Page 1


HILA BEN-NAVAT

2010


FROM THE PLACE WHERE WE ARE RIGHT FLOWERS WILL NEVER GROW IN THE SPRING. THE PLACE WHERE WE ARE RIGHT IS HARD AND TRAMPLED LIKE A YARD. BUT DOUBTS AND LOVES DIG UP THE WORLD LIKE A MOLE, A PLOW. AND A WHISPER WILL BE HEARD IN THE PLACE WHERE THE RUINED HOUSE ONCE STOOD. THE PLACE WHERE WE ARE RIGHT / YEHUDA AMICHAI


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

05

Contents INTRODUCTION ---

CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY

07

06 - 11

---

CHAPTER 01

CHAPTER O2

CHAPTER 03

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

10 CASES OF GENOCIDE

AFTERMATH

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

12 - 19

20 - 105

106 - 117

118


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF THE WORLD'S GENOCIDES (PAGES 06 - 08)

31

02

12131417

18

25

10

19

44

33 37

27 45 41 28 04

22 39 46

05 07 08 40

24 42

38

20

06 09 11 15 16 43

21 32

23

26 36

34

06

03

29

01

35


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

07

Introduction This project started seventy years ago, before World War Two, in a small town called Grabovitz, where I use to have a family. Through life in the state of Israel, and the lives of second and third generation Holocaust survivors. It explores what it is like to live in a constant state of fear, and the fundamental human need for home and shelter. It continues to my new life in London, and the sense of 'differentness' and alienation I felt, which leads to a questioning of one's faith and identity. This project has evolved from several spaces from disorder and the lack of clarity, from empathy and denial and from memory and forgetting. It charts the constant battle -Â doomed from the start between dictators and their armies, and the minorities who lack identity and acceptance. This project is here to give space to all those "others" who have suffered, and still suffer, for their sense of identity. The Genocide Project.


CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY

12

YEARS | 1933-1945 WHERE | Nazi-occupied Europe DEATHS | 6,000,000 Jews

11

YEARS | 1930 - 1932 WHERE | USSR DEATHS | 7,000,000 Ukrainians, North Caucasians and Central Asian steppe peoples

* 600

6,000,000 |

7,000,000 |

* 700

YEAR | 1904 WHERE | German South West Africa DEATHS | 65,000 Herero, plus thousands of Nama, Berg Damara and other peoples

*7

YEAR | 1902 WHERE | US Occupied Philippines DEATHS | 100,000 luzonese filipinos

65,000 |

02

* 10

01

100,000 |

/ 40,000 Victims

/ 10,000 Victims

Crimes against humanity

1900 - 2010

THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

*1

* 25

YEARS | 1933-1945 WHERE | Nazi-occupied Europe DEATHS | 250,000 Roma and Sinti

13

250,000 |

YEAR | 1904 WHERE | Dutch East Indies DEATHS | 3,000 Achinese

03

3,000 |

* 30

* 180

YEARS | 1939- 1945 WHERE | Nazi-occupied Europe DEATHS | 1,800,000 Non-Jewish Poles

14

1,800,000 |

YEARS | 1905-1906 WHERE | German East Africa DEATHS | 300,000 Pangwa, Matumbi, Viduna and other peoples

04

300,000 |

* 150

* 550

YEARS | 1941-1944 WHERE | Nazi-occupied USSR DEATHS | 5,500,000 Belarussians and Ukrainians

15

5,500,000 |

YEAR | 1915 WHERE | Ottoman Turkey DEATHS | 1,500,000 Armenians, and Assyrian Nestorians

05

1,500,000 |

17 YEARS | 1941-1945 WHERE | Nazi-occupied Europe DEATHS | 3,300,000 Soviet prisoners of war

YEARS | 1941-1944 WHERE | USSR DEATHS | 250,000 Volga Germans, Karachai, Kalmyks, Chechens, Ingushi, Balkars, Meshketians & Crimean Tatars

* 330

16

* 25

* 25

YEARS | 1941-1945 WHERE | Croatia DEATHS | 250,000 Serbs

18

250,000 |

3,300,000 |

06

250,000 |

* 30

YEAR | 1923 WHERE | Republic of Turkey DEATHS | 300,000 Ethnic Greeks

300,000 |

YEAR | 1922 WHERE | Greekoccupied Turkey DEATHS | 400,000 Turks

* 40

YEAR | 1916 WHERE | Czarist Russia DEATHS | 100,000 Kazakhs and Kirgiz

400,000 |

08

* 10

07

100,000 |

COURTESY OF THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, LONDON

*2

* 50

YEARS | 1946 WHERE | Czech Republic and Poland DEATHS | 500,000 Ethnic Germans

19

500,000 |

YEAR | 1920 WHERE | Soviet Russia DEATHS | 15,000 Azeris

09

15,000 |

08

*6

YEARS | 1930 - 1932 WHERE | Italian- occupied Libya DEATHS | 60,000 Arab Bedouin

10

60,000 |


39

YEARS | 1983-present WHERE | Sudan DEATHS | 20,000 Dinka, Shilluk, Nuer and Nuba peoples

38

YEARS | 1981-1989 WHERE | Iran DEATHS | 20,000 Kurds and Baha’is

* 300

YEAR | 1988 WHERE | Burundi DEATHS | 50,000 Hutu

YEARS | 1984-present WHERE | Turkey DEATHS | 20,000 Kurds

*5

41

50,000

YEAR | 1971 WHERE | East Pakistan (Bangladesh) DEATHS | 3,000,000 Bengalis

32

3,000,000 |

* 120

YEARS | 1959 – present WHERE | (Chinese-occupied) Tibet DEATHS | 1,200,000 Tibetans

23

1,200,000 |

40

*2

20,000

* 150

1,500,000 |

20,000 |

*2

YEARS | 1966-1970 WHERE | Nigeria DEATHS | 1,000,000 Ibo

YEARS | 1966-1984 WHERE | Guatemala DEATHS | 60,000 Maya Indians and others

YEARS | 1965-1966 WHERE | Indonesia DEATHS | 1,000,000 Communists and suspected Communists

31

* 100

30

1,000,000 |

* 50

YEARS | 1956-1972 WHERE | Sudan DEATHS | 125,000 Non-Muslim Southerners

22

500,000 |

29

*6

60,000 |

1,000,000 |

* 100

YEARS | 1947-Present WHERE | Bangladesh DEATHS | 125,000 Jummas (Chittagong Hill Tracts peoples)

* 13

YEAR | 1947 WHERE | India and Pakistan DEATHS | 1,000,000 Hindus & Sikhs

125,000 |

21

* 100

20

1,000,000 |

* 10

* 50

* 10

YEAR | 1987-1988 WHERE | Iraq DEATHS | 100,000 Kurds

42

100,000

YEAR | 1971 WHERE | Uganda DEATHS | 500,000 Karamojong, Acholi, Lango and others

33

500,000 |

YEARS | 1960 - 1980 WHERE | Iraq DEATHS | 100,000 Kurds

24

100,000 |

*1

YEARS | 1994-present WHERE | Russian Federation DEATHS | 4,000 Chechens

43

4,000 |

YEARS | 1975-1979 WHERE | Cambodia DEATHS | 1,200,000 Cambodians

34

1,200,000 |

* 120

*4

YEARS | 1961 - 1962 WHERE | Angola DEATHS | 40,000 Kongo

25

40,000 | *1

* 25

* 25

YEARS | 1991-1995 WHERE | Former Yugoslavia DEATHS | 250,000 Bosnian Muslims

44

250,000 |

YEARS | 1975-1999 WHERE | East Timor DEATHS | 250,000 East Timorese

35

250,000 |

YEARS | 1962 - present WHERE | Burma (Myanmar) DEATHS | 5,000 Karin, Kachin, Shan and Mon peoples

26

5,000 |

*2

YEAR | 1994 WHERE | Rwanda DEATHS | 800,000 Tutsi and moderate Hutus

45

* 80

YEARS | 2003- present WHERE | Sudan DEATHS | 400,000 Inhabitants of Darfur region of Sudan

46

* 40

400,000 |

* 10

800,000 |

37

100,000 |

YEAR | 1986 WHERE | Uganda DEATHS | 100,000 Karamojong, Nilotic tribes, Bagandans and others

*1

* 20

YEARS | 1965-1973 WHERE | Burundi DEATHS | 200,000 Hutu

28

200,000 |

YEAR | 1978 WHERE | Burma DEATHS | 10,000 Muslims (Rohingyas)

36

10,000 |

YEARS | 1963-1964 WHERE | Rwanda DEATHS | 14,000 Tutsi

27

14,000 |


CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY

Crimes against humanity Scale

1900 - 2010

THE GENOCIDE PROJECT COURTESY OF THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM

10


CHAPTER 01

Terms and Definitions


WALTER BENJAMIN / ON THE CONCEPT OF HISTORY, 1939

THERE IS NO DOCUMENT OF CIVILISATION WHICH IS NOT AT THE SAME TIME A DOCUMENT OF BARBARISM


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

FREE WORLD MAGAZINE, VOL. 4, 1945

CHAPTER 01 / TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

14

CHAPTER 01

Terms and Definitions GENOCIDE

The word ‘genocide’ brings together the Greek word genos, meaning race or tribe, and the Latin cide from the verb caedere meaning to kill. It was coined by a Polish-Jewish lawyer, Raphael Lemkin in his 1944 book Axis Rule in Occupied Europe to describe the Nazi assault on European peoples and nations. Lemkin escaped to the US in 1941 with his brother, the only members of their immediate family to survive the war. He subsequently dedicated his life to lobbying for the adoption and ratification of international legislation to prevent and prosecute genocide. Lemkin’s efforts and the appalling scale of the Nazi persecutions prompted the newly created United Nations to adopt the International Convention on the Punishment and Prevention of the Crime of Genocide on 9 December 1948.

GENOCIDE - A MODERN CRIME By Raphael Lemkin, April 1945

This article first appeared during WWII in the April 1945 issue of Free World “A Non-Partisan Magazine devoted to the UN and Democracy,” (Free World, Vol. 4) The article summarised the concepts Lemkin originally presented in Chapter 9 of Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, published by the Carnegie Endowment in 1944. TECHNIQUES OF GENOCIDE

All aspects of nationhood were exposed to the attacks of the genocidal policy: POLITICAL

The political cohesion of the conquered countries was intended to be weakened by dividing them into more or less selfcontained and hermetically enclosed zones, as in the four zones of France, the ten zones of Yugoslavia, the five zones of Greece; by partitioning their territories to create puppet states, like Croatia and Slovakia; by detaching territory for incorporation in the Greater Reich, as was done with western Poland, Alsace-Lorraine, Luxembourg, Slovenia. Artificial boundaries were created to prevent communication and mutual assistance by the national groups involved. In the incorporated areas of western land, Luxembourg, Alsace-Lorraine, Malmedy, Moresnet, local administrations were replaced by German administrative organisation. The legal system was recast on the German model. Special Commissioners for the strengthening of Germanism, attached to each administration, coordinated the activities designed to foster and promote Germanism. They were assisted by local inhabitants of German origin. These, duly registered and accredited, served as a nucleus of Germanism and enjoyed special privileges in respect to food rations, employment and position. SOCIAL

The social structure of a nation is vital to its national development. Therefore the German occupant endeavored to bring about changes that weakened national spiritual resources. The focal point of this attack has been the intelligentsia, because this group largely provides leadership. In Poland and Slovenia the intellectuals and the clergy were to a large extent either

The Convention established genocide as a crime under international law and provided the following legal definition: The Convention states that it is not only genocide which will be punished, but also conspiracy to commit genocide, incitement to commit genocide and complicity in genocide. It also imposes a general duty on all states that are signatories to ‘prevent and to punish’ genocide. This represents the principle of universal jurisdiction, introduced at the Nuremberg Tribunal in 1946, that some crimes are so great that they can be tried in the courts of any country, regardless of where the crimes were carried out or the nationality of victim and accused. The UN definition of genocide is established in international law. Many scholars believe, however, that the definition is too narrow and have put forward their own definitions. The UN Genocide Convention was not applied in an international courtroom for more than forty years after its establishment.

murdered or removed for forced labor in Germany. Intellectuals and resistants of all occupied countries were marked for execution. Even among the blood-related Dutch some 23,000 were killed, the greater number of them being leading members of their communities.

accept alcohol for agricultural produce. Although under Polish law gambling houses had been prohibited, German authorities not only permitted them to come into existence, but relaxed the otherwise severe curfew law.

CULTURAL

The genocidal purpose of destroying or degrading the economic foundations of national groups was to lower the standards of living and to sharpen the struggle for existence, that no energies might remain for a cultural or national life. Jews were immediately deprived of the elemental means of existence by expropriation and by forbidding them the right to work. Polish property in western incorporated Poland was confiscated and Poles denied licenses to practice trades or handicrafts, thus reserving trade to the Germans. The Post Office Savings Bank in western Poland taken over by the occupying authorities, assured the financial superiority of Germans by repaying deposits only to certificated Germans. Among the bloodrelated peoples (Luxembourgers, Alsatians) the acceptance of Germanism was the criterion by which participation in the economic life was determined.

