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Published by the Historical Society of Palm Beach County

Vol. 9 No. 2 Fall 2018


Dale Link donated a collection of family photograph albums to the HSPBC archives that depict life in the Palm Beaches from the first decade of the 20th century to the 1940s. Mr. Link’s grandparents, Thomas Eugene and Cora Mary Davis Newell, settled in West Palm Beach, where they had two children, Patricia and Emily. More research into this family will eventually lead to a Tustenegee article. The Historical Society’s archives are full of hidden stories. If you’d like to help research and write about people, places, and events that affected our collective past, please contact Debi Murray, our chief curator, or Nick Golubov, our research director, and they’ll put you right to work!


Vol. 9 No. 2 Fall 2018


6 The Art of Philanthropy: Frances Scaife By Debi Murray

In her quiet, unassuming way, Frances "Frannie" Scaife has become one of the grande dames of 21st-century Palm Beach.

14 Last Act: Addison Mizner’s Finale

By Augustus Mayhew In the tradition of other visionaries before and since, Mizner discovered the perfect place to combine everything he had learned during his travels, a place he could imprint The Mizner Touch.

24 The 1928 Hurricane By Bessie DuBois

To commemorate the 90th anniversary of the catastrophic 1928 hurricane, the Historical Society of Palm Beach County has reprinted the first-hand account of Bessie DuBois.

32 Become a Member 33 HSPBC Membership 36 Hats Off to our Volunteers

38 Events 39 Photographic Collections On the Cover

Addison Mizner loved animals, and from the time he first visited Guatemala, he kept pet monkeys. The interest led him to serve on the committee that created Palm Beach County's first Animal Rescue League, which evolved into Peggy Adams Animal Rescue League. Photo courtesy HSPBC.

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From the Editor Dear Reader, Each fall, as we begin planning for Archival Evening, our signature event, we enjoy looking back at past honorees and their contributions to our community. In this issue, we include a reminder of the exceptional philanthropy of Frances “Frannie” Scaife, our 2015 honoree. Her generosity continues to have a pivotal impact on charities throughout Palm Beach County. In honor of the 90th anniversary of the catastrophic 1928

Editor-in-Chief: Debi Murray Editor: Rose E. Guerrero Copy Editor: Lise M. Steinhauer Graphics and Layout: Caroline Frazier Printed by: Kustom Print Design

hurricane, Tustenegee has also reprinted Bessie DuBois’s firsthand account of the storm. You may notice a familiar face on the cover, the subject of this season's special exhibit in the Richard and Pat Johnson Palm Beach County History Museum Building Paradise: Addison Mizner's Legacy. In an article within, guest curator Augustus Mayhew digs deeper into Mizner's life and unfortunate final years. If you haven't yet seen this wonderful exhibit, please stop by the Johnson History Museum. As always, we welcome article submissions that recall, retell, and explore Florida in historic and adventurous ways.


Rose Guerrero Editor

Have an abstract or an idea for an article? We are looking for new articles to share with our readers. Send us your ideas:


Tustenegee is a journal about Palm Beach County and Florida history and is published online twice a year by the Historical Society of Palm Beach County. The Historical Society of Palm Beach County is a non-profit organization whose mission is to collect, preserve, and share the rich history and cultural heritage of Palm Beach County.

Historical Society of Palm Beach County 300 North Dixie Highway, #471 Downtown West Palm Beach, Florida Phone: (561) 832-4164 Fax: (561) 832-7965 Mailing Address: Historical Society of Palm Beach County PO Box 4364 West Palm Beach, FL 33402-4364 The contents of Tustenegee are copyrighted by the Historical Society of Palm Beach County. All rights are reserved. Reprint of material is encouraged; however, written permission from the Historical Society is required. The Historical Society disclaims any responsibility for errors in factual material or statements of opinion expressed by contributors. The contents and opinions do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of the editors, board, or staff of the Historical Society of Palm Beach County.

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Frances with her Bengal cats, Jazz and Princess. Photo courtesy of Frances Scaife.


The Art of Philanthropy: Frances Scaife By Debi Murray

Frannie shopping on Rodeo Drive. Photo courtesy of Schreiber.


childhood with one sister, also named Josephine Ormsby, who goes by the name of "Wendy." Frannie's education began with grammar school at Sewickley Academy, followed by boarding school at Chatham Hall in Chatham, Virginia. She received a Bachelor of Arts degree in art history from Vassar College, which would serve her well in the years to come. After college, Frannie returned to Sewickley, where she married Richard Mellon Scaife. The young Born Frances Louise Gilmore to Josephine couple had two children, Jennie King and Ormsby Nicola and David Meade Gilmore in David Negley, as Frannie established herself in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, Frannie shared her Pittsburgh society. n her quiet, unassuming way, Frances "Frannie" Scaife has become one of the grande dames of 21st-century Palm Beach. Continually active in her support of numerous charities, Frannie’s social calendar could wear out the most dedicated marathon runner. Long a supporter of the arts, animal welfare, and history, Frannie has truly made an art of philanthropy.

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One of Frannie’s proudest accomplishments was working with the Pittsburgh History & Landmarks Foundation to restore and repurpose five Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad buildings, the first such project in Pittsburgh history and the impetus for later historic waterfront restorations. Known as Station Square, the spot has become a fashionable destination for tourists and Pittsburghers alike, housing popular restaurants, retail shops, offices, and a hotel. At the same time, Frannie worked with the Carnegie Museum of Art, using her art history degree to help with exhibits and conducting fund raising events in support of the museum’s exhibitions. One year, Frannie’s son, David, became ill at Christmas, necessitating a trip to the emergency room at Children’s Hospital in Pittsburgh. While awaiting the outcome of her son’s treatment, Frannie discovered that the majority of children in the hospital at the time were ill because of household poisoning. Frannie as a young girl. This prompted her to work with Dr. Richard Moriarty to develop what is Photo courtesy Frances Scaife. now the universal symbol for poison that children the world over recognize— the day-glo green Mr. Yuk symbol. In her spare time, Frannie opened two antiques emporiums she called The Tail’s End— everything except the wicker furniture featured a tail—and each item probably had its own tale to tell. When she was not purchasing inventory or managing the stores, she Josephine Nicola and David Gilmore's wedding party. Photo courtesy Sewickley Valley Historical Society.


Frannie in the parade for the grand opening of Station Square. Photo courtesy Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation.

