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cfdx8tfn lkmtf{kl5 Pdfcf]jfbLsf] Jojxf/ km]l/Psf] b]Vg'xG' 5 < o;k6s pxfFx¿nfO{ 7"nf] kZrfQfk ePsf] b]lvG5 . a'l4hLjLx¿df‰ pxfFx¿n] /fv]sf s'/f ;sf/fTds ¿kdf klg lng'kg]{ x'G5 . t/ Tof] egfO leq}b]lv cfPsf] xf] ls ;txL dfq xf] eGg] rflxF a'´g}k5{ . ljutdf klg pxfFx¿af6 w]/} k|lta4tf JoQm eP . To;sf] ;fIfL d cfkm}+ 5' k|To]s bnsf g]tf 5f}+ . tL nfu" eP÷ePgg\ eGg] s'/fsf ;fIfL gful/s ;dfhsf cu'jfx¿ g} x'g'xG5 . 5n5fd / e|d l;h{gf ug]{ klg Pp6f xb x'G5 . To;f] eP ;xdltdf k'Ug s] s] ug'k{ 5{ < pxfFx¿sf kl5Nnf cleJolQm s]xL ;sf/fTds 5g\, t/ To;sf] glthf Jojxf/df b]lvg'k¥of] . h:tf]M ;ft lbgleq


jfO{;LPnsf] cw{;}lgs ;+/rgf vf/]h u/]/ Jof/]sLs[t cj:yfaf6 d'Qm ug]{, sAhf ul/Psf ;a} ;DklQ lkmtf{ ug]{, n8fs" ;dfof]hgsf] kl/0ffdd'vL k|lqmof z'? ug]{ cflb . To;a]nf lul/hfafa'n] @–# xhf/ ;dfof]hg ug]{ eGg'x'GYof], d}n] $–% xhf/ eg]sf] 5' . pxfFx¿nfO{ ;ª\Vof tf]Sg ufx|f] x'G5 eg] Pp6f ljlw kQf nufP/ ;dfof]hgsf] sfd k|f/De u/f}+ . sfª\u|]; / Pdfn]n] $% lbgsf] Dofb k|:tfj u/]sf 5g\, *–!) lbgleq} k|lqmof z'? ug{ ;lsG5, To;n] Pp6f ljZjf;sf] jftfj/0f aG5 . cfGtl/s 5nkmnx¿df x'g] u/]sf] ;]gf ;dfof]hgsf] sfd cufl8 a9fOxfNg] s'/f ;sf/fTds 5, ;+ljwfgsf ljifoj:t'dflysf] 5nkmn klg lg/fzhgs 5}g . t/, dfcf]jfbLn] o;sf] Jofjxfl/s sfof{Gjog yfngL u/]/ b]vfpg'k5{ .

dfcf]jfbL g]tT[ jn] t n8fs"nfO{ 5'6o\ fP/ /fV5f}+ eg]s} 5 lg < Tof] t ljz]if ;ldltdf d}n] g} u/]sf] k|:tfj xf] . ;ª\Vof c‰} 6'Ëf] nfu]sf] 5}g, k'g:yf{kgf jf ;dfof]hgdf hfg rfxg]x¿nfO{ 5'6\ofpg'k5{ . ;dfof]hgdf hfg rfxg]x¿ w]/} eP eg] ToxL+ 8]8ns z'? x'G5 . To;}n] kl5 cK7\of/f] x'g] s'/f clxn] g} ldnfpm eGg] xfd|f] cfu|x xf] . dfcf]jfbLn] t ;xdltsf] afws tkfO{n + fO{ g} eGb}5g\ lg < b'lgofFnfO{ yfxf 5, dfwj g]kfn ;xdtLo /fhgLltsf] kIfkf]ifs xf] . ;xdltsf] ofqfdf d afws xf]Og, ;xof]uL x'F . k|r08hLnfO{ s] cfsfzjf0fL cfP5 eg] dfwjs'df/ g]kfn Ps jif{;Dd x6\b} x6\b}g . pxfFnfO{ d}n] tkfO{ / d of] k|lqmofdf z'?b]lv nfu]sfn] ldn]/ cl3

a9f}+ eGb} cfPsf] 5' . pxfFdf ;QflnK;f 5}g, cfkm"nfO{ s]Gb|df /fVg'x'Gg eg] of] k|lqmofdf Pscsf{sf] ;xof]uL eP/ cufl8 a9\g ;lsG5 . k|wfgdGqL sf] x'g] eGg] s'/f ;xdltaf6 ug{ ;lsG5 . Joj:yflksf ;+;b\df h;n] ljZjf; lhTg ;S5 p;}nfO{ agfpg ;lsG5 . kf6L{x¿sf] cfsf/sf cfwf/df jf JolQmsf gfddf klg ;xdlt x'g;S5 . t/ d]/f] uf]?sf] afx|} 6Ssf eg]/ s]xL xF'b}g . pxfFx¿sf] kl5Nnf] cleJolQmnfO{ d}n] …df]/ c/ n]; kf]lhl6EnLÚ lnPsf] 5' . t/ c‰} klg pxfFsf] dgdf cfu|x k"jf{u|x 5 . /fhgLlt ug]{ dfG5]n] To:tf] cfu|x–k"jf{u|x kfn]/ a:g'x'Fb}g . cfˆgf] ;+:sf/, :jefj, af]nLrfnLdf kl/jt{g ug'{k5{ . c¿nfO{ dof{bf ug]{ afgL a;fpg'k5{, cxÍf/ TofUg'k5{ . af3sf] uh{g x}g ;a}sf] dg lhTg ;Sg'kb{5 . o'4sfnLg efiffnfO{ 5f]8/] !–!% h]7 @)^&

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lxdfn va/klqsf

11


ljz]if cGtjf{tf{ zflGtsfnLg efiff k|of]u ug{ l;Sg'k5{ .

klg 5nkmn rnfpF5' .

dfcf]jfbLn] cfdx8tfn lkmtf{ lnP tkfOFn] /flhgfdf lbg] zt{ lyof] /] lg < d}n] /flhgfdf lsg lbg] < s]sf] k"j{ zt{ < d}n] s'g} uDeL/ ck/fw u/]sf] 5' / < lxF8g\ k' g]5{ ;xdltsf] af6f]df, s'/f rflxF c;xdlt / åGåsf] ug]{ < /flhgfdf To;a]nf ul/G5, hlta]nf ax'dtsf] ljZjf; u'dfPsf] x'G5 of s'g} uDeL/ ck/fw u/]sf] x'G5 . wDsLsf e/df /flhgfdf lbg] s'/fn] ;xdltsf] /fhgLlt cl3 a9\bg} . ;xdltsf nflu d tof/ 5', h] ;xdlt x'G5, d}n] To;sf] kfngf ug]{ xf] . s'g ;xdlt kfngf ul/gF, Tof] eGg ;Sg'k¥of] . h;sf] gfddf ;xdlt x'G5 p;nfO{ d ;xof]u / ;dy{g u5'{ . d]/} gfddf of Pdfn]s} gfddf ;xdlt ug'k{ 5{ eg]/ t d}n] eg]sf] 5}g lg Û ;+ljwfg agfpg xft]dfnf] u/]/ cufl8 a9\g'k5{ . d}n] z'? ug{ vf]h]sf] gofF ofqfdf eoft'/ x'g'kg]{ cfjZostf 5}g . d clwgfosjfbL / ;j{;QfjfbL rl/qsf] dfG5] klg xf]Og . ;a}nfO{ ldnfP/ hfg'k5{ eGg] d]/f] dfGotf xf] . d s;}sf] dgdf kf]Nnf, 3f]Rnf, lrQ b'Vnf eg]/ ;w}F ;+j]bgzLn x'G5', hfn‰]n / lts8d hflGbgF . d g]kfn /fi6« / g]kfnL hgtfsf] lxt tyf ;dfgtf / GofonfO{ ;w}Fel/ s]GblaGb'df /fv]/ cufl8 a9\g rfxG5' .

dfcf]jfbL t Dofb gyKg] eGb}5 lg < of] s'/f ;+ljwfg;efsf ^)! ;b:on] a'´g' h?/L 5 . hgtfn] klg ;+ljwfg;ef / ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] afws, ;+ljwfg;ef eË ug{ rfxg] sf] /x]5 eg]/ a'´g] df}sf kfpF5g\ . ;+ljwfg agfpg Dofb t yKg}k5{ . ;do cfPkl5 ;a} s'/f x'G5, To;}n] cflQg'x'Fb}g . d lg/f; x'g], cflQg], yls{g] vfnsf] dfG5] xf]Og . 7"N7"nf r'gf}tL kf/ u/]/ cfPsf] x'gfn] o:tf ;d:of ;lhn} kf/ x'G5g\ eGg] nfU5 .

tkfO{+ o;f] eGg'x'G5, dfcf]jfbL rflxF tkfO{n + ] g]tT[ j u/]sf] ;/sf/nfO{ s7k'tnL eg]sf] eGo} 5 < s7k'tnL s;/L eof] < pxfFx¿ ;/sf/df x'Fbf ef/t uPsf a]nf ef/t;Fu …ljz]if ;DaGwÚ elgPsf] k]k/df x:tfIf/ u/]/ cfpg'eof] . dfwj g]kfnn] To:tf] u/]/ cfof] < daf6 s'g rflxF /fli6«o lxtdfly s'7f/f3ft x'g] sfd ePsf] 5 < tYosf] cfwf/df af]Ng'k5{ . pxfFn] h:tf] k|wfg;]gfkltnfO{ sf/afxL ug{ ef/t hfg kfpmF eg]/ d}n] eg]+ < dfcf]jfbLn] clglZrtsfnLg cfdx8tfn ug]{ ef] o;nfO{ ;dy{g ulb{g' k¥of] eGb} d lxF8] < d}n] sxLF xf/u'xf/ u/]/ lxF8+] < b"tfjf; wfpFb} lxF8+] < cfˆgf] dfG5] lbNnL k7fpg kfpFm eg]+ < cfkm" h] ul//x]sf] 5, c¿nfO{ ToxL cf/f]k nufpg] clg Tof] cf/f]k :jLsf/]/ d}n] /flhgfdf lbg] < dfcf]jfbLn] eg] h:tf] of] ;/sf/ cj}wflgs, s7k'tnL xf] / < of] t pxfFx¿sf] kL8f / cfqmf]zsf] cleJolQm xf] . dnfO{ Joj:yflksf ;+;b\n] k|wfgdGqL lgjf{lrt u/]sf] xf], p;f] eP ToxfFsf ;a} bn s7k'tnL x'g\ < ;+;b\ / ;+ljwfg;efn] u/]sf ;a} k|lqmof cj}wflgs x'g\ < 12

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!–!% h]7 @)^&

b'O{ jif{df ;+ljwfg aGg ;s]g, Dofb yKb}df s;/L aGnf / < o;df dfcf]jfbL g} lhDd]jf/ 5 . p;sf] ;}Go ;+/rgf ;a} s'/fsf] afws ag]sf] 5 . To;}n] xfdL n8fs"sf] 6'Ëf] klxn] nufpg'k5{ elg/x]sf 5f}+ . pxfFx¿n] klxnf]k6s ;fj{hlgs ¿kd} u5f}+{ eGg'ePsf] 5, o;sf] sfof{Gjog x'G5 eGg]df d cfzfjfbL 5' .

dnfO{ nfUYof] dfcf]jfbLnfO{ ;a}eGbf a9L lrGg] d g} x'F t/ clxn] unt /x]5' eGg] nfUg yfn]sf] 5 . k'iksdnnfO{ ;fy lbFbf ;a} qmflGtsf/L, /fi6«jfbL, :jtGq x'g] dfwj g]kfnnfO{ ;fy lbg]ljlQs} s7k'tnL x'g] < b]zdf clxn] ljb]zL x:tIf]k a9]sf] t xf] lg < rf;f] a9\g' Pp6f s'/f xf] t/ g]kfnLsf] dfldnf g]kfnLn] xn ug]{ xf] . x/]sn] s"6gLlts ;Ldf / dof{bfleq a:g'kb{5 . g]kfnsf] cfGtl/s dfdnfdf x:tIf]k ug]{ sfd s;}n] klg ug'x{ bF' g} . g]kfnLx¿ lxhf] s;}sf] pklgj]z ePgg\ / ef]ln klg x'g rfxFbg} g\ eGg] s'/f ;a}n] a'´g'kb{5 . cf}klgj]lzs dfgl;stfsf] cfwf/df g]kfn / g]kfnLx¿dfly s;}n] klg Jojxf/ gu/] x'G5 .

;+ljwfg;efsf] Dofb yKg] k|:tfj n}hfFb} x'gx' G' 5 xf]Og < o;sf nflu d}n] ljleGg bnx¿;Fu 5nkmn ul//x]sf] 5' . /fi6«klt, ;+ljwfg;ef cWoIf;Fu k/fdz{ u/]sf] 5' . dlGqkl/ifb\df

dfcf]jfbLn] t zflGt / ;+ljwfgsf] afws ;/sf/ / To;sf] g]tT[ j u/]sfn] tkfO{n + fO{ g} elg/x]sf] 5 lg < aflx/ / leq elgg] s'/fx¿ w]/} km/s 5g\ . e]6df t s'/f dL7} x'G5 . xfdL dfcf]jfbL;Fu To;} lg/f; ePsf x}gf}+ . t/ ;a} s'/f clxn] gegL xfnf},+ Tof] ;do cfpF5 . lsgeg] ;do anjfg x'G5, To;n] s;}nfO{ 5f8\bg} . d w}o{ ug{ ;Sg] JolQm xf], vlk/xG5', b]z / hgtfnfO{ ;D‰]/ . tkfO{+ t lxhf] klg dfcf]jfbLnfO{ zflGtk"0f{ /fhgLltdf Nofpg Toqf] hf]lvd df]ns ] f] dfG5], clxn] pgLx¿ cK7\of/f]df k/]sf 5g\, s]xL ;lhnf] agfOlbg'k5{ eGg] nfUb}g < a;f},+ 5nkmn u/f}+ eg]s} To;s} nflu xf] . d}n] /flhgfdf lbP/ jf k|r08n] cWoIf kb 5f8]/ ;d:of xn x'G5 t < o:tf] a]nfdf ;d:of s s';L{ cfˆgf] k]jf xf] eG7fGg'ef] . ToxfF a;]kl5 km'6s ] f] cfFvfn] klg x]g{ ;Sg' ePg . To:tf] nfUg] eP t g5f]8s ] f] eP x'GYof] lg Û lau|Fbf] /fhgLlt ;'N‰fFb} hfg] cj:yf b]Vg'ePsf] 5 < ;'N‰];'N‰] h:tf] klg 5, ufF7f] k/] h:tf] klg 5 . lj:tf/} ljifoj:t' 5n{Ë x'Fb}5g\ . ca Pscsf{;Fu sf]xL ‰'lSsg] cj:yf cfpFb}g h:tf] nfU5 dnfO{ . Q ls/0f÷/fd]Zj/÷;/f]h


cfj/0f

cfˆg} w"tt{ fn] c;k /fi6«jfbsf] cfj/0fdf s'l6ntfk"j{s hgefjgfdfly v]Nb} /fHozlQm cfh{g ug]{ Pdfcf]jfbL cWoIf k'iksdn bfxfnsf] /0fgLlt c;kmn ePsf] 5 . ;/f]h bfxfn sf] l/kf]6{

P

efg' e§/fO{

g]skf–dfcf]jfbLsf cWoIf k'iksdn bfxfnn] …hgjfbL /fHo;QfÚ :yfkgf ug]{ e|ddf kf/]/ /fhwfgL ptf/]sf xhf/f}+ o'jf sfo{stf{nfO{ …wgL / a'l4dfg x'g,' To;df klg sf7df8f}+df 3/ agfP/ a:g', ck/fw xf]Ú eGg] lzIff lbP/ @% j}zfvdf 3/ kmsf{P . To;sf] rf/ lbgkl5 cfkm"df lglxt gf6sLo Ifdtfsf] pRrtd\ k|of]u u/]/ /fhwfgLsf ltg} …;'lsnf d'lsnfÚx¿;Fu 5ftLdf xft /fv]/ …IfdfofrgfÚ klg u/] . cfdx8tfnsf] gfddf ;ftf lbg;Dd d'n'sdf sˆo"{ nufPsf cWoIf bfxfnn] sf7df8f}+sf hgtf;Fu dfkmL dfq dfu]gg\, cfkm+n} ] …d'77\ Le/ ck/fwLÚ eg]sf dflg;x¿nfO{ kfFrtf/] xf]6ndf lgDTofP/ cGo bn;Fusf] ;xdltdf cfkm"\ afws gx'g] k|lta4tf klg hgfP, ;]gf ;dfof]hgsf] ltlyldlt klg tf]lslbP . pgsf o:tf s'/f ;'Gbf sltnfO{ zflGt k|lqmofsf] afws dfcf]jfbL xf]Og /x]5 eGg] klg nfUof] xf]nf . t/, s]xL jif{b]lv pgL;Fu lg/Gt/ uf]Ko, v'Nnf / sf]7] ukmdf a;]sf k|wfgdGqL dfwjs'df/ g]kfn eG5g\, æklxnf] k6s ;'Gg]nfO{ pxfFsf] s'/f uha} nfU5 . t/ s'g ldlt, slt ah],

14

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!–!% h]7 @)^&


;kmn

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@( j}zfvdf gful/s ;dfh;“u dfcf]jfbLn] u/]sf] cGt/lqmof .

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r/0fdf k'u]kl5 dfq b]lvg] 5 . o:tf k|lta4tf w]/}rf]l6 cfPsfn] sfof{Gjogdf guO{ ljZjf; ug{ g;lsg] sfª\u|]; g]tf ch'{gg/l;+x s];L atfpF5g\ .

zÍf / ;xdlt cftÍ

@) j}zfv ;fF‰ /fhwfgLsf] Pp6f tf/] xf]6ndf ePsf] Pdfcf]jfbL–sfª\u;]| a}7s c¿ lbgsf] eGbf lgs} rsf{rsL{df k'u]/ 6'lËPsf] lyof] . sfª\u;]| g]tf l;6f}nfn] ;dfof]hg x'g] n8fs"sf] ;ª\Vofaf/] lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnf;Fu dfcf]jfbL g]t[Tjn] u/]sf] ;xdlt vf]lnlbFb} sf]O/fnfn] tLg xhf/;Dd ;dfof]hg ug]{ eGbf bfxfnn] kfF r xhf/;Dd ug' { k 5{ eg]sf] atfPkl5 a}7s cs:dft\ tflQof] . To;a]nf /ftf]–kL/f] ePsf bfxfnn] cfkm"n] Tolt ;ª\Vof g]kfnL ;]gfdf / afFsL cGo ;'/Iff lgsfodf ;dfof]hg ug]{ s'/f u/]sf] eGb} k|ltjfb u/] . s]xL gnfu]kl5 cGTodf pgL hlËP, ætkfO{+x¿ af/Daf/ k'/fgf] s'/f bf]xf]¥ofpg'x'G5 eg] xfdL jftf{df a:b}gf}+ .Æ To; lbgsf] a}7skl5 Pdfcf]jfbL g]tfx¿ k|];nfO{ k|ltlqmof glbO{ lxF8]sf lyP eg] sfª\u|]; g]tfx¿n] ;]gfsf] ;ª\Vofdf s'/f

gldn]sf] hfgsf/L u/fPsf lyP . bfxfnn] To;sf] gf} lbgkl5 a'l4hLjLx¿;Fusf] cGt/lqmofdf æ;ª\Vof tf]Sg ;lQmgF, afFsL ;a} u5'{Æ eg]/ zflGt k|lqmofdf cfkm" cft'/ /x]sf] b]vfP . cfkm"n] ;xdlt lbO;s]sf] kfFr xhf/sf] ;ª\Vofaf/] km]l/ klg s'/f n'sfPsf pgn] of] ;ª\Vofaf/] g]kfnL g]tfx¿;Fusf uf]Ko ukmdf dfq xf]Og, k|wfgdGqLsf] x}l;otn] ef/t e|d0f / o'/f]kdf klg af]n]sf 5g\ . o;n] Pdfcf]jfbL cWoIf bfxfn c‰} klg /fhgLlts w"Tof{OF eGbf aflx/ lgl:sg g;s]sf] b]vfpF5 . Ps Pdfn] g]tfsf cg';f/ clxn] ;ª\Vof tf]Sg g;Sg] bfxfnn] cGo bnaf6 !) xhf/ n8fs" ;dfof]hgsf] k|:tfj cfof] eg] klg oxL eG5g\ eg]/ eg]sf 5g\, æs]xL lbg cufl8;Dd Ps hgf klg n8fs" ;dfof]hg ug{ grfxg] bnx¿n] PsfPs !) xhf/nfO{ ;dfof]hg u/f}F eGg'sf] k5fl8 ;+ljwfg gagfpg] / xfdLnfO{ ;]gf nufP/ v]b\g] if8\oGq 5 . d}n] o:t} ;"rgf kfPsf] 5' . ;fyLx¿ xf]l;of/ /xg'xf]nf .Æ gq, @& j}zfvdf :yfoL ;ldlt a}7s /fv]/ ;+ljwfg aGg'cufl8 ;]gf ;dfof]hg x'g g;Sg] lgisif{ lgsfNg] lyPgg\, bfxfnn] . dfcf]jfbL :yfoL ;ldlt ;b:o nLnfdl0f kf] v | ] n eG5g\ , æzflGt / ;+ljwfg;Fu} hfg'k5{ . cufl8 ;]gf ;dfof]hg u/]/ k5fl8 ;+ljwfg aG5 eGg] s'/f ;f]Rg klg ;lsFb}g .Æ kf6L{ :yfoL ;ldltdf olt :ki6 lgisif{ lbg] bfxfnn] kl5Nnf] cGt/lqmofdf rflxF o;f] eg], æ;]gf ;dfof]hgb]lv ;/sf/sf] g]t[Tj;Dd c¿ bnnfO{ dfGg tof/ 5' .Æ pgsf] s'/fnfO{ …zÍf a9fpg] v]tLÚ eGg ?rfpg] Ps /fhgLlts ljZn] i fs eG5g\, æd]/f] s'/f dfGof} eg] ;xdlt u5'{ gq ;+ljwfg;ef g} eË x'g lbG5' eGg' dfcf]jfbLn] rnfPsf] ;xdlt cftÍafx]s s]xL xf]Og .Æ ptf ;+ljwfg;efdf ;d:of Pdfcf]jfbL / cGo bnsf] ljrf/ / l;4fGtdf 5 . dfcf]jfbLn] cu|udgsf] s'/f u/]sf] 5 eg] cGo bn nf]stGq / zflGtsf] jsfnt ul//x]sf 5g\ . dfcf]jfbL n8fs" ;dfof]hg !–!% h]7 @)^&

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lxdfn va/klqsf

15


cfj/0f

;+ljwfg agfpg Dofb yk s'g} ck|Toflzt rnv]n ePg eg] ;+ljwfg;efsf] Dofb sDtLdf ^ dlxgf ylkg] lglZrtk|foM 5 . b'O{ jif{df ;+ljwfg;efsf] Dofb ylkFb} ubf{ Tof] ;do lsg ck'u eof] eg]/ s'g} bn, sf]xL g]tf jf ^)! dWo] s'g} ;ef;b\ af]n]sf 5}gg\ . ;do ck'u eP/ xf]Og bnx¿sf] rfxgf gldn]/ ;+ljwfg gag]sf] xf] eGg] s'/fdf hgtf cgle1 5}gg\ . t/, hgtfn] ;+ljwfg;efdf b'O{ jif{;Dd s] eof], s] s'/fn] ;+ljwfg ag]g, ljjfbsf ljifox¿ s]–s] x'g\ eGg] ljj/0f rflxF kfpg}k5{, h'g pgLx¿sf] clwsf/ klg xf] . To;sf nflu ;+ljwfg;efn] tTsfn Zj]tkq hf/L ug'{kg]{ b]lvG5 . b' O { jif{ d f bnsf :jfy{ a f6 d'Qm x'g g;s]sf] ;+ljwfg;efnfO{ ca rflxF d'Qm u/fpg} k5{ . of] sfd ug]{ bns} g]tfx¿n] xf] . clxn];Dd pgLx¿n] s]–s] 7f]; sfd u/] , s' g bnn] s' g –s' g ljifodf s]–s] ;xdlt jf c;xdlt hgfP, ;xdltsf] clGtd laGb' s] x'g ;SYof] eGg] h:tf k|Zgsf pQ/x¿ ;+ljwfg;efsf] Dofb yKg'cufl8 g} Zj]tkqdfkm{t hgtfn] kfpg'k5{ . clxn];Dd ePsf ;xdlt / c;xdltsf s'/fx¿ yfxf kfPkl5 s'g ljifodf s;n] s] c8\8L lnPsf] 5 / Tof] c8\8L hgtfsf] nflu ls g]tf jf kf6L{sf nflu lyof] eGg] :ki6 x'g]5 . ca aGg] ;+ljwfg nf]stflGqs xf] ls cu|ufdL, Tof] s:tf] x'G5 eGg] h:tf ljifo yfxf gkfP/ bnx¿n] uGtJo la;]{sf x'g\ ls < of] s'/f klg Zj]tkqdf cfpg'k5{ h;af6 hgtfn] cfjZos 7fg] kf6L{x¿nfO{ lbzflgb]{z ug{ ;s"g\ . bnx¿ klxnf lbzf / uGtJo kQf nufpg ;xdt x'G5g\ ls x'Fb}gg\, d"n k|Zg ToxL+ 5 . Q / k'g:yf{kgf zflGt;Fu ;Lwf hf]l8Psf] ljifo xf] . Pdfcf]jfbL eg] of] k|lqmofdf e/]–ef]ln eGb} cGo bnnfO{ cNdNofP/ klxn] ;xdltsf] cfˆg} ;/sf/ x'gk' g]{ JofVof ul//x]sf] 5 . kl5Nnf] cfdx8tfn To;}sf] anldRofOF lyof] .

Ps jif{sf] kf7

uPsf] Ps jif{df Pdfcf]jfbL cWoIf bfxfnn] rfn]sf ;a} rfn c;kmnl;4 eP, h;sf] kl/0ffd l;Ëf] kf6L{n] ef]Ug'kg]{5 . pgsf] of] Psjif]{ cjlw l5d]sL /fi6«b]lv cfˆg} ;xof]4f, /fi6«klt, ;+;b\, cGo /fhgLlts

dLg/Tg ah|frfo{

@) j}zfvdf Pg]skf dfcf]jfbL;Fusf] a}7s ljgf lgisif{ 6'lËPkl5sf] kqsf/ ;Dd]ngdf sfª\u; ]| g]tfx¿ .

16

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!–!% h]7 @)^&

bn, gful/s ;dfh / a'l4hLjL;DdnfO{ cfkm"df lglxt ljnIf0f gf6sLo Ifdtf / zAbhfnsf] k|efjdf kfg{d} laTof] . bfxfn ca klg ToxL /0fgLltnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbG5g\ ls To;sf kl/0fltx¿af6 lzIff lnP/ cl3 a9\5g\, x]g{ afFsL 5 . of] cjlwdf /fi6«kltdfly vlgP/ u0ftGq g} a]7Ls eGg] e|d km}nfpg ;d]t kl5 gk/]sf bfxfn To;kl5 ef/t;Fu l;+uf}/L v]Ng yfn] . cfGtl/s snx r'lnFbf cfˆg} kf6L{ sfo{stf{nfO{ xf}:ofpg klg cltjfbL gf/f cufl8 ;f/]sf pgn] ef/tn] cfˆgf] :jfy{ k"lt{ gul/lbPsf] l/;df klg yk pu|tf k|bz{g u/] . o;qmddf pgL cfˆg} ;xof]4f 8f= afa'/fd e§/fO{nfO{ ef/tsf] bnfn eGg klg kl5 k/]gg\ . Pdfcf]jfbLsf Ps :yfoL ;ldlt ;b:o eG5g\, ærfOgf sf8{ b]vfP/ ef/tnfO{ t;f{pg vf]Hbf xfdL k5fl/g' c:jfefljs ePg .Æ t/, @# j}zfv laxfg ef/tLo /fhb"t /fs]z ;'bn] tkfO{ afx]s k|wfgdGqLsf nflu sf] pko'Qm x'g;S5 lbgel/df gfd lbg';\ eGbf bf}8]/ Pdfn] cWoIf ‰ngfy vgfn;Fu e]6 ug]{ klg pg} lyP . kl5 pgn] vgfns} gfd l;kmfl/; u/], cfˆg} kf6L{sf g]tfx¿nfO{ Tof] x} l ;ot lbg rfx] g g\ . ToxL ;fF ‰ sfª\u|];;Fusf] a}7sdf vgfn hfFb} uPgg\, sfª\u|];n] kfO;s]sf] ;"rgfaf6 aRg . …;Lw} jftf{ dflns;F u ug] { Ú eGb} v' N ndv' N nf g] k fnsf bn / hgtfsf] cjd"Nog u/]]sf Pdfcf]jfbL cWoIf bfxfn gofFlbNnLn] k"/} a]jf:tf ul/lbPkl5 dfwj g]kfnsf] ;/sf/dfly vlgPsf x'g\ . @@ j}zfvdf kf6L{ g]tf df]xg j}Bn] k|;] ;Fu eg]sf lyP, æxfd|f] egfO olt xf], cGo bnnfO{ h:t} xfdLnfO{ klg ;dfgtfsf] Jojxf/ ul/of];\, xfdL ef/tlj/f]wL xf]Ogf}+ .Æ ;+ljwfg;efsf] Dofb ;lsF b } hfF b f To;sf d' 2 fx¿nfO{ lg0ff{os agfpg cTofjZos ePkl5 eg] dfcf]jfbLx¿ ;/sf/sf] /flhgfdfsf] dfudf s]lGb|t ePsf lyP . of] ToxL ;+;b\ xf] h;nfO{ bfxfnn] l/df] 6 sG6« f ] n af6 rn] s f] eGb} l;Ëf] b]znfO{ g} ef/taf6 ;~rflnt atfPsf lyP . ;/sf/lj?4 ;+;b\df k6s–k6s cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj Nofpg Ps–Ps ;f+;b\ ePsf kf6L{nfO{ ;d]t cfˆgf] kIfdf kfg{ u/]sf] d]xgtnfO{ bfxfnn] ;aeGbf 7"nf] bnsf] x}l;otn] ;+ljwfgn]vgdf nufPsf eP g pgn] xfg]{ cj:yf cfpFYof], g hgtf gofF ;+ljwfg kfpgaf6 jl~rt x'g]lyP . dfwj g]kfnsf] ;/sf/lj?4 b]zel/af6 sfo{stf{nfO{ /fhwfgL af]nfP/ vflnxft Q kmsf{pg'kg]{ lyPg .


cfj/0f zflGt k|lqmof

;d:of n8fs" ;ª\Vofdf ;'/Iff lgsfodf ;dfof]hg ul/g] n8fs" ;ª\Vof dfcf]jfbLn] ls6fg gu/];Dd zflGtk|lqmof cl3 a9\g ;Dej 5}g . /fdhL bfxfn sf] l/kf]6{ !& kmfu'g @)^% ;Dd ;Dk"0f{ cof]Uo n8fs" x6fpg] / k'g:yf{kgf ug]{5f}+ . – dª\l;/ @)^% n8fs"x¿ ;'/Iff cË jf kf6L{dWo] stf nfUg] eGg] ljifodf h]7 @)^& leq 6'Ëf] nufOg] 5 . – @( j}zfv @)^& Pg]skf dfcf]jfbLsf cWoIf k'iksdn bfxfnn] SofG6f]gd]G6df /flvPsf dfcf]jfbL n8fs"af/]sf] plNnlvt klxnf] k|lta4tf cfkm" k|wfgdGqL /xFbf ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+3sf afnaflnsf tyf ;z:q åGå;DaGwL ljz]if k|ltlglw /flwsf s'df/f:jfdL;Fu JoQm u/]sf lyP eg] bf];|f] rflxF @( j}zfvdf sf7df8f}+df a'l4hLjLx¿;Fusf] cGt/lqmofdf . t/, o:tf] k|lta4tf cf}krfl/stfd} ;Lldt x'Fbf n8fs" ;dfof]hgsf] d'2fdf ;/sf/ / dfcf]jfbLaLr al9/x]sf] cljZjf;n] zflGt k|lqmof cj?4 5 . lj:t[t zflGt ;D‰f}tf / ;]gf tyf xltof/ Joj:yfkg cg'udg;DaGwL ;D‰f}tfdf x:tfIf/ ePsf] rf/ jif{ k'Ug nfUbf;Dd ;d:of hxfFsf] ToxLF 5 . sfª\u|];, Pdfn]nufotsf bnx¿n] ;'/Iff lgsfodf ;dfof]hg ul/g] n8fs" ;ª\Vof gtf]lsP;Dd zflGt k|lqmof cl3 ga9\g] c8fg lnPsf 5g\ . pgLx¿ SofG6f]gd]G6sf n8fs"b]lv ql;t 5g\ eg] dfcf]jfbLsf] dgdf !) jif]{ lx+;fTds ljb|f]xsf] …huÚ ag]sf n8fs"x¿nfO{ cfkm"af6 cnu ugf{;fy …afu]{lgª kfj/Ú 36\g] 8/ 5 . ;]gf ;dfof]hg ljz]if ;ldltsf ;b:o;d]t /x]sf dfcf]jfbL :yfoL ;ldlt ;b:o jif{dfg k'g eG5g\, æclxn] ;ª\Vof tf]Sg] s'/f u/]/ ;/sf/n] lgx'F vf]Hg yfn]sf] 5 .Æ ;ldlts} ;b:o sfª\u|]; g]tf /fdz/0f dxt rflxF s'g} bn ljz]if;Fu ;z:q zlQm /x];Dd zflGt k|lqmof cl3 ga9\g] / dfcf]jfbLnfO{ n8fs"af6 cnu ug}{ kg]{ atfpF5g\ . Pdfn] k|rf/ ljefu k|d'v k|bLk 1jfnL eG5g\, ædfcf]jfbLn] Jojxf/d} n8fs";Fu ;DaGwlaR5]b u/]/ b]vfPkl5 dfq ;xdltsf] jftfj/0f aG5 .Æ

;/sf/L clwsf/Lx¿sf cg';f/, lzlj/ df /x]sf /fi6«;+3Lo ld;g -cgldg_ n] k|df0fLs/0f u/]sf dfcf]jfbLsf !(,%$( n8fs"dWo] sltko lzlj/ 5f8]/ ;z:q ;d"xlt/ nfu]sf jf cfkm"v';L 3/ a;]sf 5g\ . t/, tL ;a}sf gfddf tna–eQf eg] lgsf;f eO/x]s} 5 . n8fs" lzlj/ df k|lt n8fs" dfl;s ?=%))) tna / b}lgs eQf ?=&@–!!) sf b/n] k|lt dlxgf ?=!% s/f]8eGbf a9L lgsf;f x'g] u5{ . o;dWo] k|lt n8fs" ?=@))) sf b/n] dfl;s sl/a ?=$ s/f]8 kf6L{ sfof{nodf n]aL hDdf x'G5 . n8fs"x¿ kf6L{ lgoGq0f aflx/ hfgf;fy dfcf]jfbLn] of] cfo u'dfpg] 5 .

dfcf]jfbLs} c3]{NofOF

dfcf]jfbL cWoIf bfxfnn] ;'/Iff lgsfodf %–& xhf/;Dd n8fs" ;dfof]hg ug{ ;lsg] s'/f k"j{k|wfgdGqL :j= lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnf;Fu dfq} xf]Og, e|d0fsf bf}/fg ef/tLo, cd]l/sL / lkmgNof08 clwsf/L;Fu klg /fv]sf lyP . t/, a'l4hLjLx¿;Fusf] kl5Nnf] cGt/lqmofdf pgn] cfˆg} egfOsf] v08g ub}{ afFsLnfO{ k|x/L / ;z:q k|x/Ldf ;dfof]hg ug{ ;lsg] atfP . sfª\ u|];–Pdfn] g]tfx¿;Fusf a}7sdf klg pgn] ;dfof]hgaf/] leGg–leGg ;ª\Vof atfpg] u/]sf 5g\ . zflGt;D‰f}tf / cGtl/d ;+ljwfgdf k|df0fLs/0faf6 of]Uo 7xl/Psf n8fs"x¿

dfq} :yflkt dfkb08 k"/f u/]kl5 ;dfof]hgsf nflu of]Uo x'g] pNn]v 5 . ls6fg gul/Psfn] ;dfof]hg ;]gfdf dfq} geO{ h'g;'s} ;'/Iff cËdf klg x'g;S5 . k|wfgdGqLn] ljz]if ;ldltdf k]z u/]sf] sfo{of]hgfdf klg n8fs"x¿nfO{ :j]lR5s cjsfz, k'g:yf{kgf / ;dfof]hgsf] ljsNk lbOPsf] 5 . ;dfof]hgdf hfg]x¿n] Go"gtd of]Uotf / 5gf]6sf cfwf/ k"/f ug'{k5{ . dfcf]jfbLn] rflxF ;dfof]hg gx'g]nfO{ Psd'i6 cfsif{s k|f]T;fxg eQfsf] Joj:yf ug'{kg]{ dfu u/]sf] 5 . ljz]if ;ldlt ;b:o dxtsf egfOdf, d'n'ssf] cfly{s cj:yf x]/]/ o;af/] ;xdlt ug{ ;lsG5 . dfcf]jfbL ;ef;b\ xl/ /f]sf rflxF sfª\u|]; / Pdfn] g]tfx¿ n8fs"nfO{ l;wf lbP/ labf lbg] ;f]rdf /x]sf] atfpF5g\ . bnx¿aLrsf] oxL c;xdltn] ;+ljwfg klxnf ls n8fs" ;dfof]hg eGg] ljjfb r'lnPsf] 5 . k6sk6ssf ;D‰f}tfdf n8fs" ;dfof]hg klxn] ug]{ elgPsfn] ;/sf/df ;fd]n bnx¿ ;+ljwfgcl3 g} n8fs"sf] d'2f 6'ª\Uofpg rfxG5g\ . 1jfnL eG5g\, æ;do 5f]6f] eP klg ljutsf ;xdltk|lt Odfgbf/ eP vf;} ;d:of 5}g .Æ dfcf]jfbLn] lx+;f Tofu]sf] ljZjf; gug]{ ;+;b\jfbL bnx¿ n8fs" Joj:yfkg k|lqmof cl3 a9fOP dfq} ljZjf;sf] jftfj/0f aGg] 7fG5g\ . sfª\u|]; dxfdGqL ljdn]Gb| lglwsf egfOdf, n8fs"x¿nfO{ ljz]if ;ldlt dftxt NofP/ pgLx¿sf] ;dfof]hg, k'g:yf{kg / :j]lR5s cjsfzaf/] sfplG;lnª ug{ ljz]if 6f]nL k7fpg'k5{ . To:tf] 6f]nLn] k|fljlws ;ldltn] tof/ kf/]sf] Kofs]h;lxt lzlj/df uP/ n8fs"nfO{ stf hfg] eg]/ 5gf]6sf] clwsf/ lbg] pNn]v ub}{ lglw eG5g\, æo;df Odfgbf/L b]vfP ljZjf;sf] jftfj/0f tof/ x'G5 .Æ t/, k|fljlws ;ldltsf ;+of]hs afnfgGb zdf{sf egfOdf, /fhgLlts lg0f{okl5 dfq ;ldltn] sfd yfngL ug{ ;S5 . ljz]if ;ldltsf ;b:o k'g ;dfof]hg / k'g: yf{kgf;DaGwL ;xdltcg';f/ cl3 a9]df ;d:of gx'g] atfpF5g\ . t/, ;dfof]hgdf hfg] n8fs" ;ª\Vofaf/] ;ldltdf 5nkmn yfngL eP klg dfcf]jfbL x7n] ubf{ of] k|lqmof To;} nyflnË 5, h;n] l;Ëf] zflGtk|lqmofnfO{ g} clg0f{osf] aGbL agfO/x]sf] 5 . !–!% h]7 @)^&