The Germans sought to obliterate every reminder of former cultural patterns. In the incorporated areas the local language, place names, personal names, public signs and inscriptions were supplanted by German inscriptions. German was to be the language of the courts, of the schools, of the government and of the street. In Alsace-Lorraine and Luxembourg, French was not even permitted as a language to be studied in primary schools. The function of the schools was to preserve and strengthen nazism. Attendance at a German school compulsory through the primary grades and three years of secondary school. To prohibit artistic expression of a national culture, rigid controls were established. Not only were the radio, the press, and the cities closely supervised, but every painter, musician, architect, sculptor, writer, actor and theatrical producer required a license to continue his artistic activities. RELIGIOUS

Wherever religion represented a vital influence in the national life, the spiritual power of the Church was undermined by various means. In Luxembourg children over 14 were protected by law against criticism if they should renounce their religious affiliations for membership in Nazi youth organisations. In the puppet state of Croatia an independent, but Germandominated Orthodox Church was created for Serbs, in order to destroy forever the spiritual ties with the Patriarch at Belgrade. With the special violence and thoroughness reserved for Poles and Jews, Polish church property was pillaged and despoiled and the clergy subjected to constant persecution. MORAL

Hand in hand with the undermining of religious influence went devices for the moral debasement of national groups. Pornographic publications and movies were foisted upon the Poles. Alcohol was kept cheap although food became increasingly dear, and peasants were legally bound to

ECONOMIC

BIOLOGICAL

The genocidal policy was far-sighted as well as immediate in its objectives. On the one hand an increase in birth rate, legitimate or illegitimate, was encouraged within Germany and among Volksdeutsche in the occupied countries. Subsidies were offered for children begotten by German military men by women of related blood such as Dutch and Norwegian. On the other hand, every means to decrease the birth rate among «racial inferiors» was used. Millions of war prisoners and forced laborers from all the conquered countries of Europe were kept from contact with their wives. Poles in incorporated Poland met obstacles in trying to marry among themselves. Chronic undernourishment, deliberately created by the occupant, tended not only to discourage the birth rate but also to an increase in infant mortality. Coming generations in Europe were thus planned to be predominantly of German blood, capable of overwhelming all other races by sheer numbers.

PHYSICAL

The most direct and drastic of the techniques of genocide is simply murder. It may be the slow and scientific murder by mass starvation or the swift but no less scientific murder by mass extermination in gas chambers, wholesale executions or exposure to disease and exhaustion. Food rations of all territory under German domination were established on racial principles, ranging in 1943 from 93 per cent of its pre-war diet for the German inhabitants to 20 per cent of its pre-war diet for the Jewish population. A carefully graduated scale allowed protein rations of 97 per cent to Germans, 95 per cent to the Dutch, 71 per cent to the French, 38 per cent to the Greeks and 20 per cent to the Jews. For fats, where there was the greatest shortage, the rations were 77 per cent to the Germans, 65 per cent to the Dutch, 40 per cent to the French and 0.32 per cent to the Jews. Specific vitamin deficiencies were created on a scientific basis. The rise in the death rate among the various groups reflects this feeding program. The death rate in the Netherlands was 10 per thousand; Belgium 14 per thousand; Bohemia and Moravia 13.4 per thousand. The mortality in Warsaw was 2.160 Aryans in September 1941 as compared to 800 in September 1938, and for the Jews in Warsaw 7,000 in September 1941 as against 306 in September1938. Such elementary necessities of life as warm clothing, blankets and firewood in winter were either withheld or requisitioned from Poles and Jews. Beginning with the winter of 1940-1941 the Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto received no fuel at all. The authoritative report of the War Refugee Board published in November 1944, and the overwhelming new evidence that appears daily of the brutal mass killings that have taken place in such notorious “death camps” as Maidanek and Oswiecim are sufficient indication of the scope of the German program. In Birkenau alone between April 1942 and April 1944 approximately 1,765,000 Jews were gassed. Some 5,600,000 Jews and around 2,000,000 Poles have been murdered or died as a result of the extermination policies. Whole communities have been exterminated. It is estimated, for instance, that of the 140,000 Dutch Jews who lived in the Netherlands before occupation, only some 7,000 now survive, the rest being transferred to Poland for slaughter.


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

CHAPTER 01 / TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

THE 8 STAGES OF GENOCIDE

By Gregory H. Stanton, 1998. Originally presented as a briefing paper at the US State Department in 1996. Genocide is a process that develops in eight stages that are predictable but not inexorable. At each stage, preventive measures can stop it. The process is not linear. Logically, later stages must be preceded by earlier stages. But all stages continue to operate throughout the process. 1 . CLASSIFICATION

All cultures have categories to distinguish people into “us and them” by ethnicity, race, religion, or nationality: German and Jew, Hutu and Tutsi. Bipolar societies that lack mixed categories, such as Rwanda and Burundi, are the most likely to have genocide. The main preventive measure at this early stage is to develop universalistic institutions that transcend ethnic or racial divisions, that actively promote tolerance and understanding, and that promote classifications that transcend the divisions. The Catholic church could have played this role in Rwanda, had it not been riven by the same ethnic cleavages as Rwandan society. Promotion of a common language in countries like Tanzania has also promoted transcendent national identity. This search for common ground is vital to early prevention of genocide. 2 . SYMBOLISATION

We give names or other symbols to the classifications. We name people “Jews” or “Gypsies”, or distinguish them by colours or dress; and apply the symbols to members of groups. Classification and symbolisation are universally human and do not necessarily result in genocide unless they lead to the next stage, dehumanisation. When combined with hatred, symbols may be forced upon unwilling members of pariah groups: the yellow star for Jews under Nazi rule, the blue scarf for people from the Eastern Zone in Khmer Rouge Cambodia. To combat symbolisation, hate symbols can be legally forbidden (swastikas) as can hate speech. Group marking like gang clothing or tribal scarring can be outlawed, as well. The problem is that legal limitations will fail if unsupported by popular cultural enforcement. Though Hutu and Tutsi were forbidden words in Burundi until the 1980’s, code-words replaced them. If widely supported, however, denial of symbolisation can be powerful, as it was in Bulgaria, where the government refused to supply enough yellow badges and at least eighty percent of Jews did not wear them, depriving the yellow star of its significance as a Nazi symbol for Jews. 3 . DEHUMANISATION

One group denies the humanity of the other group. Members of it are equated with animals, vermin, insects or diseases. Dehumanisation overcomes the normal human revulsion against murder. At this stage, hate propaganda in print and on hate radios is used to vilify the victim group. In combating this dehumanisation, incitement to genocide should not be confused with

protected speech. Genocidal societies lack constitutional protection for countervailing speech, and should be treated differently than democracies. Local and international leaders should condemn the use of hate speech and make it culturally unacceptable. Leaders who incite genocide should be banned from international travel and have their foreign finances frozen. Hate radio stations should be shut down, and hate propaganda banned. Hate crimes and atrocities should be promptly punished. 4 . ORGANISATION

Genocide is always organised, usually by the state, often using militias to provide deniability of state responsibility (the Janjaweed in Darfur.) Sometimes organisation is informal (Hindu mobs led by local RSS militants) or decentralised (terrorist groups.) Special army units or militias are often trained and armed. Plans are made for genocidal killings. To combat this stage, membership in these militias should be outlawed. Their leaders should be denied visas for foreign travel. The U.N. should impose arms embargoes on governments and citizens of countries involved in genocidal massacres, and create commissions to investigate violations, as was done in post-genocide Rwanda. 5 . POLARISATION

Extremists drive the groups apart. Hate groups broadcast polarising propaganda. Laws may forbid intermarriage or social interaction. Extremist terrorism targets moderates, intimidating and silencing the center. Moderates from the perpetrators’ own group are most able to stop genocide, so are the first to be arrested and killed. Prevention may mean security protection for moderate leaders or assistance to human rights groups. Assets of extremists may be seized, and visas for international travel denied to them. Coups d’état by extremists should be opposed by international sanctions. 6 . PREPARATION

Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious identity. Death lists are drawn up. Members of victim groups are forced to wear identifying symbols. Their property is expropriated. They are often segregated into ghettoes, deported into concentration camps, or confined to a famine-struck region and starved. At this stage, a Genocide Emergency must be declared. If the political will of the great powers, regional alliances, or the U.N. Security Council can be mobilised, armed international intervention should be prepared, or heavy assistance provided to the victim group to prepare for its self-defense. Otherwise, at least humanitarian assistance should be organised by the U.N. and private relief groups for the inevitable tide of refugees to come. 7 . EXTERMINATION

Begins, and quickly becomes the mass killing legally called “genocide.” It is “extermination” to the killers because they do not believe their victims to be fully human. When it is sponsored by the state, the armed forces often work with militias

THE 8 STAGES OF GENOCIDE / GREGORY H. STANTON

to do the killing. Sometimes the genocide results in revenge killings by groups against each other, creating the downward whirlpool-like cycle of bilateral genocide (as in Burundi). At this stage, only rapid and overwhelming armed intervention can stop genocide. Real safe areas or refugee escape corridors should be established with heavily armed international protection. (An unsafe “safe” area is worse than none at all.) The U.N. Standing High Readiness Brigade, EU Rapid Response Force, or regional forces -- should be authorised to act by the U.N. Security Council if the genocide is small. For larger interventions, a multilateral force authorised by the U.N. should intervene. If the U.N. is paralysed, regional alliances must act. It is time to recognise that the international responsibility to protect transcends the narrow interests of individual nation states. If strong nations will not provide troops to intervene directly, they should provide the airlift, equipment, and financial means necessary for regional states to intervene. 8 . DENIAL

Is the eighth stage that always follows a genocide. It is among the surest indicators of further genocidal massacres. The perpetrators of genocide dig up the mass graves, burn the bodies, try to cover up the evidence and intimidate the witnesses. They deny that they committed any crimes, and often blame what happened on the victims. They block investigations of the crimes, and continue to govern until driven from power by force, when they flee into exile. There they remain with impunity, like Pol Pot or Idi Amin, unless they are captured and a tribunal is established to try them. The response to denial is punishment by an international tribunal or national courts. There the evidence can be heard, and the perpetrators punished. Tribunals like the Yugoslav or Rwanda Tribunals, or an international tribunal to try the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, or an International Criminal Court may not deter the worst genocidal killers. But with the political will to arrest and prosecute them, some may be brought to justice.

16


I THINK THERE IS A PATTERN IN MASS KILLING AND THE KEY THING IS THE SEPARATION OF SOME MINORITY GROUP BY SLOW STAGES FROM THE REST OF THE POPULATION. BREAKING THE LINKS OF SOLIDARITY THAT CONNECT, SAY, THE JEWS – CITIZENS OF GERMANY, FIERCELY PATRIOTIC MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL COMMUNITY - SLOWLY SEPARATING THEM OUT AND ISOLATING THEM BY DISCRIMINATORY LEGISLATION, THEN YELLOW STARS, THEN POLICE ROUND-UPS, THEN DEPORTATION. SO THAT AT THE END OF THE PROCESS THEIR FELLOW NEIGHBOURS LOOK AT THEM AND SAY, ‘WELL, THEY’RE NOT REALLY ONE OF US AND I ALWAYS THOUGHT THAT ANYWAY.’ COURTESY OF THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, LONDON

17

01

02

03

CLASSIFICATION

SYMBOLISATION

DEHUMANISATION

04

05

ORGANISATION

POLARISATION

06

07

PREPARATION

EXTERMINATION

08

DENIAL

MICHAEL IGNATIEFF


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

CHAPTER 01 / TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

KIEV, 1942 / A MOTHER ATTEMPTS TO SHIELD HER CHILD AS SHE IS ABOUT TO BE SHOT BY THE EISENGRUPPEN / COURTESY OF YAD VASHEM, JERUSALEM

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS AND HISTORIANS' DEFINITIONS OF GENOCIDE

Social scientists have different definitions of genocide from each other and from the definition in international law (the UN genocide convention) following. These differences are both because of the differences between generic concepts and legal definition, and because of the political and group processes involved in drawing up an international convention.

'I CAME DOWN TO THE CITIES AT A TIME OF CONFUSION, WHEN HUNGER REIGNED IN THEM. I CAME AMONG THE PEOPLE AT A TIME OF REVOLTS, I REBELLED ALONG WITH THEM, AND SO I PASSED MY TIME. I ATE MY BREAD AMID BATTLES, AND LAY DOWN TO SLEEP AMID THE MURDERED'. TO POSTERITY / BERTOLT BRECHT

18


19

HELEN FEIN

ISRAEL W. CHARNY

GENOCIDE: A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE, 1993

GENOCIDE: CONCEPTUAL AND HISTORICAL DIMENSIONS ED. GEORGE ANDREOPOULOS, 1994

Genocide is sustained purposeful action by a perpetrator to physically destroy a collectivity directly or indirectly, through interdiction of the biological and social reproduction of group members, sustained regardless of the surrender or lack of threat offered by the victim.

Genocide in the generic sense is the mass killing of substantial numbers of human beings, when not in the course of military forces of an avowed enemy, under conditions of the essential defenselessness and helplessness of the victims.

