.2)

13.7 (56.7)

10-year average 2008-2017

9.8 (49.6)

13.5 (55.4)

17.1 (62.8)

18.8 (65.8)

18.0 (64.4)

15.5 (58.9)

1-year average 2018

12.8 (55.0)

16.4 (61.5)

17.9 (64.2)

19.8 (67.6)

19.9 (67.8)

17.3 (63.1)

Source: Hop Research Center

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GERMAN HOPS

TABLE 2: HALLERTAU ALPHA ACID YIELDS (KILOGRAMS PER HECTARE) 2017 (hot) kg AA/ha

2018 (hot) kg AA/ha

Middle: The distinct honeydew melon and

Decrease 2016 to 2018

Decrease 2017 to 2018

strawberry aromatics from late additions of Hüll Melon are a perfect match for the clove-like phenolics of a classic German hefeweizen.

Hallertauer Mittelfrüh

80

49

33

-59%

-33%

Right: Northern German Pils in its sparkling

Perle

192

136

105

-46%

-23%

brilliance, with a firm head and a bouquet of noble hops.

Tradition

149

111

101

-32%

-8%

Spalter Select

119

97

70

-41%

-28%

Mandarina Bavaria

243

198

196

-19%

-1%

Hallertau Blanc

274

225

225

-18%

0

Northern Brewer

231

120

98

-58%

-19%

German Production

21,500 MT

Magnum

306

290

180

-41%

-38%

U.S. Acreage

Herkules

561

464

429

-23%

-8%

U.S. Production

Polaris

503

421

397

-21%

-9%

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GERMAN & U.S. HOP ACREAGE COMPARISON (IN HECTARES) 23,500 MT

45,000 MT

18,140 ha

6,250 ha

0

-24,390 ha

33,196 MT

16,250 MT

49,446 MT

1 ha = 2.471044 acres Source: International Hop Growers’ Convention Economic Committee, April 2019

Source: Hop Research Center

thrives at temperatures between 68 and 82° F (20 and 28° C). Verticillium infections also tend to increase with the liberal use of nitrogen fertilizers. In addition, Hallertauer Mittelfrüh is moderately susceptible to downy mildew, which is most damaging in wet, humid terroirs. This disease thrives when the average relative humidity is greater than 71 percent and the nightly minimum temperature is greater than 41° F (5° C)—a condition that occasionally prevails in the Hallertau around harvest time, even after a hot, dry summer. Fungicides such as copper hydroxide and copper oxychloride are frequently used to control mildew pathogens. The European Union, however, is currently assessing the ecotoxicology risks of these and other phytosanitary measures, which may put restrictions on the use of traditional herbicides and pesticides in the hop gardens.

TABLE 3:

Another factor in the economics of European hop growing is the relatively small size of mostly family-run hop gardens. In Germany, for instance, there are currently some 50,500 acres (20,400 hectares) under hop cultivation. This means that each of the country’s roughly 1,100 growers cultivates an average of only about 46 acres (18.6 hectares). In the United States, by contrast, which currently has some 59,725 acres (24,170 hectares) of hops under cultivation, even a farm of several hundred acres is considered small. The Pacific Northwest has fewer than 70 hop farm enterprises in operation, which translates into an average farm size of about 820 acres (330 hectares). The world’s largest hop farm, Anheuser-Buschowned Elk Mountain Farms in Bonners Ferry, Idaho, covers more than 1,700 acres (690 hectares)—more than the roughly 1,600 acres (650 hectares) of hop acreage under

cultivation in all of Australia. For German growers, therefore, it is much more difficult to amortize their investment in capital-intensive, high-efficiency equipment.

A STRUCTURAL PARADOX For all of these reasons, the German hop industry faces a structural dilemma. While the country has been best known for its signature low-alpha, noble-aroma landraces, global demand trends and economic pressures have forced the country to become one of the world’s leading producers of high-alpha bittering varieties (see Table 3).This shift in focus started in the latter part of the last century, when the Hüll Hop Research Center embarked on a high-alpha breeding program to stay relevant; today, more than half of the total German hop crop is high-alpha varieties. Among the more notable of these are Magnum (11–16 percent alpha acids), Polaris (18–23 percent),

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Photo courtesy of Walter König; Horst Dornbusc; Deborah Wood

Variety

2016 (normal) kg AA/ha

Left: The helles wort with Ariana is viewed in a sight glass after the heat exchange.


GERMAN HOPS

Helles with (from left) Callista, Mandarina Bavaria, and Ariana.