The Scaifes. Photo courtesy Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation.

raised show dogs, even filling the role of dog handler on various occasions. One of Frannie’s Bassett hounds, “The Ring’s Ali Baba,” won second place in the hound category at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show. In the 1980s, Frannie also bred "Chooii," a Shar-pei, which was then a rare breed. The Chinese fighting dog had been outlawed as a luxury in its native country and was relatively unknown to the outside world. Frannie’s interest in animals was never limited to canines. The Scaifes raised show, racing, and steeplechase horses; daughter Jennie also competed on horseback. When Frannie's children moved on to lives of their own, she gave up the intensive activity of raising dogs and horses, and took on the quieter enterprise of being owned by cats—specifically the Bengal breed. Since her move to Palm Beach, many local charities have benefitted from Frannie’s interest

and reflect the causes she has supported her entire adult life. She sat on the board of directors of the Historical Society of Palm Beach County during its most important phase in its history—the restoration of the 1916 courthouse and the opening of the Richard and Pat Johnson Palm Beach County History Museum. Her previous work at Station Square in Pittsburgh allowed her to share valuable insights with the other board members and staff as the organization took on this herculean task. Through both of her grandmothers, Frannie’s roots are deeply embedded in our nation’s history. Her family tree includes a minister, a steamboat captain, attorneys, physicians, plantation owners, and farmers. Some of these ancestors participated in the seminal events that created this country, the colonial wars and the Revolutionary War. One ancestor fought with Benedict Arnold against the Canadians before the latter’s disgrace; another was close FALL 2018 | 9

to George Washington and the other Virginians who created our government. Her family fought on both sides of the American Civil War, and her father served in the U. S. Navy during World War I. The wives of these men were also exceedingly strong, mostly birthing and burying children, and one widow ran a large boarding house, the most respectable way for a 19th-century lady with children to earn a living.

Frances with David, Sara, and grandchildren David and Sarah. Photo courtesy Frances Scaife.


Throughout it all, these ancestors were helping to build the foundation of an ever-expanding country. Through Frannie’s charitable work, she is continuing her forefathers’ and mothers’ endeavors in a 21st-century manner, strengthening our social fabric through her support of history, art, and animal organizations.

Tom McCarter and Frannie at one more soiree. Photo courtesy Frances Scaife.

Frannie glamming it up at home. Photo courtesy Frances Scaife.

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Last Act: Addison Mizner’s Finale By Augustus Mayhew


ddison Mizner’s career and adventures in San Francisco, New York, and Palm Beach have been the subjects of numerous chronicles. The architect’s more difficult final years have garnered less reflection. Having attained an iconic stature for his architectural transformation of Palm Beach into an international resort, the demand for Mizner’s work dimmed following the collapse of his Boca Raton development. His loss of public standing was made worse by health concerns, legal tangles, diminished resources, and increased competition.

Everglades Club under construction, Palm Beach, 1918. Photo courtesy Mizner Library Foundation.


Addison Mizner (1872-1933), portrait. Photo courtesy HSPBC.

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By an early age, Mizner was instilled with an indefatigable spirit that he called on to meet demanding challenges. He survived deathdefying accidents, crippling mishaps, and lifethreatening illnesses that might have otherwise permanently disabled him. He utilized each recovery as an opportunity to deepen and expand his talents that culminated with his Florida efforts. At Palm Beach, he popularized an uncommon architectural style, mixing California and Central American Spanish colonialism with European motifs. Rather than duplicate Beaux-Art formalities, Mizner’s mansions manifested the informalities of resort life. Instead of by-the-book prearranged

formulations, Mizner houses were designed according to their scenic views or prevailing breezes with austere facades — frontispieces for courtyards, loggias, patios, balconies, arcades, and terraces. After World War II, however, appreciation was downgraded for his achievements and skills. Several of Mizner’s significant mansions were demolished, supplanted by subdivisions. Additions and alterations obscured Mizner originals. His entrepreneurial talents were overlooked as Palm Beach’s most enduring architectural influence who revolutionized the area’s building industry. Mizner place, Carmel Valley, California. Photo courtesy Mizner Library Foundation.


Typed letter from Paris Singer to Addison Mizner, 1926. " is scarce these days..." Courtesy Mizner Library Foundation.

Addison Mizner's social invatations. Mizner kept a noticeable social profile amid increasingly unsettled personal finances. Courtesy Mizner Library Foundation.

Alice Delamar, who Mizner called “my de Medici,” wrote of the legendary architect during these distressed final years: “Addison’s capacity for work was rugged in the years between the Everglades Club and Boca Raton, but after his involvement in the financial disasters that followed, the worry alone must have taken a toll. He was literally broke, and we may be surprised at all the humor he was able to express in his last manuscript, done in those last months of his life.” The architect’s death made national headlines. The memorial service held at his apartment brought together craftsmen and millionaires, maids and matrons. The next day, the Palm Beach Town Council renamed Town Hall Plaza as Mizner Plaza, paying tribute “in memorial to the artistic debt that Palm Beach owes to the late Addison Mizner.” Mizner’s estate filed a writ of insolvency with assets valued at $2,000 and

outstanding debts of more than $200,000. According to court documents, Addison Mizner’s personal assets included a gold frog stickpin, five gold collar buttons, assorted cufflinks, and a gold pencil ruler. The Return to Palm Beach … When the Boca Raton fiasco resulted in years of litigation, Mizner came back to his Via Mizner apartment to restart his architectural practice and focus on his manufacturing concerns. Considering the range of his activities, he might have experienced moments when he believed a comeback was possible, reviving interest in his work and restoring the favored position he once enjoyed. Mizner remained on Palm Beach, though he began spending more time with family visits to California. Although the Mizner family played a leading role in Northern California’s cultural history and social life, Addison was at home with FALL 2018 | 15

Palm Beach’s laissez-faire resort atmosphere. His family was described by a newspaper columnist as, “Those Mizners … these heroes of a thousand incidents of heart and hand, protagonists of innumerable dramas of life in all its fantastic phases.” Regardless of his family’s prominence, Addison Mizner never concealed his aesthete leanings, bohemian lifestyle, or personal preference for the company of fellow “bachelors.” Column mentions often included the names of his gentleman companions. He was described as the “Beau Brummel of Honolulu.” Whatever his physical imperfections or public persona, Mizner’s confidence was built on the support of his family and friends who championed their differences. At Palm Beach, Mizner was valued for being “an originator,” as he was described when he lived in Hawaii. Then, The San Francisco Call newspaper reported, “Among San Franciscans who made things hum in

Cloister Inn, under construction, Boca Raton, 1925. Since various financial problems threatened the Boca Raton developement. Plans for a larger resort were scrapped and the smaller lakeside 100-room Ritz-Carlton Cloister Inn was built, opening Febuary 1926, with 350 guests. Several monthes later, Mizner forfeited his interest to develop Boca Raton. Photo courtesy Mizner Library Foundation.