BARBARA HARFF AND TED R. GURR

STEVEN T. KATZ

TOWARD EMPIRICAL THEORY OF GENOCIDES AND POLITICIDES,1988

THE HOLOCAUST IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE, 1994

and politicides are the promotion and execution of policies by a state or its agents which result in the deaths of a substantial portion of a group. The difference between genocides and politicides is in the characteristics by which members of the group are identified by the state.

The concept of genocide applies only when there is an actualized intent, however successfully carried out, to physically destroy an entire group (as such a group is defined by the perpetrators.

FRANK CHALK AND KURT JONASSOHN THE HISTORY AND SOCIOLOGY OF GENOCIDE , 1990

Genocide is a form of one-sided mass killing in which a state or other authority intends to destroy a group, as that group and membership in it are defined by the perpetrator.


CHAPTER 02

10 Cases of Genocide


MICHAEL IGNATIEFF

GENOCIDE IS THE WAY TO A UTOPIA, THE UTOPIA OF A WORLD WITHOUT ENEMIES. WHO DOESN’T WANT TO LIVE IN A WORLD WITHOUT ENEMIES - RIGHT? IT WOULD BE WONDERFUL. YOU’D BE SECURE, YOU’D BE SAFE, NO ONE CAN ATTACK YOU. HITLER AND STALIN SERVED THAT UTOPIA. IN STALIN’S CASE IT WOULD BE A WORLD WITHOUT THE CLASS ENEMY, CONSTANTLY SAPPING THE VIRTUE AND STRENGTH OF THE REVOLUTION. IN GERMANY IT’S ALL THOSE DAMN JEWS, PARASITES, BLOODSUCKERS, DRAINING THE LIFE OF THE NATION. IF WE COULD JUST GET RID OF ALL OF THEM, WE’LL LIVE IN PERFECT PEACE AND BROTHERHOOD.


GENOCIDE IN DARFUR

2003 - ONWARDS

In the ongoing genocide, African farmers and others in Darfur are being systematically displaced and murdered at the hands of the Janjaweed, a government-supported militia recruited from local Arab tribes. The genocide in Darfur has claimed 400,000 lives and displaced over 2,500,000 people

THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE

1994

In 100 day period between April - June 1994 some 800,000 out of a population of around eight million Rwandans were slaughtered, most of them from the minority Tutsi group. The killing was planned by the radical Hutu power regime, and carried out by militias, the army and the police, along with thousands of ordinary Hutu.

Sudan

10

09

Turkey

The Holodomor refers to the famine of 1932–1933 in Ukrainian in which millions of people starved to death as a result of the economic and trade policies instituted by the government of Stalin. The famine was a part of the wider Soviet famine of 1932–1933.

The Armenian Genocide was carried out by the “Young Turk” government of the Ottoman Empire in 1915-1916 (with subsidiaries to 1922-23). One and a half million Armenians were killed, out of a total of two and a half million Armenians in the Ottoman Empire.

In 1904, the Herero, the largest tribal people in German South-West Africa (Namibia) rebelled against colonial rule. The German military response was one of extermination and, by 1906, the Herero had been reduced to a quarter of their original size.

Namibia

1932-1933

1915-1923

1904-1905

Ukraine

THE HOLODOMOR IN UKRAINE

THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE

03

02

GENOCIDE OF THE HEREROS

CHAPTER 02 / 10 CASES OF GENOCIDE

01

THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

.

The Holocaust , also known as The Shoah is the term generally used to describe the genocide of approximately six million European Jews during World War II, a program of systematic state-sponsored extermination by Nazi Germany, under Adolf Hitler, its allies, and collaborators

1939-1945

HOLOCAUST: THE JEWS

04

The Nazis and their allies murdered an estimated 250,000 ‘Gypsies’ because they were considered ‘asocial’ (socially deviant) and believed they threatened the racially pure German state. The Roma describe the Nazi genocide of the gypsies as the porajmos: “the devouring.”

1939-1945

HOLOCAUST: THE GYPSIES

05

Between 1975 and 1999, when East Timor regained its independence, the primarily Muslim Indonesia engaged in brutal warfare against the primarily Catholic East Timorese, killing one third of the population

1975

GENOCIDE IN EAST TIMOR

06

Between 1975 -1979 the Khmer Rouge regime terrorised Cambodia. In pursuit of their goal of a pure Khmer state, the regime forced the bulk of the population into slave labour. A million people died from malnutrition and overwork. At least 200,000 were murdered in ‘the killing fields

1975-1979

THE CAMBODIAN GENOCIDE

07

The breakdown of the Communist state of Yugoslavia resulted in the death of 250,000 people. Serb attempts to create a ‘greater Serbia’ which included Serb populations in neighbouring Croatia, Bosnia and Kosovo resulted in organised campaigns of ‘ethnic cleansing’

1991-1999

FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

08

22


COURTESY OF THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, LONDON

MICHAEL IGNATIEFF / WRITER AND HISTORIAN

WHAT IS INTERESTING ABOUT TWENTIETH CENTURY KILLING ON THE BATTLEFIELD IS THAT IN THE FIRST WORLD WAR, 90% OF THE FATALITIES APPEAR TO HAVE BEEN SOLDIERS. BY THE END OF THE CENTURY, 90% OF THE CASUALTIES ARE CIVILIAN, 10% ARE SOLDIERS. IN THE ETHNIC WARS OF THE 1990S WHERE PEOPLE ARE TRYING TO HACK OUT NEW STATES BY DRIVING OUT POPULATIONS TO CREATE HOMOGENEOUS ETHNIC STATES BASED ON ONE POPULATION, THEN YOU CAN BEGIN TO SEE THE LOGIC OF WHY THE BURDEN FALLS ON CIVILIANS - BECAUSE THEY’RE THE REAL OBJECT OF WAR.

23


EDMUND BURKE / A VINDICATION OF NATURAL SOCIETY

POWER GRADUALLY EXTIRPATES FOR THE MIND EVERY HUMAN AND GENTLE VIRTUE CASE NO.

01

1904 1905


EDMUND BURKE / A VINDICATION OF NATURAL SOCIETY

POWER GRADUALLY EXTIRPATES FOR THE MIND EVERY HUMAN AND GENTLE VIRTUE


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

CHAPTER 02 / CASE NO.O1 / GENOCIDE OF THE HEREROS

26

MAP NO.1 /

NAMIBIAN CONCENTRATION CAMPS BY CASPER ERICHSEN

With large parts of the Herero nation either dead or in exile and the south in a state of war, the German colonial venture was facing a considerable labour crisis. Newly confiscated lands could not be properly utilised without labour, nor would any other wheel in the colonial machine be able to turn without access to unskilled and inexpensive labour. There were therefore two options for the German administration: either Herero still hiding in the country and those in exile be lured back into German territory and forced in to labour, or alternatively a military expedition be launched against the Owambo kingdoms to enable a more systematic labour recruitment there. The first step to encourage the repatriation of Herero was a promise that those who returned would have nothing to fear. The German officer Von Estorff wrote: "I do not lie, I will issue letters to you so that nothing will happen to you". Under this assumption many Hereros came out of the bush. Most were directed towards the collection points at Otjihanena and Omburo. The largest of the concentration camps were found in Swakopmund, Karibib, Windhoek, Okahandja, and Luderitz.

In these camps the prisoners would typically be fenced in, either by thorn- bush fences or by barbed wire. Thousands of people were cramped into small areas, rations were minimal, consisting of a daily allowance of a handful of uncooked rice, some salt and water. Disease was uncontrolled as the lack of medical attention, unhygienic living quarters, insufficient clothing and high concentration of people meant that diseases such as Typhoid spread rapidly. Beatings and maltreatment were also part and parcel of life in the camps. In statistics compiled by the German High Command in 1907, 7 682 prisoners-of-war are calculated to have died. Of an estimated 17 000 prisoners, that's a mortality rate of 45,2%. The frightening part is that these were mere estimates, other official figures were even higher, and some camps were not closed down for another 2-3 years, leaving further casualties to be added to the morbid list.


Genocide of the Hereros

DEPORTATION OF HEREROS, 1905 / THE REVOLT OF THE HEREROS / JON.M BRIDGMAN

27

1904-1905 COLONIAL GENOCIDE

STATISTICS

835,100 km2 (322,434 sq mi)

AREA

hoek Wind

MAP German South West Africa (modern Namibia) FLAG

COAT OF ARMS

POPULATION

NAMIBIA POPULATION 1902

In 1902, the colony had 200,000 inhabitants, though only 2,595 were German, 1,354 were Afrikaner, and 452 were British. There were around 80,000 Herero, 60,000 Ovambo, and 10,000 Nama, who were disparagingly referred to as Hottentots. ETHNIC DIVISIONS

TODAY (2009)

Black 87.5%, White 6%, Mixed 6.5% (about 50% of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% to the Kavangos tribe; other ethnic groups include Herero 7%, Damara 7%, Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, Bushmen 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana 0.5%) RELIGIONS

Christian 80% to 90% (Lutheran 50%), indigenous beliefs 10% to 20%

LANGUAGES

English 7% (official), Afrikaans common language of most of the population and about 60% of the white population, German 32%, indigenous languages 1% (includes Oshivambo, Herero, Nama)

GENOCIDE

WHO COMMITTED THE GENOCIDE

German colonial rule

WHO LED THE GENOCIDE

Lothar von Trotha (1848 – 1920) was a German military commander universally condemned for his conduct of the Herero Wars in South-West Africa, especially for the events that led to the nearextermination of the Herero.

Lother Von Trotha

WHO WERE THE VICTIMS NUMBER OF DEATHS

METHODS OF EXECUTION

The Herero and the Namaqua people of South West Africa

75%

65,000 Hereros Of the population

01. Death by starvation 02. Poisoning 03. Forced Labour 04. Administered Diseases

SOURCES :

1. CIA The World Factbook / Namibia 2. Totten and Parsons. (1998) Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views 3. The Imperial War Museum, London


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

MAP NO.1 /

CHAPTER 02 / CASE NO.O1 / GENOCIDE OF THE HEREROS

26

MAP NO.2 /

NAMIBIAN CONCENTRATION CAMPS BY CASPER ERICHSEN

With large parts of the Herero nation either dead or in exile and the south in a state of war, the German colonial venture was facing a considerable labour crisis. Newly confiscated lands could not be properly utilised without labour, nor would any other wheel in the colonial machine be able to turn without access to unskilled and inexpensive labour. There were therefore two options for the German administration: either Herero still hiding in the country and those in exile be lured back into German territory and forced in to labour, or alternatively a military expedition be launched against the Owambo kingdoms to enable a more systematic labour recruitment there. The first step to encourage the repatriation of Herero was a promise that those who returned would have nothing to fear. The German officer Von Estorff wrote: "I do not lie, I will issue letters to you so that nothing will happen to you". Under this assumption many Hereros came out of the bush. Most were directed towards the collection points at Otjihanena and Omburo. The largest of the concentration camps were found in Swakopmund, Karibib, Windhoek, Okahandja, and Luderitz.

In these camps the prisoners would typically be fenced in, either by thorn- bush fences or by barbed wire. Thousands of people were cramped into small areas, rations were minimal, consisting of a daily allowance of a handful of uncooked rice, some salt and water. Disease was uncontrolled as the lack of medical attention, unhygienic living quarters, insufficient clothing and high concentration of people meant that diseases such as Typhoid spread rapidly. Beatings and maltreatment were also part and parcel of life in the camps. In statistics compiled by the German High Command in 1907, 7 682 prisoners-of-war are calculated to have died. Of an estimated 17 000 prisoners, that's a mortality rate of 45,2%. The frightening part is that these were mere estimates, other official figures were even higher, and some camps were not closed down for another 2-3 years, leaving further casualties to be added to the morbid list.


DEPORTATION OF HEREROS, 1905 / THE REVOLT OF THE HEREROS / JON.M BRIDGMAN

27


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

CASE NO.

01 IN BRIEF

In January 1904, a revolt broke out in German South West Africa. The Hereros, who inhabited most of the best grazing land in the colony, rose against the Germans. Two years later, when the German army finally succeeded in stamping out the last embers of the revolt, the Hereros all but ceased to exist as a cultural entity. Of the original 80,000 Hereros, only 20,000 remained alive and the survivors were so shaken by the catastrophe that they lapsed into a terrible lethargy that lasted for decades. JON BRIDGMAN AND LESLIE J. WORLEY / CENTURY OF GENOCIDE, 1998

CHAPTER 02 / CASE NO.O1 / GENOCIDE OF THE HEREROS

HERERO PRISONERS IN CHAINS / REPORT ON THE NATIVES IN SOUTH WEST AFRICA , 1918

28


12. BATTELFIELD AT HARTEBEESTMUND / GROSSE COURTESY OF THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, LONDON GENERALSTAB, BERLIN 1906

19. HEREROS EXECUTED BY THE GERMANS / REPORT ON THE NATIVES IN 2931 SOUTH WEST AFRICA AND THEIR TREATMENT BY GERMANY , 1918

TIMELINE / GENOCIDE OF THE HEREROS

FORCE THEM TO DO IT WITH THE GREAT GUNS. ANY HERERO FOUND WITHIN THE GERMAN BORDERS WITH OR WITHOUT A GUN, WITH OR WITHOUT CATTLE, WILL BE SHOT. I SHALL NO LONGER RECEIVE ANY WOMEN OR CHILDREN. I WILL DRIVE THEM BACK TO THEIR PEOPLE OR I WILL SHOOT THEM. THIS IS MY DECISION FOR THE HERERO PEOPLE.

