Hofstra University Museum of Art: Andy Warhol

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HOFSTRA UNIVERSIT Y MUSEUM

ANDY WARHOL


Cover image: Andy Warhol (American, 1928-1987), Flowers, 1970, screenprint on paper, extra, out of the edition. Designated for research and education purposes only. 36 x 36 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2013.14 © The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc.

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HOFSTRA UNIVERSIT Y MUSEUM

ANDY WARHOL September 5, 2017 – March 11, 2018 David Filderman Gallery

Funding has been provided by the New York State Council on the Arts with the support of Governor Andrew M. Cuomo and the New York State Legislature.


Curator’s Statement “My fascination with letting images repeat and repeat ... manifests my belief that we spend much of our lives seeing without observing.” – Andy Warhol

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This exhibition of works by Andy Warhol, legendary pop artist and art celebrity of the 20th century, includes a selection of his photographs and screenprints from the Hofstra University Museum Collections. By juxtaposing his photographs with his screenprints, the exhibition provides a view into his working methods and artistic process, in which photography played an integral role. As a participant in the Andy Warhol Photographic Legacy Program since 2008, the Museum has received donations of 153 photographs (Polaroids and gelatin silver prints) and nine screenprints from The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc. The Andy Warhol Photographic Legacy Program, launched in 2007, has donated more than 28,500 photographs to American college and university museums. The program revealed Warhol’s immense photographic production and opened new directions in the discussion of his work process and his use of the photographic medium. Much of his artwork was photo-based, and the photographs were an integral part of his artistic process. These photographs reflect the vast range of subjects that Warhol’s camera captured, which reflected his interests, curiosity, and insatiable desire to document his world. Often, the individuals and subjects recorded by his camera appeared later in his paintings and prints. A selected group of these photographs is included in this exhibition. From 1970 to 1987, Warhol took numerous Polaroid and black-and-white photographs, the majority of which were never exhibited. Using a Polaroid Big Shot, a plastic camera he used for the majority of his work, Warhol captured a range of subjects. When working on a portrait, for instance, he typically would take a series of Polaroid photographs at each sitting; the number of photographs could range from a dozen up to hundreds. Repetition was a recurring theme in Warhol’s body of work, and it played a major role in his photography as well. The models’ poses vary, and some sitters were subjected to the application of white makeup, black eyeliner and red lipstick, which increased the contrast in the photograph. The effect can be seen in the photographs of socialite Veronica Hearst. One example of how Warhol utilized his photographs as a component of his creative process can be seen in the images of Italian fashion designer Enrico Coveri. Warhol captured him in a variety of poses: a direct frontal view, his hand on his chin or cheek, and his head tilted toward the left or right. The painting Enrico Coveri (1983), which is not included in this exhibition, shows a similar pose to one captured on the Polaroid in which Coveri tilted his head while resting his cheek on his hand. Most of the black-and-white prints are spontaneous snapshots. The gelatin silver prints were taken with a Minolta SLR 35mm camera, which allowed Warhol to take photographs without concern for focus or lighting. Warhol often had a camera on hand and created a visual diary of his life, documenting the parties he attended, places he visited, and countries to which he traveled. Warhol was a master of appropriation, using pre-existing images in his works, such as newspaper photographs or advertising images. Warhol chose to use the screenprinting process, which allowed photographically reproduced images to be incorporated into the work. The printmaking method also produced large areas of saturated color, which became part of his signature style. The screenprints included in the exhibition illustrate Warhol’s use of the photographic process as an integral part of his working method. The image for Warhol’s 1964 Birmingham Race Riot was taken from a newspaper account of the civil rights protest and police action that took place in 1963. Warhol appropriated the grainy photograph, then cropped and manipulated it to intensify the dramatic qualities of the image.

