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HUMBOLDT INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY ONLINE UNIVERSITY

Handbook Instructional Design

www.hiuniversity.com

January, 2013


TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Introduction Virtual or distance education represents an amalgam of diverse educational variants depending of virtualizations grade that applies to programs. The so-called "digital revolution" has triggered the convergence of different environments, modifying continuously. This paradigm shift in the way we produce and distribute information and knowledge, not only affects the ways in which they are accessed, but also on the experience of the environment, changing the spatial and temporal sense of social relations. The educational systems perspective included: • Education systems as social subsystems are open to the flow of information • Open systems, is beyond the education system itself and they impacts on other social systems. • Transdisciplinary vision is required to manage social systems, communication and networks from an integrative perspective. • Required educational environments to prepare learners for new modes of action in complex social environments. • The environments in which education takes place are expanding the integration of information and communication technologies. Virtual education from its own praxis is generate a lot of educational products that turn themselves into a new repository of knowledge that allows access to these resources, which set them apart from the traditional education where communication is not recorded It can ensure the failure of the online mode, if it tries to convert the face to face into virtual, regardless the principles and criteria, requiring developing different tasks. The virtual model cannot be implemented without a serious project development.

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In this context, the mission of Humboldt International University is to offer quality educational services in suitable virtual environments in order to meet the learning needs of students through the development and implementation of appropriate technologies. We encourage and support innovation and creativity, utilizing technology as the backbone of our content delivery. We foster an environment conducive to quality learning experiences through a problem solving model and a competency based approach, coupled with the academic and practical training that enables students to achieve their professional goals. The philosophy of Humboldt International University is to establish a space of excellence for the development of the proper attitudes needed to respond to the challenges posed by the new social and technological dynamics. Our future work is focused on networking with other autonomous institutions so as to create a synergy to provide better educational services to more students in the global environment taking into account regional needs. This handbook is intended to be used by new instructional designers, to support best practice in instructional design as it applies to e-learning solutions, and enable a quality assessment of an e-learning solution according to an objective set of criteria related with Humboldt International University (HIU) learning model.

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E-learning E-learning as a new way of learning or as an improvement on an existing educational paradigm. Some of the most representative examples of definitions include the following. •

“E-learning is the use of new multimedia technologies and the Internet to improve the quality of learning by facilitating access to resources and services, as well as remote exchange and collaboration” (Alonso et al., 2005).

“E-learning is a broad combination of processes, content, and infrastructure to use computers and networks to scale and/or improve one or more significant parts of a learning value chain, including management and delivery” (Aldrich, 2005).

“E-learning is defined as information and communication technologies used to support students to improve their learning” (Ellis, Ginns, & Piggott, 2009).

“E-learning refers to educational processes that utilize information and communications technology to mediate synchronous as well as asynchronous learning and teaching activities” (Jereb & Šmitek, 2006).

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This definition can be broken down into the what, how, and why of e-learning: •

What. Instruction refers to content (e.g., words and pictures describing how lightning storms develop) and instructional methods (e.g., presenting words in spoken form rather than printed form). E-learning depends on instructional material being presented using effective instructional methods.

How. Delivered via a computer refers to presenting material via a computer, by way of internet, or related means. Instructional output includes images and printed words that appear on a screen, and sounds and spoken words from a speaker or headphones; learner input includes spoken words through a microphone, characters entered on a keyboard, and screen items clicked with a mouse. Thus, e-learning uses the output and input channels of computers and their peripheral devices.

Why. Intended to promote learning refers to the goal of helping to foster changes in learners’ knowledge, which is reflected in changes in their performance. Thus, e-learning is intended to help people achieve learning objectives.