‹

lxdfn va/klqsf

17


cfj/0f ljZn]if0f

ca s] x'G5 ls x'gk' 5{ < k'?iff]Qd bfxfn

!$ h]7leq /fhgLlts ;xdlt / j}wflgs Joj:yfsf cfwf/df ;+ljwfg;ef hf]ufpg ;lsPg eg] ;}lgs jf /fhgLlts cltjfbsf] ;fdgf ug'{k5{ cyjf j}b]lzs x:tIf]k lglDtg ;S5 .

g]

kfn cfhsf lbgdf clwgfosjfbL /fhgLlts Joj:yfsf] ?kfGt/0f vf]lh/x]sf] 5}g . k/Dk/fut /fh;+:yfsf] cGTo;Fu} xfdL rf/ jif{cl3 nf]stflGqs ?kfGt/0fdf k|j]z ul/;s]sf 5f}+ . t/ clwgfosjfbsf 9f]sfx¿ k"0f{ ¿kn] aGb eO;s]sf] 5}g . ha;Dd nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] ;+:yfut ljsf;sf nflu cfjZos ;+:yfx¿ ;+j}wflgs / sfg"gL k|lqmofsf ;fy :yflkt ul/Fb}gg\ / nf]stflGqs ;+:s[ltn] cfˆgf] Jofjxfl/s uGtJo ;dflt;s]sf] x'Fb}g ta;Dd nf]stGqsf] sdhf]/ Kjfnaf6 clwgfosjfbn] lrofpg] sfd ul//x]sf] x'G5 . clxn] g]kfndf rln/x]sf] ;ª\qmd0f, c:tJo:ttf / c/fhstfsf] d"n k|jz ] åf/af6 g} /fhgLlts jf ;}lgs lg/ª\sz ' tfjfb cfpg] xf] ls eg]/ cfzÍf al9/xg'sf] sf/0f klg oxL xf] . ^) jif{kl5 g]kfnL hgtfn] :jtGq ;fj{ef}d ;jf]{Rrtf k|fKt u/]sf] pb\3f]if;lxt cfkm}+n] lgjf{lrt u/]sf k|ltlglwx¿dfkm{t gofF ;+ljwfg agfpg] cj;/ kfPsf 5g\ . t/ g]kfnsf /fhg]tfx¿n] h;/L ljutdf ;ª\3if{ / cfTdalnbfgaf6 k|fKt nf]stflGqs kl/0ffdx¿nfO{ cfˆgf cIfdtf / c;kmntfsf sf/0f hf]ufpg g;s]/ k6sk6s u'dfP clxn] km]l/ ToxL l:ylt bf]xf]l/g] xf] ls eGg] cfzÍf a9\b}5 . ;+ljwfg;efn] ;dodf ;+ljwfg agfpg g;s]kl5 o:tf] vt/f b]lvPsf] xf] . o; cj:yfdf ca s] x'G5 eGg g;lsg] ePsf] 5 . To;}n] o:tf] c;kmntfsf] ;Defljt vt/f 6fNg ca s] ul/g'k5{ eg]/ ax; rnfpg' cfjZos ePsf] 5 .

uNtL gbf]xf]¥ofpFm

;doleq ;+ljwfg aGg g;Sg'df s]xL vf; j:t'ut / k|j[lQut sf/0fx¿ lhDd]jf/ 5g\ . & dª\l;/ @)^@ df hf/L g]kfnL sfª\u|]; / Pdfn];lxt ;ft bn / g]skf dfcf]jfbLaLrsf] !@ a'Fb] ;xdlt ljZjf;sf cfwf/df geP/ afWotf / /0fgLltsf txt ePsf] lyof] . dfcf]jfbLn] cfˆgf] k"j{ ;xof]uL b/af/ sdhf]/ eP/ klg nf]stflGqs k|0ffnL / /fhgLlts zlQmlj?4 cfqmfds ePsf] cj:yfdf b/af/lj?4 afFsL /fhgLlts bnx¿;Fu ldNg] t/ clGtd uGtJonfO{ g5f8\g] /0fgLlts of]hgf agfPsf] lyof] . cyf{t\ klxn] /fh;+:yf ;dfKt kfg{ bnx¿sf] ;xof]u lng] / ;xof]u lbg] t/ /fh;+:yfsf] pGd"ngkZrft\ bz jif{sf] lx+;fTds df/ v]k]sf / ;Ë7gsf] u|fdL0f cfwf/ u'dfP/ sdhf]/ ePsf bnx¿dfly lgoGq0f ub}{ cfkm"n] rfx] h:tf] /fhgLlts k|0ffnL :yfkgf ug]{ /0fgLlt lyof] Tof] . dfcf]jfbLnfO{ ;xof]u ub}{ /fhfn] if8\oGqd"ns 9Ëaf6 ;Qf xftdf lng] / /fhgLlts zlQmx¿nfO{ ;dfKt kfg{] of]hgf agfPsf] b]v]kl5 ;ft bnn] klg To;lj?4 hgtfs} lsQfaf6 lgdf{0f ePsf] dfcf]jfbL;Fu ldNg' pko'Qm x'g] lgisif{ lgsfn]sf lyP . cyf{t\ of] lgisif{ ljZjf;sf cfwf/df geP/ afWofTds kl/l:yltsf] pkh lyof] . of] afWotf / /0fgLltsf] rqmJo"x oyfjt\ /fVb} 18

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dfcf]jfbL;Fu ;/sf/ / ;ft /fhgLlts bnx¿n] ;+ljwfg;ef lgjf{rgsf] k"j{;GWof;Dd u/]sf bz j6f ;xdlt / ;D‰f}tfx¿ klg dfcf]jfbLn] cfˆg} /0fgLltnfO{ alnof] kfg{ / c¿ bnx¿n] kl/l:yltsf] afWotfnfO{ :jLsf/ ug]{ ;f]rcg'?k x'g k'u]sf] b]lvG5 . ;+ljwfg;ef lgjf{rgk"j{ l5gf]kmfgf] eO;Sg'kg]{ cfjZos s]xL d'2fx¿ yftL /xg'n] klg of] ;f]rnfO{ k'li6 u/]sf] 5 . vf;u/L dfcf]jfbL n8fs"sf] ;dfof]hg / k'g:yf{kg dfq} xf]Og nf]stflGqs k|0ffnLnfO{ klxnf] / clGtd ljsNk dfGg] afWosf/L ;xdlt ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rgcl3 g} x'g'kg]{ lyof] . ;+ljwfg;efdf nf]stGqsf] ljsNk x'g] u/L jf nf]stGqsf cfwf/e"t dfGotf / l;4fGt lj/f]wL s'g} klg k|:tfjx¿ cfpg g;Sg] ;xdlt x'g;s]sf] eP / ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfjcl3 g} n8fs"x¿sf] pko'Qm Joj:yfkg x'g;s]sf] eP ;doleq} ;+ljwfg hf/L ug{ s'g} sl7gfO{ x'g] lyPg . dfcf]jfbLOt/ /fhgLlts bnx¿n] of t cfkm" sdhf]/ /x]sf] xLgu|GyLsf sf/0f n8fs" ;dfof]hg / k'g:yf{kg ug{ ;s]gg\÷rfx]gg\, cyjf nf]stGqk|lt dfcf]jfbLsf] e/kbf]{ k|lta4tf lng ;s]gg\ . o;sf] kZrfQfk cfh pgLx¿df b]lvO/x]sfn] ;+ljwfg agfpg] s'/fdf s'g} pT;fx 5}g . dfcf]jfbLn] c¿ /fhgLlts bnx¿nfO{ hlt;'s} sdhf]/ 7fg] klg g]kfnL ;]gf, nf]stGqsf nflu ;xof]u ug]{ cGt/f{li6«o ;d'bfo, jx'njfbdf c8]sf] g]kfnL ;~rf/ If]q / ;r]t gful/s ;d'bfonfO{ cfˆgf] alnof] k|ltkIf 7fg]sf] 5 . o;}sf/0f logdfly ljho gkfP;Dd cfkm"n] rfx] h:tf] ;+ljwfg agfpg ;lsFb}g eGg] lgisif{df k'u]sf] x'gfn] Pg]skf dfcf]jfbL ;+ljwfg agfpg] x/]s 7fpFdf cj/f]ws kvf{nx¿ v8f ug]{ sfd ul//x]sf] 5 . ;+ljwfg;ef lgjf{rgnuQ} ;+ljwfgdf cNkdt / ax'dtsf] ul0ftLo v]nsf] 9f]sf vf]Ng] sfd xf];\ ls /fi6«kltsf] lgjf{rg cyjf k|wfgdGqLdf …k|r08ÚnfO{ cfpg glbg ul/Psf] cndn, g]kfnL sfª\u|]; k|ltkIfdf /xg] lg0f{o,


dLg/Tg ah|frfo{

ha;Dd nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] ;+:yfut ljsf;sf nflu cfjZos ;+:yfx¿ ;+jw} flgs / sfg"gL k|lqmofsf ;fy :yflkt ul/Fbg} g\ / nf]stflGqs ;+:s[ltn] cfkm\gf] Jofjxfl/s uGtJo ;dflt;s]sf] x'bF g} ta;Dd nf]stGqsf] sdhf]/ Kjfnaf6 clwgfosjfbn] lrofpg] sfd ul//x]sf] x'G5 .

/ cfˆgf] kf6L{sf] g]t[TjnfO{ klxnf] zt{ dflg/x]sf] 5 . o;df klg @( j}zfvdf gful/s 5nkmndf dfcf]jfbL cWoIf bfxfnn] h;sf] g]t[Tjdf ;/sf/ ag] klg ;xdltsf cfwf/df ug{ ;lsg], jfO{;LPnsf] ;}lgs ;+/rgf eË ug]{, sAhf hUufhldg lkmtf{ ug]{ egL s]xL pbf/ / nrstfk"0f{ k|lta4tf bf]xf]¥ofPsf 5g\ . olb o;nfO{ dfGg] xf] eg] dfcf]jfbLn] eljiodf nf]stGqsf] ljsNk s'g} klg cj:yfdf gvf]Hg] csf]{ of}6f k|lta4tf yk ug{ ;Sof] eg] ca dfcf]jfbLs} g]t[Tjdf ;/sf/ u7g ug]{lt/ c¿ /fhgLlts bnx¿n] klg ;xdlt hgfpg'kb{5 . ;/sf/sf] ufF7f] km'sfNg dfcf]jfbLsf g]tfx¿ jf cGo 7"nf jf ;fgf cu|udgsf kIfw/ /fhgLlts bnsf] g]t[Tjdf ;/sf/ u7g ug]{ ;xdltdf k'Ug} kb{5 . cfkm" jf cfkm}Fn] eg]adf]lhd eGg] c8fg /fVg' c;xdlts} cg';/0f x'g]5 . t/ oltn] dfq} casf] af6f] to x'g;Sb}g . ;ª\3Lotfsf] dfGo cfwf/, /fHox¿sf] gfpF / ;fwg;|f]tsf] Gofof]lrt ljt/0f, s]Gb| / ;+3aLrsf] cGt/ ;DaGw / l;Ëf] b]znfO{ hf]8\g ;Sg] zf;sLo k|0ffnLdfly ;xdlt x'g;s]g eg] ;+ljwfg slxNo} klg aGb}g . ca t wd{sf] lvrnf] klg z'? eO;s]sf] 5 . hlt ;ª\qmd0f nlDaFb} hfG5 Tolt g} gofF ;d:ofx¿ cfljef{j x'Fb} hfG5g\ . o;} klg !$ h]7leq} ;+ljwfg;efnfO{ /fhgLlts ;xdlt / j}wflgs Joj:yfsf cfwf/df hf]ufpg ;lsPg eg] ;}lgs jf /fhgLlts cltjfbsf] ;fdgf g]kfnn] ug}{kg]{ x'G5 . cyjf alnof] j}b]lzs x:tIf]k v]Kg'kg]{ x'G5 . ;fdfGo cj:yfdf b]zsf] ult /xFb}g . o:tf] cjfl~5t cj:yf cfpg glbg] xf] eg] dfcf]jfbLn] nf]stGqdfly ljho kfpg] tyf gofF;Qf / k|0ffnLsf] /0fgLlt kl/Tofu ug'{k5{ eg] c¿ /fhgLlts bnx¿n] klg dfcf]jfbLdfly zÍfsf] ;f6f] ljZjf;sf ;fy ;xsfo{ ug{} kb{5 . a'Fbfut ¿kdf Q tL ;"qx¿sf] JofVof km]l/ klg x'g;S5 .

k|wfg ;]gfklt k|s/0f / k|wfgdGqLaf6 …k|r08Úsf] /flhgfdfb]lv ;+ljwfg;ef / ;+;bLo a}7sdf b]lvPsf] cj/f]wsf] cj:yf xf];\ oL ;a} ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf af6f]df 7l8Psf kvf{nx¿ x'g\ . oL kvf{n cfkm}+ 7l8Psf xf]Ogg\ . o;df g]kfnsf ;a} /fhgLlts g]tfx¿ / pgLx¿nfO{ cu|kª\lStdf /fv]/ nfdf] ;dob]lv rln/x]sf] k/Dk/fut cGt/f{li6«o If]qsf] k|f]S;L jf/ klg o;df plQs} lhDd]jf/ 5 . h;nfO{ lrg{ g]kfnLx¿ c‰} ;dy{ x'g;s]sf 5}gg\ .

;xdltsf] gofF cfwf/

kl5Nnf] r/0fdf Ps dlxgf ;do afFsL /xFbf dfcf]jfbLn] cfd /fhgLlts x8tfnsf] cfof]hgf u/L ;+ljwfg a]n}df Nofpg ul/g] ;xdlt / ;xsfo{sf ;Defjgfx¿nfO{ 6f9f k'Ug] kl/l:ylt v8f ul/lbPsf] lyof] . p;n] /fhwfgLjf;L / g]kfnsf k9fn]vfx¿ lj?4 cfkm"nfO{ h;/L v'nfd~raf6} k|:t't u¥of] / eljiodf Ps–Pssf] clen]v /fv]/ lx;fa ug]{ wDsL lbof] To;n] klg nf]stGqsf] af6f]df lxF8\g c‰} dfcf]jfbL tof/ 5}g eGg] :ki6 u/]sf] 5 . oBlk @% j}zfvsf] cfˆg} egfOk|lt t'?Gt} j}zfv @( ut] cWoIf bfxfnn] b'Mv k|s6 / Ifdf ofrgf ub}{ ;Rofpg] sfd u/]sf 5g\ . uNtL :jLsfg'{ dxfgtf xf] eg] ;'wf/ ug'{ cltdxfgtf xf] . dxfgtf b]vfPsf 5g\ bfxfnn] ca sfof{Gjog u/L cltdxfgtf ;d]t b]vfpg] 5g\ eg]/ cfzf u/f}+ . of] :jLs[lt / ;'wf/ ug]{ k|lta4tfn] ubf{ jftfj/0f ;ª\lng] ;Í]t klg b]vfPsf] 5 . t/ ;/sf/sf] g]t[Tjdf clN‰Psf] ufF7f] c‰} km':sg] ;Defjgf 5}g . ;/sf/sf] g]tT[ j ul//x]sf /fhgLlts bnx¿ dfcf]jfbL n8fs"sf] ;dfof]hg / k'g:yf{kgf, jfO{;LPnsf] cw{–;}lgs ;+/rgf, 3/hUuf lkmtf{ h:tf zt{x¿nfO{ /fhgLlts lgsf;sf cfwf/ dflg/x]sf 5g\ . dfcf]jfbL eg] k|wfgdGqL dfwjs'df/ g]kfnsf] /flhgfdf !–!% h]7 @)^&

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k|r08sf] lgolt sd/]8 …k|r08Úsf] /fhgLlts ofqfsf] ;f/e"t nIo eg]s} ;Qf, aGb's / k};f xf] . huGgfy vltj8fsf] l6Kk0fL j}zfvsf] zflGt;efdf ;xefuL sf7df8f}+sf zflGtsfdL gful/sx¿nfO{ rsf]{ ufnL u/]kl5 yk cfnf]Ro ag]sf Pdfcf]jfbLsf cWoIf k'iksdn bfxfnn] ofs P08 otL xf]6nsf] aGb sf]7fleq s]xL dflg;nfO{ af]nfP/ dfkmL dfu]sf]df wGojfb lbg}k5{ . v'nfd~rdf xhf/f+} hgtfdf‰ ufnL u/]/ ;o–krf;;Fu dfkmL dfUg] pgsf] rnfvL uhasf] 5 . pgn] a'l4hLjL–Joj;foLx¿;Fu Ifdf dflu/xFbf cfdhgtf;Fu ‰'Sg] hdsf]{ rflxF u/]gg\ . dfgf}+, hgtfsf] efjgf;Fu v]njf8 ug'{ pgsf nflu ;fdfGo xf] . pgsf] kl/efiffdf hf] …hgtfÚ lyPgg\, ltgsf cufl8 nHhfaf]w ePsf] xfpefp u/], lwdf :j/df af]n] clg ;s; eP ‰}+ u/]/ …dnfO{ Ifdf lbg'xf];\Ú eg] . hDdf Ps k|ltzt v/fa a'l4hLjLnfO{ dfq ufnL u/]sf] eg]/ v'nfP . pkl:ytx¿n] klg cfkm"x¿ (( k|ltztdf k/]sf] ;D‰]sf] x'g'k5{ . ptf cWoIf dxf]bonfO{ nfUof] xf]nf– d}n] cfh km]l/ logLx¿nfO{ yfª\gfdf ;'tfPF, nf}/f] gefFlrsg} ;k{nfO{ l;WofPF . nfU5, ;don] 7§f u/]sf] clxn]sf] g]kfnL /fhgLltdf s]xL JolQmnfO{ gfd cg';f/sf] sfd klg h'/]sf] 5 . dfcf]jfbLsf cWoIfnfO{ g} x]/f}+, hGd]sf] !!cf}+ lbgdf pgL 5ljnfn lyP . k'/f]lxtn] Gjf/fgdf oxL gfd /flvlbP . 5lj cyf{t\ ;"o{sf] ls/0f, t]h, ;f}Gbo{ cflb . To;kl5 pgL k'iksdn cyf{t\ km"n ag] . hgo'4df xf]ldPkl5 …k'iksdnÚ pgnfO{ dgkg]{ gfd ePg . cfˆgf] l;4fGt, cf]h, t]h / ultnfO{ of] gfdn] y]Ug g;s]sf] cg'ej ePsf] x'Fbf] xf], cfˆgf] Gjf/fg cfkm}+ u/]/ pgL …k|r08Ú ag] . k|r08 cyf{t\ Hofb} v/f], s;};Fu gbAg], g8/fpg], ;xg d'lZsn cflb . h] xf];\, gfd cg';f/sf] sfd ug]{ lj/n} dflg;dWo] k/]sf]df a'l4hLjL, k]zfsdL{ / gful/sx¿n] k|r08sf] ;dy{g ug}{ k5{ . cfnf]rgf t tL ljr/fx¿sf] x'g'k5{, hf] wgaxfb'/ gfd /fv]/ hLjge/ sËfn /xG5g\ . k|r08 Pp6f cltjfb, pu|jfb of ;a}eGbf rsf]{ clt xf] . To;}n] pgL lj/f]w rsf]{ u5{g\, ;dy{g klg rfs/Ls} z}nLdf u5{g\ . slxn] ;'?Ë o'4åf/f s'g} b]znfO{ 7]ufg nufpg] cltjfbdf x'G5g\ t slxn] ToxL ;'?Ë dfu{af6 ;fpy–Ansdf cjt/0f u5{g\ . slxn] pu|jfdkGyL cj;/jfb t slxn] pu|blIf0fkGyL cj;/jfbdf k'U5g\ . dfgf}+, k|r08kysf] df}lnstf g} oxL xf] . Pdfcf]jfbLleq w]/}j6f k|r08nfO{ Ps;fy lxFl8/x]sf] b]Vg ;lsG5 . hf]–sf]xLnfO{ bDek"j{s tyfgfd ufnL ug{ ;Sg], h;nfO{ klg ju{ zq' / bnfn b]Vg ;Sg], cfˆgf] af]nL cfkm}+nfO{ k|lts"n x'g]lalQs} …cfkm}+ To:tf] x'g uPsfn]Ú Ifdf kfpmF klg eGg ;Sg] . k|r08 zAb gfd xf]Og, ljz]if0f g} alg;s]sf] 5 . t;y{ …k|r08Ú zAbnfO{ cWoIf kbn] dfq wfGg g;Sg] b]lvPsfn] kf6L{sf ;a}sf] u'0fjQf ;d]6g\ ] u/L pgLx¿sf] gfddf ;d]t …k|r08Ú pk;u{ nufpg' a'l4dfgL x'g]5 . pbfx/0fsf nflu k|r08–nfnWjh, k|r08–ls/0f, k|r08–k|sfz, k|r08–afbn cflb . o:tf gfdx¿n] Pdfcf]jfbL kf}/v, uf}/j / ;EotfnfO{ cfTd;ft\ ug{ ;Sg] lyP . 20

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cfkm";uF gePsf] ;Qf k|flKtsf nflu k|r08 slxn] ?G5g\, slxn] xfF:5g\ . slxn] ufnL u5{g,\ slxn] >fk lbG5g\ . slxn] xTof, cft+snfO{ k|>o lbG5g\ t slxn] lz/ lgx'¥ofP/ dfkmL dfU5g\ . ofs P08 otL xf]6nsf] gf6s oxL z[ªv \ nfsf] 5f]6f] b[Zo dfq xf] .


afa'/fd e§/fO{nfO{ ef/tn] k|wfgdGqL agfpg nfu]sf] cf/f]k nufPsf] ef]lnkN6 k|r08n] ;f] kbdf cfˆg} bfj]bf/L k|:t't u/] . cfdx8tfnsf] a]nf pgsf] s8f k|:tfj lyof]– dfwj g]kfnn] /flhgfdf u/]/ dfq x'Fb}g, k|r08nfO{ k|wfgdGqL gagfO{ cfGbf]ng /f]lsFb}g . t/ km]l/ PsfPs pgsf] cleJolQm ;'lgof]– g]t[Tj cfhsf] d"n d'2f xf]Og . v'nfd~rdf /f}b| ¿kdf k|s6 ePsf g]tf rf}yf] lbgdf ljgd| b]lvg vf]Hg'nfO{ ;sf/fTds gb]Vg' cfd¿kdf k"jf{u|x x'g;Sb5 . oBlk, To;leq Odfgbf/L xf]Og, s'l6n ljrf/ k|If]k0f ug]{ w"Tof{OF 5 eg]/ cg'dfg ug{ ufx|f] kb}{g . cGtl/d Joj:yflksf ;+;b\df pkl:yt x'Fbf *# hgf …d}nfw}nfÚ dflg;sf] cg'xf/ km'Ë p8]sf] b]lvGYof] . pgLx¿ hgo'4sf] d}bfgaf6 ev{/} kmls{Psf dflg; ePsfn] ;Ddfg ug'{k5{ eGg] efj c¿ ;f+;b\x¿df b]lvGYof] . To;f] t ;+ljwfg;ef lgjf{rgkl5 cfPsf ;a} @$) …d}nfw}nfÚ cfh kmqmFbf] hjfgLdf k|jz ] u/] ‰}+ ‰l/nf b]lvG5g\ . /, c¿nfO{ cxf]/fq ufnL clg cfˆgf] 9fs5f]k u5{g\ . ;r]t gful/sx¿sf] cg'dfgdf Pdfcf]jfbLsf cWoIf dlxgfdf sDtLdf %–& nfv ?k}ofF vr{ u5{g\ . jif{ lbgel/df Ps xhf/sf] gf]6 Ps}k6s xftdf gkg]{ w]/} g]kfnLsf oL …d'lQmbftfÚ g]tf zfgk"0f{ hLjgsf nflu oltsf /sd l;WofpF5g\ . s7k'tnL elgPsf] ;/sf/af6 dfl;s ?=*) xhf/ a'´5g\ . s/f]8eGbf a9L kg]{ ;/sf/L uf8L / ;'/Iff k|fKt u5{g\ . pgsf s]Gb|Lo ;b:ox¿ klg s7k'tnL ;/sf/sf] uf8L, 8«fOe/, OGwg / ;'/Iff pkef]u u5{g\ . lhNnfsf g]tf–sfo{stf{x¿ eg] kf6L{sf] gfddf …:jo+kfSoÚ aG5g\ . cflv/ of] ;a s]sf nflu < otflt/ sd}n] dfq ;f]r]sf 5g\ . s]sf nflu eg] sd/]8 k|r08sf] /fhgLlts ofqfsf] ;f/e"t nIo

k|r08 Pp6f cltjfb, pu|jfb of ;a}eGbf rsf]{ clt xf] . To;}n] pgL lj/f]w rsf]{ u5{g,\ ;dy{g klg rfs/Ls} z}nLdf u5{g\ . slxn] ;'?Ë o'4åf/f s'g} b]znfO{ 7]ufg nufpg] cltjfbdf x'G5g\ t slxn] ToxL ;'?Ë dfu{af6 ;fpy–Ansdf cjt/0f u5{g\ . eg]s} ;Qf, aGb's / k};f xf] . h;sf] /fhgLlts cfbz{ g} ;Qf, aGb's / k};fdf 5, p;n] kf6L{ / hgtfsf nflu s] g} kf] ;f]Rnf / Û cfh pgL;Fu k};fsf] clgsfn 5}g . Pp6f cfGbf]ngdf caf}{+ ?k}ofF vr{g] x}l;ot 5 . aGb's, ad, lu|g]8nufot ;fgf–7"nf xltof/sf] kf}nf] g} 5, geP v'nf l;dfgf 5Fb}5 . 3/ hnfP/ lju't 3:g] …dxfgtfÚ 5 . gePsf] t s]jn ;Qf dfq xf] . cfkm";Fu gePsf] ;Qf k|flKtsf nflu k|r08 slxn] ?G5g\, slxn] xfF:5g\ . slxn] ufnL u5{g\, slxn] >fk lbG5g\ . slxn] xTof, cftÍnfO{ k|>o lbG5g\ t slxn] lz/ lgx'¥ofP/ dfkmL dfU5g\ . ofs P08 otL xf]6nsf] gf6s oxL z[ª\vnfsf] 5f]6f] b[Zo dfq xf] . dfof u?F eGbf ug{ gkfOg], ufnL u?F eGbf ltgsf] g[z+;tfnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ zAb gkfOg]Ù cf}+nf] lbFbf 8F'8'nf] ;d]t lgNg] k|r08 cEof;af6 d'n's clxn] cfxt 5 . o;y{ a'l4hLjLx¿ s[kof gl/;fpg'xf];\, a? sljnf ;Eotfaf6 dfly p7\g ;3fpg'xf];\ Q / k|Zg ug'{xf];\– s] b'i6 x'g' tkfO{+x¿sf] lgolt xf] <

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cfdx8tfnsf] qmddf /fhwfgLdf dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{ .

jif{ lx+ ; fTds ljb| f ] x u/] s f] kf6L{nfO{ zflGtk"0f{ nf]stflGqs dfu{df Nofpg ;kmn Pdfcf]jfbL cWoIf k'iksdn bfxfn :jod\ To;df /dfpg g;Sbf x/]s ljifodf kf6L{ c;kmn eO/x]sf] 5 eg] sfo{stf{ ljb|f]xL dfgl;stfaf6 d'Qm x'g;s]sf 5}gg\ . ToxL bDen] dfcf]jfbLnfO{ !*–@$ j}zfvdf b]z 7Kk kfg{ pS;fof], t/ c;kmn x'g]u/L . l;Ëf] b]zn] zflGt / :yfloTjsf] dfu ul//x]sf] a]nf Pdfcf]jfbLsf] of] b':;fx; Ps jif{cufl8 tTsfnLg ;]gfklt ?Sdfª\ub s6jfndflysf] c;kmn sf/afxLs} lg/Gt/tf lyof] . kl5Nnf] cfdx8tfn lkmtf{ ug' { k g] { afWotf Pdfcf]jfbL g]t[Tjsf nflu slt s8f kmnfdsf] lrp/f lyof] eGg] a'´g @$ j}zfvdf dlng d'bf| df kqsf/sf cufl8 k]z ePsf bfxfnsf] cfu|x g} sfkmL 5 . To; ;fF‰ pgn] …kf6L{sf] ;+j]bgzLntfnfO{ dgg\ u/]/ ;dfrf/ ;Dk|i] f0f ul/lbgÚ kqsf/x¿;Fu cfu|x u/]sf lyP . kf6L{sf :yfoL ;ldlt ;b:o 6f]kaxfb'/ /fodf‰L ;ft lbgsf] cfd x8\tfnaf6 ljb|fx] xf]Og, zflGtk"0f{ cfGbf]ng cfjZos ePsf] kf6L{n] a'‰]sf] atfpF5g\ . df3 @)^^ sf] s]Gb|Lo ;ldltsf] a}7sn] rf/ cg'sn" tfsf cfwf/df hgljb|fx] sf] ;do cfPsf] lgisif{ lgsfn]sf] lyof]— klxnf], ;Qf;Lg bnx¿sf] hgfwf/ 36]sf] / cfˆgf] a9]sf]Ù bf];|f], cGt/f{li6«o zlQm ljeflht ePsf] / To;sf] Ps kIfn] cfkm" n fO{ ;xof]u ug]{Ù t];|f], zflGt / ;+ljwfg eGb} ljb|f]xdf hfFbf hgtfn] kTofpg]Ù / rf}yf], oL ;a}sf] ;dGjodf vfl/Psf] g]t[Tj . t/, cfdx8\tfnsf] ¿kdf ljb|f]x yfn]sf] ;ft} lbgdf kf6L{n] lrt vfFbf g cWoIf bfxfnsf] rt'¥ofOFn] sfd u¥of] g t pgsf] JolQmTjn] g} .

c:ki6 ch]08f

ljb|f]xsf nflu b]ze/ k|lzlIft sfo{stf{ ;8sdf …;fFRr} ;Qfsf] nflu xf] eg] Hofg lbg tof/ 5f},F k|r08nfO{ k|wfgdGqL agfpg dfq xf] eg] o;} eGg ;lsGgÚ eGg] d"8df lyP . /fhwfgLsf !* 7fpFdf sfo{stf{sf] g]t[Tj ul//x]sf kf]ln6Ao'/f] ;b:ox¿n] of]

efjgf ;'gfPkl5 dfq Pdfcf]jfbL g]t[Tjn] cfˆgf] w/ftn 5fDg'kg]{ oyfy{ dx;'; u¥of] . Ps kf]ln6Ao'/f] ;b:o eG5g\, æsfo{stf{x¿ af/Daf/ cfGbf]ng s]sf nflu, xfdL ;8sdf pk|mFbf /fHo;Qf kl/jt{g x'G5 eg]/ ;f]Wg yfn], hjfkm lbg} ufx|f] eof] .Æ ;8sdf Ps nfv sfo{stf{ NofpFbf kfFrnfv dflg; cfkm}+ cfpF5g\ eGg] cfsngn] klg wf]sf lbPsf] tL kf]ln6Ao'/f] ;b:osf] cg'ej 5 . oyfy{df dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{ g} of] a]nf cfdx8tfn s]sf nflu eg]/ :ki6 lyPgg\ . ;ft lbg ;8sdf a:bf cGttM pgLx¿n] klg cfd g]kfnLs} a'‰fO a'‰]— dfwjs'df/ g]kfnsf] ;f6f] k'iksdn bfxfnnfO{ k|wfgdGqL agfpg . To;dfly ;Qf;Lg bnx¿sf] cfGtl/s dte]bsf] kmfObf p7fpg] tfsdf /x]sf] Pdfcf]jfbLn] Tolt a]nf csf]{ lrt vfof] ha p;n] …9f]8sf n7\7LÚ eg]sf g]tfx¿ jt{dfg u7aGwg ;/sf/sf] arfpdf Psh'6 eP . ef/t lj?4 rLg pleg] / o'/f]k]nL o'lgogb]lv ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+3;Ddn] cfˆgf] kIfdf af]lnlbg] ljZjf;df /x]sf] Pdfcf]jfbL g]t[Tjsf] cfsngnfO{ klg a]Olhªn] …tTsfn ;xdlt vf]HgÚ eg]/ …dgsf] n8\8Ú' agfOlbof] . cfˆgf] k6s–k6ssf] rLg e|d0faf6 a9L cfZj:t bfxfnn] æ;Qf 5f]8\g' unt lyof], c¿ bn;Fu ldn]/ ;/sf/df hfFbf / ef/t;Fu b"/L 36fpFbf lxt x'G5Æ eGg] a]Olhªs} ;Nnfx la;{+bf dfcf]jfbLnfO{ of] kl/0ffd xft nfu]sf] a'´g ufx|f] 5}g . @@ j}zfvdf lbNnL k7fOPsf kf]ln6Ao'/f] ;b:o /fd sfsL{sf] ef/t, cfdx8tfn t s] ;fdfGo cfGbf]ngsf] klg lj?4 5 eGg] ;Gb]z klg cgk]lIft lyPg . x'g t, cfdx8tfn ef/tn] ;dy{g gu/]s} cfqmf]zdf klg ePsf] Pdfcf]jfbLsf Ps kbflwsf/L atfpF5g\ . hlt nfdf] cfGbf]ng u/] klg kf6L{nfO{ ef/tn] gx]/s ] f] atfpFb} tL kbflwsf/L eG5g\, æTo;}n] of] ef/tlj/f]wL …k|f]S;L jf/Ú klg lyof] . o; cy{df dfwj g]kfn / ;Qf;Lg bnx¿ dfWod dfq ePsf x'g\ .Æ dfcf]jfbLn] xhf/f}+ sfo{stf{nfO{ /fhwfgL Nofpg …sf7df8f}+ sAhf u/]kl5 ;a} ;Qf xfd|f] x'G5Ú eg]sf lyP . t/, oxfF cfO;s]kl5 !–!% h]7 @)^&