1884

ABOUT THE HERERO

The Herero way of life was traditionally based around cattle. In 1884 the quickening pace of the European ‘scramble for Africa’ led to the formal declaration of a German colony over both ‘Hereroland’ and adjoining areas. From the outset German rule was uncompromising, often brutal and implicitly racist. A disastrous cattle epidemic –the rinderpest – in 1897 forced many Herero to borrow money from unscrupulous German traders or sell land to settlers. Unable to repay their loans, they had to give up many of their remaining cattle in compensation. By 1903 a once proud people was largely reduced to a servile work force. Their chiefs had already largely been stripped of their former authority. Plans to build a railway across what remained of Hereroland may have proved the last straw. THE PERPETRATORS

In the early 1880s, German influence in South West Africa was stronger than that of any other European power, but for all that it was still minuscule. Furthermore, the government in Berlin, under Chancellor Bismarck, had no interest in imperial expansion. Bismarck modified his position somewhat in 1882 when he gave Adolf Lüderitz, a German trader, a guarantee of imperial protection for such lands as he might acquire in Africa, providing Lüderitz acquired a harbor and "clear title." Subsequently, Lüderitz purchased several large parcels of land and the harbor of Angra Pequena in South West Africa from the Orlam tribe, and he asked the German government for official recognition and protection. After a two-year period of inquiries to Whitehall and the Cape government concerning the British position on South West Africa, which resulted in no clear statement or policy, Bismarck in April 1884 had all parties notified that Lüderitz and his property were under the protection of the Reich.

To add insult to injury, Kamaherero told Goering that he was giving Robert Lewis, an English adventurer, power of attorney to exercise control and authority over the territory. The threat of English intervention along with the collapse of the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft für Südwestafrika forced Bismarck to dispatch Captain Curt von François with a small detachment of soldiers to South West Africa. For better or worse, South West Africa now became a German colony and the direct responsibility of the German government.

Most of the German troops stationed in Hereroland were transferred to the south of the colony to quell an uprising by the Nama people. JANUARY 1904

The Herero took advantage of the absence of troops to attack German farms and villages. Strict instructions were given by

Massive German reinforcements were sent to the colony. Practically the whole Herero people were forced northwards towards the Waterberg plateau. AUGUST 1904

The Germans attacked the Herero from three sides. After fierce resistance, the Germans drove them into the Omaheke Desert. Any who lagged behind were killed. The western rim of the desert was guarded to prevent them escaping back into the colony. Waterholes were sealed off, and some poisoned, leaving the Herero to die in the desert. The German commander, General von Trotha, issued an order that any Herero found within the German borders would be shot. DECEMBER 1904

Alarmed by the bad press the treatment of the Herero was generating, the German government countermanded von Trotha’s order. But in practice, the killing continued. APRIL 1905

Surviving Herero were sent to labour camps where still more died from vicious treatment and disease. New regulations denied them ownership of land or cattle. These laws were also applied to most of the other tribes of South-West Africa.

Of around 80,000 Herero in 1900, only 15,000 remained. Some had fled to British-controlled Bechuanaland, but the drastic reduction in the population was mostly the result of either the German military campaign or subsequent ill-treatment. Other tribes, notably the Nama and Berg Damara, also suffered catastrophic losses. 1915

During the First World War, after invading and conquering German South-West Africa the British launched an investigation into the Germans’ treatment of the Herero and other tribes. Far from being humanitarian, however, the purpose of the ensuing report was primarily to disparage German colonial rule. In 1920 the League of Nations mandated South-West Africa to the Union of South Africa. All copies of the report published on the German ill-treatment of the tribes were destroyed to avoid creating tension between British-South African officials and German farmers in the territory. Conditions for surviving Herero only marginally improved. The post-1906 German regulations became the model for the South African pass laws, requiring black South Africans to carry identity cards wherever they travelled, thereby helping to underpin the system of racial segregation and economic control in South Africa known as ‘apartheid.’ RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

In August 2004 the German government offered a formal apology for the atrocities committed against the Herero recognising that today the most appropriate term to describe them would be genocide . They have, however, ruled out compensation for victims’ descendants, citing the disproportionate amount of development aid Germany gives to Namibia because of its former colonialism. LOTHER VON TROTHA IN HIS INFAMOUS VERNICHTUNGSBEFEHL (ANNIHILATION ORDER)

AUTUMN 1903

SPRING 1904

1911

In April 1885, Dr. Goering, the father of Hermann Goering, arrived in South West Africa as Imperial Commissioner. Goering's main task was to extend German control and influence beyond Lüderitz's holdings by persuading the various tribal chiefs to sign treaties of protection. Kamaherero, the Herero chief, signed such a treaty on October 21, 1885. Within four years, the Herero leader repudiated this treaty. Kamaherero felt the treaty was utterly useless since it provided him with neither men, money, nor arms and equipment to protect the Herero cattle and to fight the Orlam, a neighboring tribe with whom the Herero had cattle wars.

THE COURSE OF THE GENOCIDE

Samuel Maherero, the principal chief, that German women and children, British and Boer settlers and Christian missionaries should not be killed.

Southwest Africa was made a German protectorate 1904 JANUARY 11 General Lothar von Trotha arrived in SW Africa from Germany to take over from the colonial Governor, Theodor Leutwein, the direction of a campaign to quell an uprising 1904 JANUARY 12 Anxious Germans opened fire on Ovaherero at Okahandja. The Herero people of Namibia had risen in rebellion against German colonial rule. The deadly Deutsche Schutzruppe “peacekeeping regiment” quelled the tribes. They eventually annihilated 75% of the Herero and Nama peoples 1904 AUGUST 11 German General Lothar von Trotha defeated the Hereros tribe near Waterberg, South Africa 1904 AUGUST 14 The cattle-herding Hereros, a tribe of Southwest Africa, became the first genocide victims of the 20th century. Kaiser Wilhelm II had sent General Von Trotha to put down a Herero uprising along with groups of rebellious Khoikhoi. Trotha drove the Hereros into the desert and then issued a formal "extermination order" authorizing the slaughter of all who refused to surrender. Out of some 80,000 Hereros, 60,000 died in the desert. Of the 15,000 who surrendered, half of those died in prison camps. Some 9,000 escaped to neighboring countries 1904 NOVEMBER 27 A German colonial army defeated Hottentots at Warmbad in Southwest Africa. 1904 DECEMBER 9 Von Schlieffen ordered Von Trotha to pardon all Ovaherero, after tens of thousands had perished in the desert, except those who were "directly guilty and the leaders" 1915 JULY 9 Germany’s South West Africa surrendered to Gen. Botha of the Union of South Africa


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

CHAPTER 02 / CASE NO.O1 / GENOCIDE OF THE HEREROS

HERERO PRISONERS IN CHAINS / REPORT ON THE NATIVES SOUTH WEST AFRICA , 1918 18. HERERO RETURNING FROM THE OMAHAKE DESERT IN / REPORT ON THE NATIVES IN SOUTH WEST AFRICA AND THEIR TREATMENT BY GERMANY , 1918

28 30

CASE NO.

01 In January 1904, a revolt broke out in German South West Africa. The Hereros, who inhabited most of the best grazing land in the colony, rose against the Germans. Two years later, when the German army finally succeeded in stamping out the last embers of the revolt, the Hereros all but ceased to exist as a cultural entity. Of the original 80,000 Hereros, only 20,000 remained alive and the survivors were so shaken by the catastrophe that they lapsed into a terrible lethargy that lasted for decades.

OCTOBER 2, 1904

JON BRIDGMAN AND LESLIE J. WORLEY / CENTURY OF GENOCIDE, 1998

I, THE GREAT GENERAL OF THE GERMAN TROOPS, SEND THIS LETTER TO THE HERERO PEOPLE. HEREROS ARE NO LONGER GERMAN SUBJECTS. THEY HAVE MURDERED, STOLEN, THEY HAVE CUT OFF THE NOSES, EARS, AND OTHER BODILY PARTS OF WOUNDED SOLDIERS AND NOW, BECAUSE OF COWARDICE, THEY WILL FIGHT NO MORE. I SAY TO THE PEOPLE: ANYONE WHO DELIVERS ONE OF THE HERERO CAPTAINS TO MY STATION AS A PRISONER WILL RECEIVE 1000 MARKS. HE WHO BRINGS IN SAMUEL MAHERERO WILL RECEIVE 5000 MARKS. ALL THE HEREROS MUST LEAVE THE LAND. IF THE PEOPLE DO NOT DO THIS, THEN I WILL

IN BRIEF


12. BATTELFIELD AT HARTEBEESTMUND / GROSSE GENERALSTAB, BERLIN 1906

19. HEREROS EXECUTED BY THE GERMANS / REPORT ON THE NATIVES IN SOUTH WEST AFRICA AND THEIR TREATMENT BY GERMANY , 1918

31

TIMELINE / GENOCIDE OF THE HEREROS

Southwest Africa was made a German protectorate 1904 JANUARY 11 General Lothar von Trotha arrived in SW Africa from Germany to take over from the colonial Governor, Theodor Leutwein, the direction of a campaign to quell an uprising 1904 JANUARY 12 Anxious Germans opened fire on Ovaherero at Okahandja. The Herero people of Namibia had risen in rebellion against German colonial rule. The deadly Deutsche Schutzruppe “peacekeeping regiment” quelled the tribes. They eventually annihilated 75% of the Herero and Nama peoples 1904 AUGUST 11 German General Lothar von Trotha defeated the Hereros tribe near Waterberg, South Africa 1904 AUGUST 14 The cattle-herding Hereros, a tribe of Southwest Africa, became the first genocide victims of the 20th century. Kaiser Wilhelm II had sent General Von Trotha to put down a Herero uprising along with groups of rebellious Khoikhoi. Trotha drove the Hereros into the desert and then issued a formal "extermination order" authorizing the slaughter of all who refused to surrender. Out of some 80,000 Hereros, 60,000 died in the desert. Of the 15,000 who surrendered, half of those died in prison camps. Some 9,000 escaped to neighboring countries 1904 NOVEMBER 27 A German colonial army defeated Hottentots at Warmbad in Southwest Africa. 1904 DECEMBER 9

LOTHER VON TROTHA IN HIS INFAMOUS VERNICHTUNGSBEFEHL (ANNIHILATION ORDER)

FORCE THEM TO DO IT WITH THE GREAT GUNS. ANY HERERO FOUND WITHIN THE GERMAN BORDERS WITH OR WITHOUT A GUN, WITH OR WITHOUT CATTLE, WILL BE SHOT. I SHALL NO LONGER RECEIVE ANY WOMEN OR CHILDREN. I WILL DRIVE THEM BACK TO THEIR PEOPLE OR I WILL SHOOT THEM. THIS IS MY DECISION FOR THE HERERO PEOPLE.

1884

Von Schlieffen ordered Von Trotha to pardon all Ovaherero, after tens of thousands had perished in the desert, except those who were "directly guilty and the leaders" 1915 JULY 9 Germany’s South West Africa surrendered to Gen. Botha of the Union of South Africa


CASE NO.

02 1915 1923

15 MAY 1916

THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE SHOULD BE CLEANED UP OF THE ARMENIANS AND THE LEBANESE. WE HAVE DESTROYED THE FORMER BY THE SWORD, WE SHALL DESTROY THE LATTER THROUGH STARVATION ENVER PASHA


15 MAY 1916

THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE SHOULD BE CLEANED UP OF THE ARMENIANS AND THE LEBANESE. WE HAVE DESTROYED THE FORMER BY THE SWORD, WE SHALL DESTROY THE LATTER THROUGH STARVATION ENVER PASHA


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

CHAPTER 02 / CASE NO.2 / THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE

TIMELINE / THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE

1909 APRIL 15-25

1909 1923

30,000 Armenians are slaughtered in Adana, Tarsus and other towns of Cilicia. The Turkish army bears direct responsibility, but the Armenian community is willing to consider it as an isolated incident.

34

1913 JANUARY 9 In Turkey, the triumvirate of Enver, Talaat and Jemal Pasha head the government.

1914 FEBRUARY 8 Under the combined influence of Russia and Great Britain, the Turkish authorities sign the Armenian Reform Project and agree to take certain measures in favour of the Armenian population. The promised measures are not implemented.

1915 JANUARY

1915 FEBRUARY 13

1915 FEBRUARY 26

1915 APRIL 15

1915 APRIL 20

Enver is disastrously defeated in Sarikamish at the hands of Russian troops, marking a failure of his Pan-Turanian plans. The Turkish authorities decree the demobilisation of the Armenians. The Armenian soldiers in the Turkish army are marched and killed in cold blood.

Two Armenian deputies of the Ottoman Assembly submit a note concerning the massacres and executions of several such battalions.