To implement the learning processes in online mode, we can considered it as industrial process which encompasses the tasks intertwined and dependent on each other allowing flexible school calendars and personalized (See Table 1). Table 1 Dimensions, functions and participants in the online process Dimensions

Functions

Participants

Advertisement & Marketing

Advertisement & Marketing

Manger

Education Management

Admission & Recruitment

Instructional Design

Designers Disciplinarians’ Experts Graphic Artist LMS Adviser

Operation of Programs Coordinators Instructor Quality Control

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Librarians Evaluation

Technology

Coordinators Instructor LMS Adviser

Web Administration

Web Administrator

EMS

EMS Adviser

LMS

LMS Adviser

Hosting & Security

Hardware Adviser

It is important to consider the following principles for virtual education: Freedom. The kind of relationships that form in a learning group should not be dependent relationships because from the outset would be unequal relations that impede learning really significant, however a free environment and healthy relationships and respect of individuals favors development of thought, imagination and creativity, and people are committed to free relations with responsibility. Solidarity. Sense of community, knowing and feeling that while other people do not coincide in time and place, they are part of your community Truth. For its origin and rationale, because the essence of learning is the search for truth, this is an essential value in all learning environments. Confidence. Confidence in institutional support, in the relationship with the sttaf, designers and instructors and with all persons with others students. Evaluation reliable and transparent for the students, to support the learning process and not punish students, avoiding falling into the anxieties to be alone with a computer. Comunication. In this virtual environment the interactivity is a first order condition, regard to those involved in the process of learning and teaching, the institution, the means and materials, contents, All they interact with the prior knowledge and personal characteristics of each learner. Creativity. Well cultivated Learning is always an act of creation. When a person learns significantly not express what he learned as a mere repetition of the information received. This kind of learning is what allows a person to have the ability to face new and uncertain situations, and can be prepared for the future and a better life today. Opening. Always willing to opened to new ideas and different from ours, to flexible 7


attitudes and educational proposals, likely to meet with the living conditions of people. Collaboration. Collaboration with involved in a specific educational process, and between institutions and organizations creating academic and social networks. Diversity. Respect for particular modes of being and doing, distance education takes on added importance because of its scope and coverage, as it reaches more people regions and thereby increasing diversity, diversity must be respected. Learning situations should be as diverse as the situations of life. Self management. Building our own knowledge supported by others. Coinciding with the value of freedom, the greatest social force comes only from the combination of individual freedoms, free beings who must develop the potential to lead your life and in that sense of ownership of their processes learning. Accessibility. Ensuring access to all participants without exception. Especially be careful with too centralized and homogeneous systems that handle a single technological scheme and leaves out many potential participants. Joy. Learning in the context of happiness. Enjoy to learn and share with all this feeling Sustainability. Search for better conditions for learning wherever and for everybody The development of learning environments involves a permanent transformation of seeking better relations and educational processes and this results are to be, know, do, live. Problem-solved based learning Problem solving is (goal directed) thinking and action in situations for which no routine solution procedure is available. The problem solver has a more or less well-defined goal, but does not immediately know how to reach it. The incongruence of goals and admissible operators constitutes a problem. The understanding of the problem situation and its step-by-step transformation based on planning and reasoning, constitute the process of problem solving. (Reeff, 1999, p. 48) Problem-based learning is an educational approach whereby the problem is the starting-point of the learning process. The type of problem is dependent on the specific organization. Usually, the problems are based on real-life problems which have been selected and edited to meet educational objectives and criteria. However, it could also be a hypothetical problem. It is crucial that the problem serves as the basis for the learning process, because this determines the direction of the learning process and places emphasis on the formulation of a question rather than on the answer. This also allows the learning content to be related to the context, which promotes student motivation and comprehension. It is essential that the directing force is consistent with the way the assessment drives the educational method (C. P. M. van der Vleuten, G. R. Norman and E. de Graaff, 1991) In order to transform contextualized real-life problems into test items, the project approach put forth in the ALL framework used different problem-solving phases as a dimension along which to generate the actual test items. These steps in the process of problem solving have been frequently described

8


as follows 1. Define the goal. 2. Analyze the given situation and construct a mental representation. 3. Devise a strategy and plan the steps to be taken. 4. Execute the plan, including control and – if necessary – modification of the strategy. 5. Evaluate the result.