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;'Gb/, zfGt of] e"lddf !) jif{ xTof, ckx/0f / ljWj+;sf] z[ª\vnf rNof] . xhf/f}+ 6'x'/f, ljwjf / ljb'/ eP, cfˆg} b]zdf z/0ffyL{ ag] . xhf/f}+n] qm"/ oftgf / cËeË ef]u] . b]zn] rfx]/ klg la;{g g;Sg] tLtf] oyfy{ aGof]— of] sfnv08 . afx|a'Fb] ;xdlt / zflGt;D‰f}tfsf] Pp6f kIfsf ¿kdf /x]sf / ;+ljwfg;ef lgjf{rgkl5 d'n'ssf] k|wfgdGqL ag]sf dfcf]jfbL cWoIf k'iksdn bfxfn t}klg zflGt / gofF ;+ljwfgsf] kIfdf b]lvPgg\, a? hgtfnfO{ cfwf/e"t clwsf/af6 jl~rt kfb}{ ;8sdf gfrufg / ufnLunf}h ub}{5g\ . ljlw aflx/sf] pgsf] cfdx8tfn ;Qfk|flKtdf s]lGb|t lyof], h;nfO{ hgtfn] d~h'/ u/]gg\ . lsgls, hgtf s'g} klg vfn] cltjfb lj?4 5g\ . afWo eP/ x8tfn lkmtf{sf] 3f]if0ff ug]{ qmddf pgn] gful/s zflGt;efsf ;xefuLnfO{ lelhnfGt] eg], sf7df8f}+sf hgtf / :jtGq k]|;dfly t'R5 zAb vlr{P . HofbtLsf] lj/f]w ug]{ a"9fgLns07jf;LnfO{ v's'/L xfGg], k]:tf]n af]Sg] u'08f eg] . g]jf/ ;d'bfo dfcf]jfbL kf6L{sf] cfdx8tfndf gpq]sf] ‰f]s + df bfxfn ;dy{s ‰'08n] :juL{o g]tf u0f]zdfghLsf] 3/df ;d]t tf]8kmf]8 u/] . s'g} Pp6f kf6L{sf] :jfy{k"lt{sf nflu ;8sdf cfPgg\ eg]/ sf7df8f}+sf hgtfnfO{ o:tf] wDsL lbg ldN5 < g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ ufpF / zx/sf eGb} ljeflht ug{ kfOG5 < hgtfn] lx;fa /fVg]5g\ eg]/ bfuf wg{ ldN5 < k|];n] o:tf] wDsLsf] lx;fa /fVg gldNnf, gful/s;efsf cfof]hsn] klg g/fVnfg\ . t/, sf7df8f}+sf hgtfn] cjZo /fVg]5g\ . sf7df8f}+jf;Lsf tkm{af6 d g} of] lsg elg/x]sf] 5' eg] d tL xhf/f}+ kLl8tdWo]] Ps efUozfnL x'F, hf] dfcf]jfbL oftgf lzlj/af6 hLljt} kmls{g kfPF . s'/f @)^# ;fnsf] xf] . ltxf/sf] laxfg 3/d} k"hf ul//x]sf] a]nf crfgs k|s6 ePsf k]:tf]nwf/L dfcf]jfbLn] dnfO{ gfafns 5f]/f] / >LdtLs} ;fd'Gg] 6]a'ndf n8fO{ xftv'§f afFw]/ nu] . d]/f tLg h]7fg / 3/df sfd ug]{ efOnfO{ ;d]t afnfh' cf}Bf]lus If]qdf nu]/ df]afOn ;]6, l;qmL, ;'g / xL/fsf] cf}+7L n'6] . To;kl5 z'? u/] zf/Ll/s oftgfsf] eofgs z[ª\vnf . xTs8L / cfFvfdf k§L afFw]/ hxfF dg nfUof] ToxLF lgd{d k|xf/ ug{ yfn] . 5ftLsf] b'O{j6f x8\8L / s/ª efFlrlbP . b]a|] xftsf] sfG5L cf}+nfsf] gª pv]n] . c;x\o kL8faLr Ps lbg 7"nf] h]7fgnfO{ NofP/ …t]/f] HjfOFnfO{ nft xfg\Ú eg], bfOn] gdfGbf pxfFnfO{ g} lk6]/ d/0ff;Gg agfP . 3/sf] sfdbf/ efOnfO{ klg NofP/ To;} ug{ nufP, lj:tf/} xfGbf p;}nfO{ lk6] . a]xf]; gxf];\ eg]/ 3/L–3/L d]/f] sDd/df ;dft]/ pkmfy]{ . s]xLa]/df gofF dflg;x¿ cfP/ km]l/ a'6 / kfOkn] ;Sbf] lk6\y] . Psk6s t d}n] ;xg g;sL uf]nL xfg]/ dfg{ cg'/f]w u/]+ . ætFnfO{ olt ;lhn} sxfF df/f}+nf / ÛÆ eg] . Ps /ft d'v w'g lxF8\ eGb} nu]/ gªdf 8«]l;ª ul/lbP, sk8f / s]; klg ldnfOlbP . To;kl5 3r]6\b} lxF8fP . 7"nf] kfgL kl//x]sf] lyof] . pgLx¿n] dnfO{ Pp6f 3/df nu] hxfF d]/L alxgL 24

lxdfn va/klqsf

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!–!% h]7 @)^&

/ >LdtL klv{/x]sf /x]5g\ . s'/f a'´bf g]kfnL sfª\u|];sf g]tf z]/axfb'/ b]pjfn] dnfO{ l/xf gu/];Dd dfcf]jfbL;Fu hf/L jftf{df ga:g] c8fg lnP5g\ . kl/jf/, ;fyLefO, ;~rf/dfWod, kf6L{, g]kfnl:yt ;+oQ ' m /fi6«;3 + sf] sfof{non] klg l/xfOsf] bafa lbP5g\ . wGg d]/f] ;f; afFsL lyof] Û l/xfOsf] a]nf pgLx¿ cfkm}+n] n]v]sf] sfuhdf ;xL u/fP, lel8of] lvr] . kqsf/nfO{ e]6]/ s'/f u/] km]l/ o:t} 36gf bf]xf]l/g] wDsL lbP . dnfO{ >LdtLn] af]s]/ 3/ nlug\, t/ dlxgf}+;Dd ;'Tg, p7\g t k/} hfcf];\ d'v cfF ug{ klg ;lsgF . z/L/df gLn8fd gePsf] 7fpF lyPg . d]/f] cj:yf b]v]/ >LdtL n'sL–n'sL ?lGyg\, aRrfx¿df 7"nf] cf3ft k/]sf] lyof] . kl/jf/sf] :ofxf/af6 lj:tf/} tª\lu|Fb} uPF, t/ clxn] klg xftn] vfgf vfg ;lQmgF . oftgfkl5 tª\lu|Fb} hfFbf k'iksdn bfxfn d]/} af % r !*!& gDa/sf] uf8L r9]/ slxn] ef/tLo /fhb"t lzjzÍ/ d'vhL{ t slxn] dfgjclwsf/ pRr cfo'Qm;Fu e]6 ug{ uPsf b[Zo l6eLdf b]VyF] . d]/} kf6L{sf k|wfgdGqL lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnfnfO{ e]6\g afn'jf6f/ hfFbf klg pgL d]/} uf8L r9\y] . kf6L{ g]t[ ;'hftfsf] ;xof]udf Ps lbg afn'jf6/ uP/ lul/hfafa'nfO{ n'l6Psf] uf8L lkmtf{ u/fOlbg cg'/f]w u/]+ . pxfFn] u[xdGqLnfO{ v6fpg''eof] . t/, s]xL ;dokl5 pgL km'Ë p8]sf] cg'xf/ lnP/ cfP . To; lbg dnfO{ Joy}{ sfª\u|]; eP5' h:tf] nfUof] . Ps lbg crfgs uf8L afuahf/sf] czf]s xf]6ndf 5 eGg] va/ kfPF . d;Fu ePsf] cltl/Qm rfaL lnP/ xf]6n k'uL uf8L :6f6{ dfq u/]sf] lyPF, dfcf]jfbLn] 3]l/xfn] . Psl5g wSsf–d'SsL g} eof] . k|x/L klg cfOk'Uof] . b]j]Gb| kf}8]n gfdsf dfcf]jfbL g]tfn] æuf8L /fh'hLs} xf], pxfFnfO{ sfo{qmd u/]/ lbg eg]/} NofPsf xf}+, lsg u'08fubL{ u/]/ n}hfg vf]h]sf] <Æ eg]sf] ;'g]F . cfdx8tfn :ylut u/]kl5 @% j}zfvdf v'nfd~rsf] ;efdf pgsf cWoIf k'iksdn bfxfnn] klg xfdL a"9fgLns07jf;LnfO{ u'08f g} eg] . d]/f] k|Zg 5, ckx/0f / n'6df /dfpg] tL kL8sx¿ u'08f ls xfdL h:tf kLl8t u'08f < Q


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km]l/ wf]sf Û

tTsfnLg ;] g fklt s6jfnnfO{ x6fpg g;s]kl5 :juL{o lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnfnfO{ e]6\g k'u]sf bfxfnn] ælul/hfafa' d}n] wf] s f vfPF Æ eGbf sf] O /fnfsf] hjfkm lyof] , æd} n ] t To;f] ubf{ wf] s f x' G 5 eg]/ klxNo} eg]sf] lyPF, dfGg'ePg ÛÆ Tolta]nf bfxfnn] eg]sf] …wf]sfÚ Pdfn] cWoIf ‰ngfy vgfnaf6 ePsf] lyof] . tTsfnLg k|wfgdGqL bfxfnn] @) j}zfv @)^^ laxfg dlGqkl/ifb\ a}7skl5 kmf]g u/]/ s6jfn k|s/0fdf æPdfn] ;/sf/af6 aflxl/G5 eg] d k5fl8 x6\5'Æ eGbf cWoIf vgfnsf] pQ/ lyof], ætkfO{ lg0f{o ug'{;\, xfdL ;/sf/ 5f]8\b}gf}+ .Æ :juL{o sf]O/fnf lgs6 /x]sf Ps sfª\u|]; g]tfsf cg';f/ lg0f{o /f]s]/ klxnf cfkm"nfO{ e]6\g cfpg ToxL laxfg sf]O/fnfn] cfu|x ubf{ bfxfnn]

dLg/Tg ah|frfo{

@% j}zfvdf sf7df8f}s + f] a;Gtk'/df ;DkGg zflGt;ef .

eg]sf lyP, ædnfO{ Pdfn]sf] k"/f ;xof]u 5, ToxL cfwf/df lg0f{o x'G5 .Æ kl5Nnf] k6s klg bfxfnn] ætkfO{+n] hg;fu/ ptf/] k l5 xfdL dfwjhLnfO{ /flhgfdf ug{ afWo kf5f}{+Æ eGg] Pdfn] / sfª\u|];sf s]xL g]tfsf] af]nLnfO{ kTofPsf lyP . Pdfcf]jfbLsf Ps kbflwsf/L eG5g\, æpgLx¿n] cfGbf]ng b'O{ lbgeGbf a9L ug}{ kb}{g eg]sf lyP .Æ of] ;Gbe{df dfcf]jfbL ljb|f]xsf] aLr}df pkfWoIf jfdb]j uf}tdsf] g]t[Tjdf ^) hgf Pdfn] g]tfaf6 cfˆg} kf6L{sf] ;/sf/sf] /flhgfdf dfu cfpg' / kf6L{ cWoIf vgfnn] To;nfO{ æ^) hgfsf] dfq xf]Og, l;Ëf] g]kfnL hgtfsf] efjgf xf]Æ eGg'nfO{ ;+of]u dfq lyPg klg . o;/L klg …wf]sfÚ kfPsf] Pdfcf]jfbLn] @& j}zfvsf] :yfoL sld6L a}7saf6 ca pRr:t/Lo /fhgLlts ;+oGqdf ;d]t ga:g] wDsLk"0f{ lg0f{o u/]sf] 5 . k|fKt pknlAwx¿sf] /Iff ub}{ zflGt / ljsf;sf] af6f]df hfg] ls ljb|f]x u/]/ hgjfbL ;Qf :yfkgf ug]{ eGg] cfGtl/s ljjfbaLr cfdx8tfndf plqPsf] Pdfcf]jfbL To;sf] k|ltjfbdf hgnx/ cfPkl5 aLr}df :ylut ug]{ lg0f{odf k'u]sf] xf], gq kf6L{sf] Pp6f kIf clglZrtsfn;Dd} n}hfg sl6a4 lyof] . cfdx8tfn @$ j}zfveGbf cufl8 uPsf] eP cfkm"x¿n] rfx]/ klg lkmtf{ lng g;Sg] cj:yf cfpg] Pdfcf]jfbLsf Ps :yfoL ;ldlt ;b:o atfpF5g\ . cGttM dfcf]jfbL g]t[Tjn] sfo{stf{ ltvfg{ Ps xb;Dd ;kmn ePsf] / casf lbgdf sf7df8f}+df s;/L cfGbf]ng ug]{ eGg] cg'ej a6'lnPsf] lgisif{ lgsfn]/ x8tfn cGTo u¥of] .

uf}+8f / uNnLsf] /]sL

cfdx8tfn lkmtf{ lnPsf] ef]lnkN6 @% j}zfvsf] v'nfd~r ;efdf cWoIf bfxfnn] /fhwfgLjf;LnfO{ nIo u/]/ r]tfjgL lbP,

æhgtfn] skLdf n]Vg g;s] klg sf] sxfF a:5, s] u5{ eg]/ lbdfudf /fv]sf] 5, To;sf] Ps–Ps hjfkm lbg]5 .Æ pgsf] of] egfO kf6L{kª\lStnfO{ cfZj:t kfg]{ cleJolQm dfq lyPg, sl/a !) xhf/ sfo{stf{n] !) j}zfvb]lv !% lbg /fhwfgLsf uNnLuNnL rxf/] / u/] s f] …/] s LÚ sf] glthf klg lyof] . dfcf] j fbLsf Ps k" j { n8fs" n ] hfgsf/L lbPcg';f/, o;k6s cfGbf]ng;Fu;Fu} /fhwfgLsf] /0fgLlts cj:yf klxNofpg] sfddf klxn]–klxn]sf ;b/d'sfd cfqmd0fsf of]hgfsf/x¿ sf7df8f}+sf uf}+8f / uNnL kQf nufpg] cleofgdf vl6Psf lyP . tL n8fs" eG5g\, æ;'/Iff kf]i6x¿sf] b"/L, ToxfFaf6 ;s'zn hfg ;lsg] af6f] / tTsfn ;]N6/ lng] 7fpFsf] /]vfÍg ul/Psf] lyof] . To;afx]s cfkm" lj?4 v'n]/ nfu]sf JolQmnfO{ k|d'v b'Zdgsf] ;"rLdf /fv]/ pgLx¿sf] jf;:yfg, lxF8\g] af6f] / sfd ug]{ 7fpFsf] ;d]t ljj/0f lnOPsf] lyof] .Æ o'4af6 cfPsf] kf6L{dfly cfqmd0f x'g;Sg] cj:yfnfO{ Wofgdf /fv]/ /IffTds dha'tLsf nflu olt ug'{ :jfefljs} ePsf] ts{ ub}{ ] f / s'g pgn] eg], æhgtfn] ;a} uNnL b]vs ufF}8fdf slt / sqfsqf df5f kbf{ /x]5g\ eGg] a'‰]sf 5g\ .Æ o'4sf cg'ejLx¿nfO{ lzlj/df g/fvL jfO{;LPn agfOPsfn] of] sfd ug{ Pdfcf]jfbLnfO{ ufx|f] lyPg . ;/sf/n] klg d'ns ' df ;fFRr} n8fOFsf] cj:yf cfP dfcf]jfbLsf] klxnf] lgzfgfdf kg]{ JolQmx¿sf] ;'/Iffaf/] a]va/ g/x]sf] ;Í]t lbPsf] lyof] . !* j}zfv ;fF‰b]lv s]kL cf]nL;lxt Pdfn]sf rf/ / v'daxfb'/ v8\sf;lxt sfª\u;]| sf tLg g]tfnfO{ ljz]if ;'/Iff lbOPsf] lyof] . To:t} cfdx8tfns} aLr ;'/Iff kl/ifb\n] ;/sf/L sfof{nox¿sf] ;'/Iffdf ;]gf kl/rfngsf] lg0f{o ul/Psf] lyof] . cfdx8tfnsf] klxnf] lbg !( j}zfvdf ;8sdf lgl:sPsf Pdfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{sf] ;ª\ Vof cl3Nnf] lbg dO{ lbj;df v'nfd~rdf b]lvPsf] eGbf sl/a !% xhf/ sd ePsf] tYofÍ lgsfn]sf ;'/Iff lgsfox¿ klg pRr ;ts{tfdf lyP . Pdfcf]jfbLn] sfo{stf{sf] pQ]hgfnfO{ arfO/fVg h:tf];'s} /0fgLlt ckgfP klg b] z df kl5Nnf] cfdx8tfn k| s /0faf6 zflGt / nf]stGqs} cfjfh alnof] x'bF u} Psf] ljZn]ifsx¿sf] cg'ej 5 . o;n] Pdfcf]jfbLleq klg zflGt / ;+ljwfgs} nfOgdf ePsfx¿nfO{ dha't agfPsf] 5 . kf6L{leq of] nfOg dha't xFb' } hfFbf Pg]skf -dfcf]jfbL_ n] ljb]zL zlQm, ;xofqL /fhgLlts bn, gful/s ;dfh s;}af6 klg wf]sf / wSsf vfO/xg'kg]{ cj:yf cfpg] 5}g . Q !–!% h]7 @)^&

‹

lxdfn va/klqsf

25


dfcf]jfbL cfdx8tfn

hgtf lsg

@$ j}zfvdf sf7df8f}s + f] a;Gtk'/df cfof]lht zflGt;efkZrft\ :jtM:km"t{ ¿kdf lgl:sPsf] ¥ofnL .

26

lxdfn va/klqsf

‹

!–!% h]7 @)^&


hfu] < 8Da/s[i0f >]i7

@$

Pg]skf dfcf]jfbLsf] cfdx8tfndf hgtfsf] k|lt/f]w :j:km"t{ ljb|f]x lyof] . hjfkmdf dfcf]jfbLaf6 h]–h:tf] zAblrq k|:t't eP klg of] ;To :jLsf/ u/]/} p;sf] g]t[Tj kl5x6]sf] lyof] . /fd]Zj/ af]x/f sf] l/kf]6{

j} z fv lbpF ; f] nlntk' / sf] s[i0fdlGb/ kl/;/df ljklQsf] k"j{;"rs dflgg] 7"nf] 306 aHof], h;sf] cfjfh;Fu} kf6gjf;L ;8sdf cf]Ol/P . ;8sdf cf]ln{Psf nlntk'/jf;Ln] Pdfcf]jfbLsf] ‰08f kmx/fpFb} jfo'j]udf cfPsf] Pp6f hLk kN6fP/ ;Defljt ljklQnfO{ /f]lslbP . sf7df8f} + s f] a;Gtk' / df cfof] l ht zflGt;efdf lxF8]sf Joj;foL / ;j{;fwf/ 0fdfly s' k 08f] n df s' 6 lk6 ePsfn] kf6gjf;L laxfg}bl] v dfcf]jfbL;Fu cfqmf]lzt lyP . ToxL lbpF;f] 9'Ëf, nf7L, efnf / /8 af]s]sf dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{x¿ k'Nrf]saf6 d'Vo zx/lt/ xflgPkl5 kf6g If]qdf lji0f' dNnsL /fgLn] tn]h' b]jLnfO{ r9fPsf]

P]ltxfl;s 306 ah]sf] lyof] . ;+:s[ltljb\ ;Todf]xg hf]zLsf cg';f/ dNnsfnotf gj/flq / v8\uhfqfdf dfq ahfOg] of] 306 lj=;+= !(() sf] dxfe"sDkkl5 ljklQsf] k"j{;"rgf lbg k|of]u ug{ yflnPsf] xf] . o; 306nfO{ @)$^ ;fnsf] hgcfGbf]ngdf k|x/L bdgnfO{ k/f:t ug{'cl3 klg ahfPsf lyP, kf6g] g]jf/x¿n] .

cGofosf] k|lt/f]w

zflGt / ;+ljwfgsf] PskIfLo /6fg ub}{ ;Qf xTofpg Pg]skf dfcf]jfbLn] ^ lbg;Dd u/]sf] cfdx8tfn / To;qmddf k|blz{t Jojxf/nfO{ cfd hgtfn] b]zJofkL ¿kdf u/]sf] k|lt/f]wsf] kl5Nnf] pbfx/0f lyof], kf6g 36gf . To;cl3 g} /fhwfgLsf

d] lbj; -!* j}zfv_ sf] tof/Lsf lglDt eGb} !& j}zfvdf cfPsf Psxhf/ eGbf a9L dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{ ;t'Ënl:yt ;t'Ën–wf}nflu/L cfjf; If]qsf] un}+rf sf/vfgfdf a;] . x/]s lbg n:s/} cfGbf]ngdf hfg] / kms{g] qmddf pgLx¿n] Jofkf/Lx¿nfO{ k;n vf]n]sf] lgx'Fdf wDSofpg yfn]kl5 ahf/sf a'l4hLjLx¿n] :yfgLo dfcf]jfbL g]tfx¿nfO{ ætgfj ga9fpFm, /fd|f];Fu g]t[Tj ug'{;\Æ eg]sf lyP . t/, la/fdL aRrfnfO{ df]6/;fOsndf /fv]/ c:ktfn n}hfFb} u/]sf :yfgLo Ps o'jsn] s'l6g' k¥of] . sf/vfgfsf] …SofDkÚaf6 lg:s]sf !)–!@ sfo{stf{n] To;nuQ} Pp6f sk8f k;n hah{:tL aGb ug{ nufpFb} xftkft;d]t u/] . ca eg] ;t'Ënjf;Lsf] w}o{sf] afFw elTsof] . pgLx¿n] dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{nfO{ nv]6\g yfn] . o;}aLr Ps x"n dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{x¿ uf8Ldf cfOk'u] . ‰8k eof] . ;dod} cfOk'u]sf] k|x/L / ufpFsf cu'jfx¿n] ;t'Ën tLg hgf dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{ eL8af6 5'6fP/ c:ktfn ;+oldt k|lt/f]w k'¥ofP . :yfgLojf;L cfkm}+ ;+oldt eP/ l:yltnfO{ lgoGq0faflx/ hfg lbPgg\ . æxfd|f] dg;fo n8\g] x'Fb} xf]Og, dfcf]jfbLn] g} l:ylt pQ]hs agfPÆ Pshgf Jofkf/L eG5g\, æwGg, 7"nf] b'3{6gf 6fg{ ;lsof] .Æ To;sf] ef]lnkN6 @@ j}zfvdf ToxL 7fpFdf dfcf]jfbLsf] ;ef x'g;Sof] . dfcf]jfbL g]tfx¿n] uNtLaf]w u/]kl5 :yfgLojf;Ln] afwf–cj/f]wsf] t s'/} 5f8f}+ zfGt eP/ pgLx¿sf nfdf–nfdf efif0f ;'Gg] w}o{ ;d]t b]vfP . æoxfF bnx¿ ldn]/ a;]sf 5g\, dfcf]jfbL, sfª\u|]; / Pdfn]sf] ;f‰f ;xdltaf6 ul/g] lg0f{ox¿ nfu" x'G5g\, kf6L{ut j}dg:otf 5Fb} 5}gÆ ;t'Ën ;'/Iff ;ldltsf cWoIf bLksdfgl;+x >]i7 eG5g\, æof] kf6L{ut b'ZdgL xf]Og, 36gfk|ltsf] :j:km"t{ hgcfqmf]z lyof] . ToxL eP/ ;a} ;+oldt eP, 7"nf] b'3{6gf 6¥of] .Æ !–!% h]7 @)^&

‹

lxdfn va/klqsf

27


dfcf]jfbL cfdx8tfn ;t'Ën, hf]/kf6L, a"9fgLns07, a;'Gw/f, sLlt{k'/ dfq} xf]Og, /fhwfgL aflx/ b]zsf y'k|} 7fpFaf6 :j:km"t{ hgk|lt/f]w z'? ePsf] lyof] . x'g klg aGb hgtfnfO{ dfq lyof] . dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{x¿ ljhoLefjdf kf6L{sf] ‰08f kmx/fpFb} uf8L / df]6/;fOsnx¿df x'FOls/xGy] . ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{+ ;jf/L aGb]h / dfcf]jfbLsf nflu vfg]kfgLsf 6\ofÍ/, a;x¿ t}gfy lyP . la/fdL / k|;"lt Joyf nfu]sfx¿ c:ktfn k'Ug kfPsf lyPgg\ . c:ktfn k'us ] fx¿ ToxL+ aGbL lyP . hgtfn] d[tsx¿sf] ;b\ut ug{ klg kfPsf lyPgg\ . dfcf]jfbLx¿n] @! j}zfvsf] laxfg df]6/ ;fOsndf la/fdL aRrf /fv]/ c:ktfn bf}8]sf Ps o'jsnfO{ ;t'Ëndf s'6lk6 u/]sf lyP -x]= aS;x¿_ .

dËnahf/, kf6g xdnfsf] hjfkm

@# j}zfvdf af}4, cf?af/Laf6 pbL{ nufpFb} ‰/]sf dfcf]jfbLx¿n] hf]/kf6L–$ df ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ s'6lk6 u/]kl5 k"/} ufpF k| l t/f] w df plqof] . To;a] n f;Dd a"9fgLns07sf afl;GbfnfO{ klg dfcf]jfbLn] k|lt/f]w ug{ afWo agfO;s]sf] lyof] . k| x /L k| w fg sfof{ n osf cg' ; f/, /fhwfgLnufot b]zsf %% :yfgdf dfcf]jfbL hah{:tLlj?4 hgtfn] k|lt/f]w u/]sf lyP . tL 7fpFx¿df pgLx¿n] dfcf]jfbL kf6L{sf] xf]Og, p;sf lqmofsnfksf] lj/f]w u/]sf lyP . t/, dfcf]jfbLn] tL hg;d"xnfO{ … k|fof]lht eL8, lelhnfGt] / u'08fÚ sf] ljNnf le/fpFb} cfqmd0f ug{ 5f8]g . …zflGtk"j{s afFRg b]pmÚ, …;xdlt u/Ú eGb} ;8sdf cfPsf k]zfsdL{, a'l4hLjL / pBdLx¿nfO{ klg …b'ZdgÚ g} b]Vof], dfcf]jfbLn] . t/, p;sf] of] /j}ofn] k|lt/f]wsf] cfuf]df l3p yKg] sfd g} u¥of] . kmntM @$ j}zfv lbpF;f];Dd hgtfsf] lj/f]wnfO{ …lelhnfGt]x¿sf] k|lt/f]wÚ eGb}

lsg cfPg

;'lag >]i7

28

lxdfn va/klqsf

‹

!–!% h]7 @)^&

!*

j}zfvdf sf7df8f}s + f] 6'lF 8v]naf6 pkTosfjf;LnfO{ cfdx8tfndf ;xefuL x'g prfn]sf Pg]skf dfcf]jfbLsf cWoIf k'iksdn bfxfn Ps ;ftfleq} …;' l snf, d' l snf / sf7df8f} + d f 3/ agfP/ a;]sfx¿Ú eGb} ltg}dfly wf/] xft nufpg ljjz eP . bfxfnsf] cfqmf]z / s'07f vf; u/]/ cfdx8tfndf cfpg'sf] ;f6f] zflGt;efdf ;xefuL x'g] pkTosfsf /}yfg] g]jf/ ;d'bfok|lt s]lGb|t lyof] . lsgls, pgn] oxL ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutfaf6 Ps}lbgdf ;kmn x'g] cfzf u/]sf] cfdx8tfn ^ lbgdf c;kmn eP/ lkmtf{ lng'k/]sf] lyof] . cWoIf bfxfnn] @( j}zfvdf cfof]lht a'l4hLjLx¿;Fusf] cGt/lqmofdf …clglZrtsfnLg cfdx8tfn Pp6f uNtL lyof] Ú eGb} @% ut] s f] sf7df8f}j+ f;L lj?4 cfkm"n] af]ns ] f s'/fsf] nflu Ifdfofrgf klg ug'{ k¥of] . dfcf] j fbLsf] ;f] r fO ljkl/t


Pgg\ /}yfg] < dLg/Tg ah|frfo{

cfdx8tfn rf}yf] lbgdf k|j]z ubf{ :yfgLo hg;xeflutf a9\g'sf] ;f6f] pkTosfsf] ;t'Ën, a"9fgLns07, hf]/kf6L / eQmk'/df k|lt/f]w x'g yfNof] . kfFrf}+ lbg rqmkyleq} d'7e]8sf] l:ylt b]lvof] . pBf]u jfl0fHo dxf;+3sf] cu'jfO{df a;Gtk'/df ePsf] zflGt;efdf /}yfg] g]jf/ ;d'bfon] Jofks ;xeflutf b]vfP . zflGt;efdf cfpg]nfO{ dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{x¿n] /f]Sg] k|of; ubf{ s'k08f]n, dËnahf/, ;f]x|v'§] cflb 7fpFdf ‰8k} eP . dfcf] j fbL ‰08f kmx/fpF b } u'l8/x]sf] af # r (&@& gDa/sf] hLk kN6fOlbPsf kf6g] x ¿n] dËnahf/df cfdx8tfnsf] lj/f]wdf P]ltxfl;s 306 ahfP . of] 306 dNn / lnR5ljsfndf cfktsfn kbf{ /fHon] ahfpg] uYof]{ . :yfgLo Hofk' ;dfhn] dfcf]jfbLnfO{ g]jf/ ;d' b fodfly /fhgLlts anhˆtL gug{ r]tfjgL ;d]t lbPsf] lyof] . g]jf/ 6f]nx¿df ToxL ;d'bfosf g]tfx¿

g]kfnsf k|d'v /fhgLlts cfGbf]ngnfO{ lg0ff{os agfpg] pkTosfsf /}yfg] g]jf/x¿ dfcf]jfbLsf] cfdx8tfndf eg] 3/3/} uP/ af]nfpFbf klg cfPgg\ . 8Da/s[i0f >]i7 sf] l/kf]6{

k7fP/ 3/b}nf] sfo{qmd ubf{ klg Pg]skf dfcf] j fbLsf] …t] ; | f ] hgcfGbf] n gÚ ;kmn kfg{ pkTosfjf;L lsg ;8sdf cfPgg\ t < hals, @))&, @)#^, @)$^ / @)^@–^# sf ;a} cfGbf]ngdf pgLx¿sf] lg0ff{os e"ldsf lyof] . of] …cfGbf]ngÚ df pkTosfjf;L gplqg'sf] d'Vo sf/0f lyof], ljutsf cfGbf]ngdf h:tf] k|hftGq, nf]stGq / /fi6«lxtsf] ;jfn p7fpg] eGbf klg kf6L{ cWoIf bfxfnnfO{ c;+j}wflgs k|lqmofaf6 k|wfgdGqL agfpg] dfcf]jfbL k|of; . ToxL eP/ g]jf/ /fHosf kIfkftLx¿ ;d]t cfGbf]ngdf guPsf] g]kfnL sfª\u|];sf eLd;]gbf; k|wfg atfpF5g\ . g] s kf Pdfn] s f g] t f dËnl;l4 dfgGw/sf cg' ; f/ s' g } klg ljifodf /fd|/L a'‰]/, 5nkmn u/]/ dfq lg0f{odf k'Ug] pkTosfsf g]jf/x¿sf] ljz]iftf 5 . @)$^ sf] hgcfGbf]ngdf sLlt{k'/, eQmk'/ / kf6g tfltPkl5 sf7df8f}+ hfu]sf] lyof] . dfgGw/sf ljrf/df oxfFsf /}yfg]x¿ cfˆgf] 3/df cfPsfx¿nfO{ …xF'b}gÚ, …gfOFÚ eGb}gg\, t/ lg0f{o eg] ;f]r]/ dfq u5{g\ . pgL eG5g\, æPdfcf]jfbLsf] cfGbf]ng To;} klg s;sf nflu / s]sf nflu eGg] cGof]n z'?b]lv g} lyof] .Æ dfcf]jfbLsf sf7df8f}+ lhNnf O~rfh{ kjgdfg >]i7 eg] cfdx8tfnsf] qmddf cfkm" x ¿n] bzf} + xhf/ g] j f/sf] h' n ' ; lgsfn]sf] bfaL u5{g\ . pgL eG5g\, æg]jf/ ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutf gePsf] eGg' ;/f;/ unt xf] . cfdx8tfn :ylut gul/Psf] eP lg0ff{os 38Ldf g]jf/ ;d'bfo g} cfpg] lyP .Æ ;+ljwfg;ef lgjf{rgdf Pdfcf]jfbLn] oxL ;d'bfos} ef/L dtn] pkTosfsf ;ft :yfgdf ljho xfl;n u/]sf] eP/ klg tL dtbftfn] cfkm"x¿nfO{ ;fy lbG5g\ eGg] cfzf g]t[TjnfO{ lyof] . t/, pkTosfjf;L clxn] aGb / x8tfn xf]Og, zflGt / gofF ;+ljwfgsf] ck]Iffdf 5g\ eGg] tYonfO{ Pdfcf]jfbL g]t[Tjsf] tTsfn ;Qf;Lg x'g] x7n] cfTd;ft\ ug{ ;s]g . kl/0ffd, p;n] /}yfg] g]jf/ ;d'bfosf] ;xof]u xf]Og, rsf]{ k|lt/f]wsf] ;fdgf ug'{k¥of] . zflGtsf] kIfdf a;Gtk'/df ;xsdL{

snfsf/ xl/j+z cfrfo{sf ;fy k|:t't ePsf dbgs[i0f >]i7 o; k6s dfcf]jfbL /fhwfgL pkTosfsf] …d'8Ú yfxf kfpg r'ss ] f] atfpF5g\ . pgsf egfOdf, oxfFsf g]jf/ ;d'bfodf dfcf]jfbL, sfª\u;]| , Pdfn], g]dlskf / cGo bndf cfj4 JolQmx¿;Fu} :jtGq a'l4hLjL, pBf]uL, Jofkf/Lx¿sf] 7'nf] hdft 5, h;n] ;do–kl/l:ylt x]/]/ cfˆg} ljj]sn] lg0f{o u5{ . pgL eG5g\, ælx+;fTds cfGbf]ngaf6 cfPsfx¿n] r'gfj xf/] km]l/ ljWj+; u5{g\ eg]/ dfcf]jfbLnfO{ ef]6 lbPsfx¿ clxn] ljlwsf] zf;g, ;xdlt / zflGtsf] kIfdf lyP .Æ ljutdf klg s'g} Ps kf6L{n] dfq u/]sf] cfGbf]ngdf sf7df8f}+sf /}yfg]x¿n] Ps eP/ ;zQm ;xeflutf hgfPsf] b] l vF b } g . ;dfhzf:qL u0f] z u' ? ª o;cl3sf 7'nf cfGbf]ngdf ;a} kf6L{sf] dt} S otf ePkl5 dfq g] j f/ ;d' b fo ;xefuL x'g] u/]sf] atfpF5g . pgsf egfOdf, clxn];Dd pgLx¿df cGttM ;f]rljrf/ u/]/ lg0ff{os x'g] k|j[lQ 5 . …g]jfM /fHoÚ sf] cjwf/0ff dfcf]jfbLn] g} NofPsfn] g]jf/ ;d'bfosf s]xL cu'jfn] x8tfns} aLr …/fHoÚ 3f]if0ffsf] tof/L ;d]t u/]sf] atfpFb} u'?ª eG5g\, æt/, pgLx¿n] ;f]r] h:tf] eOlbPg .Æ g]jf/ ;d'bfo dfcf]jfbL cfdx8tfnsf] ;dy{gdf ;8sdf gpqg'sf] csf]{ sf/0f p;n] cfˆgf] gf}dlxg] zf;gsfndf o; ;d'bfosf] ;+:s[ltdfly u/]sf] x:tIf]k klg lyof] . cfdx8tfndf ;dy{g a6'Ng 3/b}nf] sfo{qmd lnP/ pkTosfsf 6f]n–6f]ndf k' u ] s f dfcf] j fbL g] t fx¿n] tTsfnLg ;+:s[ltdGqL uf]kfn ls/fFtLsf] l;kmfl/;df cy{dGqL afa'/fd e§/fO{n] OGb|hfqfsf nflu ztflAbof}+b]lv lbOFb} cfPsf] cg'bfg /sd s6f}tL u/]sf] u'gf;f];Fu} ef]6sf] abnfdf ;f+:s[lts k|xf/ ;xg'k/]sf] cfqmf]zsf] ;fdgf ug'{k/]sf] lyof] . dfcf]jfbLnfO{ ef]6 xfNg]x¿ klg p;sf] ;+:s[lt lj/f]wL ultljlwaf6 ‰l:sPsf] atfpFb} eLd;]gbf; k|wfg eG5g\ æw]/} g]jf/x¿n] o; k6s cfˆgf] ;+:s[lt df:g vf]h]sf] l/; klg kf]v]sf x'g\ .Æ !–!% h]7 @)^&

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lxdfn va/klqsf

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dfcf]jfbL cfdx8tfn Gx"R5]dfg 8Ëf]n

hf]/kf6L aflxl/ofsf] k|lt/f]w @# j}zfvdf af}4, cf?af/Laf6 k;n aGb u/fpFb} ‰/]sf dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{n] hf]/kf6L–$ sf a'4/fh >]i7nfO{ s'6lk6 u/] . 5f]/fnfO{ hf]ufpg cfPsf a'af, cfdf / sfsfnfO{ ;d]t /utfDd] agfOPkl5 hf]/kf6Lsf afl;Gbf ;8sdf cf]ln{P . sxfF–sxfFaf6 cfˆg} 6f]ndf cfP/ cfqmd0f u/]sf] 36gfaf6 qm"4 ag]sf :yfgLojf;L dfcf]jfbL;Fu le8\g] ;'/d} rf]s;Dd k'u]sf lyP, t/ k|x/Ln] /f]s]/ ;Defljt b'3{6gf 6f/]sf] lyof] . hf]/kf6Lsf] of] k|lt/f]w s;}sf] pS;fx6df of dfcf]jfbL kf6L{ lj?4 lyPg . ToxL sf/0f xf], ;fgf] ;ª\Vofsf] k|x/L s]xLa]/ aLrdf plebf l:ylt ;fDo eof] . :yfgLo ;/f]h >]i7 eG5g\, ækf6L{ut l/;OaL of s;}sf] pS;fx6df eP 36gfn] cs}{ ?k lnGYof], xfdL ;a} ‰8k /f]Sglt/ nfUof}+, ;kmn klg eof}+ .Æ

cfqmd0fsf nflu sfo{ s tf{ n fO{ lgb] { z g lbO/x]sf] dfcf]jfbL g]t[Tj /flt ( ah] …hgtfnfO{ hgtf;Fu n8fpg vf]lhPsf]Ú eGb} x8tfn /f]Sg afWo eof] . dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{sf] Jojxf/ slt;Dd pGdQ eO;s]sf] lyof] eg] pgLx¿n] kf]v/fdf laxfg afn'jf cf];f/]/ afnaRrfsf nflu 5fs h'6fO{ lbpF;f] dfcf]jfbL cfGbf]ngdf hfg] ;'/df /x]sf dhb'/x¿nfO{ ;d]t afFsL /fv]gg\ . uf8Ldf cf];fl/Psf n8fs" b:tf 6f]n6f]nsf

kf]v/fsf] ;]tL lsgf/l:yt /fd3f6sf afn'jf dhb'/x¿ @! j}zfvsf] laxfg rfdnsf nflu sfd u/]/ lbpF;f] kf6L{sf] cfGbf]ngdf hfg] of]hgfdf lyP . t/, cfkm"n] e/f];f u/]sf] kf6L{s} sfo{stf{x¿ cfP/ nf7L / /8 a;f{P pgLx¿dfly . jfO{;LPnsf] s'6fOn] 3fOt] ePsf dl0f u'?ª eG5g\, æa]n'sfsf] hf]xf]sf nflu laxfg afn'jf af]sf}+, lbpF;f] cfGbf]ngdf hfcf}+ eg]/ lxF8]sf lyof}+, g/fd|/L lk6fO vfg'k¥of] .Æ afn'jf af]s]/ psfnf] r9\b} u/]sf #) dhb'/dfly PsfPs nf7L al;{Psf lyP . u'?ªsf cg';f/ pgLx¿nfO{ æltdLx¿ xfd|f] aGbdf sfd ug]{ <Æ eGb} s'6]sf lyP . ;]tL lsgf/sf] afn'jfdf cfl>t sl/a kfFrxhf/ dhb'/dWo] w]/}h;f] dfcf]jfbL kf6L{d} cf:yf /fVg] 5g\ . ToxL eP/ pgLx¿n] cfˆgf] ;d"xsf $) o'jsnfO{ dfcf]jfbLsf] /fhwfgL s]lGb|t cfGbf]ngsf nflu sf7df8f}+ k7fO;s]sf lyP . pgLx¿ ca dfcf]jfbLk|lt df]xeË ePsf] 7fGb}5g\ . lxdnfn ljs eG5g\, æpgLx¿n] l;7L km'Sgf;fy 8f]sf]–gfDnf], af]/f 5f8]/ h'n';÷wgf{df lg:sg] lbg ;lsP h:tf] 5 .Æ 30

lxdfn va/klqsf

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!–!% h]7 @)^&

lbggfy zdf{

dhb'/ klg ar]gg\


s]zj yf]s/÷gful/sGo"h 86sd

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nf]stflGqs r]tgf

dfcf]jfbL hf]/hah{:tLlj?4 hgtfn] u/]sf] k|lt/f]wdf nf]stflGqs r]tgfn] 7"nf] e" l dsf v] n ] s f] b] l vG5 . jL/u~h / wgs'6fdf ePsf lx+;fpGd'v …k|lt/f]wÚ sf 36gfn] eg] dfcf]jfbLn] bfaL u/] ‰}+ lgof]lht lyof] ls eGg] zÍfn] 7fpF kfPsf] 5 .