War Minister Enver convenes 75 top ranking Ittihadists. This secret meeting finalises the the plan to carry out a genocide. Evidence indicates that the decision to carry out the Genocide was made some years earlier.

Talaat, Enver and Nazem send a secret order to the local governments for the removal and extermination of Armenians in Turkey.

At the news of the massacres, the mostly Armenian population of Van takes to the barricades. The Turkish authorities will use this incident on the Caucasian front and the resistance of the Armenians as a pretext to justify the measures of deportation they are about to inflict.

1915 APRIL 20MAY 19

1915 APRIL 24

1915 MAY 15

1915 JUNE 1

1915 JUNE 15

1915 JUNE 24

1915 JUNE 25

1915 JUNE 26

1915 JULY 3

The remaining Armenians of Van try to defend themselves from the overwhelming Turkish forces.

800 Armenian leaders, writers and intellectuals are arrested in Constantinople and murdered. The barbaric Armenian genocide begins. This is the most important date for all Armenians today.

Turkish forces begin the process of removal and deportation of the Armenian population from villages in the vilayet of Erzerum.

12,000 Armenian soldiers in the Turkish army are massacred in Balu, vilayet of Diarbekir.

21 leaders of the Hnchukyan Party are hanged publicly in Constantinople.

Massacres and deportations of the inhabitants of Shabin Karahissar begin.

The removal and deportation of the Armenians of the city of Sivas begin.

The removal of the Armenian population of Kharput and Trebizond vilayets are commenced by the Turkish army.

The massacre of the Armenian population of Mush, Sassun and Bitlis vilayets begins.

1915 JULY 10

1915 JULY 27

1915 JULY 28

1915 JULY 29

1915 AUGUST 16

1915 AUGUST 10- 19

The Armenian population of Malatia is deported.

The Armenian population of Cilicia and Antioch is deported.

The removal of the Armenian population of the Cilician cities, Aintab and Qilise, is carried out.

Deportations begin from Aintab and Kilisse, in Cilicia.

Deportations begin from Marash in Cilicia and Konia in western Asia Minor.

Removal and deportations begin of Armenians from Smyrna (Nikodemia), Brusa, Bartizak, Adabazar and surrounding areas.

1918 MARCH

1918 OCTOBER

1918 OCTOBER 30

1918 NOVEMBER

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is signed between Russia and Turkey after Russia's withdrawal brought about by the Russian Revolution. Turkish invasion of Russian Armenia causes more killings of Armenians. Fighting continues on the Caucasian front involving Armenian units.

US Congressman Edward Little presents a resolution to the Congress advocating that the "Armenian people have the right to be free and independent and be the masters of the Christian culture for which their sons had been sacrificed".

The armistice of Moudros ends the war between the Allies and Turkey. Global estimates of the campaign of extermination: close to 1,500,000 Armenians dead.

Defeated Turkey recognizes the small Armenian Republic whose territory consists only of a small fraction of former Armenian lands. Turkey also cedes to it the vilayets of Kars and Ardahan the following year.

In Stockholm, a large meeting takes place dedicated to repudiation of the mass murder of Armenians. The members of the meeting deplore the insensitivity of Sweden towards Armenians.

1917 DECEMBER 4 Speaking in the Congress of the US, President Wilson states "We hope to provide the right and opportunity for people living in the Turkish Empire to make their lives safe and their fate secure from aggression and injustice, orders of foreign courts and parties.

1919 APRIL 27

1919 MAY 22

1919 JULY 5

By the order of Sultan Mahmed VI it was ordered that the First, Second and Third Military Tribunals prosecute the leaders of the "Young Turks" and other implicated members of the government.

A Military Tribunal finds a number of Turkish leaders guilty of carnages in the Yozkhat area. The Court finds that Kemal Bey ordered the Moslems to eliminate all the Armenian population, and sentences him to death.

In Constantinople, the trial begins of members of the Union and Progress Party, and other leaders of the Turkish government. The trial continues until June 26, 1919.

The special Military Court tries the organizers of deportations and slaughter in Trebizond and punishes eight as criminals.

Following the trial of the Unionists, Talaat, Enver Pasha Djemal Pasha are sentenced to death.

1922 SEPTEMBER

Kemal Ataturk's forces seize and set fire to the city of Smyrna and engage in a rampage, killing Greeks and Armenians. 150,000 perish.

1917 MARCH 29

1919 APRIL 8

1921 MAY 16 The independent Armenian Republic, in existence since May 28, 1918, is tranformed into the Soviet Socialist Republic of Armenia.

Talaat, Minister of the Interior, sends a cable to the Aleppo Prefecture, ordering the extermination of children at military installations.

1919 JANUARY 8

1920 FEBRUARY

French forces in postwar occupation of Cilicia unexpectedly withdraw. Turks take advantage of the opportunity and kill 30,000 Armenians.

1916 MARCH 7

1923 APRIL 25

1923 SEPTEMBER

Unrepentant Turkey enacts the law of "abandoned property" which allows for the confiscation of all property abandoned by Armenians absent from the country, regardless of the date, reason or conditions of their departure.

Turkey adopts a law which prohibits the return of Armenians who left Cilicia or any of the eastern vilayets whether or not they had left voluntarily.


The Armenian Genocide 1915 - 1923 JUDGED BY MOST MODERN HISTORIANS TO BE A GENOCIDE, STRONGLY REFUTED BY TURKISH AUTHORITIES

STATISTICS

29,743 km2 (141st) 11,484 sq mi

AREA

Georgia

Armenia

Azerbaijan

Historic Armenia Borders

Current Armenia Borders

FLAG

COAT OF ARMS

POPULATION

ARMENIAN POPULATION 1905

ARMENIAN POPULATION 2009

1,698,301 [1]

2,967,004 (July 2009 est.)[4]

Turkey

Syria

ETHNIC DIVISIONS

Armenian 97.9%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.3%, Russian 0.5%, other 0.3%

RELIGIONS

Armenian Apostolic 94.7%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi (monotheist with elements of nature worship) 1.3%

LANGUAGES

Armenian 97.7%, Yezidi 1%, Russian 0.9%, other 0.4%

GENOCIDE WHO COMMITTED THE GENOCIDE

The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Also known as the Young Turks)

WHO LED THE GENOCIDE

Three figures from the CUP controlled the government: Mehmet Talaat, Minister of the Interior in 1915 and Grand Vizier (Prime Minister) in 1917; Ismail Enver, Minister of War; Ahmed Jemal, Minister of the Marine and Military Governor of Syria. This Young Turk triumvirate relied on other members of the CUP appointed to high government posts and assigned to military commands to carry out the Armenian Genocide

Ismail Enver

Mehmet Talaat

WHO WERE THE VICTIMS NUMBER OF DEATHS METHODS OF EXECUTION

The Ottoman Armenian

50%

1.5 million - 2,000,000 Of the Ottoman Armenian population

The vast majority of Armenian civilians were either massacred immediately or deported to their deaths. Many were burned alive. In Trebizond province, 50,000 Armenians were drowned in the Black Sea. Many others suffered a similar fate along stretches of the River Euphrates and its tributaries. 01. 02. 03. 04.

Death using automatic weapon and machine guns. By fire Drowning Starvation

SOURCES :

1. McCarthy, Justin.(1983) Muslims and Minorities: The Population of Ottoman Anatolia and the End of the Empire 2. Totten and Parsons. (1998) Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views 3. The Imperial War Museum, London. (Examples of genocide cases) 4. The CIA World Factbook


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

CHAPTER 02 / CASE NO.2 / THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE

TIMELINE / THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE

1909 APRIL 15-25

1909 1923

30,000 Armenians are slaughtered in Adana, Tarsus and other towns of Cilicia. The Turkish army bears direct responsibility, but the Armenian community is willing to consider it as an isolated incident.

34

1913 JANUARY 9 In Turkey, the triumvirate of Enver, Talaat and Jemal Pasha head the government.

1914 FEBRUARY 8 Under the combined influence of Russia and Great Britain, the Turkish authorities sign the Armenian Reform Project and agree to take certain measures in favour of the Armenian population. The promised measures are not implemented.

1915 JANUARY

1915 FEBRUARY 13

1915 FEBRUARY 26

1915 APRIL 15

1915 APRIL 20

Enver is disastrously defeated in Sarikamish at the hands of Russian troops, marking a failure of his Pan-Turanian plans. The Turkish authorities decree the demobilisation of the Armenians. The Armenian soldiers in the Turkish army are marched and killed in cold blood.

Two Armenian deputies of the Ottoman Assembly submit a note concerning the massacres and executions of several such battalions.

War Minister Enver convenes 75 top ranking Ittihadists. This secret meeting finalises the the plan to carry out a genocide. Evidence indicates that the decision to carry out the Genocide was made some years earlier.

Talaat, Enver and Nazem send a secret order to the local governments for the removal and extermination of Armenians in Turkey.

At the news of the massacres, the mostly Armenian population of Van takes to the barricades. The Turkish authorities will use this incident on the Caucasian front and the resistance of the Armenians as a pretext to justify the measures of deportation they are about to inflict.

1915 APRIL 20MAY 19

1915 APRIL 24

1915 MAY 15

1915 JUNE 1

1915 JUNE 15

1915 JUNE 24

1915 JUNE 25

1915 JUNE 26

1915 JULY 3

The remaining Armenians of Van try to defend themselves from the overwhelming Turkish forces.

800 Armenian leaders, writers and intellectuals are arrested in Constantinople and murdered. The barbaric Armenian genocide begins. This is the most important date for all Armenians today.

Turkish forces begin the process of removal and deportation of the Armenian population from villages in the vilayet of Erzerum.

12,000 Armenian soldiers in the Turkish army are massacred in Balu, vilayet of Diarbekir.

21 leaders of the Hnchukyan Party are hanged publicly in Constantinople.

Massacres and deportations of the inhabitants of Shabin Karahissar begin.

The removal and deportation of the Armenians of the city of Sivas begin.

The removal of the Armenian population of Kharput and Trebizond vilayets are commenced by the Turkish army.

The massacre of the Armenian population of Mush, Sassun and Bitlis vilayets begins.

1915 JULY 10

1915 JULY 27

1915 JULY 28

1915 JULY 29

1915 AUGUST 16

1915 AUGUST 10- 19

The Armenian population of Malatia is deported.

The Armenian population of Cilicia and Antioch is deported.

The removal of the Armenian population of the Cilician cities, Aintab and Qilise, is carried out.

Deportations begin from Aintab and Kilisse, in Cilicia.

Deportations begin from Marash in Cilicia and Konia in western Asia Minor.

Removal and deportations begin of Armenians from Smyrna (Nikodemia), Brusa, Bartizak, Adabazar and surrounding areas.

1918 MARCH

1918 OCTOBER

1918 OCTOBER 30

1918 NOVEMBER

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is signed between Russia and Turkey after Russia's withdrawal brought about by the Russian Revolution. Turkish invasion of Russian Armenia causes more killings of Armenians. Fighting continues on the Caucasian front involving Armenian units.

US Congressman Edward Little presents a resolution to the Congress advocating that the "Armenian people have the right to be free and independent and be the masters of the Christian culture for which their sons had been sacrificed".

The armistice of Moudros ends the war between the Allies and Turkey. Global estimates of the campaign of extermination: close to 1,500,000 Armenians dead.

Defeated Turkey recognizes the small Armenian Republic whose territory consists only of a small fraction of former Armenian lands. Turkey also cedes to it the vilayets of Kars and Ardahan the following year.

1917 DECEMBER 4 Speaking in the Congress of the US, President Wilson states "We hope to provide the right and opportunity for people living in the Turkish Empire to make their lives safe and their fate secure from aggression and injustice, orders of foreign courts and parties.

1919 MAY 22

1919 JULY 5

By the order of Sultan Mahmed VI it was ordered that the First, Second and Third Military Tribunals prosecute the leaders of the "Young Turks" and other implicated members of the government.

A Military Tribunal finds a number of Turkish leaders guilty of carnages in the Yozkhat area. The Court finds that Kemal Bey ordered the Moslems to eliminate all the Armenian population, and sentences him to death.

In Constantinople, the trial begins of members of the Union and Progress Party, and other leaders of the Turkish government. The trial continues until June 26, 1919.

The special Military Court tries the organizers of deportations and slaughter in Trebizond and punishes eight as criminals.

Following the trial of the Unionists, Talaat, Enver Pasha Djemal Pasha are sentenced to death.

1923 APRIL 25

1923 SEPTEMBER

Unrepentant Turkey enacts the law of "abandoned property" which allows for the confiscation of all property abandoned by Armenians absent from the country, regardless of the date, reason or conditions of their departure.

Turkey adopts a law which prohibits the return of Armenians who left Cilicia or any of the eastern vilayets whether or not they had left voluntarily.

ARMENIA, 1905 / UN GENOCIDE EXEMPLAIRE / JEAN MARIE CARZOU, 1969

In Stockholm, a large meeting takes place dedicated to repudiation of the mass murder of Armenians. The members of the meeting deplore the insensitivity of Sweden towards Armenians.

1919 APRIL 27

1922 SEPTEMBER

Kemal Ataturk's forces seize and set fire to the city of Smyrna and engage in a rampage, killing Greeks and Armenians. 150,000 perish.