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Competency-based Approaches

Competency “an integrated set of skills, knowledge, and attitudes that enables one to effectively perform the activities of a given occupation or function to the standards expected” (Richey et al., 2001). Competencies included explicit, measurable, transferable learning objectives that empower students. Assessment is meaningful and a positive learning experience for students. Students receive rapid, differentiated support based on their individual learning needs. Learning outcomes emphasize competencies that include application and creation of knowledge along with the development of important skills and dispositions. Design Principle 1: Students Advance upon Demonstrated Mastery The core element of a competency-based approach is that students progress to more advanced work upon demonstration of learning by applying specific skills and content. The most important implications of this design principle include: 

Students are advanced to higher-level work upon demonstration of mastery, not age.

Students work at levels that are appropriately challenging.

Students are evaluated on performance.

Some students may complete courses more rapidly than others.

Teachers guide students to produce sufficient evidence to determine proficiency.

Design Principle 2: Explicit and Measurable Learning Objectives Empower Students In competency-based practices, a course is organized into measurable learning objectives that are shared with students. Students take responsibility for their learning, thereby increasing their engagement and motivation. The implications of this design principle include: 

The relationship between student and teacher is fundamentally changed.

The unit of learning becomes modular.

Learning expands beyond the classroom.

Design Principle 3: Assessment Is Meaningful and a Positive Learning Experience for Students In a competency-based model, the traditional approach to assessment and accountability “of learning” is turned on its head with assessments “for learning.” Formative assessments are aligned with learning objectives. Students receive immediate feedback when assessment occurs. This is used to encourage students to return to difficult concepts and skills until they achieve mastery. It is essential that assessments are student-centered in which students are assessed on material with which they are familiar. In order for competency-based pathways to offer high-quality education, the following must be put into place:

10


Schools embrace a strong emphasis on formative assessment.

Teachers collaborate to develop understanding of what is an adequate demonstration of proficiency. Proficiency

for any specific learning objective and for

Teachers assess skills or concepts in multiple contexts and multiple ways.

Attention on student learning, not student grades.

Summative assessments are adaptive and timely.

Design Principle 4: Students Receive Rapid, Differentiated Support See the issue brief The Learning Edge: Supporting Student Success in a Competency-Based Learning Environment and its companion resources for more information. The core idea of a competency-based model is that all students will master the desired competencies. This requires a rapid response capacity on the part of educators to support students when they are stuck or begin to disengage in frustration. Educator capacity, and students’ own capacity to seek out help, will be enhanced by technology-enabled solutions that incorporate predictive analytic tools. This element is essential to a competency-based system. Without it there is risk that the current inequities will be reproduced. 

Pacing matters. Although students will progress at their own speeds, students that are proceeding more slowly will need more help.

Learning plans capture knowledge on learning styles, context, and interventions that are most effective for individuals students.

New specialist roles may develop in educator and instructional support roles, providing high quality interventions when students are begin to slip behind.

Online learning can play an invaluable role in providing feedback to teachers on how students are proceeding.

Design Principle 5: Learning Outcomes Emphasize Include Application and Creation of Knowledge Competencies emphasize the application of learning. A high quality competency-based approach will require students to apply skills and knowledge to new situations to demonstrate mastery and to create knowledge. Competencies will include academic standards as well as lifelong learning skills and dispositions. 

Competencies and learning objectives are designed so that demonstration of mastery includes application of skills and knowledge.

Assessment rubrics are explicit in what students must be able to know and do to progress to the next level of study.

11




Examples of student work that demonstrate skills development throughout a learning continuum will help students understand their own progress.



Lifelong learning skills designed around students needs, life experiences, and the skills needed for them to be college and career ready.



Expanded learning opportunities are developed as opportunities for students to develop and apply skills as they are earning credit.