a"9fgLns07df dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{x¿ ‰08f kmx/fpFb} uf8L / df]6/;fOsndf rSs/ nufpFFy], t/ l;ls:t la/fdL x'g\ ls ef]sef]s} k/]sf, hgtfnfO{ eg] k"/} 5]sy'gdf /fv]sf lyP . kfFr lbgsf] o:tf] larNnLaf6 cQflnPsf pgLx¿ @# j}zfvsf] laxfg 5nkmn ug{ h'6] . 5nkmnn] …s;}sf] lj/f]w gug]{ t/, cTofjZos ;fdfg lsgd]nsf nflu k;n v'nfpg dfu ug{]Ú lg0f{o u/]kl5 ¥ofnL lgl:sof] . t/, ToxL a]nf uf8Ldf ;jf/ dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{ ‰08f kmx/fpFb} cfOk'Ubf ‰8k eof] . To;kl5 ¥ofnLsf cu'jfx¿n] tgfj a9\g] cfsng;lxt sf]0f;ef u/]/ ;a}nfO{ 3/3/ kmsf{P . t/, rqmkylt/af6 b'O6f a;df cfPsf dfcf]jfbLx¿n] ¥ofnLaf6 kms{+b} u/]sfx¿dfly e6fe6 cfqmd0f ug{ yfn] . ( jif{sf afns;lxt s]xL o'jf 3fOt] eP . pgLx¿n] afns[i0f >]i7sf] 3/df 9'Ëfd'9f klg u/] . o:tf] cGofo ;xFbf klg dfcf]jfbLn] …lelhnfGt]Ú / …u'08fÚ sf] ljNnf le/fPsf]df a"9fgLns07jf;L b'MvL 5g\ . 3/ tf]8kmf]8 ul/Psf >]i7 eG5g\, æk|lt/f]w dfq p2]Zo ePsf] eP @)÷#) hgf dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{n] oxfF 7"n} d"No r'sfpg] lyP, t/ xfdLn] ‰8k /f]Sgs} nflu oqf] cGofo ;Xof}+ .Æ jL/u~hsf] k|lt/f]w …lxGb"/fi6«Ú sf] jsfnt ug]{ tTjx¿sf] cf8df ePsf] b]lvof] eg] wgs'6fdf Pdfn]sf] o'jfb:tf o'ykmf];{sf] cu' j fO{ b] l vof] . t/, sf7df8f} + n ufot clwsf+z 7fpFsf k|lt/f]wx¿ lgtfGt leGg k|s[ltsf lyP . pkTosfsf h'g–h'g 7fpFdf hgk|lt/f]w eP, tL 7fpFx¿ @))& ;fnb]lv g} k|hftflGqs÷nf]stflGqs ;ª\3if{sf nflu klg kl/lrt x'g\ . kf6gjf;Ln] k| l t/f] w df pqg' c l3

P]ltxfl;s 306 ahfP . Tof] ToxL 7fpF xf] , hxfF @)$^ sf] cfGbf] n g bafpg k7fOPsf k|x/LnfO{ dlxnfx¿n] uNnL 5]s/] aGbL agfPsf lyP . rqmky aflx/sf a"9fgLns07, ;t'Ënnufotsf ahf/–j:tLx¿n] klg @))& ;fnb]lvs} /fhgLlts cfGbf]ngsf] cg'ej k|bz{g ub}{ dfcf]jfbL HofbtLsf] k|lt/f]w u/]sf lyP . ;t'Ënsf s]bf/ >]i7 eG5g\, æ;du| d f ;t' Ë njf;Ln] u/] s f] k| l t/f] w nf]stGqsf] k|lt/Iff lyof] .Æ !–!% h]7 @)^&

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lxdfn va/klqsf

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dfcf]jfbL cfdx8tfn dLg/Tg ah|frfo{

3fOt] cy{tGqnfO{

yk rf]6

…cfdx8\tfnÚ sf a]nf ;'g;fg Go"/f]8 .

a9\bf] zf]wgfGt/ 3f6f, clgolGqt d"Noj[l4 / t/ntf cefjsf sf/0f 3fOt] ag]sf] g]kfnL cy{tGqnfO{ Pg]skf dfcf]jfbLsf] …cfdx8tfnÚ n] yk rf]6 lbPsf] 5 . ;'/]z/fh Gof}kfg] / k|eft e§/fO{ sf] l/kf]6{ ls/fgf Jofkf/ ;/sf/L /fh:j z]o/ ahf/ lj1fkg ahf/ ko{6g

?=! ca{ @) s/f]8 ?=# ca{ ?=!) s/f]8 ?=!=% s/f]8 ?=!=@% ca{

dflysf] ;"rL g]kfnL cy{tGqsf] k|ult ljj/0f geO{ Pdfcf]jfbLn] !(–@$ j}zfv;Dd u/]sf] b]zJofkL cfdx8tfndf s]xL If]qn] a]xf]/]sf] cg'dflgt Iflt xf] . x8tfnsf] k|efj oltd} ;Lldt 5}g, o;n] d'n'ssf] cy{tGqnfO{ …kZrudgÚ sf] af6f]df 8f]¥ofPsf] k|foM ;a} ;"rsfÍx¿n] b]vfPsf 5g\ . To;} klg xtf; ;fdflhs dgf]lj1fg / c¿sf] d'v tfSg] k|jl[ Q g]kfnsf] cfly{s ljsf;df d'Vo cj/f]w aGb} cfPs} xf] . Go"g cfly{s j[l4b/, a9\bf] Jofkf/ 3f6fnufotsf cfly{s ;"rsx¿ klxnfb]lv g} ;Gtf]ifhgs 5}gg\ . o:tf] 3fp nfu]sf] cy{tGqdf cfdx8tfn g'g–r"s 5s]{ h:tf] ePsf] 5 . cfdx8tfnn] lgof{t Jofkf/, ko{6g / k"hF Lahf/df k'¥ofPsf] 32

lxdfn va/klqsf

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!–!% h]7 @)^&

rf]6df vf6f a:g sDtLdf ^ dlxgf nfUg] ljZn]ifsx¿ atfpF5g\ . ;/sf/df x'bF f …aGb ;+:s[lt cGToÚ sf] cfXjfg ug]{ Pdfcf]jfbLsf] kl5Nnf] cfdx8tfnaf6 tTsfnLg cy{dGqL 8f= afa'/fd e§/fO{n] u/]sf] /fh:j j[l4 klg k"/} kvflnPsf] 5 . cy{ ljZn]ifs ;'lhj zfSo eG5g\, ædhb'/ ljjfb, pmhf{ ;Í6 / /fhgLlts cl:y/tfaf6 cfqmfGt cy{tGqdfly hfghfg yk k|xf/ ul/of] .Æ g] k fnl:yt ljZj vfB sfo{ q mdsf] k|ltj]bgdf t aGbsf sf/0f vfBfGgsf] d" N o j[ l 4 / b' u { d If] q x¿sf] vfBfGg 9'jfgL cj/f]waf6 Psrf}yfO{ hg;ª\Vofsf] cfly{s lqmofsnfk g} 7Kk ePsf] pNn]v 5 . k|ltj]bgdf hah{:tL rGbf / a9\bf] c;'/Iffn] b}lgs Hofnfbf/L ug]{ >ldsnfO{ ;d]t lg/f; kf/]sf] pNn]v 5 . !) jif]{ lx+;fTds ljb|fx] af6 lzlyn ag] klg …ko{6g jif{ @)!!Ú sf] 3f]if0ffaf6 pT;flxt b]lvPsf] ko{6g If]qnfO{ kl5Nnf] cfdx8tfnn] xtf; agfOlbPsf] 5 . xf]6n a'lsª %) k|ltzt

/2 ePsf 5g\ eg] clwsf+z …6'/ Kofs]hÚ lkmtf{ ul/Psf 5g\ . xf]6n P;f]l;P;gsf cWoIf k|l;4hË kf08]sf cg';f/ 6'/ ck/]6/x¿sf nflu d]b]lv h'nfO{;Ddsf] cjlw ljleGg b]zsf] a|f];/ agfpg] l;hg xf] . dfcf]jfbLn] oxL cjlwdf x8tfn ul/lbFbf ko{6g If]qn] b}lgs ?=@% s/f]8sf] sf/f]af/ u'dfPsf] cg'dfg 5 . kf08] eG5g\, æof] If]qdf Psrf]l6 u'd]sf] df}sf kmsf{pg sDtLdf tLg dlxgf nfU5 .Æ ko{6g If]q /f]huf/L l;h{gfsf] k|d'v cf}hf/ klg xf] . ?=!%) ca{eGbf a9Lsf] nufgL /x]sf] xf]6n Joj;fon] sl/a kfFr nfv /f]huf/L l;h{gf u/]sf] 5 . !) jif{] lx+;fTds ljb|f]xs} sf/0f o; Joj;foaf6 ?=!) ca{eGbf a9L k"FhL knfog eO;s]sf] 5 . ufpFsf d'xf/ km]g]{ dfcf]jfbLsf gf/fx¿ ko{6gsf nflu pko'Qm eP klg pgLx¿sf /fhgLlts ultljlw To; cg's"n /x]gg\ . kf08] aGb–x8tfn u/]/ ko{6s uf8LnfO{


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c;/ gfKg] k4lt 5}g

Ps lbg aGbsf] jf:tljs cfly{s Iflt slt x'G5 eGg] cflwsfl/s / e/kbf]{ n]vfhf]vf eg] 5}g . cy{zf:qL k|f=8f= ljZjDe/ Kofs'/n] df}lb|s dfkg ug{ ;lsg] sf/f]af/sf] dfq xf]Og, ;du| c;/sf] k|efj dfkgljlw ckgfpg'kg]{ atfpF5g\ . pgsf cg';f/ Ps lbgdf x'g] sf/f]af/ dfkgaf6 Ifltsf] jf:tljs cfFs8f cfpFbg} . ælgof{t ug'k{ g]{ s'g} j:t' aGbsf sf/0f tf]lsPsf] ;dodf u|fxssxfF k'¥ofpg g;Sbf ljZjf;sf] klg Iflt x'G5Æ, pgL eG5g\, æo:tf] Ifltn] k'¥ofpg] bL3{sfnLg c;/sf] klg cg';Gwfg u/]/ jf:tljs cfFs8f lgsfNg ;lsG5 .Æ g]kfndf s'g} ljifodf /fHosf] Wofg lvRg' k¥of] ls ;a}n] cy{tGqnfO{ 7Kk kfg{] aGb–x8tfn ljlw ckgfpg] u/]sf 5g\ . dfcf]jfbLsf] kl5Nnf] aGbkl5 eg] o;af6 d'ns ' n] r'sfpg] d"Noaf/] 5nkmn / cGt/lqmof z'? ePsf] 5 h;nfO{ ;sf/fTds dfG5g\, cy{ ljZn]ifs ;'lhj zfSo . lbzfxLg /fhgLltn] g]kfnL cy{tGqnfO{ klZrd aËfnsf] tfndf lxF8fPsf] zfSosf] ljZn]if0f 5 . Q

;fydf /d]z kf}8n] , kf]v/f !–!% h]7 @)^&

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lxdfn va/klqsf

33


dfcf]jfbL cfdx8tfn

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34

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;|ft] M s]Pd;L O{Pd8L @))(

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eg], æTof]eGbf Pdfn]sf] g]t[Tj /fd|f] 5 eGg] xfd|f] 7DofO 5 .Æ t/, cfrfo{ ljb]zL zlQms]Gb|x¿ g]kfndf sDo'lgi6nfO{ cfk;df le8fP/ sDo' l gi6 cfGbf]ng g} sdhf]/ kfg{ ;kmn eO/x]sf] eGg] ljZn] i f0fdf b[ 9 5g\ . pgL d;fndf dxfdGqL l;+xsf] ljrf/nfO{ sdhf] / kfg{ olt ;lqmo 5g\ ls p:t}k/] -cfkm"dfly sf/afxL k|lqmof yflnP_ 5'§} kf6L{ agfpg kl5 gkg]{ atfpF5g\ . cfrfo{nfO{ s]Gb|Lo ;b:o lul/wf/Lnfn Gof}kfg] -ljsf;_ n] v'n]/ ;fy lbPsf 5g\ . o;/L nfdf] ;do;Dd dflyNnf] txd} u'lD;Psf] d;fnleqsf] dte]b j}zfv ^–* df a'6jndf ePsf] /fli6«o e]nfkl5 sfo{stf{df‰ k'us ] f] xf] . a'6jn e]nfdf kf]ln6Ao'/f] ;b:o cfrfo{n] dxfdGqL l;+xk|lt tLa| c;xdlt hgfpFb} 5'§} /fhgLlts k|ltj]bg k]z u/] . dxdGqLn] km/s dt lkmtf{ lng cfu|x ubf{ gdfg]kl5 dtbfgsf] l:ylt cfof] . To;kl5 /fli6«o e]nfsf @$& ;xefuLdWo] cfrfo{nfO{ leqL ¿kdf ;3fO/x]sf #@ g]tf e]nfaf6 aflxl/P / !& hgfn] cfrfo{sf] kIfdf dtbfg u/] . e]nfdf @)^$ cl3sf] ljz]if dxflwj]zgdf ;xefuL gePsf snfsf/ hLjg zdf{ ;d]t dxfdGqL l;+xlj/f]wL df]rf{df ;lqmo eP . kf6L{ ;| f ] t n] ax' ; ª\ V os g] t f dfcf] j fbLlj/f] w L u7aGwgnfO{ alnof] agfpgs} nflu eP klg dxfdGqL l;+xsf] nfOgdf ePsf] bfaL u/] s f] 5 . t/ ;+ljwfg;efdf lrqaxfb'/ s];Lsf] g]t[Tjdf rf/ ;ef;b\ ePsf] d;fndf cfrfo{ hgfwf/

ePsf g]tf dflgG5g\ eg] kf6L{sf] cfly{s d]?b08 k|jf;sf sfo{stf{df‰ cGt/f{li6«o g]kfnL ;dfhsf ;+:yfks ;efklt /lx;s]sf Gof}kfg]sf] /fd|f] ks8 5 . To;}n] dxfdGqL l;+xnfO{ !& hgfsf] of] wSsf lgs} rf]l6nf] x'g] cg'dfg ul/Fb}5 . kfFr bzseGbf a9L sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ngdf latfPsf df]xgljqmd l;+x slxNo} cfnf]rgf g;xg], ljrf/ / Jojxf/df ;D‰f}tf gug]{ g]tfdf ulgG5g\ . xfn ;+ l jwfg;efdf ;a} e Gbf 7" n f] kf6L{ s f ¿kdf :yflkt PsLs[ t g] s kf dfcf]jfbLsf clwsf+z g]tfdf logs} r]nf / g]skf -d;fn_ af6} km'6]/ uPsfx¿ 5g\ . dfcf]jfbLsf cWoIf k'iksdn bfxfn / pkfWoIf df] x g j} B @)$@ ;fndf d;fnaf6 cnlUuPsf x'g\ eg] afa'/fd e§/fO{ @)$& df . k| j Qmf bLgfgfy zdf{ klg @)%^ df d;fnaf6} km' 6 ] / dfcf]jfbLdf uPsf lyP . zflGtk|lqmofdf cfO;s]kl5 @)^# df dfcf]jfbLdf k|j]z u/]sf gf/fo0fsfhL >]i7, clds z]/rg, gj/fh ;'j]bLx¿ klg s'g} ;dodf l;+x;Fu} lyP . Q !–!% h]7 @)^&

‹

lxdfn va/klqsf

37


l/kf]6{ lzIff

:s"n xf]Og oftgfu[x $# l8u|Lsf] udL{df h:tfsf] 5fgfd'lg kl;gfn] lgy|'Ss eP/ k9\b} u/]sf dw]zsf ljBfyL{nfO{ x]g]{ xf] eg] nfU5, pgLx¿ lzIff cfh{g xf]Og oftgf ef]Ub}5g\ . g]kfnu~haf6 s[i0f clwsf/L sf] l/kf]6{ s[i0f clwsf/L

1fgf]bo pdflj vh'/fdf ¿vd'lg k9fO“b} .

g]

kfnu~hsf] k| r 08 udL{ d f :s" n ] ljBfyL{x¿ h:tfn] 5fPsf] ;fF3/' f sf]7fdf kl;gfn] lgy'|Ss leh]/ k9\g afWo 5g\ . kª\vf;Dd gePsf tL sIffsf]7fdf sf]rfsf]r u/]/ k9\bfk9\b} sltko ljBfyL{x¿ udL{n] a]xf]; x'g] u/]sf 5g\ . udL{n] cflQPsf ljBfyL{x¿ lzIfs lg:sgf;fy ¿vsf] 5xf/L / kfgLsf wf/fdf ‰'lDdg k'U5g\ . sltko ljBfnon] t ;f]‰} ¿vsf] 5xf/Ld} k9fpg] u/]sf 5g\ . 1fgf]bo pRr dfljsL lzIfs ;l/tf a' 9 fyf] s L elG5g\ , æsIffsf] 7 fdf kª\vf gePsfn] ljBfyL{x¿ Psl5g klg a:g dfGb}gg\, To;}n] ¿vsf] 5xf/Ldf sIff rnfpg' k/]sf] xf] .Æ hn tyf df};d lj1fg ljefusf cg';f/ ut jif{ g]kfnu~hsf] tfkqmd $@=^ l8u|L k'u]sf] lyof] . of] jif{ klg a9\g]qmd hf/L 38

lxdfn va/klqsf

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!–!% h]7 @)^&

5 . t/fO{sf ljBfnodf l6gsf] 5fgf udL{df a9L tftf] eP/ dfq xf]Og hf8f]df lr;f] eP/ klg k7gkf7gsf nflu pko'Qm gePsf] lj1x¿sf] egfO 5 . kfgL k/]sf a]nf l6g ah]/ af]n]sf] s]xL g;'lgg] ;d:of a]Un} 5 . t}klg afFs]sf #)) ljBfnodWo] &% k|ltzteGbf a9Ldf l6gs} 5fgf 5g\ . afnaflnsfx?nfO{ ljBfnodf /dfO{–/dfO{ k9\g] jftfj/0f agfpg' ;/sf/sf] bfloTj eP klg lzIff ljefusf] xr'jf gLltsf sf/0f afnd}qL ejg aGg g;s]sf] g]kfn /fli6«o lzIfs ;Ë7g afFs]sf cWoIf Psb]j kGyL atfpF5g\ . lzIff ljefun] t/fO{df ljBfno ejg agfpFbf l6gs} 5fgf xfNg'kg{] dfkb08 tf]s]sf] 5 . ljefusf cg';f/ b]ze/sf ;fd'bflos ljBfno ejgdf Ps?ktf Nofpg

o:tf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] xf] . 9nfg 5fgf agfpg ah]6sf] / ejgsf] u'0f:t/ sfod ug{ k|fljlwsx¿sf] cefj tyf e"sDkLo hf]lvdnfO{ Wofgdf /fv]/ klg ljefun] o:tf] dfkb08 lgwf{ / 0f u/] s f] lhNnf lzIff sfof{no afFs]sf k|fljlws dw' jnL atfpF5g\ . 1fgf]bo pRr dflj vh'/fsf k|frfo{ 3dfg l;+x a:g]t eg] ljefusf k|fljlwsx¿n] s]Gb|df a;]/ xr'jfsf e/df gLlt agfpFbf o:tf] ;d:of cfPsf] cf/f]k nufpF5g\ . cTolws udL{ x'g] t/fO{sf lhNnfdf l6gsf 5fgf ePsf] ejg pko'Qm gx'g] lhNnf lzIff sfof{no afFs]nfO{ klg yfxf 5 . t/ olt x'FbfxF'b} klg of] jif{ To:t} @@ j6f rf/sf]7] / @& j6f b'O{sf]7] ejg lgdf{0f eO/x]sf 5g\ . oL ejgdf l6gsf] 5fgf /fVg] l8hfOg ljefuaf6} tof/ eP/ cfpF5 . ^) k|ltzt cg'bfg / $) k|ltzt :yfgLo ;|ft] af6 h'6fP/ ejg ljefusf] dfkb08cg';f/ 9nfg ug{ klg ;lsG5, t/ Tolt ;|f]t h' 6 fpg g;lsPsf] ljBfno Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf kbflwsf/Lx¿sf] u' g f;f] 5 . lzIff ljefun] afFs]df l6gn] 5fPsf] rf/sf] 7 ] ejgsf nflu ?=* nfv @@ xhf/ pknAw u/fpF5 . 9nfg ug{ ljBfno Joj:yfkg ;ldltn] Tof] /sddf sDtLdf $) k|ltzt h'6fpg'kb{5 . l6gsf] 5fgf ePsf] sIffsf]7f agfpFbf nfUg] /sddf #) k|ltzt;Dd yk]/ lbg] xf] eg] 9nfg ejg g} agfpg ;lsg] zx/L ljsf; tyf ejg lgdf{0f l8lehg sfof{no afFss ] f k|dv ' OlGhlgo/ ;'/f]h kf}8]n atfpF5g\ . lzIff ljefun] cfkm}n+ ] agfPsf sIffsf]7f k7gkf7gsf nflu slQsf] pko'Qm 5g\ eg]/ cg'udg ug]{ u/]sf] 5}g . ljBfno ejg agfpg s/f]8f}+ ?k}ofF ;xof]u u/]sf ljZj AofÍ, Pl;ofnL ljsf; AofÍ, hfOsf h:tf bft[ lgsfon] klg sd ah] 6 df k7gkf7gnfO{ g;3fpg] w]/} ejg agfpg'eGbf k7gkf7gd}qL yf]/} ejg agfpg]tkm{ ;hutf ckgfPsf] b]lvFb}g . Q


l/kf]6{ c/fhstf

wdfwd lkmtf{

8'Ag nfu]sf] /sd lkmtf{ kfPkl5 xlif{t d'bf| df ;Gh]g /fO{ .

cfkm\gf] Jofkf/sf] j}wflgstf ;fljt ug{ g;s]kl5 u|fxssf] /sd lkmtf{ lbg z'? u/]sf] o'lg6L nfOkm OG6/g]zgn;Fu ^ nfv %) xhf/ ;b:o 5g\ t/ !$ xhf/ %%# hgfnfO{ dfq lbg k'Ug] k};f 5 . ;Gt ufxf du/ sf] l/kf]6{

g]

6js{ dfs]{l6ªsf] gfddf eO/x]sf] 7uLsf] ljifodf lxdfn -!–!% j}zfv_ df …caf}{+ 8'afpFb} efUb}Ú zLif{ssf] vf]hd"ns ;dfrf/ k|sflzt ePkl5 Onfd, lj/f6gu/, O6x/L, w/fg, t]x|y'd, pbok'/, sf7df8f}+, a'6jn, e}/xjf, kf]v/f, :ofª\hfnufotsf 7fpFdf o'lg6L nfOkm OG6/g]zgn lnld6]8sf ;b:ox¿n] cfˆgf] /sd lkmtf{ dfUg] qmd a9]sf] 5 . sltko lhNnfdf ;b:ox¿n] /sd lkmtf{ kfO/x]sf 5g\ eg] clwsf+z lhNnfdf k|lqmof z'? ePsf] 5 . @% j}zfvdf k"jf{~rnsf u|fxsnfO{ cfZj:t kfg{ Onfd k'u]sf o'lg6Lsf cWoIf sfzL/fd u'?ª -k|;fb_ nfO{ ;b:ox¿n] …efif0f xf]Og, k};f lkmtf{ rflxof]Ú eg]kl5 pgL ;j{;fwf/0faf6 p7fPsf] k};f ztk|ltzt lkmtf{ ug]{ k|lta4tf hgfpg afWo eP, Tof] klg ;b:osf 3/–3/df /sd k'¥ofOlbg] cfZjf;g;lxt . lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nodf uP/ lkmtf{ /sd ck'u ePdf ylklbg] / af]nfPsf] a]nfdf pkl:yt x'g] sfuhdf ;xL gu/];Dd kLl8tx¿n] cWoIf u'?ªnfO{ hfg lbPgg\ . sDkgL sfg'g;Ddt ePsf] k|df0f km]nf gk/]kl5 kLl8tx¿sf] /sd lbnfpg kxn u/]sf] k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/L sf]zxl/ lg/f}nf atfpF5g\ . o;cl3 o'lg6Lsf …ln8/Úx¿n] sDkgLsf] j}wflgstf;DaGwL sfuhkq b]vfpF5f}+ eg] klg Onfdl:yt o'lg6L c:ktfndf e]nf ePsf ;b:ox¿nfO{ u'?ªn] s'g} k|df0f b]vfpg g;sL pgLx¿sf] Wofg cGoq df]8\ g …df]l6e];g efif0fÚ lbg z'? u/]kl5 ;b:ox¿n] ;a} k};f lkmtf{ dfu]/ x'l6Ë u/]sf lyP . To;kl5 #% k|ltzt s§f u/]/ lkmtf{ lbg] sDkgLsf] lgod ;'gfpFbf ;xefuLx¿n] Ps}:j/df eg], æltdLx¿ cfkm}+ lgod–sfg'gdf rn]sf 5}gf}, xfdLn] ltdLx¿sf] lgod lsg dfGg] <Æ

lxdfn kmnf]ck

u'?ªn] cfZjf;g lbP h;/L 3/–3/d} /sd gcfP klg s]xL ;b:on] P;lacfO{ AofÍsf] Onfd zfvfaf6 k};f lkmtf{ lnPsf 5g\ . o'lg6L sfof{nosf] k|lqmof k'u]sf] r]ssf] e'QmfgL lbg] u/]sf] AofÍsf zfvf k|aGws lbnLk /fo atfpF5g\ . Onfddf b}lgs !%) hgf k};f lkmtf{ lng cfO/x]sf 5g\ . tLdWo] clwsf+z cfkm"nfO{ ‰'SofP/ ha/h:tL ;b:o agfPsf] atfpF5g\ . n}gf] ufO{ a]r]/ ;b:o ag]sf ;f]ofª–( sf efg' ;'j]bLn] o'lg6L u|'ksf] Po/j]h, l8kf6{d]G6n :6f]/, 8]/L, AofDaf] ˆofS6«L, 6fj/ 5 eg]/ ;b:o agfPsf] t/ ltgdf cfˆgf] s'g} clwsf/ gx'g] yfxf ePkl5 /sd lkmtf{ lnPsf] atfpF5g\ . #( ;b:o agfP/ … k|]l;8]06Ú aGg nfu]sf a/af]6]–$ sf eLd l3ld/] eG5g\, ægf} hgfsf] /sd ;Íng ul/;s]sf] lyPF, t/ wGg sfof{nodf btf{ gu/]sfn] tTsfn} lkmtf{ ul/lbPF .Æ lj/f6gu/sf] xf]6n gd:sf/df /sd lkmtf{ dfUg] ;b:o / ln8/x¿aLr @^ j}zfvdf s'6fs'6 g} eof], cWoIf u'?ª rflxF …6fOd 5}gÚ eg]/ ToxfFaf6 lxF8] . …ln8/Úx¿n] …sDkgL cj}w ePsf] hfGbfhfGb} lsg ;b:o alg;\ <Ú eg]/ xftkft u/]sf] kLl8t dfwj vltj8f atfpF5g\ . cfkm"nfO{ ha/h:tL u|fxs agfPsf] atfpg] gj/fh vltj8f eG5g\, æls sDkgLsf] cflwsfl/stf b]vfpg';\ ls k};f lkmtf{ lbg';\ eg]kl5 PSsf;L xft xfNg cfP .Æ lbgx'F kmf]g u/]/ ;b:o agfpg] …k|]l;8]G6Úx¿n] k};f lkmtf{ dfUbf ;fj{hlgs:ynd} xftxfNg yfn]kl5 ;ª\3if{ ;ldlt agfP/ /sd lkmtf{ ug]{ tof/Ldf /x]sf] kLl8tx¿ atfpF5g\ .

kLl8tx¿nfO{ ;Ël7t x'gaf6 /f]Sg @( j}zfvdf w/fgdf kqsf/ ;Dd]ng u/]/ ljleGg klqsfdf 5flkPsf] lj1fkg b]vfpFb} sDkgLsf] j}wflgstfsf] k|df0f bfaL ug{ k'u]sL o'lg6LsL …ln8/Ú ;l/tf vgfn kqsf/x¿n] ¥ofv¥ofVtL kf/]kl5 gfhjfkm x'Fb} aflxl/PsL lyOg\ . :ofª\hf, a'6jn, kf]v/fsf u|fxsn] eg] cfˆgf] k};f lkmtf{ geP;Dd ldl8ofdf ghfg] atfPsf 5g\ . ;a} u|fxsnfO{ lkmtf{ lbg] x}l;ot o'lg6Lsf] 5}g . !% j}zfvdf jfl0fHo ljefun] /fhwfgLdf u/]sf] Ps sfo{qmddf o'lg6Lsf cWoIf u'?ªn] cfkm"x¿;Fu ?=@! s/f]8 *# nfv dfq} gub ePsf] v'nf;f u/]sf lyP . ^ nfv %) xhf/ ;b:o ePsf] bfaL ug]{ o'lg6Ln] k|lt ;b:o ?=!% xhf/ lkmtf{ lbFbf olt /sd !$ xhf/ %%# hgfnfO{ dfq} k'U5 . o'lg6Lsf k|lzIf0f lgb]{zs s[i0f If]qL eg] Onfddf %# hgfn] dfq} k};f lkmtf{ nu]sf] bfaL u5{g\ . k};f lkmtf{ g} gdfu]sfn] slt ;b:onfO{ lkmtf{ lbg k'U5 eGg] k|Zg dxŒjk"0f{ gePsf] a? ;~rf/dfWodn] o'lg6Lsf] af/]df unt ckmjfx km}nfPsf] If]qLsf] cf/f]k 5 . u|fxs ;ª\Vof o'lg6Ln] bfaL u/] hlt g} dfGg] xf] eg] p;n] ?=( ca{ &% s/f]8 ;Íng u/]sf] 5, t/ pm cfkm}+n] ?=! ca{ @@ s/f]8eGbf a9L nufgL gu/]sf] :jLsf/]sf] 5 . ;b:ox¿af6 p7fPsf] /sd tTsfn lkmtf{ gug]{ xf] eg] sDkgLdf k|lt;b:o ?=^%)) yk bfloTj ylkG5 . s'g} sfd ug'{cl3 ;DalGwt lgsfoaf6 clgjfo{ cg'dlt lng'kg]{ o'lg6Lsf] k|aGwkqdf :ki6 pNn]v x'Fbfx'Fb} p;n] sfg'gL k|fjwfgsf] wHhL p8fpFb} oltsf /sd ;Íng ubf{ klg ;DalGwt lgsfo eg] df}gtf ;fFw]/ Q a;]sf 5g\ . !–!% h]7 @)^&

‹

lxdfn va/klqsf

39


l/kf]6{

b[li6ljxLgnfO{ k':tsfno ljBfno kf7\oqmddf dfq ;Lldt g]kfnL b[li6ljxLgx? ca a|n ] k':tsfnodfkm{t ljZj ;flxTo;Fu hf]l8g] 5g\ . dLg/Tg ah|frfo{

cfF

vfsf] Hof]lt gePsfx¿nfO{ g]kfndf 1fgsf] bfo/f km/flsnf] agfpg] cj;/ lyPg . g t kof{Kt lyP, a|]nlnlksf kf7\o;fdu|L . o:tf] cj:yfdf pgLx¿ ;dsfnLg ;flxTo k9\g] / cg lxh AnfOG8 n]Vg] ldN6g jf lx:6«L ckm dfO nfOkm sL n]lvsf x]n]g s]n/ h:tf] aGg] ;kgfdf klg lrtfpg ;Sb}gy] . t/, ca d'n'se/sf sl/a #) xhf/ b[li6ljxLgdWo]

40

lxdfn va/klqsf

‹

!–!% h]7 @)^&

sltkon] To:tf] ;kgf b]Vg ;Sg]5g\ . g]kfn cGwf–sNof0f ;+3, /f]6/L Sna kf6g / /f] h OG6/g] z gnsf] kxndf sf7df8f}+sf] yfkfynLdf a|]n k':tsfno :yfkgf ePsf] 5 . o;af6 pT;flxt g]kfn PkmPdsf] …a]nfsf] af]nLÚ sfo{qmdsL ;~rfns ;'lgtf yfkf elG5g\, æh'g s'/fsf] cefj lyof], Tof] k"/f ePsf] 5 .Æ o;cl3 nlntk'/sf] 7}jdf vf]lnPsf] o:t} k':tsfno

clxn] aGb 5 eg] g]kfn b[li6ljxLg ;xof]u ;+3n] afn'jf6f/df :yfkgf u/]sf] cl8of] k':tsfno ;~rfngd} 5 . gofF a|]n k':tsfnodf gf;f], d'gfdbg, a;fOF, /fh]Zj/L, h'Fuf, v}–v}, uf}/L, lz/Lifsf] km"n, ho e'8F L nufot sl/a b'O{ bh{g g]kfnL s[lt a|]nlnlkdf ?kfGt/0f ul/Psf] 5 . ptf cd]l/sfsf] sª\u|]; ckm a|]n k':tsfnoaf6 b[li6ljxLg / cfFvf sd b]Vg]x¿sf nflu pkof]uL Ps xhf/eGbf a9L k':ts lgMz'Ns pknAw u/fpg] cfZjf;g k|fKt ePsf] 5 . cd]l/sfs} b l;8lnË, a|n] a's km/ lrN8«g] n] Ps ;o k':ts lbPsf] 5 . k':tsfnosf Og;fOSnf]kl] 8ofn] b[li6ljxLgx¿nfO{ Oltxf;, lj1fg, ;dfh / ;+:s[ltnufotsf ljleGg kIf;Fu ;fIffTsf/ u/fPsf 5g\ . t/ olt dfq kof{Kt 5}g . sf7df8f}l+ :yt /Tg/fHonIdL SofDk;sf pk–k| f Wofks uf] l jGbk| ; fb cfrfo{ a| ] n df ?kfGtl/t l;h{gfx¿ dxFuf] kg]{ ePsfn] /fHon] g} rf;f] b]vfpg'kg]{ atfpF5g\ . afSnf] sfuh vf]k]/ tof/ ul/g] a|]nlnlksf kf7\o;fdu|Ls} cefj ePsf] a]nf vf]lnPsf] of] k':tsfnon] sfd rflxF 7"n} ug]{ cfrfo{n] atfP . g]kfn cGwf sNof0f ;+3sf lgjt{dfg cWoIf tyf /f]6/L sfi7d08ksf cWoIf /fhg /fptn] /f] 6 /L ;b:ox¿dfkm{ t k' : tsfnosf k' : ts kfn} k fnf] kf] v /f, w/fgnufotsf zx/df klg k'¥ofpg] of]hgf ePsf] atfP . Q ;'/z ] /fh Gof}kfg]


l/kf]6{

;+ljwfg;ef

lhGbfjfb Û •

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;+ljwfg;efsf] klxnf] a}7s -!% h]7 @)^%_ n] b]z ljlwjt\ u0ftGq ePsf] 3f]if0ff u¥of] . cfkm\gf] sfo{ljlw / lgodfjnL tof/ u¥of] . ;efWoIf, pkfWoIf, /fi6« k lt, pk– /fi6«kltsf] 5gf]6 u¥of] . ljifout ;ldltx¿ u7g u¥of] . sl/a gf} dlxgf nufP/ tL ;ldltn] ;+ljwfgsf]

cjwf/0ff tyf k|f/lDes d:of}bf tof/ kf/] . ;+ljwfg;efsf !)! j6f k"0f{ a}7s a;] / ltgdf ;+ljwfgsf] cjwf/0ff / k|f/lDes d:of}bfdfly 5nkmn eof] .

t/, olt sfd ubf{ klg ;+ l jwfg;efn] lgwf{l/t ;dodf gofF ;+ljwfg tof/ kfg{ g;Sg] eof] . lsg < dLg/Tg ah|frfo{

!% h]7 @)^%, /flt (M@) ah] a;]sf] ;+ljwfg;efsf] klxnf] a}7ssf] b[Zo . oxL a}7sn] !$ h]7 @)^& leq gofF ;+ljwfg agfO;Sg] lg0f{o u/]sf] lyof], t/ agfpg] ePg .