Honolulu, Addison Mizner stands out as one of those best remembered for his originality. Why will Addison insist on being original in a peculiar way? He is an originator.” In February 1911, Florence Brokaw Satterwhite hosted a New York dinner party where her friend Addison Mizner was not only positioned directly to her left but was seated, gasp, next to the gentleman with whom he had arrived. A newspaper columnist reported, “Usually, of course, men and women are alternated in places at dinner but at once it is clear why usage is here disregarded .…” The columnist explained this clique was composed of “resident members of society in New York and abroad … metropolitan and cosmopolitan.” Thus, Mizner was attuned to Palm Beach’s embrace for exceptional characters. Thus, Mizner’s financial status did not affect his personal popularity. He engaged in civic and social affairs as well as hosted private dinners and his annual New Year’s Day open house. He rejoined the influential Art Jury that approved building plans for the town. Alice Delamar funded a limited-edition publication documenting his original Palm Beach houses and buildings with an introduction by Paris Singer, text by Ida Tarbell, and photographs by F. E. Geisler. And yet, professionally, Mizner encountered an influx of rival architects vying for the same commissions. Although Harold S. Vanderbilt and Joseph Widener asked Mizner for proposed drawings, they selected the Treanor & Fatio firm to design their estates. Furthermore, interest grew for simpler, less

expensive building styles rather than the palatial showcases identified with him. In 1927 Mizner only counted two commissions of note, becoming better known as a courtroom defendant than an architect. The following year, Mizner reorganized his remaining Addison Mizner Inc. holdings, placing his professional practice together with the various building supply companies. Mizner Revival In 1928 the Mizner office designed several notable residences, albeit outside Palm Beach. In Montecito, California, he created a 40-room, 17,000-square-foot villa set on 17 acres for a former New York client. Near Philadelphia, he conceived a stylistic derivative of Playa Riente called La Ronda, a 17,500-square-foot, Gothic-inspired showplace. As developer Clarence Geist was redeveloping Mizner’s foreclosed Cloister Inn into the Boca Raton Club, Geist’s lawyer, Jerome Gedney, retained Mizner to design

L’Encantada on an ocean-to-lake parcel in Manalapan. Among other commissions during this period, Mizner drew plans for The Cloister resort at Sea Island, Georgia, named for his failed Boca Raton hotel. There were several projects for John F. Harris, a New York financier, in Miami Beach and Palm Beach. The September 1928 hurricane wreaked havoc on Palm Beach, causing the structural redesign of several Mizner mansions. At Playa Riente, a Mizner-designed cloister and oceanfront staircase were added. Floor levels were raised; roof lines and roofing materials were altered. Window styles were changed. Beach Club impresario Edward R. Bradley retained Mizner to proceed with plans for the lakefront Embassy Club on Royal Palm Way, next to the earlier Mizner-designed, Venetian-styled Singer Building. The Phipps

The Cloister opened October 1928 in Sea Island, Georgia, as a three-story, L-shaped, 46-room inn designed around a cloistered courtyard on more then 1,200 acres. Photo courtesy HSPBC.

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interests hired Mizner for additional shops along South County Road. Mizner’s longtime patron and benefactor Edith Oliver Rea hired him to rebuild her gardens and make a loggia addition. For Nate and Frances Spingold’s Wells Road villa, Las Puertas, now known as L’Oiseau, Mizner’s exterior and interior additions and alterations included enlarging the drawing room and dining room as well as adding a new loggia, grille room, and bedroom suite. Yet another significant project was the Town of Palm Beach’s Memorial Plaza and Fountain. Constructed as an aesthetic focal point adjacent to the town’s civic buildings, Mizner was inspired as much by Spanish and Italian models as by the nearby fountain at Omar Berberyan’s Jardin Latin on Peruvian Avenue. Despite the continuing unstable financial climate, Mizner began production of fossilized coral keystone, leasing a coquina rock quarry in the Florida Keys, near Islamorada. He transported the stone in large blocks to his West Palm Beach workshops, where a 50-horsepower saw cut the rock into building and paving stones. Mizner thought coquina would replace molded cement blocks as structural construction materials. 18 | TUSTENEGEE

Again, his entrepreneurism was threatened by market conditions. He refinanced the venture before the Wall Street crash that curbed construction. During the first week of January 1930, when the

Memorial Plaza and Fountain were dedicated, Addison Mizner and Paris Singer lunched together at the Everglades Club. Meeting after a lengthy estrangement, the once-close friends shared simultaneous financial setbacks. At one point, Mizner filed a $100,000 lawsuit against

Singer’s Ocean & Lake Realty Company, claiming the amount was due for his services and materials designing the 1925 additions to the Everglades Club. Although Mizner’s plans for Jerome Kerns’ house on South Ocean Boulevard were never realized, Bessemer proceeded with blueprints for further additions to its Phipps Plaza development on South County Road. Ned (E. F.) Hutton tapped Mizner to design his new office building, composed with distinctive quarry keystone, at the corner of Phipps Plaza and South County Road. Although Mizner’s plans submitted for the DodgeDillman mansion in Grosse Pointe were outdone by Philadelphia architect Horace Trumbauer’s Beaux-Art chateau, Mizner did see his last mansion, Casa Coe da Sol, built in St. Petersburg, Florida. In 1931 Mizner filed personal involuntary bankruptcy. Mizner Industries was placed in receivership by the court and sold to new owners, who renamed it Mizner Products Inc. Mizner's Memorial Fountian on Palm Beach.Photo courtesy HSPBC.