1917 MARCH 29

1919 APRIL 8

1921 MAY 16 The independent Armenian Republic, in existence since May 28, 1918, is tranformed into the Soviet Socialist Republic of Armenia.

Talaat, Minister of the Interior, sends a cable to the Aleppo Prefecture, ordering the extermination of children at military installations.

1919 JANUARY 8

1920 FEBRUARY

French forces in postwar occupation of Cilicia unexpectedly withdraw. Turks take advantage of the opportunity and kill 30,000 Armenians.

1916 MARCH 7


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

CASE NO.

02

CHAPTER 02 / CASE NO.2 / THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE

36


MAY 1915. ARMENIANS BEING MARCHED OUT OF HARPUT UNDER ARMED GUARD / THE BURNING TIGRIS / PETER BALAKIAN, 2003

37


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

CASE NO.

02 IN BRIEF

In 1915 and 1916 between 600,000 and 1.5 million Ottoman Armenians perished as a result of a conscious programme of elimination implemented by the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) regime then in control of the Ottoman Empire. The killing took various forms, but central to it were a series of death marches into the Syrian desert, carried out by Turkish army, para-military and special units. Most scholars consider these events to have constituted a genocide. The Turkish government still disputes the use of the term ‘genocide’ to describe the events .

CHAPTER 02 / CASE NO.2 / THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE

38


41 39

COURTESY OF THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, LONDON

THE VICTIMS OF THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE / UN GENOCIDE EXEMPLAIRE / JEAN MARIE CARZOU, 1969

THE ARMENIANS

LATE APRIL 1915

The Armenians are a distinct ethnoreligious group who continue to regard their two thousand-year-old ancestral heartlands on the plateau of Eastern Anatolia (approximately present-day Eastern Turkey) as their authentic national territory. Armenians were the first people in the world to adopt Christianity as a national religion. It continues to play a central role in their identity. A distinct Armenian state survived in various guises through to the late 14th century. With the expansion of the Ottoman Empire, however, Armenians, alongside other non-Muslims, had to adjust to the role of second-class citizens, albeit with considerable religious freedom and civic autonomy. This aspect of Ottoman tolerance also enabled some Armenians to develop an important trading or commercial role throughout and beyond the Empire.

As troops from Britain, France and their Empires landed on the Gallipoli peninsula, up the coast in the Ottoman capital, Constantinople, more than 300 Armenian intellectuals and politicians were rounded up. Most were later killed. The possibility of Constantinople falling to the Allies, leading in turn to the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, seems to have been a critical factor in the launching of the genocide.

themselves in the hills until they attracted the attention of a passing French warship which transported them to safety. The major Armenian centre of Van endured a harrowing siege which was finally relieved by advancing Russian troops. Many of the 300,000 survivors, however, died of exposure in the subsequent retreat into Russia. Other towns which resisted were even less fortunate: Urfa (Edessa), for instance, was reduced to rubble by Turkish artillery and its defenders massacred.

HOW WAS THE GENOCIDE CARRIED OUT ?

WERE THE MASSACRES REPORTED OUTSIDE TURKEY ?

Armenian soldiers serving in the Turkish army were formed into slave labour squads and later shot. The vast majority of Armenian civilians were either massacred immediately or deported to their deaths. The parts of Eastern Anatolia most densely populated with Armenians were the first target. Many were burned alive. In Trebizond province, 50,000 Armenians were drowned in the Black Sea. Many others suffered a similar fate along stretches of the River Euphrates and its tributaries.

There were extensive newspaper reports of the massacres in Europe and the US. Protests were issued by both the Allies and the Germans. But to no effect. Partly as a result of the efforts of the American Ambassador in Constantinople, Henry Morgenthau, the plight of Armenian women and children in the desert made the headlines in American newspapers and a humanitarian effort was launched which saved thousands of lives.

By the late 19th century the Ottoman Empire was in decline and facing challenges from several of its subject peoples who were developing their own national consciousness. One of these was the Armenians. Great Power interference was also an important factor in these developments. The Russian occupation of much of the six Armenian districts in the Russo-Turkish war of 1877–8 provided a major spur to Armenian national ambitions for autonomy in the Eastern Anatolian region. 1894–1896

A localised Armenian rebellion in the remote area of Sassun brought a backlash of state-organised persecution throughout the Ottoman Empire. An estimated 100– 200,000 Armenians were killed. Thousands fled the country. 1908

A coup led by military officers placed the CUP (Committee of Union and Progress, known in the West as the ‘Young Turks’) in power. Their vision of an exclusively Turkish state ended the relative multi-cultural tolerance of the Ottoman centuries and did not include the Armenians. 1914

The CUP took the Empire into the First World War on the side of Germany and Austria-Hungary who were fighting against Britain, France and Russia. The Armenian national parties were accused of collaborating with Russia, which in the winter of 1914–15 inflicted a humiliating military defeat on the Ottoman army in the Caucasus.

Elsewhere, male community leaders and intellectuals were killed before the remaining women, children and the elderly were formed into convoys and deported to the Syrian desert where they were told settlements had been prepared for them. Some were carried by train or wagon, but the majority were forced to walk, sometimes for months on end. The convoys rapidly turned into death marches as they were repeatedly attacked by governmentbacked Kurdish militias or special organisation units. The latter were often made up of criminals recently released for the explicit purpose of committing atrocities against the Armenians. Those Armenians who reached northern Syria were held in concentration camps where thousands more were burnt to death or died of starvation, exhaustion, disease and exposure. Armenian property was confiscated, churches and cultural monuments desecrated and Armenian place names altered. Many young Armenian women and children were ‘saved’ by Turks, Arabs and Kurds, often becoming concubines and slaves, as well as being forcibly converted to Islam. Of a pre-war Armenian population of approximately two million, between 600,000 and 1.5 million Armenians were killed. WAS THERE RESISTANCE ?

Few Armenians were able to resist. One example that stands out is that of the coastal village of Musa Dagh whose four thousand inhabitants defended

WHAT HAPPENED AT THE END OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR ?

With Turkey’s defeat an Armenian state was declared in 1919. Faced, however, with a Turkish military resurgence in Eastern Anatolia led by Kemal Ataturk, Armenian nationalists had to abandon their hopes for a ‘big’ state within Turkey, and as their only means of survival, accept instead what remained of their state on the Russian side of the border. In due course this former Russian territory was annexed by the Bolsheviks and Armenia became a Soviet republic, one tenth of its original size. WERE THE PERPETRATORS BROUGHT TO JUSTICE ?

The defeat of the Central Powers in 1918, and the collapse of the CUP regime, raised the possibility of punishing those responsible. The new Ottoman government made some arrests and the CUP leaders were condemned to death, although most had already fled abroad. In principle, the victorious Allied powers supported justice for the Armenians and an independent Armenian state. However, when the Empire was finally dissolved and a new Turkish republic given international recognition in 1923, the new state was absolved of responsibility for the CUP policies. The question of an independent Armenia on what had previously been Ottoman territory was conveniently buried.

CONTINUING CONTROVERSY

Immediately after the First World War there were partial admissions from some Turkish writers that the Armenians had suffered a severe wrongdoing, but with the founding of the new republic in 1923, the event was downplayed. In 1965, the fiftieth anniversary of the massacres saw the dedication of several memorials, the beginning of an outpouring of memoirs and the start of what would become a strenuously fought campaign to recognise what had happened as a genocide. The insistence of Armenians, and most academics, that the killings of 1915 constitute a genocide is fiercely opposed by Turkey. The disagreement has produced violence by Armenians against Turkish government officials, and continuing opposition from Turkey to public commemorations and official recognitions of what happened.


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

38 40

CHAPTER 02 / CASE NO.2 / THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE

CASE NO.

02

01. CITY OF MARASH FROM THE HILLSIDE / BEGINNING AGAIN AT ARARAT / M. ELLIOT, 1924 02. EXECUTION OF ARMENIANS IN A PUBLIC SQUARE / THE BURNING TIGRIS / PETER BALAKIAN, 2003

IN BRIEF

In 1915 and 1916 between 600,000 and 1.5 million Ottoman Armenians perished as a result of a conscious programme of elimination implemented by the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) regime then in control of the Ottoman Empire. The killing took various forms, but central to it were a series of death marches into the Syrian desert, carried out by Turkish army, para-military and special units. Most scholars consider these events to have constituted a genocide. The Turkish government still disputes the use of the term ‘genocide’ to describe the events .

01

02


41

COURTESY OF THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, LONDON

THE ARMENIANS

LATE APRIL 1915

The Armenians are a distinct ethnoreligious group who continue to regard their two thousand-year-old ancestral heartlands on the plateau of Eastern Anatolia (approximately present-day Eastern Turkey) as their authentic national territory. Armenians were the first people in the world to adopt Christianity as a national religion. It continues to play a central role in their identity. A distinct Armenian state survived in various guises through to the late 14th century. With the expansion of the Ottoman Empire, however, Armenians, alongside other non-Muslims, had to adjust to the role of second-class citizens, albeit with considerable religious freedom and civic autonomy. This aspect of Ottoman tolerance also enabled some Armenians to develop an important trading or commercial role throughout and beyond the Empire.

As troops from Britain, France and their Empires landed on the Gallipoli peninsula, up the coast in the Ottoman capital, Constantinople, more than 300 Armenian intellectuals and politicians were rounded up. Most were later killed. The possibility of Constantinople falling to the Allies, leading in turn to the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, seems to have been a critical factor in the launching of the genocide.

themselves in the hills until they attracted the attention of a passing French warship which transported them to safety. The major Armenian centre of Van endured a harrowing siege which was finally relieved by advancing Russian troops. Many of the 300,000 survivors, however, died of exposure in the subsequent retreat into Russia. Other towns which resisted were even less fortunate: Urfa (Edessa), for instance, was reduced to rubble by Turkish artillery and its defenders massacred.

HOW WAS THE GENOCIDE CARRIED OUT ?

WERE THE MASSACRES REPORTED OUTSIDE TURKEY ?

Armenian soldiers serving in the Turkish army were formed into slave labour squads and later shot. The vast majority of Armenian civilians were either massacred immediately or deported to their deaths. The parts of Eastern Anatolia most densely populated with Armenians were the first target. Many were burned alive. In Trebizond province, 50,000 Armenians were drowned in the Black Sea. Many others suffered a similar fate along stretches of the River Euphrates and its tributaries.

There were extensive newspaper reports of the massacres in Europe and the US. Protests were issued by both the Allies and the Germans. But to no effect. Partly as a result of the efforts of the American Ambassador in Constantinople, Henry Morgenthau, the plight of Armenian women and children in the desert made the headlines in American newspapers and a humanitarian effort was launched which saved thousands of lives.

By the late 19th century the Ottoman Empire was in decline and facing challenges from several of its subject peoples who were developing their own national consciousness. One of these was the Armenians. Great Power interference was also an important factor in these developments. The Russian occupation of much of the six Armenian districts in the Russo-Turkish war of 1877–8 provided a major spur to Armenian national ambitions for autonomy in the Eastern Anatolian region. 1894–1896

A localised Armenian rebellion in the remote area of Sassun brought a backlash of state-organised persecution throughout the Ottoman Empire. An estimated 100– 200,000 Armenians were killed. Thousands fled the country. 1908

A coup led by military officers placed the CUP (Committee of Union and Progress, known in the West as the ‘Young Turks’) in power. Their vision of an exclusively Turkish state ended the relative multi-cultural tolerance of the Ottoman centuries and did not include the Armenians. 1914

The CUP took the Empire into the First World War on the side of Germany and Austria-Hungary who were fighting against Britain, France and Russia. The Armenian national parties were accused of collaborating with Russia, which in the winter of 1914–15 inflicted a humiliating military defeat on the Ottoman army in the Caucasus.

Elsewhere, male community leaders and intellectuals were killed before the remaining women, children and the elderly were formed into convoys and deported to the Syrian desert where they were told settlements had been prepared for them. Some were carried by train or wagon, but the majority were forced to walk, sometimes for months on end. The convoys rapidly turned into death marches as they were repeatedly attacked by governmentbacked Kurdish militias or special organisation units. The latter were often made up of criminals recently released for the explicit purpose of committing atrocities against the Armenians. Those Armenians who reached northern Syria were held in concentration camps where thousands more were burnt to death or died of starvation, exhaustion, disease and exposure. Armenian property was confiscated, churches and cultural monuments desecrated and Armenian place names altered. Many young Armenian women and children were ‘saved’ by Turks, Arabs and Kurds, often becoming concubines and slaves, as well as being forcibly converted to Islam. Of a pre-war Armenian population of approximately two million, between 600,000 and 1.5 million Armenians were killed. WAS THERE RESISTANCE ?

Few Armenians were able to resist. One example that stands out is that of the coastal village of Musa Dagh whose four thousand inhabitants defended

WHAT HAPPENED AT THE END OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR ?