12


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Instructional Design La concreción del modelo presentado se logra a través de un currículum organizado por competencias y orientado a proyectos, y cuenta con una metodología para el diseño de cursos en línea, dentro de una plataforma tecnológica desarrollada específicamente para el modelo de aprendizaje señalado. Las competencias especificas de la licenciatura son desarrolladas en la ejecución de proyectos, y esto se logra a través de: contenidos, actividades e interacciones en línea, en un ambiente colaborativo. El enfoque curricular asumido en la UDG Virtual, parte de la postura de solución de problemas, que dan marco a una visión de los campos profesionales con mayor amplitud centrados en las organizaciones empleadoras. Las problemáticas trascienden a estas organizaciones laborales y suponen una mirada del profesional en formación para enfocarlas viendo a las organizaciones como mediación para la solución de problemas o para el impacto en la gestión de su propio conocimiento. A su vez, el enfoque problemático supone necesariamente que de la visión de problemas se planteen las líneas de intervención en los mismos, a través del desarrollo e implementación de proyectos. No se trata de visualizar problemas sólo para comprenderlos o estudiarlos, sino para el desarrollo de un pensamiento estratégico de intervención y transformación de la realidad. El currículo de bibliotecología en línea está enfocado a la solución de problemas y la formación por competencias y especialmente a:  Aprendizaje en línea a través una plataforma educativa y con acompañamiento de un asesor.  Estructurado por materias, las cuales se encuentran integradas en función de competencias, y ejes disciplinares que permitan el proceso de formación de la Bibliotecología.  Desarrollo de competencias transversales requeridas en los diferentes ámbitos que demanda la Bibliotecología  Establecimiento de

acuerdos con instituciones en donde se desenvuelve el

profesional en Bibliotecología, a fin de que pueda realizar proyectos que integren las competencias adquiridas, prácticas o tareas que le son asignadas en los cursos.  El currículum está organizado para que cada semestre se realice un proyecto integrador en donde se manifiesten las competencias establecidas en las asignaturas de la trayectoria que el estudiante haya elegido.  El proyecto es el eje del programa, pero no se inicia hasta que se tenga un planteamiento claro de la problemática a trabajar y de ahí desarrollar dicho proyecto.  El currículum requiere, por la razón arriba expuesta, un fuerte trabajo para cada participante en el programa, y a su vez la constante práctica del trabajo en equipo y la colaboración, como elementos intrínsecos de las competencias de la licenciatura.

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El plan de estudios contempla la carga horaria de cada una de las materias y se diseña en base a lo planeado, para lo cual el equipo que realiza el diseño instruccional considera la carga horaria y el número de créditos que tiene el mismo curso. El programa se administra por créditos de acuerdo al plan de estudios, y éstos están calculados en función de la carga horaria destinada a la ejecución de los diversos tipos de tareas: estudio independiente, indagaciones, producciones, prácticas, publicaciones y actividades colaborativas 1. En el diseño instruccional de todos los cursos de esta carrera está coordinado por la Coordinación de Diseño Educativo del Sistema de Universidad Virtual, en el cual se integra un equipo de pedagogos, expertos disciplinares, así como especialistas informáticos y de diseño grafico 2. Ellos son los responsables de que en cada nuevo ciclo escolar estén en la plataforma de trabajo todos los cursos con sus respectivos recursos que posibilitan el acceso a los asesores y estudiantes para acometer el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje. El diseño de los cursos parte de una metodología que considera todas las variables que posibiliten los principios básicos del modelo UDG Virtual como hemos señalado anteriormente. Se prevé el tiempo de aprendizaje que requiere el estudiante, ya que se tiene presente la cantidad de horas prácticas y horas teóricas que debe desarrollar el estudiante en cada uno de los cursos y se va modificando a partir de la experiencia, operación, evaluación y rediseño de los mismos. Cada uno de los cursos dentro del diseño instruccional tiene contemplado el tiempo que el estudiante debe dedicar a la semana a la elaboración de cada una de sus actividades, tanto del trabajo en las actividades de aprendizaje de cada unidad, como en la conformación del producto integrador por unidad y de todo el curso. Se observa que exista congruencia entre los objetivos del curso (competencia especifica) y el tiempo destinado al mismo, lo que hace que se realice el cumplimiento de los mismos en tiempo y forma, ya que dicha situación se tiene prevista en la integración que permite el diseño instruccional entre los siguientes elementos: objetivos del curso, contenidos, actividades de aprendizaje, cronograma de actividades y productor integrador de la materia.. Estudios precisos dirigidos a indagar sobre el tiempo de dedicación no existen, ya que no se considera un factor relevante en la educación a distancia, dado que la carga académica no está medida en tiempo de dedicación, sino en cantidad de actividades y producciones. Sin embargo se tienen datos relativos a tiempo de dedicación que se obtienen por tres medios: • Por los registros en la plataforma de trabajo de entradas y salidas de estudiantes al Sistema, pudiendo manifestarse seguimientos pormenorizados de cada persona. • Por las dosis calculadas para cada unidad del programa, considerando que quien cubre exitosamente las actividades planteadas, dispuso del tiempo y dedicación necesario, o tiene tal competencia que puede lograr puntualmente el logro de las producciones solicitadas. 1