s'

g} Pp6f sf/0fn] dfq ;+ljwfg;ef ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ug{ c;kmn ePsf] eg] xf]Og . ;+ljwfg;efsf] !% h]7 @)^% df ;DkGg klxnf] a}7sn] Psflt/ u0ftGq sfof{Gjog ePsf] P]ltxfl;s 3f]if0ff u¥of] eg] csf]{lt/ & dª\l;/ @)^@ b]lv /fhgLlts bn / PsLs[t g]skf dfcf]jfbLaLr ljsl;t ;xdtLo /fhgLlts ofqfdf lj/fd nufOlbof] . cyf{t\ ;+ljwfg gaGb} ax'dtsf] ;Qfs]Gb|L /fhgLltdf kf6L{x¿ ljeflht eP . /, ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] sfd uf}0f aGg k'Uof] . ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfjL kl/0ffdkl5 dfcf]jfbL, sfª\u|]; / Pdfn]sf g]tfx¿df Psflt/ lhtsf] pGdfb / csf{lt/ xf/sf] Unflgn] klg bnLo ;xsfo{df afwf k'¥ofof] . To;cl3 g]t[Tj txdf ePsf ;xdlt / jrga4tfx¿ kfngf ug{ 5f]l8of] . ;+ljwfg;ef / Joj:yflksf ;+;b\ ;~rfng ug{ cnu–cnu lgodfjnL agfP klg b'j} ;bgdf k|ltlglwTj ug]{ JolQm pxL ePsfn] Joj:yflksfsf] ult/f]wsf] c;/ ;+ljwfg;efdf af/Daf/ kl//Xof] . hals ;+ljwfg;efnfO{ k|efljt x'g glbg] jrga4tf ;+ljwfg;efsf @% j6} bnn] u/]sf lyP . @% r}t @)^^ b]lv ;+ljwfg;efsf] 9f]sf pl3|Psf] 5}g . clglZrtsfnsf] nflu aGb 5 . t/, ToxfFleq ;+ljwfg;efn] b'O{ jif{ nufP/ tof/ kf/]sf] ;+ljwfgsf] k|f/lDes d:of}bf ;'/lIft 5 . en} To;sf s]xL cfwf/e"t ljifox¿df ;ef;b\x¿aLr dt ldn]sf] 5}g .

dfcf]jfbL, sfª\u; ]| / Pdfn]sf zLif{ g]tfx¿n] cfk;L cljZjf; kG5fP/ cGo bnx¿nfO{ ;d]t ljZjf;df lnP/ ;+ljwfg;efsf] Dofb yKg' eGbf lgbf]i{ f ljsNk csf]{ b]lvFbg} . bnx¿ ;+ljwfg;efnfO{ g} ;xdltsf] :yn agfpg r's] eg] ;+ljwfg;ef;Fu} pgLx¿sf] cf}lrTo klg ;dfKt x'g5 ] . bnLo k|efj / bafasf] 5fofFdf ;+ljwfg;efsf ;ldlt / :jo+ ;efn] ;d]t :jtGq eP/ sfd ug{ ;s]g . d'Vo /fhgLlts bnx¿n] ;+ljwfg;efnfO{ z'?b]lv g} …aa'/f]Ú agfP . o;f] elg/xFbf ;+ljwfg;efsf] sdhf]/L g} gePsf] eGg] klg xf]Og . d"n d'2faf6 ljd'v bnx¿nfO{ Ps7fpFdf Nofpg ;xdtLo /fhgLltsf] e"ldsf lgjf{x ug'{kg]{ ;+ljwfg;efsf] g]t[Tj -;efWoIf / ljleGg bnnfO{ k|ltlglwTj ug]{ sfo{Joj:yf ;ldltsf ;b:ox¿;d]t_ sdhf]/ /Xof] . y'k|} cK7]/f, ljjfb / ljdltx¿ /xFbf/xFb} klg ljifout ;ldltx¿n] leGg dt;lxtsf] d:of}bf tof/ kf/]sf 5g\ . g]kfnL sfª\u;]| sf g]tf 8f= /fdz/0f dxtsf cg';f/ ;+ljwfgsf cfwf/e"t ljifodf bnx¿aLr dtleGgtf /x] klg ;+ljwfg;efn] *) k|ltzt sfd ;DkGg u/]sf] 5 . 8f= dxt eG5g\, æzf;gk|0ffnL, /fHo k'g;{+/rgfsf] cfwf/ / dfcf]jfbL n8fs"sf] Joj:yfkg af/] ;xdlt / sfof{Gjogsf] yfngL;Fu} ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f sfo{n] km]l/ ult lng ;Sg] cj:yf 5 .Æ 7"nf bnsf] bfloTj bnsf g]tfx¿ cfk;L ltQmtf / cljZjf;nfO{ 5]pdf /fv]/ klxn] ePsf ;xdltx¿ sfof{Gjog ub}{ / ;+ljwfg;efaf6} ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ug]{ c7f]6;lxt ;f‰f sfo{qmd agfP/ cl3 a9\g] xf] eg] 42

lxdfn va/klqsf

‹

!–!% h]7 @)^&

;+ljwfg lgdf{0f …c;DejÚ b]lvFbg} . syd\ sbflrt ;+ljwfg;efnfO{ cfˆgf] sfd k"/f ug}{ glbO{ lj36g ul/of] eg] rflxF sfª\u|]; / Pdfn] dfq} xf]Og dfcf]jfbL / dw]zL g]tfx¿;Fu klg km]l/ ;+ljwfg;efsf] dfu ug]{ g}lts cfwf/ afFsL /xg] 5}g . b]z / hgtfk|ltsf] bfloTjaf]w / g}lts w/ftn sdhf]/ x'g glbgsf nflu x'g;S5– kl5Nnf] ;do dfcf]jfbL, sfª\u|]; / Pdfn]sf zLif{g]tfx¿ ljleGg r/0fdf jftf{df Jo:t 5g\ . jftf{df a:bf pgLx¿n] ljutsf] ;dLIff / casf] Ph]G8faf/] 5nkmn eO/x]sf] atfPsf 5g\ . klxnf], bf];|f] / t];|f] Ph]G8f ljutdf ul/Psf ;d‰bf/L / ;xdltsf] d"NofÍg;Fu ;DalGwt 5g\ eg] rf}yf] / kfFrf}F a'Fbf ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f / zflGt ;D‰f}tf;Fu ;DalGwt ljifo 5g\ . oL ljifodf dfcf]jfbL, sfª\u|]; / Pdfn] g]tfx¿aLr jftf{ eO/x]sf] eP klg dfcf]jfbL n8fs"sf] Joj:yfkgaf/] ;xdlt x'g g;Sbf jftf{ lgisif{df k'Ug ;s]sf] 5}g . Pdfn] k|jQmf k|bLk 1jfnL eG5g\, ædfcf]jfbLx¿ klxn] /fli6«o ;/sf/ agfpmF eG5g\ . xfdL n8fs"x¿sf] Joj:yfkg÷;dfof]hgsf] 6'Ëf] nufpg'k5{ eGg] kIfdf 5f}F . clxn] s'/f o;}df c8\lsPsf] 5 .Æ t/ …klxnf ;/sf/ clg c¿ s'/fÚ eGg] dfcf]jfbLsf] dfu :jLsfg]{ kIfdf o;k6s cGo kf6L{ b]lvPsf 5}gg\ . gf} dlxgf ;/sf/sf] g]t[Tj ubf{ n8fs"sf] Joj:yfkg÷;dfof]hgaf/] s'g} sfd gu/L dfcf]jfbLx¿n] pN6} PstkmL{ 9Ën] g]kfnL ;]gfdf v]Ng vf]h]sf] 36gfn] sfª\u];| , Pdfn]nufotsf bnx¿nfO{ ulx/f] ‰6\sf lbPsf] 5 . o;n] ubf{ pgLx¿ dfcf]jfbL g]t[Tjsf] ;/sf/ dfGg tTsfn tof/ 5}gg\ . clglZrtsfnLg cfdx8tfn :ylut u/]/ dfcf]jfbL g]t[Tjn] ;xdltsf] /fhgLltsf kIfdf g/d / nrsbf/ efif0f ug{ yfn] klg x8tfnsf] ;dLIff ug{ j}zfv @^ / @& ut] /fhwfgLdf a;]sf] dfcf]jfbL :yfoL ;ldltsf] a}7sn] cfˆgf] g]t[Tjdf /fli6«o ;xdltsf] ;/sf/ gag'~h]n cfGbf]ng hf/L /fVg] g} lg0f{o u/]sf] 5 . ;f] a}7ssf] lg0f{odf elgPsf] 5, æzflGtk|lqmofnfO{ tfls{s lgisif{Dff k'¥ofpg], :jfwLg / hgtfsf] ;ª\3Lo u0ftGqfTds ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f, gful/s ;jf]R{ rtf / /fli6«o :jfwLgtfsf] ;'lglZrttfsf nflu PsLs[t g]skf dfcf]jfbLsf] g]t[Tjdf /fli6«o ;+o'Qm ;/sf/sf] lgdf{0fsf dfu k"/f gxf]p~h]n cfGbf]ng hf/L /flvg] 5 .Æ o:t} bf]xf]/f] Jojxf/sf sf/0f n8fs"sf] Joj:yfkg ug{ klg grfxg] /fli6«o ;/sf/sf] g]t[Tj klg lng] dfcf]jfbLsf] /0fgLlt xf] eGg] 7x/df sfª\u|];, Pdfn] k'u]sf 5g\ . ptf ;ª\3Lotf / wd{lg/k]Iftfsf] lj/f]wdf dGqLx¿n] g} efif0f ug{ yfn]kl5 dfcf]jfbLx¿ klg ‰l:sPsf 5g\ . clxn] Psflt/ d'Vo bnx¿aLr ljZjf;sf] ;Í6 sd ug]{ k|of; eO/x]sf] b]lvG5 eg] csf]{lt/ ;/sf/n] ;+ljwfg;efsf] Dofb yKgsf nflu ;+ljwfg ;+zf]wgsf] k|:tfj Joj:yflksfdf n}hfg] tof/L klg z'? u/]sf] 5 . t/ klg dfcf]jfbL n8fs"sf] Joj:yfkg gu/L 8/ / qf;aLr ;+ljwfg;efsf] ;do a9fpg' gx'g] wf/0ff sfª\u|]; / Pdfn]sf sltko g]tfx¿df k|an ¿kdf /x]sf] 5 . clg dfcf]jfbLdf rflxF cfˆgf] g]t[Tjsf] ;/sf/ u7gkl5 dfq ;+ljwfg;efsf] Dofb ylkg'kg]{ ;f]rfO leqL txdf /x]sf] b]lvG5 . tyflk dfcf]jfbL, sfª\u|]; / Pdfn]sf zLif{ g]tfx¿n] cfk;L cljZjf; kG5fP/ cGo bnx¿nfO{ ;d] t ljZjf;df lnP/ ;+ljwfg;efsf] Dofb yKg' eGbf lgbf]i{ f ljsNk csf]{ b]lvFbg} . bnx¿ ;+ljwfg;efnfO{ g} ;xdltsf] :yn agfpg r's] eg] ;+ljwfg;ef;Fu} Q pgLx¿sf] tfTsflns cf}lrTo klg ;dfKt x'g]5 .

w|'a l;Dv8f


/fli6«o dt–;j]{If0f @)^&

hgdtsf] s;Ldf

bn / g]tf lx

dfn utfÍ -!^–#! j}zfv @)^&_ df b]zJofkL ¿kdf ul/Psf] dt–;j]{If0f @)^& sf] kl/0ffd kf7s;dIf k|:t't ul/Psf] lyof] . ;f] ;j]{n] g]kfnL hgtf aGb, x8tfn, cfGbf]ng jf ljb|f]xsf] kIfdf 5}gg\ eGg] s'/f k|fyldstf;fy b]vfPsf] lyof] . t/ lxdfn sf] pQm cÍ kf7sx¿sf] xftdf kl/;Sbf g;Sb} PsLs[t g]skf dfcf]jfbLn] ;~rfng u/]sf] b]zJofkL cfdx8tfnsf sf/0f d'n's cfGbf]ngsf] cToGt} rsf]{ rk]6df k¥of] . o;af6 kf7sx¿nfO{ nfUg ;S5 o:tf ;j]I{ f0fx¿df b]lvg] kl/0ffdsf] s] cy{ /Xof] < t/ of] a'‰fOnfO{ cf+lzs dfq dfGg ;lsG5 . /fhgLlts cfGbf]ngsf] Pp6f dxŒjk"0f{ kf6f] sfo{stf{ kl/rfngsf] Ifdtf xf] . clxn] Tof] Ifdtf dfcf]jfbL;Fu a9L 5 . aGb jf cfdx8tfn To;sf] k|bz{g xf] . tyflk hgtfn] cfGbf]ng g?rfPsf] s'/f klg ;Fu;Fu} :yflkt ePsf] 5 . j;Gtk'/df cfof]lht zflGt;efdf dflg;x¿sf] pT;fxk"0f{ ;xeflutf To;sf] k|df0f xf] . k|rf/afhL -k|f]kf]u08f_ /fhgLlts bnx¿sf] :jfefljs /0fgLlt xf] . t/ hgdt / k|rf/afhL Pp6} s'/f xf]Og . k|rf/afhLn] hgdtnfO{ k|efj kf5{ t/ klg oL b'j}df tflTjs leGgtf x'G5 . g]kfnsf] jt{dfg ;+j]bgzLn ;ª\qmd0fdf bnx¿sf] e"ldsf lgM;Gb]x dxŒjk"0f{ 5 . t/ bn / g]tfx¿ cfˆg} k|rf/–k|;f/ a9L ?rfpF5g\Ù cfˆg} bn / g]tfx¿nfO{ dfq ;a}n] /fd|f eg"g\ eGg] rfxgf /fV5g\ h'g c:jfefljs klg xf]Og . pgLx¿ PstkmL{ ¿kdf cfkm" / cfˆgf s'/f dfq /fd|fÙ c¿ g/fd|f x'g\ eGg] unt k|rf/ ul//x]sf x'G5g\ . t/ hgtfn] km/s 9Ën] ;f]lr/fv]sf x'g;S5g\ . bnLo k|rf/n] hgdtnfO{ cf]‰]ndf kf/]sf] x'g ;S5 . t;y{ ;do–;dodf ul/g] ;j]{x¿ To;nfO{ lr/]/ hgtfsf dgdf nflu/fv]sf s'/fnfO{ cleJolQm lbg] lgikIf dfWod x'g\ . oBlk, g]kfndf hgdtn] /fhgLltnfO{ k|efljt t'Nofpg] cj:yf sdhf]/ 5, a? /fhgLlts k|rf/jfhL / 36gfqmdn] hgdtnfO{ a9L k|efljt ug]{ u/]sf] 5 .

/fli6«o ;Í6 ls k|rf/afhLsf] k|efj <

lxdfn n] u/]sf] pQm ;j]{ cg';f/ g]kfnL hgtfsf] 7"nf] lx:;f -&^ k|ltzt_ clxn] g]kfnsf] /fli6«otf / cv08tf ;Í6df 5 eGg] wf/0ff /fV5 . bnx¿aLr dgd'6fj / snxsf sf/0f o:tf] ePsf] xf] eGg] pgLx¿sf] a'‰fO 5 . hgdfg;df /fli6«o ;Í6sf] a'‰fOdf bnx¿sf] k|rf/afhL xfjL ePsf] k|:6 b]Vg ;lsG5 . g]kfndf /fli6«otfsf] ;xL ax; g} ePsf] 5}g . @))& ;fnsf]

k|f= s[i0f vgfn

g]kfndf g]t[Tjsf] ;Í6 5 eGg] lxdfn sf] hgdt ;j]{If0fsf] kl/0ffdn] k|:6 b]vfpF5 . sl/a kfFr xhf/ pQ/bftfnfO{ Pshgf ultnf] g]tfsf] gfd lngf];\ eGbf ^) hgfsf] gfd cfpF5 / s;}n] klg @! k|ltzteGbf a9L kfpFb}gg\ eg] b]zdf g]tf t w]/} 5g\ t/ gfd lng of]Uo sd} 5g\ eGg] hgdtsf] ;Gb]z xf] . g]kfnsf] ;d[l4, zflGt / nf]stGqsf] ;'b[9Ls/0f ug{ ;Sg] s'g} Ps g]tf sf] x'g\ < @)=@Ü !$=&Ü *=#Ü ^=$Ü ^=#Ü !%=(Ü @*=@Ü

hgdt / k|rf/afhL Pp6} s'/f xf]Og . bnLo k|rf/n] hgdtnfO{ cf]‰f]ndf kf/]sf] x'g ;S5 . t;y{ ;do– ;dodf ul/g] ;j]x{ ¿ To;nfO{ lr/]/ hgtfsf dgdf nflu/fv]sf s'/fnfO{ cleJolQm lbg] lgikIf dfWod x'g\ . qmflGtkl5 dfq hgtfs]Gb|L /fli6«otfsf] cjwf/0ffn] g]kfndf k|j]z kfPsf] xf] . t/ of] s'/f g]kfnsf /fhfx¿nfO{ kr]g . @)!& ;fndf nf]stGq ;dfKt u/]kl5 /fhf dx]Gb|n] /fhgLlts bn / nf]stGqnfO{ ef/tk/:t Pj+ /fli6«otfsf lj/f]wL x'g\ eg]/ b'ik|rf/ z'? u/] . olt dfq xf]Og pgn] ef/tnfO{ g]kfnL /fli6«otfsf] lj/f]wL zlQmsf ¿kdf k|:t't u/] . o; s'/fdf g]kfnsf sDo'lg:6 / /fhfjfbLdf dt}Sotf klg /Xof] . !–!% h]7 @)^&

‹

lxdfn va/klqsf

43


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;d[4 g]kfn lgdf{0fsf nflu /fd|f / lhDd]jf/sf lx;fan] s'g} tLg j6f /fhgLlts bn 5fGg'kbf{ s'g÷s'g bnsf] gfd lng'x'G5 <

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eGg rfxGg F

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sf]xL klg 5g} g\

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tdnf]kf

dhkmf] nf]s tflGqs

dhkmf] gk] fn

gs ] kf Pdfn ]

gk] fnL sfª u\ ;]|

Pgs ] kf dfcf] jfbL

#=$Ü

…lhDd]jf/ bnÚsf ¿kdf yf]/} eP klg g]kfnL sfª\u; ]| dfcf]jfbLeGbf cufl8 5 . t/, hgtfsf] o:tf] dt sfª\u; ]| Pp6f bnsf] kIfdf eGbf klg pbf/jfbL nf]stGqsf] d"No / ;+/rgfsf kIfdf k/]sf] xf] eg]/ a'‰g'k5{ .

k~rfot Joj:yfn] #) jif{;Dd u/]sf] o:tf] k|rf/jfhL / sfª\u|]; sDo'lg:6aLrsf] ;}4flGts åGåsf qmddf g]kfnL /fli6«otfnfO{ ;b}j sdhf]/ / ef/t–cfqmfGt b]vfpg] /fhgLlts k|rf/afhLsf] ljsf; eof] . clxn] …/fli6«otf ;Í6df 5Ú eGg] hgdt To;}sf] b]g -lnu];L_ xf] . t/ bnx¿n] a'´g'k5{, /fli6«otfsf] o:tf] /fhgLlts dgf]lj1fgn] /fi6«nfO{ an k'Ub}g . cfˆgf tTsfnsf] kmfObfsf nflu ;8sdf nufOg] gf/fafhL g} /fli6«otf xf] eGg] e|d g]kfnL hgdfg;af6 x6\g ;s] dfq /fli6«otfsf] ;xL a'‰fOsf] ljsf; x'g ;S5 . /fli6«otfsf] ;sf/fTds kIfkf]if0f ug]{ /fhgLlts ;+:sf/sf] ljsf; clxn]sf] ;a}eGbf 68\sf/f] vfFrf] xf] .

hgtfdf bn / g]tfsf] 5lj

dfly plNnlvt ;j]{n] oxfFsf bnx¿ klg ;ª\qmd0fdf 5g\ eGg] ;Í]t u/]sf] 5 . PsLs[t g]skf dfcf]jfbL ;a}eGbf a9L ;ª\qmd0fdf 5 . tyflk of] bnk|ltsf] hgwf/0ff w]/} g} ;sf/fTds ePsf] ;j]{n] b]vfPsf] 5 . of] g} ?kfGt/0fsf] ;Í]t xf] . sfª\u|];, Pdfn]n] vf]h] h:tf] dfcf]jfbLsf] ?kfGt/0fsf] ck]Iff ug{ klg ldNb}g . p;n] aGb's 5f]8]sf] 5 . ;Ël7t lx+;f 5f]8]sf] 5 . ax'bnLo k|lt:kwf{nfO{ :jLsf/]sf] 5 . t/, oyfl:yltdf cfpg pm rfxFb}g / Tof] g} ?kfGt/0f klg xf]Og . nf]stGqsf cfw/e"t l;4fGt / dof{bfnfO{ :jLsf/ u/]/ p;n] cfˆgf] b[li6sf]0f / k|fyldstf cg';f/ d'n'ss} ?kfGt/0fsf] s'/f ug'{ cGoyf xf]Og . t/ ;j]{If0fn] dfcf]jfbLsf lqmofsnfk ;a} hgtfsf nflu dfGo 5}gg\ eGg] s'/fnfO{ klg :ki6 phfu/ u/]sf] 5 . o;sf b'O{ ljkl/t 5lj;Fu;Fu} ag]sf 5g\ . Psflt/ zflGtk"0f{ /fhgLltdf

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ljZjf; ug]{ / ul/a, lgd'vfsf] enf] ug]{ bnsf ¿kdf o;sf] 5lj cufl8 5 eg] csf]{lt/ xltof/ / afx'andf ljZjf; ug]{ bn eg]/ wf/0ff /fVg]x¿ klg plQs} 5g\ . o;n] s] k'li6 u5{ eg] pmk|ltsf] hgdt b'O{ ljkl/t wf/df cl3 al9/x]sf] 5 . of] s'/faf6 dfcf]jfbLleq ljsl;t ;ª\qmd0fsf] åGå hgtf;Dd k'u]sf] cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 . qmflGtsf/L sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf] 5lj k|If]k0f / ax'bnLo k|lt:kwf{sf] ;+;bLo Jojxf/df tfnd]nsf] åGå nfd} ;do;Dd hf/L /xg ;S5 . t/ ax'bnLo k|lt:kwf{sf] /fhgLltdf pQm bnsf] Jojxf/ qmdzM g/d / nlrnf] geO{ /xg ;Qm}g . hgtfsf] ;du| /]l6Ë÷5gf]6df dfcf]jfbL cufl8 5 . t/ …lhDd]jf/ bnÚsf ¿kdf yf]/} eP klg g]kfnL sfª\u|]; cufl8 5 . bnsf ¿kdf /fd|f] / lhDd]jf/ 7x¥ofOP klg sfª\u|]; g]t[Tjk|lt hgtfsf] …/]l6ËÚ w]/} Go"g 5 . To;}n] hgtfsf] o:tf] dtnfO{ sfª\u|]; Pp6f bnsf] kIfdf eGbf klg pbf/jfbL nf]stGqsf] d"No / ;+/rgfsf kIfdf eg]/ a'´g ;lsG5 . PsLs[t g]skf dfcf]jfbL, g]kfnL sfª\u|]; / Pdfn] clxn] klg /fi6«JofkL hgfwf/ ePsf bnsf ¿kdf cufl8 5g\ . h'g s'/f ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg kl/0ffdn] klg :yflkt u/]sf] lyof] . dw]zsf bnx¿sf] hgfwf/ t/fO{d} klg sdhf]/ 5 . o;y{ zlQm ;Gt'ngsf lx;fan] pgLx¿sf] e"ldsf dxŒjk"0f{ x'g ;S5 t/ lg0ff{os xf]Og . oltv]/ g]kfndf g]t[Tjsf] ;Í6 5 eGg] ;f] hgdt ;j]{If0fsf] kl/0ffdn] k|:6 b]vfpF5 . v'nf pQ/sf nflu ;f]lwPsf] k|Zgdf w]/h} gfsf] gfd cfpg' :jfefljs xf] . sl/a kfFr xhf/ pQ/bftfnfO{ Pshgf g]tfsf] gfd lngf];\ eGbf ^) hgfsf] gfd cfpF5 / s;}n] klg @! k|ltzteGbf a9L kfpFb}gg\ eg] b]zdf g]tf t w]/} 5g\ t/ gfd lng of]Uo sd} 5g\ eGg] hgdtsf] ;Gb]z xf] . /]l6Ëdf dfcf]jfbLsf k'iksdn bfxfn / afa'/fd e§/fO{ c¿eGbf w]/} cufl8 5g\ t/ ;du| k|ltztdf pgLx¿ klg vf;} cufl8 5}gg\ . dfcf]jfbLsf nflu ;sf/fTds kIf s] xf] eg] p;sf b'Oh{ gf g]tfsf] gfd hgtfaLr /fd|f];Fu :yflkt ePsf] /x]5 . ;j]{sf qmddf pQ/bftfn] ;f] bnsf ;ft hgfeGbf a9Lsf] gfd lnPgg\ . g]kfnL sfª\u|]; / Pdfn]df ljeflht g]t[Tj /x]sf] s'/f ‰Nsfpg' of] ;j]{sf] Pp6f dxŒjk"0f{ kIf xf] . sfª\u|];df c¿eGbf z]/axfb'/ b]pjf cufl8 b]lvG5g\ Tof] klg w]/} sd cÍdf . ;'zLn sf]O/fnf, /fdrGb| kf}8]n / uug yfkf hgtfsf] gh/df plQs} nf]slk|o b]lvPsf 5g\ . pQ/bftfsf] …/]l6ËÚ ;"rLdf !* hgf sfª\u|];L k/]sf 5g\ . oL ;a}sf] cÍnfO{ Ps7fpFdf /fVbf ^!* gf£b}g . ha ls dfcf]jfbLsf bfxfn / e§/fO{sf] /]l6Ë qmdzM !,)!! / &#% 5 . g]kfnL sfª\u|]; clxn] gofF g]t[Tj rogsf] ;F3f/df 5 . g]t[Tjsf] cfsfª\Iff /fVg] sfª\u|];hgsf nflu of] ;j]{sf] kl/0ffd ljrf/0fLo x'g ;S5 . Pp6f s'/f k|:6 ePsf] 5 sfª\u]|; /fhgLltdf kfl/jfl/s lj/f;tsf] ca 7fpF 5}g . sf]O/fnf kl/jf/sf] lj/f;t af]Sg]df ;'zLn sf]O/fnf dfq} b]lvG5g\ . t'ngfTds ¿kdf eGg' kbf{ sfª\u|]; g]t[Tjdf o'jfx¿sf] g]t[Tj ;Defjgf a9L cfznfUbf] b]lvG5 . Ps jif{ cufl8 dfq clwj]zg u/]/ gofF g]t[Tj rog u/]sf] Pdfn]df clxn] g} g]t[Tjsf] ;Í6 gx'g' kg]{ xf] . t/, hgdtnfO{ x]bf{ ToxfF klg ljefhg / ;Í6 sfod} 5 . dfwjs'df/ g]kfn kf6L{leq c¿eGbf cufl8 g} 5g\ . bf];|f] …/]l6ËÚdf ‰ngfy vgfn cfPsf 5g\ t/ lgs} kl5 . kf6L{leq x:tL sxlnPsf jfdb]j uf}td / s]kL cf]nLnfO{ o'jfg]tf k|bLk 1jfnLn] pl5g]sf 5g\ . pQ/bftfn] Pdfn]sf klg c7f/} hgfnfO{ cfˆgf] /]l6Ëdf kf/]sf 5g\ . o;/L Pdfn]sf] cj:yf klg sfª\u|];sf] eGbf vf;} leGg 5}g . tL !*

hgfn] kfPsf] cÍ ;a} ldnfpFbf klg $^) gf£b}g . ;j]{sf] kl/0ffd cfkm"n] ;f]r h:tf] gx'g ;S5 . ;a}sf] cg's"n klg x'Fb}g . tyflk o;nfO{ uDeL/tf;fy lng ;s] bn / g]tfsf sbdx¿ hgdt lgs6 / e/kbf{ x'g ;S5g\ . o;n] d'n'ssf] /fhgLltsf] u'0f:t/ j[l4 u/fpg ;S5 . /fhgLlt ;lk|Fbf d'n's} ;lk|G5 .

cl:y/tf pGd'v o'jfdt

;j]{sf] csf]{ ljz]iftf o'jf pQ/bftfsf] clwstf xf] . …:ofDknÚdf !* b]lv $) jif{ pd]/ ;d"xsf o'jfx¿sf] ;ª\Vof ‰08} ^) k|ltzt 5 . g]kfnL o'jfx¿sf] dt slt kl/jt{gzLn jf l:y/ 5, o;af/] vf;} cg';Gwfg ePsf] 5}g . t/ of] ;j]{df pgLx¿sf] dt ;du| k|Zgx¿df ;sf/fTds / gsf/fTds b'j} cyf{t\ c;Gtf]ifk"0f{ kfOG5 . gsf/fTds hjfkm lbg] o'jfx¿ cln a9L 5g\ h;sf] cl:y/tf a9fpgsf nflu pkof]u x'g] ;Defjgf /xG5 . of] r'gf}tL ;a} bn / ltgsf g]t[Tjsf] nflu xf] . o'jfdg :jefj}n] a9L r~rn x'G5 . h;nfO{ xfdL cl:y/ klg eGg ;S5f}+ . t/ r~rntf / gsf/fTdstf Pp6} s'/f xf]Og . rsf]{ gf/fafhL, cfGbf]ng, clzIff, a]/f]huf/L, ul/aLnufotsf ;d:ofn] g]kfnL o'jfhutnfO{ cfqmfGt kf/]sf] 5 . unt Pj+ e|fds k|rf/afhLsf] k|efj klg pgLx¿df plQs} b]lvG5 . pgLx¿sf] dtnfO{ oL ;a s'/fn] k|efljt kfg'{ :jfefljs} xf] . t/, o'jf kl/rfngsf] gLltsf af/]df ;a} bn ;+j]bgzLn x'g' h?/L 5 . pT;fxL t/ oyfy{k/s / lhDd]jf/ 9Ën] o'jf kl/rfngsf] /fhgLlt Q clxn]sf] /fli6«o cfjZostf klg xf] .

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45


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;+

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sfª\u; ]| ÷Pdfn]sf s]xL kfqnfO{ cfkm";uF aGb's ePsf] e|d k/] klg aGb'ssf] /fhgLltdf pgLx¿sf] xf/ lglZrt 5 . To:t} aGb'sdf g} uj{ ug],{ aGb'snfO{ g} anzfnL 7fGg] dfcf]jfbLn] la;]s { f] kIf s] xf] eg] p;n] y'kf/]sf aGb'sdf klg lvof nflu;s]sf] 5 . kfqx¿, ;+ljwfg;efljgfsf] /fhgLlt u}/dfcf]jfbL lsQfsf lglDt nfesf/L x'g] ljZn]if0f ub}{5g\ . ;+ljwfg;efaf6 k|f/Ded} /flhgfdf u/]/ j}w /fhgLltsf] af6f]k|lt tLtf] kf]Vg] dfcf]jfbLleqsf] …qmflGtsf/LÚ lsQf ;+ljwfg;efsf] d[To'j/0f;Fu} pTkGg x'g] hgcfqmf]z / c:tJo:ttfnfO{ cfˆgf] cg's"ntfdf k|of]u ug{ ;s] hgljb|f]xsf] nflu cfjZos hgpef/ l;h{gf ug{ ;lsg] ljZn]if0f ul//x]sf] 5 . t/, ;+ljwfg;efsf] lj36g;Fu} zflGtsf] /fhgLltdf klg k"0f{lj/fd nfUg] lglZrt 5 . To;kl5 k|f/De x'g] aGb'ssf] /fhgLltdf sfª\u|];÷Pdfn]sf s]xL kfqnfO{ cfkm";Fu aGb's ePsf] e|d k/] klg pgLx¿sf] xf/ lglZrt 5 . clg aGb'sdf g} uj{ ug]{, aGb'snfO{ g} anzfnL 7fGg] dfcf]jfbLn] klg la;]{sf] kIf s] xf] eg] p;n] y'kf/]sf aGb'sdf klg lvof nflu;s]sf 5g\ . kmf}hL ;fyLx¿n] aGb'ssf] cledfg ug'{ 46

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leGb} b]lvg'kg]{ p;sf] afWotf, ljb]zL;Fu 5'§}, :jb]zL;Fu 5'§} b]lvg'kg]{ p;sf] cK7\of/f] /lx/xg] 5 . o:tf] cK7\of/f] /lx/x];Dd zflGtsf] /fhgLlt klg cK7\of/f]df kl//xG5 . ha;Dd dfcf]jfbLn] zflGt / ;+ljwfgsf] /fhgLltnfO{ s]jn sfo{gLlts gf/f agfpg] 5 clg cfˆgf] Psn jr{:j ePsf] ;ª\3Lo hgjfbL u0ftGqsf] :yfkgf s]Gb|Lo:t/af6 gx'Fbf;Dd qmflGtsf] of] /0fgLltdf s'g} km]/abn cfpg ;Sb}g eGg] ;f]r TofUb}g ta;Dd zflGt k|lqmof / ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f sfo{n] ;fy{stf kfpg ;Sb}g . p;n] @)^$ ebf}df afnfh'df ;DkGg kf6L{sf] kfFrf}+ lj:tfl/t a}7sdf pNn]v u/]sf s'/fx¿ gTofUbf;Dd pm nf]stGqdf ljZjf; ug]{ gful/sx¿sf] kf6L{ aGg ;Sb}g . ;d:of dfcf]jfbLdf dfq} xf]Og sfª\u|];, Pdfn]df klg k|z:t} 5g\ . t/, oL b'O{dWo] s'g} Psn] klg zflGt / ;+ljwfgsf] af6f] 5f8\g], ;ª\3Lotf jf wd{lg/k]Iftfsf] lg0f{oaf6 k5fl8 kms{g] ;+:yfut lg0f{o ug{ ;Sb}gg\ . ;ª\3Lo u0ftGq g]kfnsf] ef]lnsf] /fhgLltdf oL bn /xnfg\ jf g/xnfg\ eGg] s'/f k|lt:kwf{Tds /fhgLltdf logn] v]Ng] e"ldsf tyf logsf] of]Uotfn] to ub}{ hfg] s'/f xf] . t/ clxn]nfO{ zflGtsf] /fhgLlt cl3 a9fpg oL b'O{ bn cfkm}+df afws xf]Ogg\ . a? dfcf]jfbL g]t[Tjn] s'g}a]nf Pdfn] g]tf dbg e08f/Ln] b]vfPsf] ;fx; / ;fdYo{ /fVg] jf g/fVg] eGg]df rflxF zflGtsf] /fhgLlts eljio cl8Psf] 5 . g lgif]w, g ;dk{0f– dfcf]jfbLsf] ?kfGt/0f g} zflGtsf] /fhgLltsf] klxnf] zt{ xf] . of] zt{ k"/f ug{ dfcf]jfbL cfkm}+n] slt k|oTg ug{ ;S5 clg u}/dfcf]jfbL lsQfn] slt ;sf/fTds bafa l;h{gf ug{ ;S5g\– ;txdf b]lvPsf /fhgLlts ;d:ofx¿sf] xn To;}df lge{/ /xG5 . ;+ljwfg;efsf] Dofb yKg'cl3 zflGtsf] /fhgLlt lgjf{w cl3 a9\g cfjZos ;d‰bf/L ug{ ;s] pQd x'G5 . clxn] g} ;a} ljifodf ;xdlt ug{ g;lsP klg ;+ljwfg;efsf] cl:tTj /fVg}k5{ . lsgeg], ;+ljwfg;efsf] pkl:yltdf g} dfcf]jfbL ?kfGt/0fsf] nflu yk k|oTgx¿ ug{ ;lsg] ;Defjgf /xG5 . t/ ;+ljwfg;efnfO{ z"nLdf r9fpg' eg]sf] rflxF aGb'snfO{ cf}krfl/s lgDtf lbg' afx]s c¿ s]xL x'g] 5}g . Q -yfkf g]kfnL sfª\u; ]| sf ;ef;b\ x'g\ ._

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;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] nflu 5'6o\ fOPsf &#) lbgdWo] !$ lbg dfq afFsL 5g\ . ca ;+ljwfg gaGg] lglZrt eof] eGg ldN5 ls ldNb}g < tf]lsPsf] ;dodf ;+ljwfg gaGg] ca lglZrt eO;s]sf]] 5 . xfdLn] s]xL ;do v]/ klg kmfNof}F . To;}n] ca s;/L cufl8 a9\g] eGg] ;xdltsf] vfFrf] 5 . vf;u/L /fhgLlts bnx¿aLrsf] cljZjf; / dte]bsf sf/0f ;dodf ;+ljwfg n]Vg g;lsPsf] xf] . ;dodf ;+ljwfg gag]sf sf/0f ca s:tf ;d:of cfpg ;Snfg\ < d'Vo ;d:of t hgtfsf] ljZjf;sf] xf] . o;n] ubf{ xfdLk|lt hgtfsf] ljZjf; 36\5 . t/ ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f;Fu ufFl;Psf sltko ;d:ofx¿ ;xh} 6'ª\Uofpg ;Dej 5}g . To;}n] xtf/df 6'ª\UofP/ kl5 k5'tfpg'eGbf klxn] g} To;af/] k|z:t 5nkmn, dGyg u/]/ ;xdltdf k'Ug' h?/L x'G5 . To;sf nflu sltko ljifodf ;do nfUg' :jfefljs} xf] . h:t}M Pp6f uDeL/ / hl6n ljifo eg]sf] ;ª\3Lotfsf] cfwf/ klxNofpg' xf] . /fHosf] ;+/rgf / :j?k lgwf{/0f ug]{ h:tf] hl6n ljifo s]xL xKtf jf dlxgfsf] 5nkmnaf6 6'lËg] ljifo xf]Og . /fHo k'g;{+/rgf cfof]u agfP/ :jtGq ¿kdf o;af/] sfd ul/g'kb{Yof] . To;f] gug'{ xfd|f] sdhf]/L /Xof] . To;n] bnLo cfu|xeGbf dfly p7]/ k|b]zx¿sf] lgdf{0fdf ;xL ;'‰fj lbg ;SbYof] . t/, b'ef{Uo ;dodf To:tf] cfof]u aGg ;s]g . /, clxn] klg o;af/] ljjfb 6'lËPsf] 5}g . o; afx]s lgjf{rg k|0ffnL s:tf] x'g], Joj:yflksfsf] :j?k s] x'g], ;Qfsf] :j?k s:tf] x'g] cflbaf/] klg ;}4flGts ljdlt /x]sf 5g\ . oL ljjfbnfO{ ;dfwfg ug{ ;do nfU5 . ;do yk]/} eP klg ;+ljwfg n]Vg'k5{ eGg] tkfOFsf] ljrf/ xf] < /fhgLlts ult/f]w pTkGg gePsf] eP klg s]xL ;do t yKg} kg]{ lyof] . clxn] t /fhgLlts ult/f]ws} sf/0f klg ;efsf] ;do yKg'kg]{ cj:yf cfPsf] xf] . To;f]eP slt ;do yKg] < Psjif{ yKg'kb{5 . b'O{ jif{df ug{ g;lsPsf sfd Ps jif{df ;lsPnfg\ < clxn];Dd ;+ljwfg;efn] sfd} gu/]sf] xf]Og . nueu c;L k|ltzt d:of}bfsf] sfd ;xdlts} cfwf/df ;lsPsf 5g\ . t/, d"n ljifo t Ho"s F f To"F 5g\ < oL ljifo olt hl6n 5g\ ls h;df a[xt\ ¿kdf ljrf/ / dGyg ug'{kg]{ 5 . /fhgLlts ;xdltljgf oL ljifonfO{ 6'ª\Uofpg ;lsFb}g . o;df s]xL ljifo o:tf uDeL/ 5g\ h;n] b]znfO{ ljv08glt/ n}hfg klg ;Sb5g\ . h:t}M hftsf] cfwf/df k|b]zx¿