With Turkey’s defeat an Armenian state was declared in 1919. Faced, however, with a Turkish military resurgence in Eastern Anatolia led by Kemal Ataturk, Armenian nationalists had to abandon their hopes for a ‘big’ state within Turkey, and as their only means of survival, accept instead what remained of their state on the Russian side of the border. In due course this former Russian territory was annexed by the Bolsheviks and Armenia became a Soviet republic, one tenth of its original size. WERE THE PERPETRATORS BROUGHT TO JUSTICE ?

The defeat of the Central Powers in 1918, and the collapse of the CUP regime, raised the possibility of punishing those responsible. The new Ottoman government made some arrests and the CUP leaders were condemned to death, although most had already fled abroad. In principle, the victorious Allied powers supported justice for the Armenians and an independent Armenian state. However, when the Empire was finally dissolved and a new Turkish republic given international recognition in 1923, the new state was absolved of responsibility for the CUP policies. The question of an independent Armenia on what had previously been Ottoman territory was conveniently buried.

CONTINUING CONTROVERSY

Immediately after the First World War there were partial admissions from some Turkish writers that the Armenians had suffered a severe wrongdoing, but with the founding of the new republic in 1923, the event was downplayed. In 1965, the fiftieth anniversary of the massacres saw the dedication of several memorials, the beginning of an outpouring of memoirs and the start of what would become a strenuously fought campaign to recognise what had happened as a genocide. The insistence of Armenians, and most academics, that the killings of 1915 constitute a genocide is fiercely opposed by Turkey. The disagreement has produced violence by Armenians against Turkish government officials, and continuing opposition from Turkey to public commemorations and official recognitions of what happened.


CASE NO.

03 1932 1933


MASS GRAVE IN THE CEMETERY IN GRAVE / THE AGONY OF A NATION / STEPHEN OLESKIW


The Holodomor* in Ukraine 1932 - 1933 MASS KILLINGS INCLUDING FAMINE AS A WEAPON OF GENOCIDAL MASS MURDER AND TOTAL ETHNIC CLEANSING

*

The literal definition of the word "Holodomor" is "Death by hunger" (Ukrainian)

STATISTICS

603,628 km2 (44th) 233,090 sq mi

AREA

Ukraine

FLAG

COAT OF ARMS

POPULATION

UKRAINIAN POPULATION 1932

ARMENIAN POPULATION TODAY

32,680,700

2,967,004 (July 2009 est.)[4]

ETHNIC DIVISIONS

Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001)

RELIGIONS

Ukrainian Orthodox - Kyiv Patriarchate 50.4%, Ukrainian Orthodox Moscow Patriarchate 26.1%, Ukrainian Greek Catholic 8%, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox 7.2%, Roman Catholic 2.2%, Protestant 2.2%, Jewish 0.6%, other 3.2% (2006 est.)

LANGUAGES

Ukrainian (official) 67%, Russian 24%, other 9% (includes small Romanian-, Polish-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities)

GENOCIDE WHO COMMITTED THE GENOCIDE

The Soviet Government

WHO LED THE GENOCIDE

Joseph Stalin (1878 - 1953) was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union’s Central Committee from 1922 until 1953. In the years following Lenin’s death, he became the leader of the Soviet Union.

Joseph Stalin

WHO WERE THE VICTIMS

NUMBER OF DEATHS

METHODS OF EXECUTION

- peasant farmers known as ‘kulaks’ who resisted agricultural collectivisation - independent national groups such as Ukrainians and North Caucasian peoples who were deliberately targeted through famine.

25%

7,000,000 Of the rural population in Ukraine

01. Death using automatic weapon and machine guns. 02. Starvation

SOURCES :

1. Totten and Parsons. (1998) Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views 2. The Imperial War Museum, London. (Examples of genocide cases) 3. The CIA World Factbook 4. Gregorovich, Andrew. Black Famine In Ukraine 1932-33


MASS GRAVE IN THE CEMETERY IN GRAVE / THE AGONY OF A NATION / STEPHEN OLESKIW


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

CHAPTER 2 / CASE NO.3 / THE HOLODOMOR IN UKRAINE

CASE NO.

03 IN BRIEF

It is now generally accepted that in 19321933 several million peasants-most of them Ukrainians living in Ukraine and the traditionally Cossack territories of the North Caucasus (now the Krasnodar, Stavropol, and Rostov on the Don regions of the Russian Federation)-starved to death because the government of the Soviet Union seized with unprecedented force and thoroughness the 1932 crop and foodstuffs from the agricultural population. After over half a century of denial, in January 1990 the Communist Party of Ukraine adopted a special resolution admitting that the Ukrainian Famine had indeed occurred, cost millions of lives, had been artificially brought about by official actions, and that Stalin and his associates bore criminal responsibility for those actions. JJAMES E. MACE / CENTURY OF GENOCIDE , 1998

UKRAINE FAMINE / THE AGONY OF A NATION / STEPHEN OLESKIW , 1983

46


DEATH OF ONE MAN IS A TRAGEDY. DEATH OF A MILLION IS A STATISTIC

COURTESY OF THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, LONDON

47

JOSEPH STALIN

UKRAINE: FAMINE AS A WEAPON OF GENOCIDAL MASS MURDER

Ukraine was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the eighteenth century and then forcibly integrated into the USSR as a Republic, following a failed bid for independence after the First World War. Soviet policy in the 1920s, nevertheless, acknowledged and to some extent fostered a Ukrainian sense of national autonomy. Stalin’s programme for ‘socialism in one country’, and with it for a complete reorientation of the economy from one of local agriculture to that of industry geared towards state strategic needs, changed all that. Ukraine was the historic breadbasket of Russia’s empire. In the late 1920s most of its free peasants were opposed to Stalin’s compulsory collectivisation, a key adjunct to the industrialisation programme. Collectivisation meant the abolition of private ownership of land and the concentration of the peasantry in statecontrolled ‘collective farms.’ WHO WERE THE VICTIMS?

- peasant farmers known as ‘kulaks’ who resisted agricultural collectivisation - independent national groups such as Ukrainians and North Caucasian peoples who were deliberately targeted through famine. ‘Kulaks’ – a term used initially to define a class of prosperous, entrepreneurial peasant – was now widened to include almost any peasant opposed to collectivisation. Vast numbers of Ukrainian peasants found themselves branded in this way. Between 1928 and 1932 an estimated ten to twelve million ‘kulak’ families were either shot, or deported, mainly to Siberia from all over the USSR. A third of these deportees died. By removing the kulaks, Stalin hoped to facilitate the forced collectivisation of all remaining peasants on the land. The state could then exert complete control over the supply of food by setting production quotas which each collective farm would have to meet. HOW DID THE FAMINE START?

In normal circumstances Ukraine produced around half of the Soviet Union’s grain. However, the upheaval of the new agricultural policy, of which the destruction of the ‘kulak class’ was a major part, combined with bad weather in 1932 to produce a particularly poor harvest. Despite this, it was announced that the full grain quotas would be demanded. The Ukrainian leadership tried to persuade the Soviet government in Moscow to lower these, but without success. When the quotas were not met, food seizures began. Seed grain, upon which the following year’s crop depended, was also taken. Most of the grain seized was sent to cities elsewhere in the USSR or exported in exchange for foreign

currency. From March 1933 the death rates began to soar. Those who resisted the forced seizure of their crops, or who attempted to steal food from fields or granaries were sentenced to long prison sentences or shot. People who tried to travel to Kiev or cities beyond Ukraine in order to find food were turned back. Officials who attempted to alleviate the suffering of the peasants were accused of sabotage and counter-revolutionary activity and risked arrest and imprisonment. The assault on the countryside was paralleled by that on Ukrainian cultural and intellectual life. Universities, theatres and publishing houses were closed and cathedrals and churches demolished. Scholars, writers and lawyers were executed. It has been estimated that of around 240 significant authors in Ukraine, more than 200 disappeared in this period. This policy of Ukrainian denationalisation continued through the 1930s. HOW MANY PEOPLE DIED?

Grain collection was halted in Ukraine in March 1933 and some army grain reserves were released to the peasants. By the end of May, deaths from starvation had virtually ceased. By then however, some five million people had died. In Ukraine, this amounted to one quarter of the rural population. A further two million died in other regions, at least one million of these in the North Caucasus. “I can't give an exact figure because no one was keeping count. All we knew was that people were dying in enormous numbers.” Nikita Khrushchev, Soviet leader 1958–1964. WHAT WERE THE REACTIONS IN THE REST OF THE SOVIET UNION AND IN THE WIDER WORLD?

No information about the famine in Ukraine was allowed to appear in the Soviet press, and people who referred to it were subject to arrest. The government ignored or denied any reports of the famine that leaked out of Ukraine and invited sympathetic western commentators, including George Bernard Shaw and Sidney and Beatrice Webb, on tours of model villages where all evidence of starvation had been removed. Despite these efforts, numerous accounts of the famine were published in Europe and America. Offers of food aid made as a result were rejected by the Soviet government.


CASE NO.

04 1939 1945


OTTO OHLENDORF AT THE NUREMBERG TRIALS / 1946

THERE WAS NO DISTINCTION MADE BETWEEN GYPSIES AND JEWS, THE SAME ORDER APPLIED TO BOTH.


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

CHAPTER 4 / CASE NO.4 / HOLOCAUST: THE GYPSIES

50


Holocaust: The Gypsies

DR. ROBERT RITTER IS TAKING BLOOD SAMPLE FROM A GYPSY, 1938 / GERMANY AND ITS GYPSIES / GILAD MARGALIT, 2002

1939 - 1945

I HAVE NOT COME INTO THIS WORLD TO MAKE MEN BETTER, BUT TO MAKE USE OF THEIR WEAKNESSES

GENOCIDE, INVASION ACCOMPANIED BY GENOCIDAL MASSACRES, ETHNIC CLEANSING, INTERNAL REPRESSION, MASS HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION

ADOLF HITLER 1941

STATISTICS

Estonia

Estonia 1,000

MAP / GYPSIES POPULATION IN EUROPE BEFORE WW2

Lithuania 1,000

Latvia

Latvia 5,000 Belarus

Germany Nether. 18,800 500 Germany

FLAG

Belgium Lux 500 200

France

France 40,000

Poland

Poland 20,000

Soviet Union 200,000

Ukraine

.

Italy

Austria Hungary 11,200 Hungary 100,000 Romania Romania . Yugoslavia 300,000 Bulgaria 100,000

Albania 20,000

Bulgaria 80,000

POPULATION

EUROPEAN GYPSY POPULATION

1939 TODAY (2007) 1.017.400 9,800,000

RELIGIONS

Christianity (Orthodoxy, Catholicism, Protestantism), Islam, Shaktism

LANGUAGES

Romani, languages of native region

GENOCIDE WHO COMMITTED THE GENOCIDE

The Nazi Party, under Adolf Hitler, came to power in Germany in 1933 and set about establishing a regime based on an extreme racial ideology. Measures were taken to remove so-called ‘undesirable elements’ from German society, including people with physical and mental disabilities, political and religious dissenters, Jews and Roma and Sinti (Gypsies)

WHO LED THE GENOCIDE

Adolf Hitler - Hitler was a military and political leader of Germany, 1933 - 1945, launched World War Two and bears responsibility for the deaths of millions. Hitler committed suicide in his bunker on 30 April 1945.

Adolf Hitler

Heinrich Himmler - Himmler was probably the second most powerful Nazi in Germany, right behind Hitler. He was the chief of police during the Nazi's reign in power and the head of the SS. Heinrich Himmler

Joseph Goebbels - Goebbels was Adolf Hitler's second best man. Goebbels, born in 1898, grew up to be a master of mass psychology, a skill that became an important aspect to the Nazis in their quest for power. During his life span, he was appointed the Reich Propaganda Director and the Minister of People's Enlightenment and Propaganda.

Joseph Goebbles

WHO WERE THE VICTIMS

NUMBER OF DEATHS

METHODS OF EXECUTION

Traditionally nomadic and originally from India, the ‘Gypsies’ (Sinti, Roma and other tribes) arrived in Europe in the fourteenth century and have been victims of prejudice and persecution ever since. The Nazis and their allies murdered the ‘Gypsies’ because they considered them ‘asocial’ (socially deviant) or believed that they threatened the racially pure German state.

25% 01. 02. 03. 04. 05.

250,000 Of all European Roma. One million Roma believed to have been living in Europe before the war.

Death by starvation Forced labour Mass executions Diseases Gas extermination

SOURCES :

1. Wikipedia / Romani People / http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romani_people 2. Totten and Parsons. (1998) Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views 3. The Imperial War Museum, London 4. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

51


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

CHAPTER 4 / CASE NO.4 / HOLOCAUST: THE GYPSIES

50


DR. ROBERT RITTER IS TAKING BLOOD SAMPLE FROM A GYPSY, 1938 / GERMANY AND ITS GYPSIES / GILAD MARGALIT, 2002

I HAVE NOT COME INTO THIS WORLD TO MAKE MEN BETTER, BUT TO MAKE USE OF THEIR WEAKNESSES ADOLF HITLER 1941

51


Traditionally nomadic and originally from India, the ‘Gypsies’ (Sinti, Roma and other tribes) arrived in Europe in the fourteenth century and have been victims of prejudice and persecution ever since. The Gypsies of Europe were registered, sterilized, ghettoized, and then deported to concentration and death camps by the Nazis. Approximately 250,000 to 500,000 Gypsies were murdered during the Holocaust - an event they call the Porajmos (the "Devouring".