More than 100,000 individual seedlings are grown every year at the Hüll Research Center to be selected by breeder Toni Lutz.

Taurus (12–17 percent), and Herkules (16–19 percent). In the United States, by contrast, the production of high-alpha varieties, which includes such signature craft favorites as Apollo, Bravo, Columbus, Millennium, Summit, Tomahawk,Warrior, and Zeus, amounts to only about one-third of the total crop. One of the earliest German varieties with a higher-than-noble alpha acid level is Perle, released in 1978. It still has such classic noble characteristics as a low cohumulone content of only 29 to 35 percent of alpha acids; a total oil content of 0.5 to 1.5 ml/100g; and a caryophyllene amount of 10 to 20 percent of total oil. Its alpha acid content, however, may reach 9 percent in some years, which is why it is often classified as a dual-purpose hop. Perle is herbal and spicy, produces high yields, is fairly resistant to most diseases, and has a family tree that is surprisingly un-German. It is a descendant of the British Northern Brewer, an adaptable, dual-purpose release from 1934. Northern Brewer, in turn, is a cross between a Canterbury Golding female and a male seedling of the dual-purpose, high-yielding Brewers Gold. This latter parent of Northern Brewer was bred at Wye College in Kent, UK, as an open pollination of a wild, winter-hardy female known as BB1.This wild hop was discovered in 1916 in Morden, Manitoba, where winters tend to be extremely cold and summers extremely hot. BB1 is probably a variant of the native North American wild hop Humulus lupulus lupuloides. Brewers Gold is also in the pedigree of the above-mentioned Magnum, which was released in Hüll in 1980 as a disease-resistant German bittering cultivar. Magnum has an unusual genetic background. It is a daughter

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of the high-alpha American Galena, which, in turn, is the result of an open pollination of Brewers Gold. Galena was released by the USDA hop breeding program in 1978. The genetic makeup of the high-alpha Taurus, on the other hand, is composed entirely of Hüll breeding material. Released in 1995, Taurus has both noble-aromatic and high-alpha characteristics. It was designed to meet the shifting requirements of the global market. Another high-alpha Hüll hop is Merkur, a descendant of Magnum released in 2001. It has 12 to 14 percent alpha acids and good resistance to many diseases, especially powdery mildew, a pest that thrives best at temperatures of 64 to 77° F (18 to 25° C). A few years later, in 2006, came the release of Herkules, a high-yielding daughter of Taurus, with 16 to 19 percent alpha acids as well as good all-round disease resistance. Hallertau Blanc, a daughter of Cascade, was released in 2012, with 9 to 12 percent alpha acids and a wine-like quality with notes of gooseberry, grass, and grapefruit.

NEW GERMAN HOPS RETURN TO THEIR ROOTS Of late, German hop breeders have started to refocus their efforts on the noble background for which German landraces gained such a stellar reputation. Their objective is to preserve all pillars of their cultivar portfolio—from pure aroma varieties, to dual-purpose varieties with low to mid-range alpha acid values, to high-alpha varieties. For the lower-alpha varieties, this involves playing to the traditional, aromatic strengths of the old landraces while also alleviating their drawbacks in the modern economic and climatic

environment. In practice, this means crossing old Hüll breeding stock with genetic material from often distant and successful varieties that have better disease and drought resistance, and produce more alpha acids. In any given year, Hüll researchers may evaluate as many as 100,000 new seedlings. Every new commercial variety that emerges from this starting platform is a multi-stage selection from as many as 120 crossings per year. These crossings are successively exposed to an endless number of pathogens and environmental stresses under controlled conditions over more than a decade of testing, first in the greenhouse and then in trial fields affectionally known as hop kindergartens. Eventually, there are production-size plantings in test hop gardens with different soils, followed by tests of new crossings in a brewhouse. Finally, the permitting process is the final step before a new variety may enter the food chain. Among the first results of the new Hüll breeding orientation was a cluster of four 2016 releases, marking a watershed for the Hüll Hop Research Center: • Dual-purpose Mandarina Bavaria (7–10 percent alpha acids) • Dual-purpose Hüll Melon (5.5–7.5 percent alpha acids) • High-alpha Ariana (10–13 percent alpha acids, 2.1 to 2.4 ml/100g oil content) • Aroma hop Callista (2–5 percent alpha acids, cohumulone content of 15–22 percent of total alpha acids, 1.4 to 1.75 ml/100g oil content) Two additional dual-purpose varieties followed in 2019. Diamant (formerly known as research number 89/002/025) is an approximately 6-percent alpha acid variety based on the Spalter landrace. Its breeding goal was to create an agronomically hardier offspring of its classic progenitor. Likewise, the new Aurum (formerly 96/001/024) has approximately 4 percent alpha acids and was designed as a further development of its progenitor, the Tettnanger landrace. The pedigrees of the two 2019 releases clearly illustrate the new Hüll breeding orientation. Whereas the mothers of Diamant

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GERMAN HOPS The ďŹ nished Märzen with Hallertau Blanc, HĂźll Melon, and Mandarina Bavaria.