;+ljwfgn] g} n8fs"x¿sf] lzlj/sf] /]vb]v, lgoGq0f / lgb]z { g ljz]if ;ldltn] ug]{ eg]sf] 5 . t/, lzlj/dfly ;ldltsf] s'g} lgoGq0f 5}g . pgLx¿ zlQmsf] afF8kmfF8 klxn] u/f}+ clg ;]gf ;dfof]hgsf] s'/f u/f}n + f eG5g\ . o;/L dfcf]jfbLx¿ n8fs" Joj:yfkg u/]/ lzlj/ vfnL ug]{ s'/fdf Odfgbf/ b]lvPsf 5}gg\ .


lgdf{0f ug]{ s'/f cfPsf] 5 . o;f]ubf{ b]zsf] eljio 8fdf8f]n x'g ;Sb5 . ;o hlt hfthflt / efiffefifL ePsf] ax'hftLo, ax'eflifs / ax';f+:s[lts d'n'sdf hftLo / eflifs ;dGjosf cfwf/df dfq k|b]zx¿ lgdf{0f ug{ ;lsG5 . k|bz ] sf] ;ª\Vof slt x'gk' b{5 < g]kfnsf] nflu pko'Qm $–% k|b]z xf] . o;df Ps b'O{ k|b]z;Dd a9fpg ;lsPnf . of]eGbf a9L eof] eg] cfly{s ¿kdf wfGg d'lZsn k5{ . hlt w]/} k|b]z agfOof] ljjfb klg TolQ g} a9\b} hfG5 . gfOh]l/ofdf z'?df tLg j6f k|fGt lyof], kl5 gf}, bz j6f agfOof] . /, ljleGg hfltsf] dfu cg';f/ a9fpFb} hfFbf Tof] ;ª\Vof #^ k'u]sf] 5 . of] clk|msfsf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] t]n pTkfbg ug]{ d'n's ePsfn] o;sf y'k|} cfly{s cfwf/x¿ 5g\ . t/, g]kfndf t o:tf] cfwf/ klg 5}g . t;y{ cfly{s ¿kn] wfGg ;lsg], k|zf;lgs tj/n] klg ;'ud x'g] / hftLo ljefhgsf] /]vf klg gsf]l/g] vfnsf ;ª\3Lo OsfOx¿ lgdf{0f ug'{ /fd|f] x'G5 . ;+ljwfg;efsf] ;do yKg bnx¿ ;xdt eO;s]sf x'g\ < ;do yKg'kg]{ cfjZostf ;a}n] dx;'; u/]sf 5g\ . t/, To:tf] k|:tfj s;}n] klg NofPsf] 5}g . olb ;+ljwfg;efsf] Dofb gyKg] xf] eg] ;+ljwfg s;n] lgdf{0f ug]{ t < ls csf]{ lgjf{rgdf hfg'k¥of], xf]Og eg] ;do yKg'sf] ljsNk 5}g . !$ ut];Dd ;efsf] ;do ylkPg eg] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg / zflGt ;D‰ff}tfsf] cj:yf s] x'G5 < hxfF ; Dd cGtl/d ;+ l jwfgsf] s' / f] 5 Tof] /lx/xG5 . zflGt;D‰f}tfsf] ;fGble{stf / cf}lrTo klg ;dfKt x'Fb}g . ;+ljwfg;efn] ug]{ ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] sfddf dfq ult/f]w pTkGg x'g] xf] . hgtfsf] zflGt / nf]stGqk|ltsf] rfxgfÙ hftLo ck]Iff / ;dfj]zLsf s'/fnfO{ ;+:yfut ug]{ ;+:yf xf]– ;+ljwfg;ef . To;}n] o;sf] nflu /fi6«n] 7"nf] nufgL u/]sf] xf] . ca ;+ljwfg g} gn]vL ;efsf] ;do ;lsof] eg] d'n'ssf] nflu Tof]eGbf 7"nf] b'ef{Uo s]xL x'Fb}g . To;af6 7"nf] /fhgLlts cl:y/tf l;h{gf x'g;S5 . hgtfsf] /fhgLlts bnk|ltsf] cfzf / e/f];f klg ;dfKt ul/lbG5 . To;sf/0f o;sf] sfg'gL / j}wflgs kIfnfO{ dfq x]g'{eGbf klg o;n] h'gk|sf/sf] /fhgLlts clglZrttf / ;Í6 l;h{gf u5{ To;tkm{ Wofg s]lGb|t ug'{k5{ . To;f]eP ca bnx¿n] s] ug'k{ 5{ < /fhgLlts bn / Pdfcf]jfbLaLr l;lh{t ljZjf;sf] ;Í6nfO{ x6fpg'kb{5 . vf;u/L dfcf]jfbL kIfn] ljutsf ;xdlt kfngf gu/]sfn] ljZjf;sf] ;Í6 k}bf ePsf] xf] . ToxL ljZjf;sf] ;Í6 ;dfKt ug{ eg]/ ^ j6f Ph]G8fdf …Kofs]hÚd} ;xdlt vf]Hg xfdL h'l6/x]sf 5f}F . k|:tfljt ^ a'bF f s] s] x'g\ < klxnf], ljutdf ul/Psf ;d‰bf/L / ;xdltsf] d"NofÍg ug]{ s'/f 5 . bf];|f], /fhgLlts bn / dfcf]jfbLaLr pTkGg ljZjf;sf] ;Í6 lg/fs/0f ug]{ s'/f 5 . t];|f], dfcf]jfbLn] ;/sf/af6 x6]kl5 …gful/s ;jf]{RrtfÚsf] s'/f u/]/ nfdf] ;do;Dd ;+;b\ cj?4 ug'{sf ;fy} cfGbf]ng klg ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . o;sf] ;dLIff ug]{ s'/f 5 . oL tLg a'Fbf ljutsf d"NofÍg dfq x'g\ . rf}yf], ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fdf tuf/f] ag]/ a;]sf d"ne"t ljifodf ;xdlt u/]/ cufl8 a9\g] s'/f 5 . kfFrf}+, zflGt ;D‰f}tf;Fu ;DalGwt ljifo /x]sf 5g\ . h:t}M sAhf ul/Psf ;DklQ lkmtf{sf] s'/fÙ n8fs" Joj:yfkgÙ jfO{;LPnsf] cw{–;}lgs ;+/rgf lj36g, ;To lg?k0f tyf d]nldnfk cfof]usf] u7g cflb . oL zflGt lgdf{0f;Fu ;DalGwt ljifo x'g\ . 5}6f}F, /fli6«o ;xdltsf] ;/sf/

;+ljwfg;efsf] Dofb gyKg] xf] eg] ;+ljwfg s;n] lgdf{0f ug]{ t < ls csf]{ lgjf{rgdf hfg'k¥of], xf]Og eg] ;do yKg'sf] ljsNk 5}g . ;+ljwfg g} gn]vL ;efsf] ;do ;lsof] eg] d'ns ' sf] nflu Tof]eGbf 7"nf] b'ef{Uo s]xL x'bF g} . To;af6 7"nf] /fhgLlts cl:y/tf l;h{gf x'g;S5 . u7gsf] ljifo /x]sf] 5 . oL ^ j6f ljifo eP klg d"n ljifo rflxF dfcf]jfbL n8fs" Joj:yfkgs} s'/f xf] . clxn] s'/f gldn]sf] s]df xf] < n8fs"x¿sf] Joj:yfkgdf s'/f ldNg ;s]sf] 5}g . dfcf]jfbL afx]s cGo kf6L{x¿ n8fs"x¿ /flvPsf lzlj/sf] cl:tTj /x];Dd lbuf] zflGtsf] cfwf/ aGb}g eGg] s'/fdf Psdt 5g\ . Pp6f bnsf] lgoGq0f / g]tT[ jdf n8fs" /x];Dd hgtfn] klg ;'/lIft dx;'; ug{ ;Sb}gg\ . To:t} ;DklQ lkmtf{sf] ;DaGwdf l;4fGttM ;xdlt eP klg sfof{Gjog x'g;s]sf] 5}g . csf]{Ù dfcf]jfbLx¿ t'?Gt k|wfgdGqLsf] /flhgfdf x'g'kg]{ c8fgdf 5g\ . t/, xfdL To;cl3 ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f / zflGt ;D‰f}tf;Fu ;DalGwt ljifox¿df dfcf]jfbLn] s]xL 7f]; sfd u/f];\ eGg] rfxG5f}F . h:tf], n8fs" Joj:yfkgsf] ljifodf ljZjf;sf] ;Í6 5 . To;df dfcf]jfbLn] ljZjf; lbnfpg] sfd ug{ ;Sg'kb{5 . dfcf]jfbLs} sf/0f ;]gf ;dfof]hgsf] sfddf k|ult x'g;s]sf] 5}g . dfcf]jfbL rflxF n8fs"sf] Joj:yfkg s;/L ug{ rfxG5g\ < ;+ljwfgn] g} n8fs"x¿sf] lzlj/sf] /]vb]v, lgoGq0f / lgb]{zg ljz]if ;ldltn] ug]{ eg]sf] 5 . ljz]if ;ldltsf] …r]g ckm sdfG8Úleq dfcf]jfbL n8fs"nfO{ /fVg] s'/f 5 . t/, ;ldltsf] lzlj/dfly s'g} lgoGq0f 5}g . dfcf]jfbL kf6L{s} lgoGq0f 5 . xfdLn] /]vb]v / lgoGq0f ug]{af/] sfo{ljlw agfof}F . cfrf/;+lxtfsf] vfsf klg tof/ kf¥of}F t/ To;nfO{ kfl/t ug{ dfcf]jfbLn] dfg]gg\ . a'Fbf–a'Fbf, cIf/–cIf/df 5nkmn ug{ ;xdt eP klg To;nfO{ cf}krfl/stf lbg / sfof{Gjog ug{ pgLx¿ tof/ ePgg\ . pgLx¿ To;nfO{ dfwj g]kfnsf] ;/sf/;Fu hf]8]/ x]5{g\ . zlQmsf] afF8kmfF8 klxn] u/f}F clg ;]gf ;dfof]hgsf] s'/f u/f}Fnf eG5g\ . To:t} ;ª\Vofsf] af/]df klg ljjfb 5 . pgLx¿ klxn] cfly{s Kofs]h lbpmF, :j]R5fn] sltn] 5f8\5g\ Tof] x/f}F, To;kl5 k'g:yf{kgfsf] Kofs]h lbpmF / afFsL /x]sfnfO{ ;dfof]hg u/f}F eG5g\ . xfdL rlxF ;dfof]hgsf] ;ª\Vof klxn] g} lglZrt u/f}F /, dfkb08 k'u]sfnfO{ ljleGg ;'/Iff lgsfodf ;dfof]hg u/f}F elg/x]sf 5f}F . t/ dfcf]jfbL g]tfx¿ clxn] klg lzlj/df uP/ …ltdLx¿ o'4sf nflu tof/ /x", qmflGtsf] nflu tof/ xf]pmÚ elg/x]sf 5g\ . o;/L dfcf]jfbLx¿ n8fs" Joj:yfkg u/]/ lzlj/ vfnL ug]{ s'/fdf Odfgbf/ b]lvPsf 5}gg\ . dfcf]jfbL n8fs" lzlj/d} /lx/x];Dd ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f sfo{n] ult lng ;Sb}g, Q ;+ljwfg aGb}g .

k|:t'ltM w|'a l;Dv8f

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lxdfn va/klqsf

49


k':ts ;dLIff

Pp6f /fhgLlt1sf] :ki6f]lQm /fhgLlt1 sdn/fh /]UdLsf @% j6f cfTd–;+:d/0ffTds n]vx¿sf] ;Fufnf] cfdf, d / kfNkf n] kf7s;fd' &%–*) jif{sf] g]kfnL ;dfhsf] lrq;Fu} n]vssf] cfˆg} /fhgLlts / ;fdflhs hLjgsf ljljw kIfnfO{ k|:t't u/]sf] 5 . lj=;+= !(*$ df kfNkfsf] tfg;]g, d]xns'gfdf hlGdPsf n]vsn] cfkm"df cfdf, pgL hlGdP–x'ls{Psf] kl/jf/ / 7fpF dbg kf]v/f, pgsf] cfrf/, ljrf/ / ;+:sf/sf] ulx/f] 5fk k/]sf] s'/f lstfadf n]v]sf 5g\ . ;DejtM ToxL sf/0f lstfasf] gfdd} …cfdfÚ / cfj/0fd} cfdfsf] tl:a/ clg z'?sf cWofo klg cfdfk|lt g} ;dlk{t 5g\ . lj=;+= !((& sf] zxLb–sf08kl5 /fhgLlts r]tgfsf] cª\s'/ knfPsf] sdn/fh /]UdLnfO{ @))) df k9]sf] ¿;L sDo'lgi6 g]tf n]lggsf] hLjgL, @))$ df tLgwf/f kfszfnfsf] …hot' ;+:s[td\Ú 5fq cfGbf]ng / agf/;sf] /fhgLlts dfxf]nsf] ;Ët, @))^ df g]kfnL sDo'lgi6x¿;Fusf]

;Dks{, @))& / To;kl5sf s]xL jif{ kfNkfdf qmflGt / ufpF–ufpFdf ls;fg cfGbf]ngsf] g]t[Tj tyf sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ / juL{o ;Ë7gx¿sf] :yfkgfn] vfb}{ nu]sf] b[i6fGt lstfadf k|z:t kfOG5g\ . kfNkfsf h'‰f? sDo'lgi6– ls;fg g]tfsf] x}l;otn] @)!% ;fnsf] k|yd cfdlgjf{rg lht]sf /]UdL @)!& df k~rfotL zf;gsf] cfudg;Fu} y'gfdf k/] / rf/ jif{df h]nd'Qm eP/ k~rfotd} k|j]z u/] . To:tf] qmflGtsf/L sDo'lgi6 g]tfsf] k~rfot udg Û kf6L{ km"6af6 lj/Qm ePsf] ‰‰Nsf] lstfadf e]6\g ;lsG5 . k~rfot k|j]z u/] klg sDo'lgHdk|lt cf:yf ;'/lIft /x]sf] / sDo'lgi6x¿sf] clxt x'g] s'g} sfd gu/]sf] atfpg] /]UdL dfcf]jfbLsf sltko Jojxf/ / 36gf;Fu dte]b /fVbf/fVb} klg kl5Nnf] ;do pgLx¿sf] k|z+;s aGg k'u]sf lyP . ;fdfGo k|z+;s dfq xf]Og, kfNkfsf] /xjf;df @)%* ebf}df ePsf] lhNnf …hg;/sf/Ú 3f]if0ff;efdf

cfdf, d / kfNkf ;DkfbsM sdn/fh /]UdL k|sfzsM jfËdo k|1f– k|lti7fg kfNkf, @)^^ d"NoM ?=@%) k[i7M @&$±*

;Daf]wg ub}{ /]UdLn] Ps xb;Dd dfcf]jfbLsf] lx+;f / ljWj+;nfO{ klg hfoh 7x¥ofpg k|of; u/]sf 5g\ . of] efif0fn] :jod\ dfcf]jfbL, df]xgljqmd, cGo bn, /fhfjfbLb]lv kl/jf/ / Oi6ldq ;a}df 7"nf] lj/f]w / k|ltlqmof hGdfP klg jf:tf gu/L pgn] To;af6 cfkm" k|;Gg / cfˆgf] dfS;{jfbL ;+:sf/ kl/t[Kt ePsf] bfaL pgsf] 5 . lstfadf Psk6s 3/}df cfPsf] a]nf 8f= afa'/fd e§/fO{n] rGb ;/sf/sf] kfnfdf ePsf] t];|f] o'4lj/fdkl5 …;/sf/L jftf{ 6f]nL c;fWo} lr;f] ¿kdf k|:t't eO/x]sf]Ú eg]/ ;f]‰} /fhf;Fu e]6fOlbg cg'/f]w u/]sf] / e]6\g kfP …/fhfsf] OHhtdf ;d]t sdL gcfpg] u/L ;D‰f}tfsf a'Fbfx¿ /fv]/ slGeG; ug{ ;SYof}+ lsÚ eg]sf] /x:of]b\3f6g klg ul/Psf] 5 .

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50

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;dfhsf lj;Ëlt, lje]b, ;d;fdlos 36gfqmd / /fhgLlts oyfy{sf] cfsif{s k|:t'lt 5 . ljz]ifu/L dfcf]jfbL /fhgLlt / ;z:q åGå tyf åGå/t b'j} kIfaf6 lgbf]{if hgtfdfly ePsf HofbtLsf] lrq0f ul/Psf clwsf+z syfdf åGåsfnLg ;dfh / dflg;n] ef]u]sf kL8fsf] ;"Id Pj+ ;l6s k|:t'lt 5 . …bfO kf6L{sf] x'g'eP5Ú eGg] syfn] ufpFsf ;f]‰f–l;wf hgtfnfO{ ;tfP/ ha/h:tL …dfcf]jfbLÚ aGg afWo kfl/Psf] cj:yf bzf{Psf] 5 . åGådf b'O{ 5f]/f u'dfPsf xL/faxfb'/sf] kL8f, ;ef;b\ ePkl5 ablnPsf ;Ltf/fd h:tf g]tfsf] Jojxf/ / ul/a, lgd'vfsf] ljkIfdf pleg] ;dfh Pj+ 5]kf/f] h:t} ablng] g]tfx¿sf] rl/qnfO{ pbfËf] kf/]sf] 5 …sd/]8 Û gofF g]kfnsf] sDo'lg:6 x'g

;lsgFÚ n] . zLif{syf …sDo'lg:6Ú df dfcf]jfbL 5fkfdf/sf] k]|d / qmflGtsf] dgf]bzf s]nfOPsf] 5 . cGo ;fdflhs kl/j]zsf syfdf …lx/f]xf]08fÚ / …pm / cfdfÚ n] s'df/L cfdfsf] ;fx; / ltgnfO{ x]g]{ ;dfhsf] cg'xf/, …ljb]zL ldqÚ n] o'jf k':tfdf a9\bf] …lne–O{gÚ ;DaGwsf] lrq0f u/]sf 5g\ . …dgtf]/Ú / …km"ns'df/LÚ h:tf 5f]6f t/ ;zQm syfn] gf/L zf]if0flj?4 jsfnt u/]sf 5g\ . syfsf/sf] kqsf/sf] kl/ron] xf]nf, s]xLdf kqsfl/tfs} k|;Ë e]l6G5 eg] s]xL klqsfsf lkmr/ k9] ‰}+ nfU5g\ . k|]d, bfDkTo / kfl/jfl/s ;DaGwsf d"NodfGotf, ufpFb]lv zx/– ahf/sf gofF k':tfsf ;f]r, ljrf/, hLjgz}nL / kl/j]z ;d]l6Psf syfn] kf7ssf] dg 5'G5g\ . Q cg'zLn


lstfasf] cGTolt/ vf;u/L dfcf]jfbL ;Qfdf k'u]kl5 p;df cfPsf kl/jt{gaf6 c;Gt'i6 /]UdLn] cfkm"nfO{ pk]lIft x'Fb} uPsf] cg'ej ug{ yfn]sf] dx;"; ug{ ;lsG5 . kfNkfsf du/x¿nfO{ hufpg, p7fpg / xsclwsf/ lbnfpg cfkm"n] klg s]xL u/]sf] 7fg]/ dfcf]jfbLn] cfof]hgf u/]sf] k|yd hftLo clwj]zgdf ;xefuL x'g OR5f ubf{ …hftLo dfldnf x'Fbf cK7]/f] k5{ lsÚ eg]/ glbPsf] k|;Ën] pgnfO{ lvGg t'NofPsf] lyof] . dfcf]jfbLsf] ^ lbg] cfd x8\tfn rln/x]sf] a]nf sdn/fh /]UdLsf] ;+:d/0f u|Gy k9\bf e]l6Psf dfcf]jfbL /fhgLlt;DaGwL s]xL 3tnfUbf k|;Ë pNn]v gu/L /xg ;lsPg . pgn] Ps–b'O{ 7fpFdf dfcf]jfbLnfO{ ;Nnfx lbFb} eg]sf /x]5g\M æhgo'4sf] af6f] 5f]l8;s]kl5 km]l/ Totf kms{g' c;Dej 5 . g t o'4 s;}sf] nx8df ubf{ g} hgtfn] ;fy lbG5g\, g t hgljb|f]x / hgcfGbf]ngsf] cfFwLa]x/L g} hlxn] eGof] tlxn] l;h{gf x'g] s'/f xf] . k|r08, df]xg j}B / afa'/fdx¿sf] kf6L{ ;}4flGts hl6ntf / rsf]{ gf/f clg Jofjxfl/s uNtL–sdhf]/L af]s]/ kf/ kfpg ;Sb}g .Æ Q ab|L kf}8\ofn

syfdf /fhgLlt æ;kmn syfn] b]z, sfn, kl/l:ylt ptf5{ / Tof] g} cGTodf d'n's / df6f]sf] ;lhj lrq aGg k'Ub5Æ, syfsf/÷kqsf/ /fh]Gb| k/fh'nLsf oL zAbn] syf ljwfsf] dxQf bzf{pF5 . sltko syfn] ;du| d'n'ssf] ;f+:s[lts klxrfg;Fu} ;dfh kl/jt{gsf] ‰Nsf] lbG5g\ klg . To:t} g]kfnL /fhgLltsf] ‰ns lbg] k/fh'nLåf/f ;Dkflbt ljleGg syf ;ª\u|x / kqklqsfdf 5flkO;s]sf syfx¿sf] ;Fufnf] xf]— g]kfnL /fhgLlts syfx¿ . d'n'ssf] ;dsfnLg /fhgLlt, hgtfn] b]vfPsf] kl/jt{gk|ltsf] pT;fx, lg/fzf / knfognfO{ ;l6s ¿kdf ;d]l6Psf] 5 of] ;Fufnf]df .

hLjgf]kof]uL k':ts ul/aL, ef]s / cefj dflg;sf 7"nf zq' x'g\ . hlt;'s} 7"nf] zq' eP klg dflg;n] oL tLg j6f;Fu n8\g ;S5 . t/ oL tLg j6f eGbf klg 7"nf] zq' /f]u xf], h;;Fu n8\g ufx|f] x'G5 . /f]u nfu]/ dflg; s'g} klg If0f dg{ ;S5 . t/ d[To'sf] glhs k'u]sf a]nf klg pm hLjgb]lv c3fpFb}g . cyf{t\ cfzfsf] TofGb|f] /lx/xG5 . b' j } lduf} { n f v/fa ePsf o' j f Joj;foL ldq;]g bfxfnsf] hLjgdf klg ToxL TofGb|f]n] sfd u¥of] . lduf}{nf k|Tof/f]k0f u/L k"jf{j:yfdf kmls{Psf bfxfnsf] ev{/} k|sflzt syf / Joyfsf] ofqf dfkm{t pgn] ;a}nfO{ x/]s If0f v';L a6'n]/ afFRg l;sfPsf 5g\ . pkrf/sf qmddf lbNnLsf] tLgdlxg] a;fOFdf cfkm"n] b]v]sf], ef]u]sf] / ;'g]sf] s'/fnfO{ pgn] k':tsdf lnlka4 u/]sf 5g\ . c:ktfndf kf}+7]hf]/L v]Nb} k'gh{Gd kfpFbf;Ddsf b'Mv / kL8fnfO{ pmhf{df abNg] k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . ;du|df of] k':ts bz{g, Oltxf; / ;ª\3if{sf syfsf] ;ª\u|x xf] . pgsf] cg'ejdf dflg;n] yf] / } dfq ;r] t eP klg

lstfadf k|:t't u'?k|;fb d}gfnLsf] …zxLbÚ, ejfgL leIf'sf] …gofF Oltxf;sf] k|f/DeÚ, bf}ntljqmd lji6sf] …k|ltlqmofjfbLÚ, ljZj]Zj/k|;fb sf]O/fnfsf] …Ps /ftÚ nufotsf tLg bh{g syfn] /f0ffsfn / To;kl5sf /fhgLlts s'/f;Fu kf7snfO{ ;fIffTsf/ u/fpF5g\ . o;df /f0fflj?4sf] cfGbf]ngdf xf]ldPsf jL/axfb'/ /

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lduf}{nfsf] v/faLaf6 hf]lug ;lsG5 . ;dfhdf clxn] dfgl;s / zf/Ll/s /f]uLsf] ;ª\Vof a9\bf] 5 . To:tf /f]uLsf nflu of] k':tsn] cfTdan a9fpg] bfxfnsf] ljZjf; 5 . cfWoflTds, ef}lts, k|fs[lts / lrlsT;f rf/}j6f lj1fgsf] ;+of]hg u/]/ tof/ kfl/Psf] of] k':ts rf/ v08df afFl8Psf] 5 . klxnf] v08df hLjg / hutsf af/] pNn]v 5 eg] bf];f| ] v08df /f]u / :jf:Yo . To;}u/L t];f| ] v08df ljut / jt{dfg clg rf}yf] v08df /fhgLlt / ljsf;af/] pNn]v 5 . rf/ v08cGtu{t ^@ zLif{sdf bz{g, Oltxf; / ;ª\3if{sf syf pNn]v 5g\ . rf}yf] v08sf] /fhgLlt / ljsf;df n]vs bfxfn b]zk|lt lrlGtt 5g\ . Joj;fo, ;dfh;]jf / /fhgLltdf ;lqmo bfxfnn] sltko k|;Ëdf /fhgLlts cfqmf]z klg kf]v]sf 5g\ . pgsf] n]vgz}nL / k|:t'lt ;/n eP klg Q sltko k|;Ë bf]xf]l/Psf 5g\ . /fdhL /fhf dx]Gb|dfly ad k|xf/ ug]{ b'uf{gGb ‰fsf] cbDo ;fx;, qmflGtkl5sf] pGdfbsf] ;fIffTsf/ ag]sL k|ef, a"9f] as}gfsf] ¿vn] x'6x'6L hufPsf] ab|L / cfTdUnflgb]lv knfogjfbL z/0fs'df/ h:tf kfqsf] syf 5 . ;Fufnf]df k/]sf kb\dfjtL l;+x, uf]ljGb lu/L k|]/0ff, /fh]Gb| k/fh'nL, dx]zljqmd zfxnufotsf syfn] @)$& ;fnkl5sf] /fhgLlts n'5fr'F8L / kmf]xf]/L v]nsf] lrq0f u/]sf 5g\ . ljZj]Zj/k|;fbb]lv dx]zljqmd;Ddsf gfd}n] b]vfpF5, ;ª\u|xdf g]kfnL syf ljwf v]nfPsf k'/fgfb]lv o'jf k':tfsf jhgbf/ gfdx¿ ;d]l6Psf 5g\ . g]kfnL /fhgLltsf] k|]Iffu[x h:tf] ePsf] of] lstfasf nflu syf 5gf]6df ul/Psf] d]xgt k|z+;gLo 5 . Q ;'/]z/fh Gof}kfg] !–!% h]7 @)^&

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lxdfn va/klqsf

51


JolQmj[Q

dg xf];\ t, cfOtnfnsf] h:tf] @

;'/z ] /fh Gof}kfg]

)!! ;fnb]lv uf}kfngdf nfu]sf cfOtnfn dxh{g -^(_, Ps dfgf b"wnfO{ Ps ;'sfdf a]Ry], pm a]nf . clxn] b}lgs aL; ?k}ofF dfgfdf *) dfgf b"w laqmL u5{g\, 3/3/} k'u]/ . t/, wfkfv]n nlntk'/sf oL d]xgtL ls;fg b"w sf/f]af/af6 geO{ bfgsf sf/0f lhNnfdf gfdL ag]sf 5g\, clxn] . x'g klg pgn] ut ;ftf 6f]ndf kl08t lbgaGw' kf]v/]nn] jfrg u/]sf] efujt ;Ktfxdf cfP/ Ps s/f]8 ?k}ofFsf] !$ cfgf hUuf bfg lbP . ca Tof] hldg / To;;Fu} hf]l8Psf] hUufdf wfkfv]n ;fd'bflos c:ktfn aGg]5 . To;sf nflu cfjZos /sd ;Ktfxd} p7]sf] 5 . cfOtnfnn] ^ jif{cl3 !!=^% nfvdf lsg]sf] Tof] hUuf Ps s/f]8eGbf a9Ldf a]rfpg …bnfnÚ x¿ cfP/ x}/fg} agfPsf lyP . t/, pgL ;fdflhs lxtd} nufpg] c7f]6 u/]/ pko'Qm cj;/ s'/]/ a;]sf lyP . o;f] ubf{ pgnfO{ sltkon] …pN6f] sfd u/]sf]Ú klg eg]sf 5g\ . tLg 5f]/f, tLg 5f]/L / ;ft gfltgfltgfsf 5xf/L ag]/ a;]sf oL ljb'/nfO{ o;/L bfgjL/ x'g] k|]/0ff s;/L cfof] t < of] k|Zgdf pgL cflbslj efg'eQm / pgnfO{ k|]/0ff lbg] 3fF;LnfO{ ;D‰G5g\ . e/hGd 3fF;lt/ dg lbO{ wg sdfof], gfd So} /xf];\ kl5 eg]/ s'jf vgfof] . 3fF;L bl/b| 3/sf] t/ a'l4 s:tf], d efg'eQm wgL e}sg cfh o:tf] Û o:tf] ;f]rn] efg'nfO{ g]kfnL /fdfo0fsf ;h{s agfof] eg] ;DklQsf ljifodf :ki6 cfOtnfnnfO{ c:ktfn lgdf{tf . pgL eG5g\, æ5f]/f5f]/L ;Hhg eP eg] ;DklQ s]xL xf]Og, b'h{g lg:s] eg] hltn] klg k'Ub}g .Æ pgsf h]7f / sfG5f 5f]/f Jofkf/df ;+nUg 5g\ eg] dfOnf :s"nsf lk|lG;kn . ;a}n] lktfsf] ;lbR5f k"/f ug{ ;Fu} k'/f0f:ynd} uP/ ;xif{ x:tfIf/ ul/lbP . c;n ;GtfgnfO{ ;DklQ xf]Og /fd|f] lzIff rflxg] cfOtnfnsf] ljZjf; :yflkt eof], o;/L . pgL ca cfˆgf] d[To'kl5 klg ;dfhn] ;D‰g]df 9'Ss 5g\ . ufpF6f]ndf b"w dfq ga]rL ls;fgx¿nfO{ /fd|f] uf}kfngaf/] lgMz'Ns ;'‰fj / cfˆg} vr{df c;n hftsf ufO{e}+;L lsGg ;fy lbFb} cfPsf cfOtnfn d]xgt u/] slxNo} aunL vfnL g/xg] atfpF5g\ . pgsf] ljrf/df dg ;kmf t dflg; ;kmf, dflg; ;kmf t ;dfh ;kmf . pgnfO{ 3/ / b]z ;~rfng ug'{ sl/a–sl/a Pp6} s'/f xf] h:tf] nfU5 . b'j} 7fpFdf cleefjsn] dgnfO{ ;kmf / v'nf /fVg'k5{, lghL nf]e TofUg'k5{ . eG5g\, ænf]e / v/fa cfDbfgLn] cleefjsnfO{ dfq xf]Og kl/jf/ / b]znfO{ g} lauf5{ .Æ dg xf];\ t, cfOtnfnsf] h:tf] Û Q ;'/]z/fh Gof}kfg]

sfd ;fgf] 7"nf] eGg] x'“b}g . kl;gfsf] s'g} /ª / hft klg x'“b}g . sfd u/]/ vfg nhfpg' klg x'“b}g . rf]/]/, 9f“6]/, 5n]/, n'6]/ vfg kf] nhfpg'k5{ . hf] hxf“ /x]/ h'g sfd u5{ pm To;}df /dfpg'k5{, uf}/j ug'{k5{ / ;dlk{t eP/ ug'{k5{ . sfd g} zlQm xf], elQm xf] / d'lQm xf] . sfdsf] OHht u/f+}, kl;gfsf] ;Ddfg u/f+} .

g]kfn ;/sf/, ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfno, ;"rgf ljefu 52

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l/kf]6{ cy{tGq

c;Gt'ngaf6 c/fhstftkm{ /fhgLlts cl:y/tfsf sf/0f d'n'ssf cfly{s ;"rsx¿ nuftf/ cf]/fnf] nfu]sf 5g\ eg] hgtf d"Noj[l4, sfnf]ahf/L / s[lqd cefjsf] rsf]{ df/df k/]sf 5g\ . k|eft e§/fO{ sf] l/kf]6{

zf]wgfGt/ l:ylt -?= nfvdf_

art

s]hL;Dd dfq . ;fy} xfn s]Gb|Lo AofÍn] rfFbL cfoftdf klg s8fO u/]sf] 5 eg] kf;kf]6{df lbFb} cfPsf] 8n/ ;6xL ;'ljwf klg s6f}tL u/]sf] 5 . t/, zf]wgfGt/ 3f6f lgoGq0fsf oL k|of;n] oxL cfjdf s'g} ;'wf/ b]vfpg] 5}gg\ . 8f= vltj8f ca 3f6f a9\g glbO{ csf]{ cfjb]lv ;'wf/ ug{] nIo lnPsf] atfpF5g\ . kl5Nnf b'O{ jif{df ahf/df k|jfx ul/Psf] cTolws t/ntfsf sf/0f cg'Tkfbs j:t' cfoftn] ljb]zL d'b|f u'dfpg' k/]sf] ueg{/ 8f= vltj8fsf] 7DofO 5 . gub xftdf k/]sf JolQmx¿n] cg'Tkfbs If]qdf nufgL a9fPsf] atfpFb} pgn] eg], ædf}lb|s gLltdfkm{t To;df s8fO ug]{5f}+ .Æ

3f6f

;d:ofsf] h/f]

d'

;|ft] M g]kfn /fi6« Aofª\s .

n'ssf] ;du| cfly{s cj:yf c;Gt'ngaf6 c/fhstflt/ pGd'v 5 . of] c¿ s;}n] xf]Og, ;/sf/sf] k|d'v cfly{s ;Nnfxsf/ g]kfn /fi6« AofÍn] atfO/x]sf] 5 . AofÍn] lbPsf] of] cfly{s jif{sf] kmfu'g d;fGt;Ddsf] ljj/0fcg' ; f/ b] z sf] s' n cfoft $$ k|ltztn] a9]sf] / lgof{t cf7 k|ltztn] 36]sf] 5 . of] cjlw df ?=$) ca{ $) s/f]8 ^* nfvsf] lgof{t / To;eGbf ^ u'0ff a9L ?=@ va{ %# ca{ &( s/f]8 (! nfvsf] cfoft ePsf] lyof] . ueg{/ 8f= o'j/fh vltj8f eG5g\, ætLg–rf/ k|ltzt cfly{s j[l4 eO/x]sf] d'n'sdf of] b/sf] cfoft lgZro g} lrGtfhgs xf] .Æ cl3Nnf] cfjsf] oxL cjlwdf s'n cfoft @^ / lgof{t !^ k|ltztn] a9]sf] lyof] . olt 7"nf] Jofkf/ 3f6fn] ljb]zL d'b|fsf] ;Gt'ng -zf]wgfGt/_ g/fd|/L vnaNofPsf] 5 -x]= rf6{_ . rfn' cfly{s jif{sf] z'?b]lv g}

a9]sf] zf]wgfGt/ 3f6f kmfu'g;Dddf ?=@# ca{ %) s/f]8 gfl3;s]sf] 5 . ut c;f/ / c;f]hdf t klx/} uP a/fa/ eof] . h]7df ?=#( ca{eGbf a9L zf]wgfGt/ art /x]sf]df c;f/df ?=$) s/f]8 gf]S;fg eof] . To:t} ebf}df ?=# ca{ &^ s/f]8 /x]sf] zf]wgfGt/ 3f6f c;f]hdf ?=!( ca{ $% s/f]8 k'Uof] . cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ df ?=!^ ca{ %& s/f]8 $^ nfv a/fa/sf] ;'g cfoft of] cfjsf] k';leq} ?=## ca{ ^) s/f]8 ^@ nfvdf k'u]kl5 ‰l:sPsf] ;/sf/n] kmfu'gdf o;sf] cfoft g} 7Kk kf/]sf] lyof] . ef/tdf eGbf ;:tf] eG;f/ dx;'n ePsf] ;'g of] cjlwdf 7"nf] kl/df0fdf sf7df8f}+ lelqP/ cj}w ¿kn] ef/t lgsf;L ePsf] ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx¿sf] cg'dfg 5 . clxn] ;'g km's'jf eP klg jfl0fHo AofÍafx]s c¿n] cfoft ug{ kfpFb}gg\, Tof] klg lbgdf !)