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In Untitled 12, Warhol reused some of his own iconic images of the 1960s: the Campbell’s soup can, cow, Brillo boxes, and electric chair. Superimposing the images in matte and glossy black inks, he created a new work of art. The repetition of images that he had already used and the reconfiguring of those images were a Warhol trademark. Incorporating a vintage photograph of the Brooklyn Bridge, Warhol created the screenprint Brooklyn Bridge to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the bridge at the request of the 1983 Brooklyn Bridge Centennial Commission Inc. The design was done in what has become known as Warhol’s distinctive style: simplified and repeated images in a sectioned composition with broad areas of flat and intense color. In 1985, Warhol produced The Reigning Queens Series, a portfolio of 16 screenprints featuring female monarchs who each ruled in their own right, symbols of female autonomy and power. The portraits were based on official photographs but manipulated by Warhol to emphasize specific details. A special edition of the prints was scattered with diamond dust so that the screenprints would sparkle in the light. Queen Ntombi Twala of Swaziland, on view in this exhibition, is one of these prints. The Flowers screenprint was based on photographs taken by Patricia Caulfield that were featured in the June 1964 issue of Modern Photography magazine. Warhol cropped the image and added pulsating colors. Caulfield took legal action against Warhol for using her photographs without permission; the matter was later settled. Flowers is part of a 10-piece portfolio in which each print used varying color combinations. Manipulating ordinary, everyday photographic images, such as in Flowers and Sunset, Warhol created iconic images in his own unique style. In sync with his interest in popular culture, Warhol was interested in how the American West was portrayed in literature and film as compared to the historical record. In his series Cowboys and Indians, he reinforces the familiar stereotypes of a romanticized American West. The screenprint Sitting Bull is based on an archival photo of the Sioux chief, hero of the Battle of Little Big Horn, showing a stoic posed portrait rather than an active image. The Northwest Coast Mask became a token symbol of native culture. The masks were typically carved ornately from red cedar and represented natural beings and mythological characters. Both of these images were manipulated in typical Warhol fashion: flattening and simplifying the image, along with printing broad areas of saturated color. Warhol challenged tradition in his subject matter, style and process. Known for his cultivation of celebrities and his pronouncement that everyone would enjoy 15 minutes of fame, Warhol’s renown as a pop artist came from his concept in which he removed common objects from their normal context and elevated them to the stature of icons of American culture. His portraits, whether photographs, prints or paintings, produced larger-than-life images of the celebrities, models and people who posed for him. Warhol exploited and manipulated commercial printing methods to produce multiple images. In doing so, he created iconic paintings and prints that continue to influence art and culture. Warhol’s photographs were a vital part of this artistic process.

Karen T. Albert Deputy Director and Chief Curator

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Resources for further study: The Andy Warhol Museum, www.warhol.org The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., www.warholfoundation.org Bockris, Victor. The Life and Death of Andy Warhol. New York: Bantam Books, 1989. Feldman, Freyda, and Schellmann, Jörg, eds. Andy Warhol Prints: A Catalogue Raisonné. New York: R. Feldman Fine Arts Inc., 1989. Hackett, Pat, ed. The Andy Warhol Diaries. New York: Warner Books, 1989. Livingstone, Marco. “Warhol, Andy.” Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 7 Jul. 2017. Mercurio, Gianni, and Morera, Daniela. The Andy Warhol Show. Milan: Skira, c. 2004.

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MEDIA

Gelatin silver prints, the most common type of black-and-white photographs, have been in use since the 1880s. These photographs are made on paper coated with a gelatin that binds lightsensitive silver salts to it. After a brief exposure to the negative, the paper undergoes a chemical process in which it is immersed in different solutions to develop the image, stop the development, and fix the image. The photograph can be altered and manipulated during this process to change the final print. A Polaroid photograph is an instantaneous, one-step photographic process first developed by E.H. Land in 1947. Polacolor (color film) was created in 1962. There are two types of Polaroid processes: the integral system where the photograph develops directly on the print paper, and the peel apart system where the print is separated from a negative backing after exposure. Screenprinting is a printmaking technique in which a screen made of fabric (originally silk) is stretched tightly across a frame, and a type of stencil is created on the screen. The screen is placed over paper, and ink is pushed through the fabric onto the paper. The ink transfers only onto the areas not blocked by the stencil. This stencil can be created on the screen in a variety of ways: using glue or lacquer; applying adhesive film or paper; or painting a light-sensitive resist onto the screen, which is then developed as a photograph (photo-screen print). A separate screen is necessary for each color. Originally a commercial printing method, artists began using the screenprinting process in the 1930s. At that time, the term serigraph was used to denote an artist’s print; the term silkscreen is also still used today.

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ANDY WARHOL (American, 1928-1987)

Andy Warhol (born Andrew Warhola) studied pictorial design at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in his hometown of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, from 1945 to 1949. After moving to New York City, he worked as a commercial artist and illustrator for magazines and newspapers. In the 1950s, he shortened his name to Warhol. Beginning in the 1960s, Warhol created numerous works of art by appropriating images from popular culture. He pared them down to their essential elements while he created repetitious images of these objects or individuals, such as Campbell’s soup cans and Marilyn Monroe. He was also inspired by advertisements and comic strips; his style became known as pop art. Warhol worked in various media: painting, printmaking, photography, sculpture and film. He was especially interested in using the processes of commercial printing such as screenprinting, stamping and stenciling in his art to emphasize the concept of mass production. Warhol was established as a major international artist celebrity by the 1970s. At his studio, “the Factory,” Warhol continued to create paintings and also worked on commissioned portraits. In addition to other publications, he published Interview magazine. His artwork has been and continues to be exhibited at prestigious museums and institutions worldwide. Warhol died in 1987 following routine gall bladder surgery. The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc. was established in 1987, and in accordance with the terms of his will, its mission continues to be the advancement of the visual arts. A major retrospective of his work was mounted by The Museum of Modern Art, New York, in 1989. As a lasting legacy to his work and influence, The Andy Warhol Museum opened in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1994.

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EXHIBITION CHECKLIST

All works are by Andy Warhol (American, 1928-1987). © The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc.