Plan de Estudios de la Carrera de Bibliotecología de la UDG Virtual http://www.udgvirtual.udg.mx/interior.php? id=289 2

Organigrama de la UDG Virtual http://www.udgvirtual.udg.mx/interior.php?id=235

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• El récord de cobertura de actividad/tiempo se da para cada estudiante como parte del control dentro del espacio denominado Portafolio del Ambiente Virtual de Aprendizaje • Porque se hace la pregunta expresa en cuestionarios dirigidos a estudiantes al darse de baja o como parte de la evaluación en cada ciclo. Instruction is the intended facilitation of learning toward identified learning goals. (Smith and Ragan, 2005) Instructional Design is that branch of knowledge concerned with research and theory about instructional strategies and the process for developing and implementing those strategies.” The main goal of an ID (Instructional Design) model or process is to construct a learning environment in order to provide the learners with the conditions that support the desired learning processes. What determines whether formally designed instruction is suitable or not, generally depends on the importance of the learning objective.

The 2 critical features of instruction as a designed process and product are that; 1. Instruction has intended goal, audience and context 2. Instruction has intended facilitation to that goal To ensure that instruction is effective we need to verify that the instructional goal is satisfied by the learner, and that the instruction itself is facilitating the attainment of the learning goal.

There are 3 principal components of instruction, these are: 1. The learning objective 2. Instructional materials - which include the opportunity for student practice through interaction

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3. Assessment - which confirms that student learning has taken place Learning Objective In instructional terms, goals are termed learning objectives and there are 3 principle components to a learning objective: • Performance – Statement of the goal in terms of behavior that will demonstrate learning • Conditions – Statement under which conditions the goal will be attempted • Standards – The measurable standard (or criterion) that indicates degree of satisfying the goal. These 3 components of a learning objective ensure that the goal is verifiable. This learning objective contains both a measurable and specific goal and specifies the conditions under which the objective is to be attempted.