TABLE 4: EXPORT VALUE OF GERMAN HOPS BY COUNTRY Destination Country

Value in Million Euros

U.S.

39.8

Russia

28.8

Japan

27.7

Brazil

19.3

Vietnam

16.5

2018 data. Source: German Hop Growers Association

and Aurum are heirloom landraces, the fathers are two Hßll breeding lines—80/18/62 in the case of Diamant; and 91/36/04 in the case of Aurum. Each of these two breeding

lines has foreign genetic material in their backgrounds. The Diamant father is a cross between a female of the Slovenian variety Super Styrian Aurora and a male of the HĂźll breeding line 76/01/259; while the Aurum father is a cross between a female of the English breeding line 3/63/51 and a male of the HĂźll breeding line 86/47/61. These new cultivars are the ďŹ rst steps in an ongoing effort by German hop breeders to adapt their fragile landraces to new challenges from climate change and market preferences. First and foremost, they are selected for their ability to withstand the now all-toocommon summer heat waves and droughts. The stresses of the extreme growing seasons in 2017 and 2018 (see data in Tables 1 and 2) demonstrate that they are indeed fairly hardy and disease resistant, and thus require smaller amounts of herbicides and pesticides than older varieties. Because of increasingly stricter environmental imperatives, they must also take up nitrogen effectively, reducing the need for fertilizers. This, in turn, has the side effect of suppressing verticillium wilt. Economically, the new hops must deliver relatively stable and plentiful yields with acceptable alpha acid levels even in years with adverse weather patterns. These traits are among the crucial characteristics that will allow German hops to remain viable in the long term, and to compete effectively in changing world markets (Table 4). This is essential because, according to the most recent edition of The Barth Report1, Germany currently

supplies 36 percent of the world’s alpha acid demand, second only to the United States, which supplies 41 percent, and well ahead of third-place Czechia, which supplies 5 percent. Especially for the craft brew segment, German hops appear to be gaining in signiďŹ cance as both bittering and aroma sources, because of a growing consumer trend in the direction of delicate, hop-and-malt-balanced craft session beers, next to the already well-established American “extremeâ€? ales.

REFERENCES 1. https://www.barthhaas.com/ďŹ leadmin/ user_upload/news/2019-07-23/barthreport20182019en.pdf +RUVW'RUQEXVFKLVWKHIRXQGHURI &HUHYLVLD&RPPXQLFDWLRQV//& DFRQVXOWDQF\LQWKHLQWHUQDWLRQDO EUHZLQJLQGXVWU\:DOWHU.|QLJ LVJHQHUDOPDQDJHURIWKH +RSIHQIRUVFKXQJV]HQWUXPLQ+ OO %DYDULDDVZHOODVJHQHUDOPDQDJHURI WKH%D\HULVFKH%UDXHUEXQGLQ0XQLFK %DYDULD7KHDXWKRUVZLVKWRWKDQNWKH FROODERUDWRUVZKRKHOSHGPDNHWKH WHVWEUHZLQJRIWKHUHFLSHVSRVVLEOH :HLKHQVWHSKDQ5HVHDUFK%UHZHU\7KH 2OGH0HFNOHQEXUJ%UHZHU\7ULEXWDU\ %UHZLQJ&RPSDQ\)DUQKDP$OH /DJHU %UHZHU\%UDVVHULH&KHYDO%ODQF6DPXHO $GDPV%RVWRQ%UHZHU\%UHZHUV6XSSO\ *URXS:H\HUPDQQÂŽ0DOWLQJ&RPSDQ\ DQG'HERUDK:RRGRI%UHZHUV6XSSO\ *URXS&DQDGD Recipes continued on page 106 >

Left and Above Left: The Hopfenforschungszentrum (Hop Research Center) in HĂźll, Bavaria, is breeding new varieties capable of thriving under adverse growing conditions. Above: Walter KĂśnig is general manager of the Hopfenforschungszentrum in HĂźll, Bavaria.