;'g, k]6f« l] nod kbfy{, ;jf/L ;fwfg dfq xf]Og of] cfly{s jif{sf] kmfu'g;Dddf s[lifpkh, l;d]G6nufotsf :jb]zd} pTkfbg ug{ ;lsg] j:t'x¿sf] cfoft klg pRrb/n] a9]sf] 5 . kmnfd] 58, afy?dsf ;fdfg, xjfO{hxfhsf kf6{k'hf{ cflbsf] cfoft p:t} a9]sf] 5 . :jb]zdf pTkfbg 36]sf] tyf xfplhª, xjfO{ nufotsf ;]jf If]qsf] lj:tf/n] cfoft j[l4 ePsf] b]lvG5 . ueg{/ 8f= vltj8f lgdf{0f ;fdu|Lx¿sf] cfoft a9] klg ;"rsfÍdf k|ltljlDat gx'bF f cfly{s j[l4sf] dfkgd} st} uNtL eof] ls eGg] cfzÍf u5{g\ . gq, ^ dlxgfb]lv Ps jif{leq} ;ft–cf7 k|ltztsf] cfly{s j[l4 x'g'kg]{ pgsf] egfO 5 . kof{Kt ;Defjgf x'Fbfx'Fb} klg /fhgLlts cl:y/tfn] cy{tGqnfO{ xfn;Dds} hL0f{ cj:yfdf k'¥ofPsf]df cy{zf:qLx¿ Psdt 5g\ . k|f= 8f= ljZjDe/ Kofs'/]n eG5g\, æAofÍdf lgIf]k a9]sf] 5}g, Jofkf/sf] ljhf]u 5, ko{6s a9]sf 5}gg\, ljb]lzg]x¿sf] nsf]{ nfu]sf] 5, s'g} ;"rsfÍ /fd|f] 5}g .Æ x'g klg, s'g} ;dodf lgof{tdf rrf{ sdfPsf] tof/L kf]zfssf] lgsf;L 36]sf] dfq xf]Og, wfg–rfdnsf] cfoft;d]t *) k|ltzt eGbf dfly k'u]sf] 5 . Psflt/ jg:klt l3psf] lgsf;L 7Kk} ePsf] 5 eg] csf{lt/ t/sf/L !–!% h]7 @)^&

‹

lxdfn va/klqsf

53


l/kf]6{ cy{tGq ef/taf6 g]kfn lelqPsf d'Vo j:t' -?=nfv_

j:t'

@)^^ kmfu'g

@)^% kmfu'g

s[lif pks/0f l;d]G6 s]ldsN; ljB'tLo pks/0f PdP; lj6]n PdP; tf/ cf}iflw k]6«f]lnod rfdn ;jf/L;fwg xl/of] ;AhL ;'tL{ s:d]l6S;

@%$^( @&!($ @!)(( #*)(# !))&@$ $^@)@ %)$!^ @*&&&^ &^%^ !^$!^( !)!%@ !!)#@ ($&^

!!!)* @!%%^ !&^^( @)@$! $$!%^ !*((% $)#&) @&(!%% $@#) *&*$) *#@* %(@$ $%(*

cGo d'n'saf6 -?=nfv_ j:t' )^^ kmfu'g Po/qmfˆ6 kf6{; !&^%$ sDKo'6/ / kf6{;\ #^!$) sRrf e6df; t]n @@*#& ;'g #&$^*& :jf:Yo pks/0f !#(^$ k]6«f]lnod !)$^! rfFbL !)(%% 6]lnsd pks/0f %$#(*

s] xf] zf]wgfGt/ < s'g} klg d'n'sdf lglZrt ;dodf lelqg] / aflxl/g] kl/jTo{ ljb]zL d'b|f -cd]l/sL 8n/_ sf] ;Gt'ng g} zf]wgfGt/ jf e'QmfgL ;Gt'ng -ljcf]kL_ xf] . ljcf]kLsf] u0fgf s/]G6 -rfn'_, Soflk6n -k"FhL_, kmfOgflG;on -ljQLo_ / ldl;lnlgo;\ -5'6k'6_ vftfaf6 ul/G5 . o;nfO{ j:t' lgof{t, ko{6s cfudg, j}b]lzs /f]huf/df uPsf g]kfnLsf] sdfO{, uf]vf{ nfx'/]sf] tna÷k]G;g, j}b]lzs ;xfotf, k|ToIf j}b]lzs nufgL cflbaf6 lelqPsf] k};fnfO{ cfoft, lzIff / k]G;gdf ljb]lzg] vr{n] k|efljt ul//x]sf] x'G5 . pk/f]Qm ;|f]tx¿af6 cfPsf] /sddf ljb]lzPsf] /sd 36fpFbf art ePdf zf]wgfGt/ art / aflxl/g] a9L eof] eg] zf]wgfGt/ 3f6f x'G5 . of] 3f6fn] d'n'sdf ljb]zL d'b|fsf] ;l~rlt 36fpFb} n}hfG5 . o:tf] cj:yf nlDaP/ ljb]zL d'b|fsf] ;l~rlt l/lQof] eg] d'n's cfoft ug}{ g;Sg] cj:yfdf k'U5 . Q cfPsf] x|f;nfO{ g} k'li6 u/]sf] 5 . of] cfjdf df};dL sf/0fn] s[lif pTkfbgsf] j[l4b/ !=! k|ltzt dfq x'g] /fi6« AofÍn] hgfPsf] 5 . c‰ wfg / ds}sf] pTkfbg t qmdzM !! / $ k|ltztn] 36]sf] 5 . /]ld6\ofG;sf] cj:yf klg p:t} 5 . ut cfjsf] kmfu'g;Dddf ^) k|ltzt a9]/ ?=! va{ #! ca{ &( nfv lelqPsf] /]ld6\ofG; o; jif{ !) k|ltzt eGbf a9]g . j}b]lzs cg'bfg !@ k|ltzt 36]/ ?=!% ca{ %@ s/f]8 @) nfv dfq lelqof] .

)^% kmfu'g !!^(# @@*$# !^@^@ *( (#!& &%*! !)$)) @%*&@

k/lge{/ Jofkf/ / AofÍ

/ kmnkm"nsf] cfoft r'lnPsf] 5 . s[ l ifhGo j:t' / lgdf{ 0 f ;fdu| L sf] cfoft j[l4n] d'n'ssf] pTkfbg Ifdtfdf

g] k fnsf] %@ k| l tzteGbf a9L Jofkf/ ef/t;Fu x'g] u/]sf] 5 . s'n cfoftdf %$ k|ltzt / lgof{tdf ^$ k|ltzt lx:;f

hf]lvdpGd'v cy{tGqnfO{ s;/L hf]ufpg] < hf]lvdpGd'v eGg]eGbf klg ;d:of/lxt 5}g eGg'knf{ . uPsf b'O{ jif{df ePsf] clws t/ntf k|jfxn] dfG5]sf] qmozlQm a9fof], rfx] Tof] z]o/ sf/f]af/df k|ltlalDjt ePsf] xf];\ of 3/hUuf sf/f]af/df . Tof] k};fsf] ;|f]t vf]hL ubf{ cfDbfgLaf6 eGbf klg Aoflͪ l;:6daf6 w]/} cfPsf] b]lvG5 . clncln /]ld6\ ofG;af6 cfDbfgL eof], t/ To;nfO{ Aoflͪ l;:6daf6} lj:tf/ ug]{ sfd eof] . st} g st}af6 ahf/ s/]S;g t 54

lxdfn va/klqsf

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!–!% h]7 @)^&

8Da/s[i0f >]i7

…ef?sf] dfu zÍf:kb 5Ú

8f= o'j/fh vltj8f ueg{/, g]kfn /fi6« AofÍ

cf]u6]sf] ef/t;Fusf] Jofkf/df g]kfnsf] 3f6f xfn ?=! va{ !! ca{ $$ s/f]8 #% nfv 5 . cy{zf:qL Kofs'/]n oqf] lge{/tf /x]sf] d'n's;Fusf] Jofkf/ 3f6f r'lng' cToGt} lrGtfhgs eG5g\ . æca cfly{s d'2fdf bnaf6 b]zsf] cj:yf / efjL ;Defjgfsf If]qaf/] Zj]tkq hf/L x'g'k5{, xf]Og eg] d'ns ' e8\vfnf]df kg{af6 hf]luFb}gÆ, pgsf] egfO 5 . cj:yf s:tf] 5 eg] kmfu'g;Dddf ef/taf6 x'g] cfoft #( k|ltzt a9]/ ?=! va{ #& ca{ $) s/f]8 k'u]sf] 5 eg] lgof{t tLg k|ltztn] 36]/ ?=@% ca{ (^ s/f]8df ‰/]sf] 5 . ef?sf] dfun] /fi6« AofÍsf] 6fpsf] b'vfPsf] 5 . g]kfnsf] cf}Bf]lus jftfj/0f lalu|Pkl5 /fi6« AofÍdf x'g' g} kg]{ lyof] . To;}n] cfosf] ;|f]t vf]hL, k"FhLut nfe s/, /fhgLlts cl:y/tf cflb sf/0f b]vfpFb} clxn] cfP/ Tof] t/ntf cb[Zo ePsf] 5 . Tof] t/ntf cb[Zo gePsf] eP clxn];Dd cefj x'g] lyPg . To;}n] ca ljQLo k|0ffnLk|lt ljZjf; hufpg'k5{ . k};f x'g]n] 3/df xf]Og AofÍdf nu]/ art ug'{ k¥of] / AofÍn] klg To;nfO{ ljj]s;Ddt 9Ën] nufgL ug'{k5{ . gLltut c:ki6tfsf sf/0f cfPsf ;d:ofnfO{ xfdLn] ;Daf]wg ul/;s]sf 5f}+ . To;}n] s]xL ;dokl5 l:y/tf cfpg] 5 . zf]wgfGt/ 3f6f a9]sf] a9\o} 5 lg < e'QmfgL ;Gt'ng k';sf] t'ngfdf s]xL a9]/ kmfu'gdf ;f9] @# ca{ k'u]sf] 5 . t/ uPsf] c;f]hb]lv k';aLrdf h;/L klx/f] uPsf] lyof], clxn] To:tf] 5}g . ;'g–rfFbL cfoft, ljb]z hfg]nfO{ kf;kf]6{df lbOg] 8n/ ;6xL ;'ljwf, ltAat Jofkf/df x'g] 8«fˆ6 tyf l66L ;'ljwfdf ;'wf/


ef?sf] bafa a9]sf] k|:6} 5 . kmfu'g;Dddf /fi6« AofÍn] ! ca{ $) s/f]8 cd]l/sL 8n/ a]r]/ ef? ^$ ca{ lsg]sf] 5 . h'g cl3Nnf] cfly{s jif{sf] ;f] cjlwdf lsg]sf] eGbf !^ ca{ a9L xf] . ef?sf] …zÍf:kbÚ dfu tyf zf]wgfGt/ 3f6f a9]sf], /]ld6\ofG;sf] j[l4b/ 36]sf] / Jofkf/ vl:sPsf] a]nf jfl0fHo AofÍx¿ klg ef/L ;d:ofdf 5g\ . ^ dlxgfb]lv t/ntf -vr{ of]Uo /sd_ cefj ef]u]sf pgLx¿n] shf{ k|jfx /f]s]sf] tLg dlxgf eO;Sof] . /fi6« AofÍsf cg';f/ kmfu'gdf jfl0fHo AofÍx¿sf] ljb]zL d'b|f;lxtsf] s'n lgIf]k ?=% va{ *! ca{ #^ s/f]8 5 eg] shf{ ?=$ va{ ^& ca{ $@ s/f]8 5 . c;f/df ?=! va{ ^% ca{ $^ s/f]8 /x]sf] lgIf]k–shf{ cGt/ kmfu'gdf ?=! va{ !# ca{ ($ s/f]8df ‰/]sf] 5 . jfl0fHo AofÍx¿df lgIf]k ga9\g' ljsf;zLn cy{tGqsf nflu 7"nf] vt/f dflgG5 .

y]lug;Sg' d"No j[l4 d"No j[l4 cfly{s k|ultsf] ;"rsfÍ eP klg #=% k|ltztsf] cfly{s j[l4 /x]sf] g]kfndf d"No j[l4 bf]xf]/f] cÍdf 5 . /fi6« AofÍsf] tYofÍn] pkef]Qmf d'b|f:kmLlt !! k|ltzt / vfBfGgsf] d"No j[l4 !% k|ltzteGbf w]/} b]vfPsf] 5 . ^! k|ltztn] a9]sf] lrgLsf] d"No / bfn, t]n / df5f–df;'df klg nueu oxL b/df ePsf] j[l4n] pkef]Qmfx¿ ;tfOPsf 5g\ . clws ef/tLo cfoftn] g]kfndf d"No j[l4 ePsf] eGg] Psy/L cy{zf:qLx¿sf] ljZn]if0f 5, t/ Tof] d"NofÍg cf}krfl/s cfFs8fdf cfwfl/t gePsf] 8f= Kofs'/]n atfpF5g\ . pgsf cg';f/ ;fdfGotM ef/tdf !) k|ltzt d"No j[l4 x'Fbf g]kfndf !$ k|ltzt efp a9\g'kg]{ xf] . t/, kl5Nnf] ;do eg] cgf}krfl/s / u}/–sfg'gL sf/f]af/ a9]sfn] dfkgsf dfGotfx¿ g} nfu" gx'g] Kofs'/]n atfpF5g\ . Pp6} rf]ssf b'O{ k;ndf pxL j:t'sf] d"No km/s x'g' o;sf] k|df0f xf] . Q

58, wft'sf tf/, sDKo'6/, To;sf kf6{kh' f{, ljB'tLo / xjfO{ pks/0fsf] cfoftn] d'ns ' leq cj;/ l;h{gfdf ;3fp t k'¥ofpF5g\ t/, k'gM k|zf]wg jf lgdf{0fkZrft\ b]zleq} vkt x'g] To:tf j:t'sf nflu aflxl/Psf] ljb]zL d'b|f kmsf{pg] cGo :jb]zL pTkfbgsf] lgof{t j[l4n] g} xf] . k"jf{{wf/sf] cefjdf tTsfn lgof{t a9fpg g;lsP klg wfg–rfdn,

t/sf/L, kz'kG5L, cf}iflw, l;d]G6 h:tf j:t'df g]kfn yf]/} ;dod} cfTdlge{/ aGg ;S5 . vfnL, s]sf] lgsf;L / s]–s]sf] cfoft k|lt:yfkg eGg] klxrfg x'g'k5{ . cy{zf:qL Kofs'/]nsf] egfOdf g]kfndf ljb]zL d'b|f leœofpg vf;} sl7gfO{ 5}g, vfnL jftfj/0f agfP k'U5 . ko{6gaf6 dfq caf}{+ leœofpg ;lsG5 . hnljB't\, ;"rgfk|ljlw, lzIff, :jf:Yo, s[lif tyf kz'hGo pBf]udf klg cyfx ;Defjgf 5 . t/, /fhgLlts cl:y/tfn] cf}Bf]lus ultljlwnfO{ olt k|efljt kf/]sf] 5, s[lif pTkfbg / kz'kG5Lsf] cfoft /f]Sg ;s] dfq klg 7"nf] pknlAw dfGg'kg]{ lbg cfPsf] 5 . wGg un}+rf / tof/L kf]zfsb]lv jg:klt l3psf] lgof{tdf h:tf] gdL7f] cg'ej cn}r + L,

cb'jf, ;'kf/Lnufotsf s]xL s[lifpkhdf ug'{k/]sf] 5}g . To:t} x:tsnfsf ;fdfgn] klg s]xL y]u]sf 5g\ . kmfu'g;Dddf wft' / pmgaf6 ag]sf x:tsnfsf] lgof{t &! k|ltzt a9]sf] 5 . ut cfjsf] oxL cjlwdf ?=$% s/f]8 @# nfvsf] x:tsnfsf ;fdfg lgof{t ePsf]df of] jif{ ?=&& s/f]8 #* nfv k'u]sf] 5 . g]kfnsf nflu kmnbfoL ko{6g pBf]u / ljb]zL >dahf/ klg xf] . ljZj >dahf/df clxn] uO/x]sf cbIf g]kfnL o'jfnfO{ %–^ dlxgfsf] tflndn] cw{–bIf agfpg ;S5 / To;n] /] l d6\ o fG;nfO{ a9fpg d2t u5{ . sDtLdf % b]lv !) jif{ kv{g'k5{, hnljB't\ lgof{tsf] ;Defjgf klg ;fgf] 5}g . Q

ul/;s]kl5 To;sf] s]xL k|efj b]lvg yfn]sf] 5 . kl/jTo{ ljb]zL d'b|f ;l~rlt a9\g yfn]sf] 5 . c‰} klg xfdL;Fu &÷* dlxgfsf] cfoft wfGg] ljb]zL d'b|f ;l~rt 5 . kl5Nnf] ;do ljQLo If]qaf6 pBf]ux¿df eGbf ;]jfsf] / pTkfbgd"nseGbf pkef]ud"ns If]qdf a9L nufgL x'g k'Uof], h;n] ubf{ cfoft pRr eof] . /fhgLlts cl:y/tf x'bF fx'bF } klg ko{6s cfudg a9]sf] 5 . ;'/Iff cj:yf ;fdfGo eof] eg] xfd|f b'O{ l5d]sL b]zaf6 cfpg] ko{6sn] g} xfd|f] e'QmfgL ;Gt'ng x'g] dfq xf]Og rfn' vftf 3f6f ;d]t k"lt{ x'G5 . ;fy} /]ld6\ofG;sf] cgf}krfl/s RofgnnfO{ Jojl:yt u/L Aoflͪ Rofgnaf6 dfq lelqg] cj:yf l;h{gf ug'k{ 5{ . csf]t{ km{ vr{ arfpg] s'/f klg 5 . j}bl] zs cWoog, :jf:Yof]krf/ / e|d0fsf nflu aflxl/O/x]sf] ljb]zL d'bf| arfpg]tkm{ klg k|of; ug'k{ 5{ . ef?sf] ljlgdo b/ kl/jt{gsf] rrf{

5 lg < Tof] clnslt klg ;To xf]Og . t/ v} s] sf/0fn] xf] ef?sf] dfu a9]sf] 5 . j}wflgs Jofkf/, cf}ifwf]krf/, lzIffsf nflu ef?sf] cefj 5}g t/ klg lsg gub g} rflxof] eGg] k|Zgsf] lrQa'´bf] hjfkm Joj;foLn] lbg ;s]sf 5}gg\ . ef?sf] …zÍf:kbÚ dfu lsg al9/x]sf] 5 eGg]af/] xfdL cWoog ul//x]sf 5f}+ . t/ntf ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg s;/L ug'x{ G' 5 < ck]Iffcg'?k lgIf]k ga9\bf shf{ k|jfxdf ;d:of cfpg' c:jfefljs xf]Og . clxn] k|lta4tf hgfO;s]sf] shf{ klg lbg g;s]sf] u'gf;f] AofÍx¿n] u/]sf 5g\ . lgIf]k ;Íng x'g'cufj} shf{ lbg] k|lta4tf pxfFx¿n] ug'{ x'Gy]g . lsgeg] clxn] klg AofÍn] …;Lcf/cf/Ú, …P;Pncf/Ú h:tf cfwf/e"t dfkbG8 t k"/f u/]s} 5g\ . t/ntf cefjnfO{ g} b[li6ut u/L s]Gb|Lo AofÍn] rf/–kfFr dlxgfb]lv

g} …l/kf]Ú, …P;PnPkmÚ nufotsf ;'ljwf lbFb} cfPsf] 5 . Toltn] dfq gk'u]/ k'gMshf{ dfkm{t pTkfbgd"ns If]qdf nufgL ug{ k|f]T;fxg u/]sf xf}+, t/ c‰} klg ahf/sf] dfu rflxF 3/hUufd} w]/} 5 eg]/ AofÍ/x¿n] atfO/x]sf 5g\ . tkfO{s + f k|fyldstfsf d'2f s] s] x'g\ < bf]xf]/f] cÍsf] d"Noj[l4 / zf]wgfGt/ 3f6ftkm{ xfd|f] Wofg s]lGb|t 5 . cTolws t/ntf lj:tf/af6 ljnf;L j:t'sf] cgfjZos dfu ga9f];\ eGg]tkm{ s]Gb|Lo AofÍ ;r]t 5 . shf{ pknAwtf / ljb]zL ljlgdo ;'ljwfnfO{ ;xh agfpFb} lgof{t a9fpg] ;Defjgfsf] klg vf]hL ug'{k5{ . To;afx]s cGo ljifox¿df ah]6dfkm{t g} ;Daf]wg ug{'k5{ . h:tf] cfofts} ;Gbe{df, ljZj Jofkf/ ;Ë7g, ;fˆ6f, ljd:6]ssf] ;b:o eO;s]sf] cj:yfdf klg s/, eG;f/ jf kl/df0ffTds aGb]h nufpg ;Sg] 5'6 xfdLnfO{ 5 . Q

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lxdfn va/klqsf

55


cy{ ;+If]k

ynf kb}{ x]6f}8+ f l;d]G6 x]6f}+8f l;d]G6sf] l8n/ x'g Jofkf/Lx¿ jiff}{+ nfOgdf a:y], pkef]Qmfx¿ Ps–b'O{ dlxgf kv{g ufx|f] dfGb}gy] . t/, clxn] ut kmfu'gsf] cGTolt/ s]xL lbg pBf]u rNbf ckTofl/nf] ;dfrf/ aGof], l8n/;Lk vf/]hLsf] lgj]bg 7]n]/ a;]sfx¿ ‰l:sP . k| d ' v sRrfkbfy{ r' g 9' Ë fsf] 7" n f] ;| f ] t ePsf] x] 6 f} F 8 f l;d] G 6 pBf] u nfO{ ;/sf/, /fhgLlts bn, cfˆg} dhb'/– sd{ r f/Lb] l v :yfgLo ljBfno / k|x/L k|zf;g;Ddn] 3fF;} glbP/ yf/f] agfPsf] b'wfn' ufO{eGbf km/s kb}g{ . r'g9'Ëfafkt ultnf] d'cfAhf lnPsf wflbª / vfgL cf;kf;sf hgtfn] ;bfjxf/ dfu /fv]/ cfoft cj/f]w ug{ 5f8]gg\ . ;'/Iff uf8{bl] v :yfgLojf;L;Ddsf] ljleGg dfusf sf/0f pBf]u kl5Nnf] !) jif{df tLg dlxgfeGbf a9L lgoldt rn]sf] 5}g . sf/vfgf rn]/ pTkfbg ahf/df k'Ug kfPsf] x'bF g} , s'g} g s'g} ;d"xn] cj/f]w t]:of{OxfN5 / x/]s cj/f]wnfO{ /sd r'8F rfF8 u/]/ 6fn6'n kfl/G5 . grflxFbf s'/fdf vr{ ug'k{ bf{ #) jif{ k'/fgf pks/0fsf] dd{t;Def/ ePsf] 5}g . k|foM cltly ;Tsf/sf] bf}8w'kdf

Jo:t gfoj–dxfk|aGws lzj/Tg c6n clxn] dd{t;Def/sf nflu pBf]u aGb ePsf] atfpF5g\, t/ of] s'/f s;}n] kTofpFbg} g\ . pBf]usf] xfnt slt;Dd nyflnË 5 eg] ef? & s/f]8 %( nfv %) xhf/df w'nf] lgoGq0f ug]{ oGq h8fgsf] 7]Ssf lnPsf] ef/tLo sDkgL sxfF 5, s;}nfO{ rf;f] 5}g . :yfgLojf;Lsf] rsf]{ lj/f]wkl5 b'Oj{ if{cl3 z'? ePsf] of] dxFuf] of]hgfdf pBf]un] xfn;Dd ?=!@ s/f]8 vr{ ul/;s]sf] 5 . gfoj–dxfk|aGws c6n eG5g\, æxfdL pBf]u cfkm}F rNg] agfpg nfluk/]sf 5f},F t/ st}af6 ;xof]u 5}g .Æ kl5Nnf] k6s /sd hf]xf] ug{ pBf]un] l8n/;Lk a]Rg] lg0f{o u/]/ !&) af6 &&# l8n/ k'¥ofof] / sl/a ?=@! s/f]8 ;Íng klg u¥of] . t/, l8n/;Lk a]r]sf] Ps dlxgfdf Ps l6«k l;d]G6 klg lbg g;s]kl5 sfnf]ahf/L u/]/ /ftf/ft gfkmf sdfpg rsf]{ Jofhdf C0f lnFb} l8n/ ag]sfx¿ k'k'{/f]df xft /flv/x]sf 5g\ . gfoj–dxfk|aGws c6n eG5g\, æxfdLn] s;}nfO{ ‰'SofP/ l8n/ lgo'Qm u/]sf] xf]Og,

cf]lg8fsf] 8LeL8L / Pn;L8L rf}w/L ;d"xsf] l;hL On]S6«f]lgS;cGtu{tsf] O{cf]Pn k|flnn] cf]lg8fsf] gofF 8LeL8L Kn]o/ laqmL z'? u/]sf] 5 . …6r KofgnÚ k|ljlwdf !=@ P 6«fG;ld6/ k|of]u ul/Psf] 8LeL8L Kn]o/af6 pRr u'0f:t/sf] lel8of] b]Vg ;lsg] sDkgLsf] bfaL 5 . o;}aLr cf]lg8fsf] #@ OGr ;fl/of Pn;L8L 6]lnlehg klg ahf/df cfPsf] 5 . ljZjsk km"6an–@)!) nfO{ nlIft u/L ;f] 6]lnlehg laqmL z'? u/]sf] sDkgLn] hgfPsf] 5 . …@)) 8An' kLPdkLcf] ;fpG8;lxtsf] Pn;L8Ldf k|of]u ug{ ;lhnf] u|flkms d]g' /flvPsf] hgfOPsf] 5 .

lxdsf] km"6an ˆn" lxd On]S6«f]lgS; k|flnn] ljZjsk km"6an @)!) nfO{ nlIft u/L …lxd:6f/ km"6an ˆn"Ú gfds u|fxs of]hgf NofPsf] 5 . h; cGtu{t lxd:6f/ 6]lnlehgdf xft vfnL ghfg] pkxf/ of]hgf /flvPsf] sDkgLn] hgfPsf] 5 . x/]s !$, !% / @! OGrsf] lxd:6f/ 6]lnlehg v/Lbdf u|fxsn] cfˆgf] dg kg]{ l6dsf] h;L{ pkxf/:j?k k|fKt ug]{ Q hgfOPsf] 5 . 56

lxdfn va/klqsf

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pBf]usf] xfnt ;a}nfO{ yfx} 5 .Æ jflif{s %@ nfv af]/f pTkfbg Ifdtf ePsf] pBf]un] of] cfjdf #) nfv af]/f pTkfbg nIo lnPsf] / clxn] ; Dd !( nfv af]/f ahf/df k'¥ofPsf] 5 . ;/sf/L txaf6} cufl8 hfg] cfwf/x¿ ag]gg\ eg] s]xL jif{df l;d]G6 pBf]u aGb} x'g;S5 . g]tfx¿ klg pBf]u arfpg]eGbf sfo{stf{ lgo'lQmsf] xfgfyfkdf Jo:t 5g\ . g]kfnL l;d]G6 ahf/ a'‰]sf] dxfk|aGws gkfPsf] atfpg] Ps jl/i7 clws[t gLlt agfP/ cl3 a9]df k|ult ug]{ 7fpF b]V5g\ . g]kfnu~h a:g] t/fO{–dw]z nf]stflGqs kf6L{sf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o ;Tob]jL s'dL{ cWoIf tyf sf7df8f}+ a:g] nId0f /fo pBf]usf dxfk|aGws 5g\ . h;sf sf/0f pgLx¿sf] vr{ lgs} a9]sf] 5 . kfFr dlxgfcl3 ;~rfns lgo'Qm x]6f}F8fsf /fhg d}gfnL pBf] u sf] gLltlgdf{ 0 f txdf ;~rfns ;ldltsf] e"ldsf gePsf] eGb} bfloTjaf6} klG5P . pgsf] egfOdf, dxfk|aGws / gfoa dxfk|aGwsx¿ cIfd ePsfn] pBf]u w/f;foL x'g nfu]sf] xf] . Q /fds'df/ Png, x]6f}+8f

Aofª\s÷ljQ÷aLdf ahf/ cy{ dGqfno;Fu ;D‰f}tf u/L lsi6 AofÍ n] lsi6 n3'ljQ shf{–l/S;f of]hgf z'? u/]sf] 5 . ;/sf/sf] o'jf :j/f]huf/ sfo{qmdcGtu{t ;~rflnt pQm of]hgfdfkm{t AofÍn] rfnsx¿nfO{ jflif{s !@ k|ltzt Jofhb/df gofF l/S;f v/Lbdf shf{ lbg]5 eg] pQm l/S;f v/Lb ug{ lnPsf] shf{sf] ^) k|ltzt Jofh ;/sf/n] a]xf]g]{ 5 . To:tf] shf{ a9Ldf ?=@) xhf/;Dd x'g] AofÍn] hgfPsf] 5 . g]kfn OGe]i6d]G6 AofÍ n] ;jf]{Rr lzv/ ;u/dfyf ;kmfOsf nflu uPsf] …Pe/]i6 lSng ck SofDk]gÚnfO{ @% nfv ?k}ofF cfly{s ;xof]u k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . ;u/dfyfsf] cf7 xhf/ ld6/eGbf dfly y'lk|Psf] kmf]xf]/ p7fpg SofDk]gdf @) hgf lxdfn cf/f]xLx¿ !@ j}zfvdf /fhwfgLaf6 lxF8]sf 5g\ . *) nfv ?k}ofF vr{ x'g] SofDk]gdf uf]N5f cu{gfOh];gn] @) nfv, xf]6n ;+3 g]kfnn] c9fO nfv, ;"o{ g]kfn / cfKsf xfp;n] @÷@ nfv tyf P; 8]enkd]G6 a}+sn] Ps nfv ?k}ofF ;xof]u u/]sf] 5 . Pe/]i6 OG:of]/]G;n] pgLx¿sf] lgMz'Ns b'3{6gf aLdf ul/lbPsf] 5 . /fhwfgLsf] k'tnL;8sdf Knf6f]lgs art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf :yfkgf ePsf] 5 . …;xsfo{;Fu} cfly{s ;d[l4Ú gf/f;lxt v'n]sf] ;xsf/Ln] k"\0f{ Aoflͪ k|0ffnL cGtu{t ;do;fk]If / :t/Lo sDKo'6/ ;ˆ6j]o/ k|of]u u/L ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ cWoIf /jLGb| e§/fO{n] hfgsf/L lbP . Q


z]o/ ahf/M ;'wf/ xf]nf < AofÍ tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx¿n] ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] kl5Nnf] ljQ ljj/0faf6 z]o/ nufgLstf{x¿ cfzfjfbL b]lvPsf 5g\ . 8]9 jif{b]lv nuftf/ cf]/fnf] nfu]sf] z]o/ ahf/ o;}sf] k|efjaf6 j}zfv clGtd ;ftf psfnf] nfu]sf] 5 . Pdfcf]jfbLsf] clglZrtsfnLg cfdx8tfn @^ j}zfvdf v'Nbf cf]/fnf] nfu]sf] z]o/ ahf/ @* j}zfvdf !@Ù @( j}zfvdf !& / #) j}zfvdf * cÍn] a9]/ g]K;] kl/;"rs $%& cÍdf k'us ] f] 5 . z]o/ d"No ebf} @)^% b]lv lg/Gt/ cf]/fnf] nfu]sf] lyof] . AofÍ tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx¿df t/ntf -vr{ ug{ of]Uo /sd_ cefj /x]sf a]nf pgLx¿n] k|sflzt u/]sf] r}t;Ddsf] ljQLo ljj/0f ;Gtf]ifhgs b]lvPsfn] z]o/ d"No a9]sf] ljZn]ifsx¿sf] egfO 5 . t/ klg of] a[l4 l:y/ x'gd] f sltko laZn]ifsx¿ cfzÍf u5{g\ . æPs b'O{ lbgsf] j[l4n] ahf/ ;'lw|of] eGg ;lsg] cj:yf 5}gÆ ljZn]ifs cd[tgfy /]UdLn] eg] æw]/} cÍsf] j[l4 x'Fbf ‰g\ clglZrttfsf] ;Defjgf x'G5 .Æ j}zfv @)^# b]lv a9\g yfn]sf] g]K;]

kl/;"rs ebf} @)^% df z]o/ ahf/s} pRrlaGb' !!&% cÍdf k'us ] f] lyof] . @)^# df /fi6« AofÍn] AofÍ tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] c;f/ @)^& leq r'Qmfk"hF L bf]Aa/ k'¥ofpg'kg]{ k|fjwfg;Fu} ahf/n] …a'ln; 6«0] 8Ú lnPsf] lyof] . Tolta]nf k"hF L j[l4sf nflu sDkgLaf6 xsk|b / af]g; z]o/sf] nf]edf gofF nufgLstf{x¿ cfslif{t ePsf lyP . tTsfnLg dfcf]jfbL g]tT[ jsf] ;/sf/n] cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷)^^ sf] ah]6df k"hF Lut nfes/ !) af6 !% k|ltzt k'¥ofPkl5 ahf/n] …laol/; 6«0] 8Ú lnof] . ;/sf/L gLlt / cl:y/ /fhgLltsf sf/0f nufgLstf{ xtf]T;flxt aGb} hfFbf z]o/ cfk"lt{ nuftf/ a9]kl5 d"No 36]sf] xf] . kmfu'g @)^% b]lv xfn;Dd z]o/ ahf/n] ?=&^ ca{eGbf a9L u'dfPsf] 5 . kmfu'g @)^$ df ?=@ va{ #) ca{ *! s/f]8 /x]sf] ahf/ k"hF Ls/0f To;sf] Ps jif{df ?=$ va{ @ ca{ # s/f]8 k'us ] f] lyof] . t/, xfn k"hF Ls/0f ?=# va{ #% ca{ ^* s/f]8df ‰/]sf] 5 . o:t} $÷% dlxgfcl3 b}lgs cf};t ?=%÷^ s/f]8sf] sf/f]af/ x'g]

u/]sf]df clxn] ?=@ s/f]8sf] xf/fxf/Ldf cfOk'us ] f] 5 . z]o/ ahf/ a9\bf d"No cfDbfgL cg'kft pRr k'us ] fn] clxn] 36]/ …s/]S;gÚ ePsf] klg Psy/L atfpF5g\ . t/ ljZn]ifs /]UdL sDkgLx¿sf] k|ltkmn ljZn]if0feGbf nufgLstf{df cfTdljZjf; gx'bF f lu/fj6 cfPsf] bfaL u5{g\ . z]o/ ljZn]ifs sDkgL Hofd 6]Sgf]nf]lhhsf k|aGw lgb]z { s czf]s dxh{gsf cg';f/ g]K;] kl/;"rs 36]/ &)) xf/fxf/Ldf k'us ] f a]nf k|jz ] u/]sf nufgLstf{x¿ gf]S;fgdf 5g\ . æclxn] z'?b]lvsf nufgLstf{n] cf};tdf @) k|ltzt / 36\g] qmd tLa| ePkl5 k|jz ] u/]sf nufgLstf{n] #) k|ltzteGbf w]/} u'dfPsf 5g\Æ pgn] eg] . bnfn ;+3sf cWoIf gGblszf]/ d'Gb8f x'gk' g]{ hlt s/]S;g eO;s]sf] atfpF5g\ . æcfTdljZjf;sf ;fy nufgL ug]{ cj:yf x'bF f 36a9sf] dtna x'bF g} Æ, ljZn]ifs /]UdLn] eg], æt/ clxn] nufgLstf{x¿ 8/fP/ laqmLrfk a9]sf] 5 .Æ nufgLsf] jftfj/0f agfpg ;/sf/n] kxn ug'k{ g]{ pgL atfpF5g\ . /fhwfgL aflx/ sf/f]af/ lj:tf/ ug{ rfxg] bnfnnfO{ k|fT] ;flxt ug],{ ;+:yfut nufgLstf{nfO{ cfXjfg ug]n{ ufotsf sbd rfNg'kg]{ pgsf] Q ;'‰fj 5 . k|eft e§/fO{

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57


s[lqd of}g;fwg

a9\b5 } g\ k|of]ustf{ s08d lsGg klg lxrlsrfpg]x¿sf] afx'No ePsf] g]kfnL ;dfhdf gSsnL of}gfËsf] ahf/ v'n]sf] 5, h;sf k|of]ustf{df dlxnf a9L 5g\ . ;'zLnf a'9fyf]sL sf] l/kf]6{ 58

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k|f

oM lbg 9n]kl5 rxnkxn a9\g] sf7df8f}+ lvrfkf]v/Lsf] …lb s08d xfp;Ú o'/f]k, cd]l/sflt/sf] …;]S; ;kÚ -of}g–;fdu|L k;n_ h:t} 5 . rf/ dlxgfcl3 v'ns ] f] of] k;nsf] p2]Zo klg g]kfnL u|fxsaLr of}g–;fdu|Lsf] Jofkf/ a9fpg' g} xf] . k/Dk/fjfbL g]kfnL /fhwfgLdf klxnf] k6s v'ns ] f] of] k;nsf u|fxsdf k'?ifeGbf dlxnf a9L 5g\ . k;ndf kl5Nnf] k|ljlwsf dxFuf …;]S; 6f]oÚ -of}g ] s ] f / x'gv ] fg] v]nf}gf_ lsGg] g]kfnL u|fxs k9]nv ju{sf 5g\ . tLdWo] klg w]/h} ;f] k'/fgf k|of]ustf{ / ljljwtf vf]Hg] ePsf] k;nsf ;~rfns o'j/fh Gof}kfg] atfpF5g\ . k'/fgf k|of]ustf{af6 yfxf kfP/ ylkg] gofF u|fxs klg al9/x]sf 5g\ . Gof}kfg]sf cg';f/, dlxnfx¿ klxnf kmf]gaf6 hfgsf/L lnP/ lsGg cfpF5g\ eg] k;nd} cfP/ w]/a} /] df]ntf]n ug]d{ f a9L k'?if 5g\ .

;Eo, :jtGq / ;'/lIft

cfjfh lgsfNg] …;]S; 8nÚ -gUg o'jtLsf] k'tnL_ lsg]sf Ps cljjflxt o'js s[lqd ;fwgaf6 of}g;Gt'li6 lng'nfO{ ;Eo, :jtGq / ;'/lIft of}g Jojxf/ eG5g\ . pgsf cg';f/ o;af6 g s;}dfly hf]/hab{:tL x'G5, g PrcfO{eL÷P8\;nufotsf of}g/f]u ;g]{ 8/ . s[lqd of}g Jojxf/df ?lr /fVg] Ps Jofkf/ k/fdz{bftfn] klg of}gsdL{sxfF hfg'eGbf ;]S; 6f]osf] k|of]u ug'{ a9L :jR5 / ;'/lIft x'g] atfP .