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Last Words That winter, Mizner was a guest speaker at Rollins College. He spoke of the need for a “betterment of taste.” The proliferation of the stucco-and-barrel tile-styled carpenter’s cottages had led to “hideous designs in the development of Mediterranean architecture.” Mizner believed they had “stepped over the bounds of good taste” by disregarding “the beauty of simplicity.” The following spring, plans were finalized for what became his last Palm Beach house, a one-story “Mexicantype” house on Brazilian Avenue for Kenneth Alexander. “What’s become of Addison Mizner?” asked a nationally syndicated columnist in February 1932, only months before headlines reported Paris Singer’s death in London. Soon after, Mizner left for California. That fall, the Sears Publishing Company released The Many Mizners, a biographical memoir of anecdotes that Mizner was said to have dictated to his

secretary. Rather than detail his influences and inspirations or his professional development, Mizner’s book was a pastiche of amusing sketches that established him more as a raconteur than an architect. Shortly before Christmas Day, he returned to his Via Mizner apartment, but not before a visit to Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore. As concern for Mizner’s well-being increased, Irving Berlin checked out of The Breakers and moved into Mizner’s Worth Avenue apartment to supervise his care. More than a decade before, in 1919, Mizner had hosted the Everglades Club’s opening reception, where Berlin performed. Two weeks after Berlin’s departure from Mizner’s bedside, on February 5, 1933, the architect died. Although a century has passed since work began on the Everglades Club, Addison Mizner remains one of Palm Beach’s influential and legendary characters, leaving a legacy that outlives his misfortune.

About the Author Augustus Mayhew’s essays are featured online at The New York Social Diary. He is the author of Lost in WonderlandReflections on Palm Beach and Palm Beach: A Greater Grandeur. Recipient of the AIA-Palm Beach Historic Preservation Award, Mayhew was born in Cuba and grew up in Delray Beach. He is the guest curator of HSPBC’s exhibition Building Paradise: Addison Mizner’s Legacy.


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Wrecked American Railway Express Depot at the Florida East Coast Station in West Palm Beach. Photo courtesy HSPBC.

The 1928 Hurricane By Bessie DuBois From a manuscript donated by John and Anne DuBois

The hurricane season is on us again and one called Edith which seemed to be coming at us from a dangerous direction has simmered down to a mere tropical storm. I have several dear friends named Edith and somehow could expect no harm from her. 22 | TUSTENEGEE

There was a time when the word hurricane could tie my stomach up in a hard knot like a rock but I had my wits completely scared out of me in 1928. Now I just feel weary when I think of the mending and clearing up that follows one of the big blows. Now I have the fixed idea that a hurricane of the caliber of the 1928 tempest is

one in a lifetime.

Our big back porch was a solid block of concrete Our home on Jupiter Inlet across the river which we later figured probably kept us from from the historic old red brick lighthouse, was washing out in the inlet. On the back porch at that time right at the edge of the river. It was we had a large ice chest. We had yet to buy our pleasant at night to hear the wavelets lapping on first electric refrigerator. As soon as the storm the shore and to see the moon rising mammoth warnings began to appear John had this filled and golden out of the ocean. with ice. We also had a four burner kerosene stove with an oven, which was a great blessing In 1928 our family consisted of three little for the coffee pot kept going all night long. I girls, Susie, three, Doris, baked bread, boiled two and Louise seven potatoes, baked a ham, months. We had no laid in a supply of canned radio or television to goods, made a big supply warm us every hour but of Spanish cream and the newspaper reports other pudding for the headlined a very severe children. We took up the hurricane and the rugs, folded the clothes weather bureau at the out of the closets and Jupiter lighthouse was put them in the bureau trying its best to chill drawers, took down the everyone’s marrow with pictures. I kept busy all dire reports of what to the time fear had me in expect. its grip. I had the feeling when the big storm really My father, two brothers, got underway there had Bob and Jack and my better be plenty of food sister Grace who lived on hand because I would two and one-half miles be too paralysed to John and Bessie DuBois with children, c. 1930s. west arrived as the prepare it. Photo courtesy Loxahatchee River Historical Society, Clemer Collection wind began to come in great gusts. Papa wanted us to go over to the John was busy out in the yard tying up boats. government reservation and take refuge in He pumped the big water tank on the edge of the reinforced concrete building there but my the hill full of water hoping the weight would husband John refused to leave our home. He keep it from blowing over. had built it himself and was confident it would stand the strongest wind. Papa would not leave The reports of high water concerned me us so it was decided that we would all stay greatly. The big old house up on the hill in which together. my husband was born, was vacant at the time. FALL 2018 | 23

The Palm Beach Post (West Palm Beach, Palm Beach, Florida, United States of Americ

I figured that if the water rose around us, it might be necessary to take refuge there, so I packed a clothes basket with bread, canned milk, coffee, clothing for the children and took it up there. Susie saw me and all during the storm kept asking, “when were we going up on the hill.” If I was afraid of the storm none of it was transmitted to Susie. She danced around on the back porch in the rising wind like a fallen leaf, her brown eyes sparkling with excitement. By now the wind had begun to take on the high whine so characteristic of hurricanes, of which we had an initiation in 1926. The boys, with John’s brother Neil who stayed with us, resolved to make one last trip over to the Navy station near the lighthouse for the latest weather report. Just as the car passed

Palm Beach Post news article from September 14, 1928. Photo courtesy

F ron Pag e--two articl es ab ou t h u rricane Clipped By: dmurray021 Mon, Oct 8, 2018

Copyright © 2018 All Rights Reserved.


Walls torn from apartments in West Palm Beach. Photo courtesy HSPBC.

under the tower of the water tank perched above them on the shell mound, the tank slid off and landed with a tremendous splash on the road just missing the car. Undampened they managed to make it over to the Navy station and back but I wished they hadn’t. The reports by now were almost hysterical and mentioned among winds of uncalculated force and other dire symptoms -- two words that made me look at the children with real despair -- TIDAL WAVES. From then on things began to worsen fast, foolishly enough we went through that hurricane with no shutters on the windows. The large panes of glass would whiten in the center like a balloon ready to burst. If one of them had gone we would have had a bad time but a kind Providence must have been watching over us, for that we were spared. The winds galloped over us like a thousand freight trains accompanied by that high pitched whine that beggars description. Huddled on the lee side of the back porch it was still light enough for us to see the great breakers coming straight across the ocean as if the beach no longer existed and the tremendous surges were breaking among the palm trees in our yard. As every new crest swept in a few more cabbage palms went down like grass. Dark was coming on, and the increasing storm was riding an incoming tide already higher than we had ever seen it. Foam from the waves blew against the windows. The back bedroom and the kitchen were the room most sheltered from the storm. The men congregated in the kitchen around the