Problem-solved based learning Problem solving is (goal directed) thinking and action in situations for which no routine solution procedure is available. The problem solver has a more or less well-defined goal, but does not immediately know how to reach it. The incongruence of goals and admissible operators constitutes a problem. The understanding of the problem situation and its step-by-step transformation based on planning and reasoning, constitute the process of problem solving. (Reeff, 1999, p. 48) Problem-based learning is an educational approach whereby the problem is the starting-point of the learning process. The type of problem is dependent on the specific organization. Usually, the problems are based on real-life problems which have been selected and edited to meet educational objectives and criteria. However, it could also be a hypothetical problem. It is crucial that the problem serves as the basis for the learning process, because this determines the direction of the learning process and places emphasis on the formulation of a question rather than on the answer. This also allows the learning content to be related to the context, which promotes student motivation and comprehension. It is essential that the directing force is consistent with the way the assessment drives the educational method (C. P. M. van der Vleuten, G. R. Norman and E. de Graaff, 1991) In order to transform contextualized real-life problems into test items, the project approach put forth in the ALL framework used different problem-solving phases as a dimension along which to generate the actual test items. These steps in the process of problem solving have been frequently described as follows 1. Define the goal. 2. Analyze the given situation and construct a mental representation. 3. Devise a strategy and plan the steps to be taken. 4. Execute the plan, including control and – if necessary – modification of the strategy. 5. Evaluate the result.

17


Competency-based Approaches

Competency “an integrated set of skills, knowledge, and attitudes that enables one to effectively perform the activities of a given occupation or function to the standards expected” (Richey et al., 2001). Competencies included explicit, measurable, transferable learning objectives that empower students. Assessment is meaningful and a positive learning experience for students. Students receive rapid, differentiated support based on their individual learning needs. Learning outcomes emphasize competencies that include application and creation of knowledge along with the development of important skills and dispositions. Design Principle 1: Students Advance upon Demonstrated Mastery The core element of a competency-based approach is that students progress to more advanced work upon demonstration of learning by applying specific skills and content. The most important implications of this design principle include: 

Students are advanced to higher-level work upon demonstration of mastery, not age.

Students work at levels that are appropriately challenging.

Students are evaluated on performance.

Some students may complete courses more rapidly than others.

Teachers guide students to produce sufficient evidence to determine proficiency.

Design Principle 2: Explicit and Measurable Learning Objectives Empower Students In competency-based practices, a course is organized into measurable learning objectives that are shared with students. Students take responsibility for their learning, thereby increasing their engagement and motivation. The implications of this design principle include: 

The relationship between student and teacher is fundamentally changed.

The unit of learning becomes modular.

Learning expands beyond the classroom.

Design Principle 3: Assessment Is Meaningful and a Positive Learning Experience for Students In a competency-based model, the traditional approach to assessment and accountability “of learning” is turned on its head with assessments “for learning.” Formative assessments are aligned with learning objectives. Students receive immediate feedback when assessment occurs. This is used to encourage students to return to difficult concepts and skills until they achieve mastery. It is essential that assessments are student-centered in which students are assessed on material with which they are familiar. In order for competency-based pathways to offer high-quality education, the following must be put into place:

18


Schools embrace a strong emphasis on formative assessment.

Teachers collaborate to develop understanding of what is an adequate demonstration of proficiency. Proficiency

for any specific learning objective and for

Teachers assess skills or concepts in multiple contexts and multiple ways.

Attention on student learning, not student grades.

Summative assessments are adaptive and timely.

Design Principle 4: Students Receive Rapid, Differentiated Support See the issue brief The Learning Edge: Supporting Student Success in a Competency-Based Learning Environment and its companion resources for more information. The core idea of a competency-based model is that all students will master the desired competencies. This requires a rapid response capacity on the part of educators to support students when they are stuck or begin to disengage in frustration. Educator capacity, and students’ own capacity to seek out help, will be enhanced by technology-enabled solutions that incorporate predictive analytic tools. This element is essential to a competency-based system. Without it there is risk that the current inequities will be reproduced. 

Pacing matters. Although students will progress at their own speeds, students that are proceeding more slowly will need more help.

Learning plans capture knowledge on learning styles, context, and interventions that are most effective for individuals students.

New specialist roles may develop in educator and instructional support roles, providing high quality interventions when students are begin to slip behind.

Online learning can play an invaluable role in providing feedback to teachers on how students are proceeding.