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RECIPES WITH NEW GERMAN, LANDRACE-DERIVED HOPS To showcase several of the recently released German hop varieties, the authors created eight session beers and test-brewed them in several breweries of different sizes and configurations in Germany, Canada, and the United States. Note that brewhouse capabilities and efficiencies at the host breweries varied substantially. Depending on whether these recipes are replicated using a single-step infusion, multi-step infusion, or multi-step decoction, several specification values will vary, too. These include grist weights per barrel or hectoliter (at given target gravities), beer color, and pH values for the mash, wort, and beer. The point of the recipes is not to create guidelines for replication, but model platforms for balancing hop and malt aromas. Select the brewhouse process most suited to your configuration. The three Weihenstephan-brewed single-hop Helles lagers, for instance, were all

Recipes

RECIPE 1: SINGLE-HOP HELLES WITH CALLISTA Technical University Munich, Weihenstephan Research Brewery, Freising, Germany SPECIFICATIONS OG: approx. 12°P (1.048) FG: approx. 3°P (1.012) ABV: approx. 4.8 Color: approx. 3 SRM (6 EBC) IBU: 20 MASH Weyermann® Pilsner: 96.4% Weyermann Carahell®: 3.6% HOPS 8 oz./bbl. (194 g/hl) Callista (3.2% AA); at start of 60 min. boil 3.1 oz./bbl. (74 g/hl) Callista (3.2% AA); into whirlpool YEAST SafLager W-34/70 SENSORY EVALUATION: The wort runs brilliantly clear with a slight reddish tinge. Its taste is nicely balanced between malty sweetness and a mild, pleasant bitterness. Considering the low alpha acid value of Callista, the amount of bittering hop is substantial, as is the amount of trub. The large quantity of vegetal matter, however, also adds complexity to the bitterness perception, without any harshness. After fermentation, the finished lager has a clean, refreshing bouquet with

106

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mashed in at 125° F (52° C), followed by a 20-minute rest at 144° F (62° C), a 15-minute rest at 149° F (65° C), a 30-minute rest at 162° F (72° C), and a mash-out at 171° F (77° C); while the Märzen at the Samuel Adams Boston Brewery was mashed in at 122° F (50° C) with a 10-minute rest, followed by a 10-minute rest at 150° F (66 °C), a 10-minute rest at 156° F (69° C), and a mash-out at 170° F (77° C). All specifications listed here are translated from actual values achieved in the different brewhouses to standard values for a nominal system efficiency of 75 percent; and the mash composition is listed in percentages rather than in absolute amounts. However, the hop amounts are in ounces per barrel and grams per hectoliter. Note that several of the recipes were test-brewed with hops from the hot harvest year 2018. Thus, all quantities for hops from different harvest years,

obviously, need to be recalculated. All hop amounts are based on a pro-forma assumption of a maximum hop utilization of 30 percent for bittering hops, and a minimum utilization of 5 percent for whirlpool hops. Fermentation agents for the different test brews were selected from four yeasts: SafAle™ S-33, a low-attenuating strain from Berlin that contributes a mild fruity and estery profile; SafAle WB-06, a super-attenuating wheat beer strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae diastaticus, which emphasizes clove-type over banana-type notes; Saflager S-189, a clean and well-attenuating strain from Switzerland that produces drinkable, high-gravity lagers; and Saflager W-34/70, a Bavarian strain that contributes a balance of floral and fruity notes to classic central European lagers. The fermentation temperatures and times were adjusted for the preferred working ranges of the selected yeasts.

grassy and hay-like notes that are unmistakable reminders of classic German noble hoppiness. The taste upfront is of mild white grape, followed by aromatic, “hoppy” linalool aspects with a slight, white-peppery edge that lingers to provide structure and definition. At the very end are faint notes of grapefruit peel. Overall, this brew has a restrained, clean maltiness and a pleasant, well-rounded bitterness for a balanced, traditional European lager.

the finish. Overall, this is a highly inviting and drinkable session beer.