coffee pot and I stayed in the bedroom with the children. Just before nightfall I had assigned one of the children to each of the men in case the house went. As I talked I could see them watching the surges of foam and green water as then swirled around the falling trees. Afterward they told me that no one could have possibly have crossed that yard to get up the hill. Papa and Neil made a macabre joke by shaving and getting dressed so that they would make “handsome corpses,” before things began to get really bad. After dark, the strain began to take its toll. It was better to see what was going on than to sit in the candle light and feel at the mercy of the forces that were battering us on every side. We knew that the tide had risen because sea water ran several inches deep, more during the surges, on the floor under the bed. Suddenly there was a crash. I saw the men run into the bedroom and shine a light through the window. No one told me what had happened and somehow I didn’t want to ask. Susie half asleep roused up to ask if we were going up to the house on the hill for the umpteenth time. Later I found that the enclosed front porch where the girls slept had been unroofed and partly blown away. It seemed as if things were approaching a crisis but so slowly. About all that held our house together was the chimney and the cement back porch. Wind and tide were tugging at it and we expected any moment to feel it move on the water. I found myself praying over and FALL 2018 | 25

Rubble around the courthouse, 1928. Photo courtesy HSPBC.

over again that the tide would change, the center of the storm would pass. It had been going on for hours and seemed endless. The children had been very good. They sat on the bed with water running beneath it playing happily with some new crayons and paper I had bought for my Sunday school class. The baby nursed and slept. Finally when it seemed that we could stand no more the unbearable strain was broken in a dramatic manner. The wind began to ring the ship’s bell on the back porch which we used to summon the family to meals. The sound over the uproar of the storm was the most welcome I have ever heard. The wind had changed, the center of the hurricane had passed. The men came in with the glad news that the tide had also changed and the water with which we were entirely surrounded had begun to drop. I shudder to think of what might have become of us if the inlet had not been open at that time. Morning crept in bleary eyed and disheveled. We were not to see the sun for days. Everything was wet and stayed wet. But we were all alive and well and for that we were deeply thankful. With others it was not so good. We stood in the yard surveying the shambles that was once our beautiful place. The house hung from the chimney and porch in a sad posture. All the underpinnings had been washed about like chessmen scattered with a careless hand. The dock had been raised out of the water at odd angles and draped


A wrecked bottling company in Lake Worth after the 1928 hurricane. Photo courtesy HSPBC.

with flotsam of all description. Boats were flung here and there or smashed to kindling. The men had to chop away trees so that we could get out of the house. They lay in sad disarray on every hand.

of destruction which included their home may have explained the completeness of its annihilation. The funeral of the baby was sad indeed with not a flower for the little casket. Every green thin was stripped bare.

Yet we were lucky, very lucky. We did not know how well we had fared until the reports began to come in. First one of the neighbors came to tell us that John’s sister’s house had been completely destroyed and their baby, a beautiful little girl less than a year old had been killed and her father from whose arms she had been blown, was painfully injured. They tried to find her in the storm but failed. It was determined later that she was instantly killed when she and her father were blown into the remains of the home light plant with great force. There was also a theory that tornados accompanied the hurricane and the path

My brother-in-law drove over to Jupiter. A cement block house belonging to one of the Negro families had collapsed and several of the family were killed but they were the only casualties in Jupiter. Both white and colored families had taken refuge in the school house which was well, for many homes were entirely destroyed. On the Sunday following the storm we attended a church service in the school house. The colored people sat on one side of the auditorium and the white people on the other. We sang the hymn “God Will Take Care of You.” First the white people sang a verse and then the colored. I will never forget FALL 2018 | 27

the singing. It was as if we were all pouring out our thankfulness to be among the living. By then the reports of the terrific death toll in the Everglades began to filter in. Whole villages and families were wiped out. When it was no longer possible to bring the bodies in for burial, they were piled in trenches and burned with crude oil. Stories of the survivors of that dread night were horrible beyond belief. The Jupiter lighthouse had gone through a night of trial too. It had recently been changed from the old mineral burners with weights that were wound up to turn the big mantle to electricity. The power lines went down early in the storm. When they tried to start the single-cylinder Hill diesel auxiliary it refused to go. Captain Seabrook, a veteran lighthouse man, was suffering from blood poisoning in his hand. He would not give up. The big light must shine through the hurricane. We found the old mineral lamps and managed to install Looking north from the Comeau building on Clematis Street. On the left is the 1916 courthouse and 1927 addition. Most of the rubble is from the Dade Lumber Company. Photo courtesy HSPBC.


them but the weight[s] to turn the mantle were missing. He prepared to go up in the tower and turn the mantle by hand. By now the hurricane was really building up and the assistant keepers were reluctant to leave their families. Franklin Seabrook, the keeper’s oldest son, noticed with horror that red streaks were running up his father’s arm from the infected hand. He begged to go up in his place. The boy was blown back four times as he tried to climb the steep steps to the door of the tower. Inside must have been terrifying. The tower, it was said later, swayed as much as 17 inches. Instead of the quiet humming of the mantle which was usual, the apparatus clanged and groaned in a fearsome manner. During the height of that hurricane, Franklin pushed the mantel around the mineral light by hand. The timing was off but Jupiter light shone through the worst hurricane of our century. Congresswoman Ruth Bryan Owen

later especially commended Franklin for his heroism. The Navy station was also unable to send out messages until my brother Bob, hearing of their dilemma, brought over his Kohler light plant, with which the first messages were sent from this area. Bob then discovered that the Seabrook family were still taking turns pushing that mantel around all night. Even the mother helped. The Kohler plant was hooked up to the lighthouse and kept it going until the parts for the diesel arrived and it was again in service. When my father and brothers and sister went home they discovered their building still standing but the house had done a merrygo-round about the central chimney. The stairs were at odd angles, dishes broken and the house off the blocks. They stayed with

us, most of them sleeping on the living room floor until the place could be made habitable. To those who imbibed, the 1928 storm was referred to as a four bottle hurricane which is the ultimate. One colored couple who used to work for us, lost their home. The husband, a small black man who loved to drink, could not be found after the storm. His wife was all ready to get into her widow’s weeds when he was discovered in a big trunk with his bottle. He had slept through, blissfully drunk. It was not the custom in 1928 to give hurricanes feminine names. I have sometimes pondered what it would have been called. Jezebel might have appropriate for it was the wickedest of them all.