PHOTOGRAPHS

Buildings, undated Gelatin silver print 6 1/ 16 x 8 11/16 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.137 1 Truman Capote, 1977

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Polacolor Type 108 3 3/4 x 2 7/8 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.60 2 Truman Capote, undated

Gelatin silver print 6 1/2 x 8 15/16 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.105

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Truman Capote, undated Gelatin silver print 6 1/2 x 9 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.109

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3 3 Enrico Coveri, May 1982

Polacolor ER 3 3/4 x 2 7/8 in. each Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.68 - 74

Patty Davis and Unidentified Man, undated Gelatin silver print 5 5/8 x 7 3/4 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.131


4 4 Wayne Gretzky, 1983

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Polacolor ER 3 3/4 x 2 7/8 in. each Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.58 - 59

Hockey Game, 1981 Gelatin silver print 6 x 8 7/8 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.145

5 Veronica Hearst, 1982

7 Grace Jones, 1984

Polacolor ER 3 3/4 x 2 7/8 in. each Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.39 - 47

Polacolor ER 3 3/4 x 2 7/8 in. each Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.37 - 38

6 Veronica Hearst

Grace Jones and Unidentified Man, undated Gelatin silver print 10 x 8 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.147 8 Grace Jones and Unidentified

Man, undated Gelatin silver print 10 x 8 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.148

and Benjamin Liu, 1982 Gelatin silver print 9 3/8 x 6 1/2 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.123

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9 9 Mariuccia Mandelli, 1979

Polacolor Type 108 3 3/4 x 2 7/8 in. each Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.10 - 18

Parking Lot, undated Gelatin silver print 8 7/8 x 6 1/8 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.139 People on the Street, undated Gelatin silver print 8 x 10 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.140 10 People on the Street, undated

Gelatin silver print 6 1/8 x 8 3/4 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.141

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Maria Shriver, Grace Jones, and Nancy Collins, undated Gelatin silver print 10 x 8 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.146

Treat Williams and Philip Bosco, undated Gelatin silver print 8 x 10 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.133

11 Union Square, undated

Window Display: Beer Steins, undated Gelatin silver print 8 x 10 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.143

Gelatin silver print 6 1/4 x 8 5/8 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.136

Treat Williams and Philip Bosco, undated Gelatin silver print 8 x 10 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.132

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12 Window Display: Cutlery Set,

undated Gelatin silver print 10 x 8 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.144

Yard, undated Gelatin silver print 6 1/4 x 8 5/8 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2008.2.138


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SCREENPRINTS Birmingham Race Riot, from the portfolio X + X (Ten Works by Ten Painters), 1964 Screenprint on paper, edition 500 20 x 24 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of Dr. Milton Gardner, HU83.47 13 Brooklyn Bridge, 1983

Screenprint on Lenox Museum Board Extra, out of edition. Designated for research and education purposes only. 40 x 40 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2014.10 14 Flowers, 1970

Screenprint on paper Extra, out of edition. Designated for research and education purposes only. 36 x 36 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2013.14

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Northwest Coast Mask (Cowboys and Indians), 1986 Screenprint on Lenox Museum Board Extra, out of edition. Designated for research and education purposes only. 36 x 36 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2014.12 15 Queen Ntombi Twala of

Swaziland (Reigning Queens Royal Edition), 1985 Screenprint and diamond dust on Lenox Museum Board Extra, out of edition. Designated for research and education purposes only. 39 3/8 x 31 1/2 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2014.11

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16 16 Sitting Bull, 1986

Screenprint on Lenox Museum Board Extra, out of edition. Designated for research and education purposes only. 36 x 36 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2013.19

Sunset, 1972 Screenprint on Strathmore Bristol paper Extra, out of edition. Designated for research and education purposes only. 34 x 34 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Inc., HU2013.15 Untitled 12, from the portfolio For Meyer Schapiro, 1974 Screenprint on Arches satin-finish paper, edition 73/100 18 3/4 x 16 in. Hofstra University Museum Collections, gift of Edwin S. Marks, HU77.144


HOFSTRA UNIVERSITY STUART RABINOWITZ, President Andrew M. Boas and Mark L. Claster Distinguished Professor of Law

GAIL M. SIMMONS, Provost and Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs

HOFSTRA UNIVERSITY MUSEUM NANCY RICHNER, Director KAREN T. ALBERT, Deputy Director and Chief Curator ELISA BRUNO, Museum Educator ELIZABETH DYSART, Director of Education and Engagement RENEE B. KUROT, Museum Educator KARLA ODERWALD, Senior Assistant to the Director PAMELA K. OLLENDORFF, Coordinator of Education and Public Programs KRISTEN RUDY, Collections Manager AMY G. SOLOMON, Museum Educator CHARMISE WOODSIDE-DESIRÉ, Communications Director GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIP Cassandra Oswald

GRADUATE ASSISTANTS

Matthew Howard, Patricia Korbackova

UNDERGRADUATE ASSISTANTS

Rachel Davis, Jonathan Fidis, Alina Gonzalez, Sarah Klush, Shaina Martin, Eiryn Sheades, Alison Wolf




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