Design Principle 5: Learning Outcomes Emphasize Include Application and Creation of Knowledge Competencies emphasize the application of learning. A high quality competency-based approach will require students to apply skills and knowledge to new situations to demonstrate mastery and to create knowledge. Competencies will include academic standards as well as lifelong learning skills and dispositions. 

Competencies and learning objectives are designed so that demonstration of mastery includes application of skills and knowledge.

Assessment rubrics are explicit in what students must be able to know and do to progress to the next level of study.

19




Examples of student work that demonstrate skills development throughout a learning continuum will help students understand their own progress.



Lifelong learning skills designed around students needs, life experiences, and the skills needed for them to be college and career ready.



Expanded learning opportunities are developed as opportunities for students to develop and apply skills as they are earning credit.

20


21


Instructional Design La concreción del modelo presentado se logra a través de un currículum organizado por competencias y orientado a proyectos, y cuenta con una metodología para el diseño de cursos en línea, dentro de una plataforma tecnológica desarrollada específicamente para el modelo de aprendizaje señalado. Las competencias especificas de la licenciatura son desarrolladas en la ejecución de proyectos, y esto se logra a través de: contenidos, actividades e interacciones en línea, en un ambiente colaborativo. El enfoque curricular asumido en la UDG Virtual, parte de la postura de solución de problemas, que dan marco a una visión de los campos profesionales con mayor amplitud centrados en las organizaciones empleadoras. Las problemáticas trascienden a estas organizaciones laborales y suponen una mirada del profesional en formación para enfocarlas viendo a las organizaciones como mediación para la solución de problemas o para el impacto en la gestión de su propio conocimiento. A su vez, el enfoque problemático supone necesariamente que de la visión de problemas se planteen las líneas de intervención en los mismos, a través del desarrollo e implementación de proyectos. No se trata de visualizar problemas sólo para comprenderlos o estudiarlos, sino para el desarrollo de un pensamiento estratégico de intervención y transformación de la realidad. El currículo de bibliotecología en línea está enfocado a la solución de problemas y la formación por competencias y especialmente a:  Aprendizaje en línea a través una plataforma educativa y con acompañamiento de un asesor.  Estructurado por materias, las cuales se encuentran integradas en función de competencias, y ejes disciplinares que permitan el proceso de formación de la Bibliotecología.  Desarrollo de competencias transversales requeridas en los diferentes ámbitos que demanda la Bibliotecología  Establecimiento de

acuerdos con instituciones en donde se

desenvuelve el profesional en Bibliotecología, a fin de que pueda realizar

22


proyectos que integren las competencias adquiridas, prácticas o tareas que le son asignadas en los cursos.  El currículum está organizado para que cada semestre se realice un proyecto integrador en donde se manifiesten las competencias establecidas en las asignaturas de la trayectoria que el estudiante haya elegido.  El proyecto es el eje del programa, pero no se inicia hasta que se tenga un planteamiento claro de la problemática a trabajar y de ahí desarrollar dicho proyecto.  El currículum requiere, por la razón arriba expuesta, un fuerte trabajo para cada participante en el programa, y a su vez la constante práctica del trabajo en equipo y la colaboración, como elementos intrínsecos de las competencias de la licenciatura. El plan de estudios contempla la carga horaria de cada una de las materias y se diseña en base a lo planeado, para lo cual el equipo que realiza el diseño instruccional considera la carga horaria y el número de créditos que tiene el mismo curso. El programa se administra por créditos de acuerdo al plan de estudios, y éstos están calculados en función de la carga horaria destinada a la ejecución de los diversos tipos de tareas: estudio independiente, indagaciones, producciones, prácticas, publicaciones y actividades colaborativas3. En el diseño instruccional de todos los cursos de esta carrera está coordinado por la Coordinación de Diseño Educativo del Sistema de Universidad Virtual, en el cual se integra un equipo de pedagogos, expertos disciplinares, así como especialistas informáticos y de diseño grafico4. Ellos son los responsables de que en cada nuevo ciclo escolar estén en la plataforma de trabajo todos los cursos con sus respectivos recursos que posibilitan el acceso a los asesores y estudiantes para acometer el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje.