FALL 2018 | 29

Become a Part of History Join Today!

Historical Society of Palm Beach County TITLE




APT. #









Like Addison Mizner, you can help change the face of Palm Beach County. You will receive invitations to all lectures and special events (typically free), and a copy of a historic photo from our Archives.

Enclosed is my check in the amount of


Or please charge my credit card:

Barefoot Mailman – $125






WEST PALM BEACH, FL 33402-4364

*You can also join online at

Celebrate the vision of Henry Flagler in developing this special community by the sea through your support. You will receive invitations to all lectures and special events (typically free), and a book from our Museum Store.

Mizner Circle – $250



Our Pioneer Circle members recognize the challenges of our forefathers, who inspire our shared civic pride. In recognition of this support, you will receive invitations to all lectures and special events (typically free), a book from our Museum Store, and a copy of a historic photo from our Archives.

Flagler Circle – $500



The success of any organization relies on leaders with a strong commitment to its mission, who serve as ambassadors and inspire others. In addition to the benefits of general members, Benefactors receive invitations to all lectures and special events (typically free), a book from our Museum Store, a copy of a historic photo from our Archives, an exclusive Benefactors Reception in Palm Beach, and your name on HSPBC letterhead.

Pioneer Circle – $1,000



Benefactors – $2,500 & above

Make your community stronger by helping to provide free admission for all to the Johnson History Museum. You will receive invitations to special events, such as the private opening receptions for new exhibits.

Family/Dual – $75 | Individual – $50

As vital as all our levels is this foundation of support from singles and families, needed to continue operations at the HSPBC and the Johnson History Museum.

All Members are entitled to free research from the Archives and Library, by appointment.

HSPBC Membership as of November 28, 2018 Benefactor ($5,000)

Mrs. Brenda McCampbell Bailey Ms. Margaret Cheryl Burkhardt Mr. Joseph Chase Mrs. Martha B. DeBrule Mr. Mark B. Elhilow Mr. George T. Elmore Mrs. Richard S. Johnson Mr. Russell P. Kelley III Ms. Patricia Lambrecht Mrs. Howard M. Lester Mrs. Sydelle Meyer Mr. J. Grier Pressly III Ms. Pauline Pitt Mrs. Frances G. Scaife Ms. Annette Stubbs Mr. William Sterling Williams Mr. Robert C. Wright

Mrs. Laurel Baker Mr. Richard E. Baumer Ms. Susan Bishop Mr. and Mrs. Paul C. Bremer Mr. and Mrs. David Click Mrs. Herme de Wyman Miro Mr. and Mrs. Vincent A. Elhilow Mr. Larry V. Grosser Mr. Howard L. Johnson Mr. and Mrs. Jonathan Klorfein Mr. and Mrs. Bernd Lembcke Mr. and Mrs. Carlo Manganillo Ms. Jimmie Vee McCoy and Ms. Cynthia Bournique Mr. Ross W. W. Meltzer and Mr. Victor Figueredo Mrs. Elaine Merriman Mr. and Mrs. Edward Moorhouse Mrs. Emery J. Newell Mr. and Mrs. Peter Nicoletti Sr. Mr. and Mrs. Edward Pollack Dr. G. David Raymond Mr. and Mrs. Greg Silpe Ms. Amanda Skier Mr. John J. Tatooles and Mr. Victor Moore Mrs. Sandra Thompson and Mr. Craig D. Thompson Mr. and Mrs. William R. Tiefel Mr. and Mrs. Russell Wilson

Pioneer Circle ($1,000)

Barefoot Mailman ($125)

Mr. Thomas Anderson and Mr. Marc Schappell Mr. and Mrs. Christopher B. Cowie Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey H. Fisher Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Ganger Mr. and Mrs. Malcolm W. Hall Mr. and Mrs. Chris Hill Mr. and Mrs. Thomas M. Kirchhoff Mr. and Mrs. Charles M. Royce Mr. and Mrs. Mark Stevens

Benefactor ($2,500)

Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey Alderton Mr. and Mrs. Gary Burkhead Mr. and Mrs. Jeremy Johnson Mrs. Caroline B. Sory

Flagler Circle ($500) Mrs. Margaret M. Dean Mr. and Mrs. Mariano Garcia Mr. and Mrs. Joseph T. Harper Ms. Ann M. Holmes Mrs. Hildegarde Mahoney Mr. and Mrs. George I. Mavlios Mr. and Mrs. Richard Morgenstern Ms. Carey O'Donnell and Mr. Stephen Barry Mr. Harvey E. Oyer III Mrs. Alice Zimmer Pannill Mr. and Mrs. Gordon Pollock Ms. Justine F. Postal Mr. Tanner Rose Mr. and Mrs. E. Burke Ross Jr.

Mizner Circle ($250) Ms. Deborah Adeimy Ms. Helen Arnold

Dr. and Mrs. William R. Adkins Ms. Linda Ashley Mr. Mark Baccash The Honorable and Mrs. Nelson E. Bailey The Honorable and Mrs. Thomas H. Barkdull III Mr. and Mrs. Stephen E. Barr Mr. and Mrs. William Bathurst Jr. Mrs. Veronica Burkhardt Birdsong Ms. Claire Blanchard Mr. and Mrs. John K. Blumenstein Mr. Ken Breslauer Mr. Ian F. Brown Ms. Marsha Burkhardt Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Burns Mr. Edward Austin Cooney Dr. Robin Cutler Mr. and Mrs. Theodore Deckert Mr. Britt Deviney and Ms. Dorothy Jacks Mr. and Mrs. Sean Donahue Mr. William P. Feldkamp and Mr. Terry L. Bowie Jr. Mr. and Mrs. Danny Finch Mr. and Mrs. John Geberth Dr. and Mrs. Lawrence Gorfine