>LdtL ljb]z uPsfn] s]xL jif{bl] v PSnf] a:b} cfPsf pgnfO{ klxnf] ;]S; 6f]o Go'lhNof08 a:g] Ps ;fyLn] NofOlbPsf lyP . /fhwfgLdf s:d]l6s k;n rnfO/x]sL Ps dlxnfnfO{ t ljb]zdf a;]sf cfˆg} >Ldfg\n] ;]S; 6f]o k7fOlbPsf lyP . cfˆgf] of}g cfjZostf k"/f ug{ c¿ of}g ;fyL agfpg'eGbf o:tf ;fdu|L k|of]u ug'{ w]/} ;'/lIft 5 / o;n] >Ldfg\;uF sf] ;DaGwdf klg s'g} cfFr k'¥ofpFbg} eGg] pgsf] syg 5 . >Ldfg\ a9L Jo:t x'g] sltko km';l{ bnf dlxnf klg o:tf ;fdu|L k|of]u u5{g\ . Ps kl/lrt k|m~] r dlxnfaf6 s[lqd k'?if hg]lGb|o kfPsL sf7df8f}s + L csL{ $) jifL{of dlxnfn] o;af6 klt;Fusf] ;DaGw, ;fdflhs k|lti7f / :jf:Yodf s'g} c;/ gk/]sf] atfOg\ . @)%$ ;fnlt/ :jf:Yo sfo{stf{sf] ¿kdf PrcfO{eL÷P8\;af/] r]tgf km}nfpFb} tfKn] h ' ª sf ufpF – ufpF rxf/] s f s08d xfp; ;~rfns o'j/fh Gof}kfg] cfkm"n] a]Rg] of}g–;fdu|L c;'/lIft of}g Jojxf/af6 pTkGg x'g] PrcfO{eLnufotsf] vt/f sd ug{ ;xof]uL ePsf] atfpF5g\ . pgL eG5g\, æof}g cfjZostf k"/f ug{ gkfPsf] dflg; ls s'l07t eP/ a:5 ls t c;'/lIft of}gdf km:5 .Æ g] k fnL o' j f–o' j tLdfly kfl/jfl/s x:tIf]k / lgu/fgL 36\b} uPsfn] ljjfx ug]{ pd]/ klg kl5 ;b}{ uPsf] 5 . of];uF ;Fu} pgLx¿sf] of}ghLjg klg cfˆg} dhL{cg';f/ rNb} cfPsf] 5, of}g rfxgf k"/f ug]{ dfWod klg ablnFb} uPsf] 5 . s08d xfp;sf] rf/dlxg] sf/f]af/df %)) …v]nf}gfÚ laSg'n] klg oxL k'li6 u5{ . ;dfhzf:qL ;'/]z 9sfn of}g;fyL agfO/xg' gkg]{ clg cfˆgf] cg'sn" ;dodf k|of]u ug{ ;lsg] ePsfn] s[lqd of}g;fwgk|lt g]kfnL o'jfsf] cfsif{0f a9]sf] x'g;Sg] atfpF5g\ . dlxnf–k'?ifaLrsf] of}g;DaGwnfO{ ljleGg

;fdflhs gLltlgod / ;f+:s[lts d"NodfGotfn] afFWg] k/Dk/fsf] yfngLb]lv g} dflg;df j}slNks of}g ;'vk|lt cfsif{0f / pT;'stf z'? ePsf] dflgG5 . dlxnf–dlxnfaLr / k'?if–k'?ifaLrsf] of}glqmof klg o:t} pT;'stfsf] kl/0ffd xf], h'g clxn] g]kfndf klg clwsf/;Fu hf]l8P/ cfPsf] 5 .

pkef]ujfbL ;+:s[lt

g]kfnL ;dfhdf c‰} klg s08d lsGg lxrlsrfpg] dflg;x¿sf] sdL 5}g, ;Fu;Fu} of}ghGo v]nf}gfsf] k|of]u klg a9\b5} . lj1x¿ pkef]ujfbL ;+:s[lt;Fu} ljZj cy{tGq;Fu glhlsO/x]sf] g]kfnL ahf/df o:tf of}ghGo j:t' lelqg'nfO{ ;fdfGo dfG5g\ . Gofzgn OlGi6Ro'6sL dgf]ljb\ uËf kf7ssf] egfOdf, Ps};fy cfw'lgstf / ljsf; b]Vg kfPsf] ;dfhsf dflg;x¿ gofF k|ljlwdf a9L cfslif{t x'G5g\, t/ o;n] JolQmnfO{ PsfËL / ck|fs[lts agfpFb} n}hfg] hf]lvd klg 5 . ;dfhzf:qL 9sfnsf] ljrf/df ljleGg sf/0fn] c¿k|ltsf] ;+j]bgf x/fpFb} / pbf;Lgtf a9\b} uPkl5 dflg;x¿ of}gsf nflu klg s[lqdtflt/ hfG5g\, ;fdflhs ;DaGw 6'6b\ } hfFbf dflg;n] of}gdf lghTj vf]Hg' c:jfefljs xf]Og . t/, dgf]ljZn]ifs uËf kf7s &% k|ltzt dfgl;s / @% k|ltzt h}ljs ;+of]hgaf6 ag]sf] dflg;nfO{ of}g h:tf] dfgl;s / h}ljs b'j} b[li6sf]0fn] ;+jb] gzLn lqmofsnfkdf s[lqdtfdflysf] lge{/tfn] cGttM dgf]/f]uL agfpg ;Sg] ;Defjgf cf}N+ ofpFl5g\ . ;dfhzf:qL 9sfnsf cg';f/ cfˆg} ;'vsf] a9L dtna /fVg] :jefjn] dflg;nfO{ of}gdf JolQmjfbL / bfloTjxLg x'g ;3fPsf] 5 . To;dfly lxhf]cfh eO/x]sf] …of}g;Dks{ hf];uF u/] klg s08d eP ;a} 7LsÚ eGg] ;Gb]z k|jfxn] klg dflg;nfO{ a9L cfkm"sl] Gb|t agfPsf] 5 . dfG5]sf] oxL rfxgf, afWotf / k|ljlwsf] Jofkf/Ls/0f ePsf] lj1x¿sf] egfO 5 .

dftf dgsfdgf cf/f] U o s] G b| s f of}gdgf]lrlsT;s 8f= ;'af]ws'df/ kf]v/]n ;]S; 6f]on] dflg;nfO{ of}gs'07faf6 d'Qm /fv] klg s[lqd of}g Jojxf/sf] ntn] ;+jb] gxLgtf a9\b} hfg] atfpF5g\ . g]kfnL k|of]ustf{x¿ o;sf] ;xL k|of]u ug{ / cfgGb lng g;s]/ ljleGg dfgl;s / zf/Ll/s ;d:ofdf kg]{ u/]sf] :ki6 ub}{ pgL eG5g\, æklxnf k/fdz{sf nflu kmf§km'§ cfpg] ;]S; 6f]o k|of]ustf{x¿ clxn] a9]sf 5g\ . tLdWo] sltko of}gfËdf 3fprf]6 lnP/ cfpF5g\ .Æ

…/f]af] ;]S;Ú sf s'/f

s[lqd of}g;fwgsf] Jofkf/ cg'dlt ePsf jf gePsf b'jy} /L b]zdf o;sf cf–cfˆg} vfn] ;d:of 5g\ . ef/t / cd]l/sfsf s]xL /fHodf ;]S; ;k vf]Ng / of}ghGo ;fdu|L lsga]r ug{ aGb]h 5 . cg'dlt ePsf /fHox¿df klg wfld{s, ;f+:s[lts / ;fdflhs d"NodfGotfsf] cfwf/df lj/f]w x'g] u/]sf] 5 . v'nf ePsf d'ns ' df b'?kof]usf sf/0f klg o:tf ;fdu|Lx¿ 7"n} r'gf}tL ePsf 5g\ . h:tf], a]nfotdf afnaflnsfx¿n] klg s[lqd of}g;fwg lsGg yfn]kl5 ;/sf/sf nflu v'nfkg 6fpsf]bv ' fOsf] ljifo ag]sf] 5 . ;d:of h]–h:tf eP klg cd]l/sfsf /f]af]6 j}1flgs k|fk] m];/ /f]8g\ ] a|S' ;n] eljiodf ljZjsf clwsf+z dflg; of}gsf nflu /f]af]6df lge{/ x'g] eljiojf0fL u/]sf 5g\ . o;}u/L, …OG6]lnh]G6 cfl6{lkml;on PS;k6{Ú 8]le8 n]eLn] /f]af]6;Fu k|d] / of}g ;Dks{ k':tsdf ;g\ @)%) ;Dddf /f]af]6n] dflg;nfO{ of}g ;Gt'li6 dfq geO{ k|d] L–k|l] dsfsf] h:tf] ;fy klg lbg] atfPsf 5g\ . s08d xfp;sf o'j/fh Gof}kfg]sf] Jofkfl/s Jo:ttfnfO{ x]bf{ …;]S; 6f]oÚ sf] ljZjahf/df hf]l8O;s]sf] g]kfndf klg a|S' ; / n]eLn] eg]sf] …/f]af] ;]S;Ú sf] ;+;f/df ljr/0f ug{ rfxg]x¿sf] hdft tof/ eO/x]sf] cg'ej ug{ ;lsG5 . Q !–!% h]7 @)^&

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lxdfn va/klqsf

59


/d‰fd lkmNd

ljt/ssf]

dgf]dfgL

5fofª\sg z'? ePkl5 lgdf{tfnfO{ C0flbg] ljt/sx¿sf] cx|gv6g rnlrqsf gfos–gflosfb]lv lgb]{zs rog;Dd k'u]sf] 5 . Clif/fd s§]n sf] l/kf]6{

h

lt ubf{ klg /fh]z xdfnsf] ;do gldn]kl5 rnlrq dgn] dgnfO{ 5'G5 sf] 5fofÍg lw/]g zfSonfO{ lnP/ k"/f ug]{ ;'/df nfu]sf lyP, o;sf lgb]{zs lzj /]UdL . t/, lgb]{zsn] eg]/ s] ug'{, rnlrq ljt/s dgf]h /f7LnfO{ /fh]z geO{ ePg . o;/L s]xL dlxgf s'/]/} rnlrq k"/f ub}{5g\, lgb]{zs /]UdL . rnlrq km"n eP lhGbuL sf] Joyf klg p:t} 5 . o;sf] z'e;fOt lvRg] tof/L x'Fb} ubf{ ljt/s s]bf/ k/fh'nLn] /fhjNnenfO{ x6fP/ lj/fhnfO{ lx/f] agfpg' k g] { c8\8L lnP . lj/fhn] ;do lbg g;Sbf /fhjNne dfq} xf]Og o;sf lgb]{zs /fd/fhf bfxfnsf] ;d]t …rËf r]6\Ú eof], lkmNdaf6 . s'g} klg rnlrqdf s;nfO{ , s' g v' j Lsf] cfwf/df lx/f] jf lx/f]Og agfpg] eGg] lg0f{osf] afu8f]/ lgb]z { saf6 ljt/ssf]

xftdf k'u]sf] …g]kfnLÚ pbfx/0f x'g\ oL . …g] k fnLÚ o; sf/0f ls b' l gofF s f cGo lkmNd pBf]ux¿df o:tf] hfqfsf] sNkgf;Dd ul/Fb}g . o;sf] cy{ ca g] k fnL rnlrqdf lgb]{zssf] sKtfgL rNg 5f8\of] eGg] xf] . ca lgb]{zsx¿n] l;h{gfsf] wfswSs' zfob nufpFb}gg\ . lsgls rnlrqsf] Gjf/fgdf ;d]t ljt/ss} k'/]TofOF rNg yfn]sf] 5 . …l;g] ukmf8LÚ eg]/ lrlgPsf lgb]{zs k|sfz ;fo\ld Pp6f lx/f]s} e/df rnlrq rN5 eGg] …j]as'kmx¿Úsf] ;f]rn] g]kfnL rnlrq If]qnfO{ k5fl8 ws]ln/x]sf] atfpF5g\ . ljt/snfO{ rnlrqsf] c;n x'nfsL eGbf a9L g7fGg] ;fo\ld eG5g\, æp;sf] sfd lr7L af]Sg] dfq} xf] n]Vg]nfO{ o:tf] n]v, p:tf] n]v eGg] xf]Og .Æ ;fo\ld u'bL ePsf lgb]{zs dflgG5g\ . t/, dflgP/ s] ug'{, rnlrq ahf/df pgsf] jf …d]lsªÚ sf b[li6n] /fd|f] 7flgPsf t'n;L l3ld/], lzj /]UdL h:tf lgb]{zssf] gfdnfO{ efp lbg] ljt/s sf]xL 5}gg\ . pgLx¿nfO{ /fh]z, lj/fh jf lglvn pk|]tLs} 6fpsf] rflxG5 . gq rnlrq} aGb}g, ag]5 eg] klg xnsf] d'v b]Vg kfpFb}g . wGg, ;xL s'/fsf] kIfkf]if0f x'g eg] 5f8]sf] 5}g . rnlrq lgdf{tf ;+3sf cWoIf /fhs'df/ /fO{ eG5g\, æ/fd|f] l;g]df rNg :6f/ g} rflxG5 eGg] xf]Og . lx/f]s} cg'xf/n] lkmNd rnfpg vf]Hg' d"v{tf xf] .Æ c‰ dg cl8g] 7fpF s]n] lbG5 eg] …d]lsªÚnfO{ dxŒj lbg] rnlrq ljt/s ;'lgn dfgGw/x¿ klg afFsL g} 5g\, …slnp8Ú lkmNd pBf]udf . pgL eG5g\, æcfd g]kfnL bz{sn] xn;Dd hfg s'g} vf; snfsf/sf] 6fpsf] g} vf]Hnfg\ . t/ o;f] eGb}df …d]lsªÚ nfO{ a]jf:tf u/]/ cufl8 hfg ;lsFb}g .Æ

cg'xf/ x]g]{ lbg uP

clxn] /fh]z, lj/fh / lglvn rNtLsf

laqmd /fO{

60

lxdfn va/klqsf

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lkmNdL lx/f] x'g\ . w]/h} ;f] g]kfnL rnlrqsf kf]i6/df log}sf tl:a/ b]lvG5 . t/, logn] clego u/]sf ;a} rnlrq ;'k/lx6 ePsf 5}gg\ . /fh]zn] v]n]sf] kl5Nnf lkmNd t w]/}h;f] c;kmn g} 5g\ . /dfOnf] s] 5 eg], rnlrq grn] klg logsf] 6fpsf] rflxF dHh}n] laS5 . lj/fhsf] klg s'/f pxL xf] . @)^^ df logsf !$ rnlrq k|bz{gdf cfP . tLdWo] cfˆgf] dfG5] cfˆg} x'G5 cf};t ¿kdf rNof] eg] afFsL Tolt rn]gg\ . lglvnsf] klg lgzfgf afx]s ultnf] u/L rn]sf] s'g} lkmNd 5}g . 6fpsf] laS5 eGb} lglvnnfO{ v]nfOFbf g/fd|/L km;]sf] csf]{ rnlrq ld;g k}:ff xf] . lj/fh clegLt dxfg …;'k/ ˆnkÚ rnlrqsf] /fd|f] pbfx/0f xf] . o;af6 klg a'´g ;lsG5, rnlrq rNg …:6f/Ú g} rflxG5 eGg' unt xf] . t/, eg]/ s] ug'{, g]kfnL l;g]df k};fn] k|efjzfnL ePsf ljt/sx¿nfO{ …:6f/Ú g} rflxG5 . g]kfnL rnlrq lgdf{tfdWo]sf Ps ljgf]b cof{n ljt/sx¿n] !) k|ltzt bz{snfO{ dxŒj lbFbf ;du| g]kfnL l;g]df g} a]n'g h:tf] ePsf] atfpF5g\\, h'g s]xL ;dosf] nflu km'lnPsf] 5 . s'g a]nf xfjf v':sG5, sf]xL eGg ;Qm}g . rn]sf lx/f]x¿sf] 6fpsf] /fv]/ klg rnlrq grNg'sf] sf/0f ljt/sx¿af6 hfGg rfx]sf 5g\, lgdf{tf cof{nn] . t/, pgn] rfx]/ s] ug'{, k|]dsyf eP klg k6syf kl/jt{gsf]

gfos÷gflosfx¿ /fh]z xdfn, sl/Zdf dfgGw/, d]lngf dfgGw/ / lglvn pk|t] L .

‰G‰6df gkm;L åGådf lrlgPsf lj/fhnfO{ lx/f]df l;kmfl/; ug]{ ljt/sx¿sf] ;ª\Vof a9]sf] a9\o} 5 g]kfnL lkmNd pBf]udf . ljt/sx¿s} sf/0f lgdf{tfx¿n] s]xL gfossf] crfSnL a9]sf] efp r'sfO/xg' klg k/]sf] 5 . h:tf], /fh]znfO{ v]nfpg clxn] sDtLdf tLg nfv uGg'k5{, t/ pgn] s'g h'udf ;do lbg] x'g\, yfx x'Fb}g . ljt/sx¿sf] k|tfk slt;Dd ljiffn' ePsf] 5 eg] gofF snfsf/x¿n] k|ltef eP klg l;g] pBf]ult/ glrofpFbf x'G5 . rnlrq dfG5] sf lgdf{tf cf]dk|sfz /fO{ eG5g\, æk|ltefzfnL c¿ lx/f] gePsf x}gg\, t/

gf} hgfnfO{ gO

/fdafa' k|;fO{ -**_ ‰fkf lhNnfsf Ps pbf/, lzlIft / ;';+:s[t hldgbf/ eg]/ lrlgG5g\ . g]kfnL sfª\u|];sf] Oltxf; a'‰]sfx¿ pgnfO{ l;s] k|;fO{sf] ;'of]Uo bfh' / lgi7fjfg\ ;dfhjfbL g]tf eg]/ cfb/ u5{g\ . nfdf] ;dob]lv cf]‰]ndf k/]sf log} /fdafa' !& j}zfvdf /fhwfgLsf] Ps sfo{qmddf b]lvP vg"k?\ b] …/fdafa"Ú sf ¿kdf, hxfF pgn] gfdsf cufl8 …gOÚ hf]l8Psf s'n ;ft nfv %% xhf/ ?k}ofFsf k'/:sf/ ljt/0f u/] .

s'g} JolQmn] s'g} gfdsf] k'/:sf/ afF8\g' 7"nf] s'/f xf]Og, t/ g]kfnsf] >Lj[l4df nfu]sfx¿sf] lz/ p7fpg cfˆg} ;DklQ vr{g'n] …/fdafa"Ú nfO{ ljlzi6 agfPsf] 5 . gO k|sfzgsf dfgfy{ ;b:o /x]sf pgn] /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o If]qsf gf} gfdLnfO{ cfkm}+n] :yfkgf u/]sf] ?=(% nfvsf] sf]ifaf6 @)^& ;fnsf] gO k'/:sf/ k|bfg u/]sf x'g\ . h;df tLg nfv /flzsf] gO b]?v cGt/f{li6«o k'/:sf/ kfpg]df kfls:tfgsL k|fWofks tflx/f

ljt/sx¿ lng} dfGb}gg\ . xfdL rflxF lkmNd rnfpg] afWotfdf 5f}+ .Æ lgdf{tf ;+3sf ;lrj;d]t /x]sf ;'/]zbk{0f eg] of] cj:yfaf6 cflht eO;s]sf 5g\ . pgL eG5g\, æ/fh]z, lj/fh / lglvnn] g]kfnL rnlrqdf clwsf+z ˆnk lkmNd lbPsfn] d rflxF logLx¿sf] kl5 nfUg]jfnf 5}g .Æ t/, ?=%÷!) nfv af]s]/ ljt/ssf] e/df rnlrq z'? ug]{ lgdf{tfsf] hdft /x];Dd To;f] eg]/ s] ug'{ < ljt/s s[i0f sfsL{ eG5g\, æcfkm} k"/f nufgL u/]/ /fd|f] lkmNd agfpg]dfly s;}sf] dgf]dfgL rNb}g .Æ Q lgut gfo/ / b'O{nfv /flzsf] gO b]?gLv cGt/f{li6«o k'/:sf/ kfpg] bfhL{lnªsf OGb|axfb'/ /fO{ lyP . o;}u/L, 8f= eLid/fh k|;fO{ / 8f= eujfg sf]O/fnfn] ;+o'Qm ¿kdf Ps nfv ?k}ofFsf] …gO v/f ;'sLlt{ k'/:sf/Ú kfP . Oltxf;sf/ lrQ/~hg g]kfnL / 8f= piff 7fs'/n] hgxL krf; xhf/ /flzsf] …gO v/f k|bLlKt k'/:sf/Ú k|fKt u/] . g]kfnsf] gf/L hfu/0fdf dlxdfzfnL of]ubfg k'¥ofpg] lnnL yfkfn] kRrL; xhf/ /flzsf] …gO v/f uf}/j k'/:sf/Ú k|fKt ul/g\ eg] hgxL kGw| xhf/sf] …gO v/f kf}/v k'/:sf/Ú kfpg]df 8f= xf]l;d k|;fO{ / s'zn s];L lyP . gO k|sfzgdf …/fdafa"Ú n] :yfkgf u/]sf] sf]ifdf clåtLo k|ltef k'/:sf/ klg lyof] h'g sIff Psb]lv PdaLaLP;;Dd k|yd x'g] 8f= xf]l;d / ;f]nf/ df]6/ agfpg] s'zn s];Ln] kfP . /fli6«o hLjgsf ;a} If]qsf] k|f]T;fxgsf nflu lghL ;DklQ nufgL ug]{ …/fdafa"Ú sf] l;sf] Q b]zsf ;a} wgjfgn] u?g\ Û !–!% h]7 @)^&

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lxdfn va/klqsf

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/d‰fd lkmNd

Pp6f /fd|f]sf]

gSsn e

lgG5, …gSsn ug{ cSsn rflxG5Ú . ljb]zL lkmNdsf] …Kn6Ú dfq xf]Og k"/} lkmNdsf] syf g} EofOlbg] 7fpFdf o:tf] egfO c‰ afSn} ;'lgG5 . of] ;d:of …slnp8Údf dfq xf]Og, …alnp8Údf klg 5 . ToxfF …xlnp8Ú / …dlnp8Úsf] d]xgt rf]g]{x¿sf] sdL 5}g . km/s slt eg] ToxfF kmf]6f]skLjfbLx¿sf] ;ª\Vof sd 5 . a?, cg'dlt lnP/} …l/d]sÚ ug]{ gofF rng a9\b}5, k'/fgf] aDa}df . …slnp8Úsf lkmNdsdL{x¿n] ;d]t x]g'{kg]{ o:t} Pp6f O/fgL gSsn u/]sf 5g\, lxGbLsf lk|obz{gn] . pgsf] lgb]{zgdf lrN8«]g ckm Xofj]g sf] lxGbL ;+:s/0f ad ad ef]n] bz{sdf‰ cfPsf] 5 . !@ jif{sf d'Vo rl/qn] alxgLsf] h'Qf x/fOlbG5 . cfdfafa'sf] xfnt olt v/fa 5 ls pgLx¿sf] rf}aL; 306f 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ laxfg–a]n'sf s] v'jfpmF eGg]d} l;l4G5 . h'Qf x/fPsf] s'/f ;'gfOlbFbf bfh'n] lk6fO vfg] kSsf ePsf] s'/fdf lar/L km'RrL ;r]t 5] . ca s] ug]{ t < bfh'alxgLn] pkfo lgsfN5g\, cfnf]kfnf] h'Qf nufP/ :s"n hfg] . ca z'? x'G5 bz{ssf] d'6' rl:sg] b[Zo . lsgls of] g} rnlrqsf

gfafns bfh'alxgLsf cK7\of/f, låljwf / ;fgf] v'zLsf nflu ul/Psf] ;ª\3if{sf] ;'?cft xf] . O/fgL lgb]{zs dflhbL dlhbLn] !# jif{cl3 agfPsf] cfwf bh{g cGt/f{li6«o cjf8{ lhTg ;kmn afnlkmNd lrN8«]g ckm Xofj]g sf] of] lxGbL ;+:s/0fsf] k|bz{g #! j}zfvaf6 z'? ePsf] 5 . ;kmn xf:o lkmNdsf/ lk|obz{gn] dlhbL;Fu ;Nnfx g} u/]/ agfPsf] ad ad ef]n] df tf/] hldg k/ sf snfsf/ blz{n ;kmf/Lsf] clego 5 . of] lkmNd låljwfdf km;]sf lgbf]{if bfh'alxgLsf] b'Mv / lrGtfaf6 kf/ kfP/ v'zL Nofpg] k|oTgdf s]lGb|t 5 . ul/a kl/jf/df x's{b} u/]sf bfh'–alxgLsf] afn ;'netf / v'zL kfpg] ;ª\3if{n] bz{ssf] dg 5'G5 . lxGbL l/d]seGbf ^ jif{cl3 l;Ëfk'/sf lgb]z { s Hofs g]cf]n] oxL syfdf xf]d

blz{n ;kmf/L . lrN8«g] ckm Xofj]g / ad ad ef]n] sf] ;dfg b[Zo -dfly_ .

:g]xs˜ ;fu/ al9/xn cl5, ckg b]z===

of] d}lynL uLtaf6 PsfPs rrf{df cfPsf o'jf ufos s[i0f b]j -@#_ n] Pskl5 csf]{ ;kmntf kfPsf 5g\ . b]zk|lt gful/sdf x'g] efjgf ‰lNsg] lk|ts Ohf]l/of cNadsf oL ;'nlnt ufosn] …k|]d e˜u]nÚ df klg :j/ e/]sf 5g\ . ;Kt/Lsf wfld{s ufyf ;'Gg kfOg] ldlynf wfd cNaddf klg log}sf] :j/ 5 . ;Kt/L, uDxl/ofsf s[i0f b]j ufog If]qdf cfPsf] Ps jif{ dfq} eP klg rf/ j6f cNad lbO;s]sf 5g\, d}lynL >f]tfnfO{ . klxnf] k6s

/g agfPsf lyP . t/, o;af6 ;Gt'i6 x'g g;s]sf dlhbL lk|obz{gsf] k|:tfj ;'gk] l5 lxGbL ?kfGt/0fsf nflu tof/ ePsf lyP h;df k6syfnfO{ ef/tLo kl/j]zdf 9flnPsf] 5 . lk|obz{gsf cg';f/ afnlkmNd eP klg ef/tLo kl/j]zdf NofpFbf /fhgLlt / cftÍjfb klg ;d]l6Psf 5g\ . …bfh' alxgLsf] cgf}7f] syfÚ eg]/ k|rf/ ul/Psf] ad ad ef]n] x]?~h]n hf] sf]xL bz{snfO{ d"n O/fgL lkmNdn] hlQs} cfˆgf] afnfkgdf kmsf{pg] ljZjf; pgsf] 5 . k/;]K6 lkSr;{sf] ef? !) s/f]8sf] of] …l/d]sÚsf] k6syf / ;+jfb n]vs dlgiff sf]8]{ x'g\ . blz{nsf] ^ jifL{of alxgLsf] e"ldsfdf lhof j:tfgL l5g\ . lhof cfksL cGt/f l;l/onsL rlr{t afnsnfsf/ cGt/fsL h'DNofxf x'g\ . blz{n / lhof;Fu} ct'n s'ns0fL{, l/t'k0ff{ ;]g u'Ktf d'Vo e"ldsfdf 5g\ . of] lkmNdnfO{ s–s;n], s;/L dg k/fpF5g\, / lrN8«]g ckm Xofj]g hlQs} ;kmn x'G5 Tof] eg] x]g{ afFsL 5 . Q cg'zLn

ldlynf~rnsf s[i0f Kof/s] kG5L df :j/ lbPsf pgL eG5g\, æd]/f uLtx¿ >f]tfn] ?rfPsf 5g\, ufogn] v'zL lbPsf] 5 .Æ v'zL;Fu} pgsf] Jo:ttf klg a9]sf] 5 . ldlynf~rnsf s'g} klg ;fËLlts sfo{qmdsf] d~rdf lgDTofOPs} x'G5g\, pgL . ufogdf ;kmn x'Fb} hfFbf ldlynf~rnsf] dfofn] el/Fb}5g\, s[i0f . eG5g\, æd of] e"ldeGbf aflx/ x'g ;lQmgF x'Fnf .ÆQ >j0fs'df/ b]j !–!% h]7 @)^&

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lxdfn va/klqsf

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lxdfn va/klqsf

63


clGtd kfgf 8f= 6Íaxfb'/ ;'Aaf

ef/tdf g]kfnLkg ef

af]w u/fpF5 . g]kfnsf] g]kfnLkg / ef/tLo g]kfnLkgsf] jsf lx;fan] g]kfn / ef/tsf] g]kfnLkg Ps} leGgtf oxLFg]/ 5 . g]kfnsf g]kfnLx¿n] o:tf] g]kfnLkg h:tf] nfu] klg ef/tsf] g]kfnLkg g]kfnLx¿sf] ;f‰f lgwf{/0f ug}{ afFsL 5 . cfjZostfn] lgwf{/0f ug]{ x'gfn] o;sf] kl/efiff ug{ g]kfnsf] ef/tdf g]kfnLkgsf] csf]{ cfwf/ klx/g / u/uxgf klg x]/L ;lhnf] 5 . t/ g]kfndf ;f9] b'O{ ;ojif]{ Oltxf;sf] xf]— bf}/f;'?jfn, 9fsf6f]kL, rf}aGbL, kml/of, kf]t], ltnx/L, w]/}h;f] ;do /fi6«–lgdf{0fsf] jxfgfdf zf;sx¿n] Psvfn] 9'ª\u|L cflb . s;}n] oL lrhx¿ klxl/Fbf g]kfnLkg pb\3f]if g]kfnLTj nfb]sfn] g]kfnLkg hl6n ePsf] xf] . x'G5 . ef/tLo g]kfnL k'?ifx¿ vfF§L g]kfnLkg ‰Nsfpg ef/tdf g]kfnLkg Pp6f a[xt\ hftLo cjwf/0ff xf] h;leq k6'sfdf v's'/L le/]/ ;fj{hlgs x'G5g\ . g]kfnL eg]/ lrlgg] dflg;x¿sf] e"uf]n, 6f]kLdf hf]/ v's'/Lsf] Aofr klxl/g]x¿ sf] efiff, ;+:s[lt / cGo k[i7e"ldsf] ;dli6 eGbf x'g\ eg]/ s;}n] lrgfO/xg'kb}{g . o;}u/L klg a;fO;/fOFb]lv b'Mv, kL8f, ckdfgsf dfbn, ljgfof], afF;'/L ef/tdf g]kfnLkg g]kfndf pynk'ynk"0f{ efjgf ;3g ¿kdf k|ltlalDjt ePsf 5g\ . ‰Nsfpg] jfB;fdu|L x'g\ . oxfFsf g]kfnLaLr nLnaxfb'/ If]qLsf] a;fOF / n}gl;+x jfª\b]nsf] ag]/ cfPsf] ;g\ xfdf]{lgod, lu6f/ h:tf ;fhx¿ klg nf]]slk|o d'n's aflx/ ef/tdf g]kfnLkgsf] kL8fsf] !(() sf] bzs 5g\ / y'k|} ef/tLo g]kfnLx¿n] ef/tLo Pj+ /]vflrq xf] eg] OGb|axfb'/ /fO{sf] xfdL h:t} ef/tLo g]kfnLx¿sf klZrdf ;ËLtdf k|jL0ftf xfl;n u/]sf 5g\, d}gfsL cfdf ck"0f{ ;kgf / cfzfx¿sf] t/ g]kfnLkgsf] s]Gb|Lo tTjdf rflxF g]kfnL laDj xf] . OGb|axfb'/s} cfsf/x¿, 5fofFx¿ nflu cGof]nk"0f{ /x\of] . nf]s uLt;ËLt / g[Tox¿ g} 5g\ . n] ef/tdf g]kfnLkgsf] ;|f]t a;fO;/fOF g} To; cjlwdf ef/tLo ef/tdf g]kfnLkgsf] ;jf{lws ePsf] sxG5 eg] /fdnfn clwsf/Ls[t sfG5f g]kfnLx¿ tfufwf/L / dxŒjk"0f{ tTj rflxF g]kfnL efiff g} xf] . ldhf/sf] g]kfn ofqf n] klxnf] k':tfsf] hghfltdf ljeQm eP . o;nfO{ bfhL{lnªnufotsf kxf8L If]qdf g]kfnLn] of] e"lddf ef]Ug'k/]sf tgfjx¿n] ;/sf/L sfdsfhsf] dfWod agfpg / g]kfnLkgnfO{ cfsf/ lbPsf] atfpF5 . t/, Tof] 5f]6f] ;ª\ ef/tLo ;+ljwfgsf] cf7f}+ cg';"rLdf ;dfj]z kl5Nnf] ;dodf ef/tdf g]kfnLkgsf] qmd0fsfn lyof] . g]kfnL ug{ ef/tLo g]kfnLx¿n] cfwf ztfAbL nfdf] gsf/fTds k|tLsx¿ klg gag]sf x}gg\ . ;dfh eGg] a[xt\ cjwf/ ;ª\3if{ u/] . ef/te/sf g]kfnLnfO{ Pp6} h:tf], cWoogdf c?lr, dBkfg jf h'jftf;df 0ffn] Ps bzseGbf a9L ;"qdf afFWg] sfd g]kfnL efiffn] u/]sf] 5 . cf;lQm, l/;fxf ldhf; cflb g]kfnL kl/ro ef/tsf g]kfnLx¿nfO{ g]kfnLkg;Fu hf]8\g] x'g yfn]sf 5g\ . s'g} lkog jf sfl/Gbfsf] ;do lk/f]lng' k/]g . csf]{ 8f]/f] lxdfn, kxf8, d}bfg, gbLgfnf, c;fdlos lgwg ePsf] ;dfrf/ ;'Gbf hf] tfntn}of, /gjg htftt} a;]sf xhf/f}+ s;}sf] d'vaf6 lg:sG5, æljr/f, g]kfnL xf]nf b]jb]jL klg x'g\ . kj{ / df};d cg';f/ / t To;/L uof] .Æ vf]hL ub}{ uof] eg] o:tf] otfsf ;a} g]kfnL l;d]e"d], GjfuL / egfO c;To ;fljt xF'b}g, klg . s'g} g]kfnLn] uf]7 k"hf u5{g\ . ;fdfGotM g]kfnL eGg] lalQs} lxGb" eg]/ 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ lbNnL jf d'DaO{df k9fO/x]sf] 5 eg] To;sf] a'l‰P klg o;leq af}4 / k|s[ltk"hsx¿ :jtM ;d]l6G5g\ . aofg ubf{ …g]kfnL eP/ klg===Ú eGg] egfO 5f]l8G5 . ;g\ ;a} wd{sf ;a} rf8jf8nfO{ dxŒj lbFb} cfPsf ef/tLo !(*) df pQ/ aËfn ljZjljBfnodf :gftsf]Q/ txdf k|yd g]kfnLx¿sf nflu bz}+, ltxf/ / df3];ª\qmflGt ljz]if dxŒjsf x'Fbf d]/f Ps u'?n] eg]sf] s'/f clxn] klg dnfO{ la‰fO/xG5 . x'G5g\ . d]/f] pknlAwsf] k|z+;f ub}{ pgn] eg]sf lyP, æof] s]6f c¿ g]kfndf pynk'ynk"0f{ ag]/ cfPsf] ;g\ !(() sf] bzs g]kfnL h:tf] x}g, a? xfdL aËfnL h:tf] 5 .Æ oBlk aËfnL ef/tLo g]kfnLx¿sf nflu cGof]nk"0f{ /Xof] . To; cjlwdf efiff af]Ng', k9\g' / n]Vg'afx]s ddf s'g} aËfnLkg lyPg . ef/tLo g]kfnLx¿ tfufwf/L / hghfltdf ljeQm eP . pgLx¿ ef/tdf g]kfnLkgsf] lgwf{/0f vfB kl/sf/ / To:tf] klg kl5 uP/ Psn hftLo ;d"xdf afFl8P . t/, Tof] 5f]6f] ksjfg vfg] afgLn] klg u/]sf] b]lvG5 . d ef/tLo g]kfnLaLr ;ª\qmd0fsfn lyof] . g]kfnL ;dfh eGg] a[xt\ cjwf/0ffn] nf]slk|o vfGsLx¿sf] :yfg g]kfndf s:tf] xf]nf eg]/ cg'dfg Ps bzseGbf a9L ;do lk/f]lng' k/]g . tfufwf/L x'g\ ls dfq ug{ ;S5', t/ otf eg] ;]n, crf/, l9F8f], u'Gb|'s–l;GsL, hghflt, ;a} ldn]/ ;f‰f ;dfh, ;+:s[lt / ;flxTo pTyfgdf d];' -tfdf_, lsgfdf -e6df;sf] kl/sf/_, l;:g', 3/]n' /S;L ;dflxt eP . cudl;+x lu/Lsf] …d[To'cl3 ;NanfpF5 hftLTjÚ cflb g]kfnLkgsf kof{o ePsf 5g\ . s'g} klg g]kfnL nfO{ dgg\ u/]/} xf]nf, g]kfnL ;dfh km]l/ Psk6s cfGtl/s dxf]T;jdf oL lrhlah x'g}k5{ . slt;Dd eg] o:tf dxf]T;jdf ¿kdf bx|f] / :kGbgzLn aGof] . cfzf 5, o:tf] ;do lgDTofOPsf u}/–g]kfnL l5d]sL jf ldqx¿ ;d]t ;]n, kmfk/sf] g]kfndf klg rfF8} cfpg] 5 . Q /f]6L, d];'sf] crf/, l9F8f], u'Gb|'s–l;GsLsf] ‰f]n, lsgfdf, l;:g' -k|fWofks ;'Aaf ef/t, lznf]ªl:yt gy{ O:6g{ lxn / sf]bf]sf] /S;L rfVg] tfsdf /xG5g\ . oL kl/sf/n] ef/tdf o'lgel;{6Lsf] dfgjzf:q ljefu k|d'v x'g\ ._ a:g] g]kfnLsf] s'g} Ps hftLo k|ltlglwTj gu/fO{ ;fd"lxstfsf] 64

lxdfn va/klqsf

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!–!% h]7 @)^&


1-15jestha2067