3

Plan de Estudios de la Carrera de Bibliotecología de la UDG Virtual http://www.udgvirtual.udg.mx/interior.php? id=289 4

Organigrama de la UDG Virtual http://www.udgvirtual.udg.mx/interior.php?id=235

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El diseño de los cursos parte de una metodología que considera todas las variables que posibiliten los principios básicos del modelo UDG Virtual como hemos señalado anteriormente. Se prevé el tiempo de aprendizaje que requiere el estudiante, ya que se tiene presente la cantidad de horas prácticas y horas teóricas que debe desarrollar el estudiante en cada uno de los cursos y se va modificando a partir de la experiencia, operación, evaluación y rediseño de los mismos. Cada uno de los cursos dentro del diseño instruccional tiene contemplado el tiempo que el estudiante debe dedicar a la semana a la elaboración de cada una de sus actividades, tanto del trabajo en las actividades de aprendizaje de cada unidad, como en la conformación del producto integrador por unidad y de todo el curso. Se observa que exista congruencia entre los objetivos del curso (competencia especifica) y el tiempo destinado al mismo, lo que hace que se realice el cumplimiento de los mismos en tiempo y forma, ya que dicha situación se tiene prevista en la integración que permite el diseño instruccional entre los siguientes elementos: objetivos del curso, contenidos, actividades de aprendizaje, cronograma de actividades y productor integrador de la materia.. Estudios precisos dirigidos a indagar sobre el tiempo de dedicación no existen, ya que no se considera un factor relevante en la educación a distancia, dado que la carga académica no está medida en tiempo de dedicación, sino en cantidad de actividades y producciones. Sin embargo se tienen datos relativos a tiempo de dedicación que se obtienen por tres medios: • Por los registros en la plataforma de trabajo de entradas y salidas de estudiantes al Sistema, pudiendo manifestarse seguimientos pormenorizados de cada persona. • Por las dosis calculadas para cada unidad del programa, considerando que quien cubre exitosamente las actividades planteadas, dispuso del tiempo y dedicación necesario, o tiene tal competencia que puede lograr puntualmente el logro de las producciones solicitadas. • El récord de cobertura de actividad/tiempo se da para cada estudiante como parte del control dentro del espacio denominado Portafolio del Ambiente Virtual de Aprendizaje

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• Porque se hace la pregunta expresa en cuestionarios dirigidos a estudiantes al darse de baja o como parte de la evaluación en cada ciclo. Instruction is the intended facilitation of learning toward identified learning goals. (Smith and Ragan, 2005) Instructional Design is that branch of knowledge concerned with research and theory about instructional strategies and the process for developing and implementing those strategies.� The main goal of an ID (Instructional Design) model or process is to construct a learning environment in order to provide the learners with the conditions that support the desired learning processes. What determines whether formally designed instruction is suitable or not, generally depends on the importance of the learning objective.

The 2 critical features of instruction as a designed process and product are that; 1. Instruction has intended goal, audience and context 2. Instruction has intended facilitation to that goal To ensure that instruction is effective we need to verify that the instructional goal is satisfied by the learner, and that the instruction itself is facilitating the attainment of the learning goal. 25


There are 3 principal components of instruction, these are: 1. The learning objective 2. Instructional materials - which include the opportunity for student practice through interaction 3. Assessment - which confirms that student learning has taken place Learning Objective In instructional terms, goals are termed learning objectives and there are 3 principle components to a learning objective: • Performance – Statement of the goal in terms of behavior that will demonstrate learning • Conditions – Statement under which conditions the goal will be attempted • Standards – The measurable standard (or criterion) that indicates degree of satisfying the goal. These 3 components of a learning objective ensure that the goal is verifiable. This learning objective contains both a measurable and specific goal and specifies the conditions under which the objective is to be attempted.

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Instructional Design Handbook