Mr. Thomas Grudovich Ms. Joy Guernsey-Diesel Dr. and Mrs. Randolph H. Guthrie Mr. Steven Heinemann and Ms. Monique Brechter Ms. Bobbi Horwich Mr. Jeffrey Johnson Ms. Isabel Kammerer Mr. and Mrs. Peter Leo Ms. Annette S. Levinson Mr. Paul L. Maddock Jr. Mr. James McCann Mrs. Cheryl McKee Mr. and Mrs. Martin E. Murphy Jr. Mrs. Matina A. Nimphie Mr. Kenneth Novikoff Dr. Ginger Pedersen Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth Peltzie Mr. and Mrs. Ron J. Ponder Ms. Paige Poole and Ms. Connie Christman Mr. and Mrs. Frederick C. Prior Mr. and Mrs. Harland A. Riker Jr. Mr. Ronald D. Risner Mr. Rick Rose Mrs. Janna H. Rumbough Rev. Burl Salmon Mr. and Mrs. Nickolas Sargent Mr. and Mrs. Peter Schoeffer Mr. Edward H. Sheahan III Mr. and Mrs. Frank Todd Ms. Janet Riggs Waterman Mr. and Mrs. Dennis Wedgworth Ms. Sarena Weil Mr. and Mrs. Scott Wood

Family/Dual ($75)

Mr. Alfred Aldridge III Mr. and Dr. Donald G. Alducin Mr. and Mrs. Kevin Armstrong Ms. Meryle Asaro Mr. Jeffrey Ault Mr. Jesse Bailey Mr. Mark A. Schwartz and Mrs. Maudie S. Baker-Schwartz Mr. William P. Barry and Ms. Ellen Kulik Mr. and Mrs. David Basore Mr. and Mrs. Kim Brodsky Mr. and Mrs. Ted Brownstein Mr. and Mrs. Ken Buchanan Mr. John Calcagno Mr. and Mrs. James C. Catrickes Mr. and Mrs. William Cini Mr. and Mrs. Donn R. Colee Jr. Mr. William Condie and Ms. Susan Gilbertson

FALL 2018 | 31

Ms. Maureen Conte Mr. and Mrs. John Critchett Mr. and Mrs. Michael Daley Ms. Courtney Evans Dr. and Mrs. Robert A. Flucke Ms. Kim Frisbie Mr. and Mrs. Brian Gagnon Mr. George M. Greider and Ms. Gayle Kranz Mr. Doug Hartwell and Ms. Cynthia Sheehan-Hartwell Mr. and Mrs. Robert Hazard Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Hearn Dr. Terry Hickey Mr. and Mrs. Alec Hicks Ms. Amy Hoadley Mrs. Beryl Holland and Mr. Mark Holland Mr. Henry Hopkins Ms. Theresa Hume Mr. and Mrs. Eric Jensen Mr. David Kamp Mr. and Mrs. Mick Keehan Mr. David P. Kollock Mr. Jeff Koons Mr. and Mrs. Ralph J. Kruse Ms. Ruthie Lawrence Mr. and Mrs. Todd Lawson Mr. and Mrs. Charles Levy Mr. and Mrs. Vincent Maiuri Ms. Kerri Meehan and Mr. Jeffrey Margel Mr. and Mrs. Royal Mollineaux Mrs. Polly Mounts Ms. Sarah Mueller Ms. Regina M. Mullen Mr. and Mrs. Raymond F. Murphy Mr. and Mrs. Timothy Murray Dr. and Mrs. Ronald Murstein Ms. Alison Newton Mr. Patrick Painter and Ms. Fiona Spahr Ms. Zoe Panarites Mr. and Mrs. Kyle Papke Mr. and Mrs. Ward C. Parker Sr. Mr. and Mrs. Mort Plawner Mr. and Mrs. John J. Rybovich Mr. Charles Sawicki Mr. and Mrs. Michael Schaeffer Mr. and Mrs. Glenn Scheiner Mr. and Mrs. Gary Schmidt Mr. James Schroeder and Ms. Michele Dodson Mr. and Mrs. Lee K. Spencer Mr. and Mrs. Roland Stenta


Mr. James Toomey Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey Wade Mr. Garth Wakeford and Ms. Jennifer A. Borg Mr. Jon Ward Ms. Tracy White and Mr. Charles F. Carbone Mr. and Mrs. Ogden White Jr.

Individual ($50) Ms. Margaret Acton Mr. Jay Adler Mr. Peter Aispuro Mr. Neil Allen Mr. Rainier Altiere Mr. Paul M. Arsenault Mr. Kevin Asbacher Ms. Shirley Avakian Mr. Mark B. Beatty Ms. Catherine Bennett Ms. Niki Bennett Ms. Vicki Biggers Mr. Frank E. Booker III Ms. Catherine Ford Brister Ms. Patricia Brother Ms. Susan Bryant Mrs. Lois E. Burns Ms. Amy Call Mr. Michael Cannizzaro Mr. Jacob Carrier Ms. Candice Carter Ms. Sally Channon Ms. Dana Cohen Ms. Elizabeth Cohen Dr. Linnie Sue Comerford Ms. Marion Cone Mr. Donald H. Conkling III Mr. Clay Conley Ms. Ruth Cooper Mrs. Linda G. Cullen Ms. Margaret Duncan Ms. Lucia Eckles Mrs. Kathleen Emrich Mrs. Jan Feinglass Mrs. Roberta Feldgoise Mr. Kyle Felter Mr. Carl A. Flick Mr. Alan Fried Ms. Sharon Friedheim Mr. Jonathan Frost Ms. Jennifer C. Garrigues Mr. Christopher Georgopoulos Ms. Rosalyn Gladwin Ms. Rosa Godshall-Holden Mr. Paul Goldberg

Ms. Michele Gurto Ms. Alexandra Hall Ms. Sigrid Harris Mr. John E. Howell Ms. Deborah Hudzig Ms. Susan Jones Mrs. Lewis Kapner Ms. Josephine E. Kennedy Mr. John J. Kenney Ms. Gurunam K. Khalsa Mr. Reeves King Mr. Isaac Klein Mr. and Mrs. Eliot Kleinberg Mr. John M. Kleinman Mr. Christopher Knowlton Ms. Florence Koontz Ms. Gabriella Kortz Mrs. Nellie Kreis Ms. Heather Lockett Ms. Emily Loveland Ms. Katherine Lowry Ms. Maria E. Mamlouk Mr. Steven A. Manalan Ms. Janice Marshall Ms. Wendy Maynard Mr. James McConnell Mr. Perry McIntyre Ms. Hilary B. Mendoza Mr. Frank Moulds Mr. Richard Moyroud Ms. Alison Newton Ms. Sally A. O’Connor Mrs. Judy O’Malley Mrs. Patricia Panetta Mrs. Diana Patrick Mr. Dennis J. Perry Mr. Ken Pfrengle Mrs. Lois G. Phillips Ms. Sandra Pike Mr. Eugene Porter Mr. David M. Pugh Mr. Walter Rakowski Ms. Patricia Reybold Mr. Ronald Risner Ms. Roxine Roberts Mr. Stephen M. Rochford Mr. Jose I. Rodriguez Ms. Kristine Rosendahl Ms. Paula Rossmann Ms. Mary Anne Rozo Mr. Carlos Ruth Ms. Marina Rymar Ms. Gina Sauber Mrs. Elaine A. Saugstad Dr. John A. Schaefer