RECIPE 2: SINGLE-HOP HELLES WITH ARIANA Technical University Munich, Weihenstephan Research Brewery, Freising, Germany SPECIFICATIONS All specifications are similar to Recipe 1, except for the hop variety Ariana with 8.9% AA instead of Callista with 3.2% AA. HOPS 2.6 oz./bbl. (63 g/hl) Ariana (8.9% AA); at start of 60 min. boil 2.6 oz./bbl. (63 g/hl) Ariana (8.9% AA); into whirlpool SENSORY EVALUATION: Already in the wort, this beer displays mild notes of citrus, compared to the hay notes in the Callista brew. In the finished lager, the bouquet is herbal and grassy with aspects of sweet berries, while the upfront taste is mild and clean with a citrus note of lemon. White wine and peach notes come to the fore mid-palate; with pronounced herbal and gooseberry notes and a viniferous hint in

RECIPE 3: SINGLE-HOP HELLES WITH MANDARINA BAVARIA Technical University Munich, Weihenstephan Research Brewery, Freising, Germany SPECIFICATIONS All specifications are similar to Recipe 1, except for the hop variety Mandarina Bavaria with 7.7% AA instead of Callista with 3.2% AA. HOPS 2.9 oz./bbl. (70 g/hl) Mandarina Bavaria (7.7% AA); at start of 60 min. boil 3.6 oz./bbl. (87 g/hl) Mandarina Bavaria (7.7% AA); into whirlpool SENSORY EVALUATION: The wort is characterized by spicy-peppery notes of citrus, which become mild but distinct orange aromas in the bouquet of the finished beer. The overall taste of this lager is reminiscent of carbonated lemonade. There is some mango flavor on the palate, as well as a crisp bitterness that is surprisingly reminiscent of an edgy northern German Pils (compare Recipe 4). The finish is predominantly lemony, with hints of citrus zest, Meyer lemon, and a delicate, perfumey bitterness. An extremely refreshing quaffing lager.

Recipes continued on page 108 >

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GERMAN HOPS

RECIPE 4: NORTHERN GERMAN PILS Brasserie Le Cheval Blanc, Montreal, Quebec, Canada SPECIFICATIONS OG: 12°P (1.048) FG: approx. 2.75°P (1.011)                        ABV: approx. 4.9 Color: approx. 2.8 SRM (5.6 EBC) IBU: 32 MASH Weyermann Extra Pale Pilsner: 60% Weyermann Eraclea Pilsner: 30% Weyermann Carafoam®: 10% HOPS 4.3 oz./bbl. (103 g/hl) Hallertau Blanc (8.5% AA); at start of 60 min. boil 4.2 oz./bbl. (101 g/hl) Aurum (4.5% AA); at shutdown 6.3 oz./bbl. (151 g/hl) Callista (3.5% AA); into whirlpool YEAST SafLager W-34/70 SENSORY EVALUATION: This crystal-clear beer has a dense, long-lasting white head. Its color is pale straw from the large amount of extra-pale Pilsner malt. As you drink the beer, a fine lace forms on the inside of the glass. The body is medium, and the taste is delicately malty from the Eraclea malt, with a trace of caramel and a subtle background note of noble hops that recedes slowly in the finish. An extremely balanced quaffing beer.

RECIPE 5: MÄRZEN Samuel Adams Boston Brewery, Boston, Mass. SPECIFICATIONS OG: 14°P (1.057) FG: 2.9°P (1.012) ABV: 5.8% Color: 12.4 SRM (24.4 EBC) IBU: 25

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GERMAN HOPS MASH Weyermann Bohemian Floor-Malted Pilsner: 56.5% Weyermann Abbey Malt: 15% Weyermann Melanoidin Malt: 15% Weyermann Caraamber®: 13% Weyermann Carafa Special II: 0.5% HOPS 4 oz./bbl. (96 g/hl) Hallertau Blanc (8.6% AA); at start of 60 min. boil 4 oz./bbl. (96 g/hl) Hüll Melon (6.2% AA); boil for 5 min. 0.4 oz./bbl. (10 g/hl) Mandarina Bavaria (7.7% AA); into whirlpool YEAST SafLager W-34/70 SENSORY EVALUATION: Ruby red with a brilliant copper sheen. The bouquet is an even balance between malt-forward aromas and hop-derived fruitiness, with notes of toffee, floral, and hay. On the palate, restrained bitterness and silky-smooth, complex maltiness prevail. As expected, the hop notes feature melon, white wine, and mandarin-like citrus. The finish is lingering with slightly warming notes. It is also surprisingly dry, given the relatively high final gravity. The overall impression is one of an extremely clean, complex, and elegant brew with easy drinkability.

RECIPE 6: BAVARIAN HELLES WEISSBIER/HEFEWEIZEN Tributary Brewing Company, Kittery, Maine SPECIFICATIONS OG: 12.5°P (1.050) FG: 3.25°P (1.013) ABV: 4.9% Color: 3.7 SRM (7.3 EBC) IBU: 14 MASH Weyermann Pale Wheat Malt: 55% Weyermann Pilsner Malt: 20% Weyermann Vienna Malt: 12% Weyermann Carahell: 10% Acidulated malt: 3% HOPS 4 oz./bbl. (96 g/hl) Hallertau Blanc (8.6% AA); at start of boil 4 oz./bbl. (96 g/hl) Hüll Melon (6.2% AA); boil for 5 min. 0.4 oz./bbl. (10 g/hl) Mandarina Bavaria (7.7% AA); into whirlpool

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2.2 oz./bbl. (54 g/hl) Perle (6.2%AA); boil for 60 min. 2.3 oz./bbl. (57 g/hl) Hüll Melon (5.9%AA); boil or 15 min. 6.1 oz./bbl. (113 g/hl) Hüll Melon (5.9%AA); into whirlpool

bitterness from the Mandarina Bavaria. As the beer reverberates on the palate, the fine, floral flavors of the Spalter-like Diamant hop emerge. In the finish, these flavors transition into mild, noble aromas from the Tettnanger-like Aurum hop that lingers before it gently fades.

YEAST SafAle™ WB-06 SENSORY EVALUATION: An amber, mildly turbid, slightly fruity, easy-drinking, summer quaffing weissbier. The SafAle WB-06 yeast put just a touch of clove-like phenolic 4-vinyl guaiacol into the brew, which comingles nicely upfront with the mild and spicy, minty evergreen of the Perle bittering hop. The taste then picks up the balancing sweetness of the Vienna and Carahell malts and the mellow honeydew bouquet from the two late additions of Hüll Melon. The body is chewy from the large portion of pale wheat malt in the mash. Overall, the taste is reminiscent of biting into a juicy, sweet apple.

RECIPE 7: AROMA HOP-FORWARD VIENNA LAGER Farnham Ales & Lagers, Farnham, Quebec, Canada SPECIFICATIONS OG: 14°P (1.056) FG: approx. 4°P (1.016) ABV: approx. 5.3 Color: approx. 11.2 SRM (22 EBC) IBU: 25 MASH Weyermann Weyermann Weyermann Weyermann

Barke® Vienna: 52% Munich II: 32% Caramunich® I: 8% Melanoidin: 8%

HOPS 2.9 oz./bbl. (70 g/hl) Mandarina Bavaria (7.7%AA); at start of 60 min. boil 3.7 oz./bbl. (89 g/hl) Diamant (6.1%AA); boil for 5 min. 2.1 oz./bbl. (51 g/hl) Aurum (4.5%AA); into whirlpool

RECIPE 8: HELLES KELLERBIER The Olde Mecklenburg Brewery, Charlotte, N.C. SPECIFICATIONS OG: 12.5°P (1.050) FG: approx. 3°P (1.012) ABV: approx. 5 Color: approx. 4 SRM (7.8 EBC) IBU: 22 MASH Weyermann Barke® Vienna: 45% Weyermann Barke Pilsner: 45% Weyermann Munich I: 10% HOPS 2.1 oz/bbl. (51 g/hl) Ariana (11.5%AA); boil for 60 min. 1.3 oz/bbl. (32 g/hl) Hüll Melon (5.9%AA); boil for 5 min. 1.3 oz/bbl. (32 g/hl) Mandarina Bavaria (7%AA); boil for 5 min. 3.4 oz/bbl. (83 g/hl) Callista (3.2%AA); into whirlpool YEAST Saflager™ S-189 SENSORY EVALUATION: This unfiltered brew excels upfront with clean, pleasant, herbal, and sweet berry notes from Ariana. On the palate, the mixture of Huell Melon and Mandarina Bavaria adds complex flavors of melon, mango, and lemon, while the finish is dominated by linalool-derived noble hop aromas and a touch of white grape from Callista. The flavors and aromas from the four German noble hops blend well with the aromatic richness of the Barke-based grain bill. Note: the German Hop Growers Association served this beer during a hospitality event at the 2019 Craft Brewers Conference in Denver.

YEAST Saflager™ S-189 SENSORY EVALUATION: This classic, mild, amber lager has a deep-reddish hue and a dense, creamy head. The bouquet is dominated by complex malt aromas. The taste is a delicate balance of a clean, crisp maltiness and an equally crisp, orange-like

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