Ms. Adela M. Shiner Mr. H. Bryant Sims Ms. Ida June Smith Ms. Virginia M. Spencer Mr. Reginald G. Stambaugh Ms. Nancy Stone Ms. Pamela Strassner Ms. Susan Swiatosz Ms. Rebecca Taylor Ms. Kristina Thomsen Mrs. Shirley Toothman Mr. Allen Trefry Mr. Brendan Twomey Mrs. Deane O. Ugalde Ms. Robin Vause Mr. John Wienke Mr. Jimmy Williams Ms. Christine Wolf Mrs. Mary Woodland Ms. Patricia H. Yost Mrs. Joan Javits Zeeman Ms. Kendra Zellner

Life Members Mr. and Mrs. John W. Annan Mr. and Mrs. Keith C. Austin Jr. Mrs. Maria Bacinich Mr. and Mrs. David H. Bludworth Mr. Richard R. Brown III Mr. and Mrs. Frank E. Callander Mrs. Linda Cothes Mr. William R. Cummings Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Dellaquila Mr. and Mrs. Willis H. du Pont Mr. and Mrs. Robert T. Eigelberger Mr. and Mrs. J. Pepe Fanjul Sr. Mr. and Mrs. John E. Flagg III Mr. Rodger S. Fowler Mr. and Mrs. Gordon D. Gaster Ms. Judy Hatfield Mr. and Mrs. Scott Johnson Mr. and Mrs. Richard S. Johnson Jr. Mr. Donald C. Lainhart Mrs. Elise MacIntosh Mr. George Matsoukas Mrs. Mary Alice Pugh Mr. and Mrs. William Sned Jr. Mr. and Mrs. John Tamsberg Mr. John K. Volk

Historical Society of Palm Beach County 2018-2019 Officers

Board Chair Thomas M. Kirchhoff First Vice Chair Ross W. W. Meltzer Second Vice Chair Mark Stevens Third Vice Chair Jeffrey P. Phipps Sr. Secretary Richard S. Johnson Jr. Deputy Secretary Carey O’Donnell Treasurer Thomas Burns, CPA Member at Large Joseph Chase Past Chair J. Grier Pressly III Member Emeritus Robert W. Ganger

Board of Governors Jeffrey Alderton Christian Angle Kevin Clark Sharon Daley Graham G. Davidson George L. Ford III Mary Freitas The Honorable Bradley G. Harper Joette Keen Russell P. Kelley III George Mavlios Sharon Merchant Peter Nicoletti Lisa McDermott Perez Karen Swanson Keith Williams

Ex-Officio Board Members Erica Whitfield

School Board of Palm Beach County

Danielle Hickox Moore

Town of Palm Beach Council Member

Mack Bernard

Palm Beach County Commissioner

Board of Advisors Cressman D. Bronson Katharine Dickenson Mark B. Elhilow George T. Elmore Mr. & Mrs. William M. B. Fleming Jr. Dennis Grady William Graham Dale R. Hedrick Pat Seaton Johnson Gary S. Lesser The Honorable Karen Marcus William A. Meyer Penny Murphy Harvey E. Oyer III Jorge Pesquera Sidney A. Stubbs Jr. RADM Philip A. Whitacre, USN (Ret.)

Benefactors Thomas Anderson and Marc Schappell Brenda McCampbell Bailey Margaret Cheryl Burkhardt Joseph Chase Susan and Christopher Cowie Martha DeBrule Mark B. Elhilow George T. Elmore Frances and Jeffrey H. Fisher Anneli and Robert W. Ganger Lorrain and Malcolm W. Hall Melanie and Chris Hill Pat Seaton Johnson Russell P. Kelley III Carol and Thomas M. Kirchhoff Patricia Lambrecht Patricia Lester Sydelle Meyer Pauline Pitt J. Grier Pressly III Deborah and Chuck Royce Frances G. Scaife Sonja and Mark Stevens Annette Stubbs RADM Philip A. Whitacre, USN (Ret.) William Sterling Williams Robert C. Wright


President and Chief Executive Officer Jeremy W. Johnson Chief Curator Debi Murray Education Coordinator Rose Guerrero Research Director Nicholas Golubov Marketing Coordinator Caroline Frazier Office Administrator Sharon Poss Membership Coordinator & Grant Writer Lise Steinhauer Volunteer & Outreach Coordinator Rhonda Gordon

FALL 2018 | 33

Winter Events










































31 1






























Distinguished Lecture 7:00 pm



Walking Tour 4:00 pm


Walking Tour 10:00 am


Distingished Lecture 7:00 pm


Third Thursday 3:00 pm


Walking Tour 10:00 am

Walking Tour 10:00 am


Third Thursday 3:00pm


Photographic Collection Photo courtesy HSPBC Archives.

Loading Alfar milk delivery trunk

Alfar Creamery receiving room

Alfar Creamery milk bottling machine

New to HSPBC's photographic collection are these sharp images of the Alfar Creamery Company. First appearing in city directories in 1933, Alfar produced ice cream and delivered fresh milk to its customers daily. The operation, located at 456 Flamingo Road, West Palm Beach, was sold to T.G. Lee Dairy in 1968.

FALL 2018 | 35

An Alfar Creamery employee handpaints the company's signage, showing the wide range of skills necessary to successfully operate a business prior to the digital tools of the modern age. Photo courtesy HSPBC.

Historical Society of Palm Beach County 300 North Dixie Highway, West Palm Beach, FL 33401 Phone: (561) 832-4164 | Fax: (561) 832-7965 | 36 | TUSTENEGEE

Profile for Historical Society of Palm Beach County

Tustenegee Vol 9 No 2 Fall 2018  

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