IN BRIEF

04

CASE NO.

THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

In general, the German police deported Roma in the Greater German Reich to Auschwitz-Birkenau, where the camp authorities housed them in a special compound that was called the "Gypsy family camp." Some 23,000 Roma, Sinti and Lalleri were deported to Auschwitz altogether. In the so-called Gypsy compound, entire families lived together. SS medical researchers assigned to the Auschwitz complex, such as SS Captain Dr. Josef Mengele, received authorization to choose human subjects for pseudoscientific medical experiments from among the prisoners in the Auschwitz concentration camp complex. Mengele chose twins and dwarves, some of them from the Gypsy family camp, as subjects of his experiments.

In December 1942, Himmler ordered the deportation of all Roma from the so-called Greater German Reich. There were exceptions for certain categories, including people of “pure Gypsy blood” dating from ancient times, persons of Gypsy descent who were considered integrated into German society and therefore did not “behave like Gypsies,” and persons (and their families) who had distinguished themselves in German military service. At least 5,000 and perhaps as many as 15,000 persons fell under these exemptions, although local authorities often ignored the distinctions during roundups. Police authorities even seized and deported Roma soldiers serving in the German armed forces (Wehrmacht), while they were home on leave.

On September 21, 1939, Reinhard Heydrich, head of the Reich Security Main Office, met with Security Police (Sipo) and Security Service (SD) officials in Berlin. With German victory in the invasion of Poland assured, he intended to deport 30,000 German and Austrian Roma from the Greater German Reich to the Generalgouvernement (that part of German-occupied Poland not annexed directly to Germany). Governor General Hans Frank, the top civilian occupation official in the Generalgouvernement, foiled this plan when he refused to accept large numbers of Roma and Jews into the Generalgouvernement in the spring of 1940. German authorities did deport some Roma from the Greater German Reich to occupied Poland in 1940 and 1941. In May 1940, the SS and police deported approximately 2,500 Roma and Sinti, primarily residents of Hamburg and Bremen, to Lublin District in the Generalgouvernement. SS and police authorities incarcerated them in forced labor camps. The conditions under which they had to live and work proved to be lethal to many of them. The fate of the survivors is unknown; it is likely that the SS murdered those who were still alive in the gas chamber of Belzec, Sobibor, or Treblinka. In the autumn of 1941, German police authorities deported 5,007 Sinti and Lalleri Gypsies from Austria to the ghetto for Jews in Lodz, where they resided in a segregated section. Nearly half of the Roma died within the first months of their arrival, due to lack of adequate food, fuel, shelter, and medicines. German SS and police officials deported those who survived these dreadful conditions to the killing center at Chelmno in the first months of 1942. There, along with tens of thousands of Jewish residents of the Lodz ghetto, the Roma died in gas vans, poisoned by carbon monoxide gas. Intending to deport them from the so-called Greater German Reich in the near future, German authorities confined all Roma in so-called Gypsy camps (Zigeunerlager). With the suspension of deportations of Roma in 1940, these facilities became long-term holding pens. Marzahn in Berlin along with Lackenbach and Salzburg in Austria were among the worst of these camps. Hundreds of Roma died as a result of the horrendous conditions. Local Germans repeatedly complained about the camps, demanding the deportation of the Roma interned there in order to "safeguard” public morals, public health, and security. Local police used these complaints to appeal officially to Reichsführer-SS (SS chief) Heinrich Himmler for the resumption of deportations of Roma to the east.

GENOCIDE OF EUROPEAN ROMA (GYPSIES), 1939-1945 Among the groups the Nazi regime and its Axis partners singled out for persecution on so-called racial grounds were the Roma (Gypsies). Drawing support from many non-Nazi Germans who harbored social prejudice towards Roma, the Nazis judged Roma to be "racially inferior." The fate of Roma in some ways paralleled that of the Jews. Under the Nazi regime, German authorities subjected Roma to arbitrary internment, forced labor, and mass murder. German authorities murdered tens of thousands of Roma in the German-occupied territories of the Soviet Union and Serbia and thousands more in the killing centers at Auschwitz-Birkenau, Chelmno, Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka. The SS and police incarcerated Roma in the Bergen-Belsen, Sachsenhausen, Buchenwald, Dachau, Mauthausen, and Ravensbrück concentration camps. Both in the so-called Greater German Reich and in the so-called Generalgouvernement, German civilian authorities managed several forced-labor camps in which they incarcerated Roma.

CHAPTER 2 / CASE NO. 04 / HOLOCAUST : THE GYPSIES

In France, Vichy French authorities intensified restrictive measures against and harassment of Roma after the establishment of the collaborationist regime in 1940. In 1941 and 1942, French police interned at least 3,000 and possibly as many as 6,000 Roma, residents of both occupied France and unoccupied France. French authorities shipped relatively few of them to camps in Germany,

German military and SS-police units also shot possibly at least 30,000 Roma in the Baltic States and elsewhere in the occupied Soviet Union, where Einsatzgruppen and other mobile killing units killed Roma at the same time that they killed Jews and Communists. In occupied Serbia, the German authorities killed male Roma in shooting operations during 1941 and early 1942; then murdered the women and children in gas vans in 1942. The total number of Roma killed in Serbia will never be known. Estimates range between 1,000 and 12,000.

In German-occupied of Europe, the fate of Roma varied from country to country, depending on local circumstances. The German authorities generally interned Roma and deployed them as forced laborers in Germany or transported to Poland to be deployed at forced labor or to be killed. In contrast to German policy towards German and Austrian Jews, in which people of so-called mixed blood were exempted from deportation measures (though not from forced labor), the SS and police, after much waffling and confusion, decided that “Gypsies” of “pure blood” were harmless and that the “half-breeds,” regardless of the percentage of “mixture” of blood, were dangerous and hence deportable.

Approximately 3,500 adult and adolescent Roma were prisoners in other German concentration camp; medical researchers selected subjects from among the Roma incarcerated in Ravensbrück, Natzweiler-Struthof, and Sachsenhausen concentration camps for their experiments, either on site in the camps or at nearby institutes. Conditions in the Gypsy compound at Auschwitz-Birkenau were contributed to the spread of infectious disease and epidemics-typhus, smallpox, and dysentery--which severely reduced the camp population. In late March, the SS murdered approximately 1,700 Roma from the Bialystok region in the gas chambers; they had arrived a few days earlier and many, though by no means all, were ill. In May 1944, the camp leadership decided to murder the inhabitants of the Gypsy compound. The SS guards surrounded and sealed off the compound. When ordered to come out, the Roma refused, having been warned and having armed themselves with iron pipes, shovels, and other tools used for labor. The SS leaders chose not to confront the Roma directly and withdrew. After transferring as many as 3,000 Roma capable of work to Auschwitz I and other concentration camps in Germany in the late spring and early summer of 1944, the SS moved against the remaining 2,898 inmates on August 2. Most of the victims were ill, elderly men, women, and children. The camp staff killed virtually all in the gas chambers of Birkenau. A handful of children who had hidden during the operation were captured and killed in the following days. At least 19,000 of the 23,000 Roma sent to Auschwitz died there.

52

Only in late 1979 did the West German Federal Parliament identify the Nazi persecution of Roma as being racially motivated, creating eligibility for most Roma to apply for compensation for their suffering and loss under the Nazi regime. By this time, many of those who became eligible had already died.

After the war, discrimination against Roma continued throughout Central and Eastern Europe. The Federal Republic of Germany determined that all measures taken against Roma before 1943 were legitimate official measures against persons committing criminal acts, not the result of policy driven by racial prejudice. This decision effectively closed the door to restitution for thousands of Roma victims, who had been incarcerated, forcibly sterilized, and deported out of Germany for no specific crime. The postwar Bavarian criminal police took over the research files of the Nazi regime, including the registry of Roma who had resided in the Greater German Reich.

THE AFTERMATH

It is not known precisely how many Roma were killed in the Holocaust. While exact figures cannot be ascertained, historians estimate that the Germans and their allies killed around 25 percent of all European Roma. Of slightly less than one million Roma believed to have been living in Europe before the war, the Germans and their Axis partners killed up to 220,000.

The authorities of the so-called Independent State of Croatia, another Axis partner of Germany and run by the militant separatist and terrorist Ustasa organization, physically annihilated virtually the entire Roma population of the country, between 26,000 and 28,000 people. The concentration camp system of Jasenovac, run the Ustasa militia, claimed at least 8,000 lives of Roma, and possibly as many as 15,000.

such as Buchenwald, Dachau, and Ravensbrück. While the authorities in Romania, one of Germany's Axis partners, did not systematically annihilate the Roma population living on Romanian territory, Romanian military and police officials deported around 26,000 Roma, primarily from Bukovina and Bessarabia, but also from Moldavia and Bucharest, the capital, to Transnistria, a section of south western Ukraine placed under Romanian administration, in 1941 and 1942. Thousands of those deported died from disease, starvation, and brutal treatment.

COURTESY OF THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, LONDON


400 Gypsies are rounded up in Bavaria and transported to the Dachau concentration camp.

1941 OCTOBER-

5,000 Austrian Gypsies, including 2,600 children, deported to the Lodz Ghetto

Gypsies included in the Nuremberg Laws (Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor).

1941 FALL

Thousands of Gypsies murdered at Babi Yar.

Gypsies sterilized under the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring.

1940 OCTOBER

Deportation of Gypsies temporarily halted.

1936 JULY

1935 SEPTEMBER

1933 JULY

1933 1944

CHAPTER 2 / CHAPTER 04 / HOLOCAUST : THE GYPSIES

04

Einsatzgruppen D shoots 800 Gypsies in Simferopol (Crimea).

1941 DECEMBER

The surviving Gypsies within the Lodz Ghetto are deported to the Chelmno death camp and killed.

1942 JANUARY

Special concentration camps are created for Gypsies (Zigeunerlagers).

1937

Martin Bormann writes to Himmler against the special treatment of "pure" Gypsies.

1942 DECEMBER 3

In Germany, 1,500 Gypsy men are sent to Dachau and 440 Gypsy women are sent to Ravensbr端ck.

1938

Himmler gives the order for all German Gypsies to be sent to Auschwitz.

1942 DECEMBER 16

Himmler issues a decree on the Fight Against the Gypsy Menace which states that the Gypsy problem will be treated as a "matter of race."

1938 DECEMBER 8

02 / FRONT PAGE OF NAZI JOURNAL "NS RECHTSPIEGEL"

03

The Racial Hygiene and Population Biology Research Unit of the Ministry of Health at Berlin-Dahlem is established.

1936

01 / ADVERTISEMENT FOR THE "GYPSY CELLAR", 1933

02

TIMELINE / GYPSIES AND THE PORAJMOS

04

1900 - 2010

THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

RSHA announces the implementation of deporting Gypsies to Auschwitz.

1943 JANUARY 29

In Austria, a decree orders 2,000 to 3,000 Gypsies to be sent to concentration camps. .

1939 JUNE

Family camp for Gypsies constructed in Auschwitz II, section BIIe.

1943 FEBRUARY

Heydrich issues the Settlement Edict which prohibits Gypsies from leaving their homes or camping places.

1939 OCTOBER 17

03 / DOCUMENT ORDERING THE STERILIZATION OF A GYPSY WOMEN

First transport of Gypsies delivered to the Gypsy Camp in Auschwitz.

1943 FEBRUARY 26

Dr. Ritter reports that Gypsies have mixed with asocials and recommends to have them kept in labor camps and to stop their "breeding."

1940 JANUARY

Those Gypsies that are fit for work are selected in Auschwitz and sent to other camps.

1944 APRIL

1943 MARCH 29 Himmler orders all Dutch Gypsies to be sent to Auschwitz.

Deportations of Gypsies begins from the Reich to the Generalgouvernment.

1940 APRIL

A conference organized by Heydrich in Berlin decides to remove 30,000 Gypsies to Poland.

1940 JANUARY 30

04 / A MAP OF THE BURIAL SITE OF JEWS AND GYPSIES MURDERED NEAR BELGRADE IN 1941 / COURTESY OF YAD VASHEM, JERUSALEM

01

Zigeunernacht ("Night of the Gypsies"): All Gypsies who remained in Auschwitz were gassed.

1944 AUGUST 2-3

54


SIMMERING, AUSTRIA / A TRANSPORT OF GYPSIES LEAVING TOWN, APRIL 1938 / COURTESY OF YAD VASHEM, JERUSALEM

LODZ, POLAND / THE INTERIOR OF A HOME IN THE GYPSY CAMP IN THE GHETTO AFTER THE DEPORTATION OF ITS INHABITANTS / COURTESY OF YAD VASHEM, JERUSALEM


CASE NO.

05 O1

Watchtower

1939 1945

O2

Barbed Wire

O6

Camp Main Entrance

O3

Crematorium No. 2 Majdanek

O5

Gas Chamber Majdanek

O4

Camp Blocks


PRIMO LEVI. IF THIS IS A MAN, 1946

THIS IS HELL. TODAY, IN OUR TIMES, HELL MUST LOOK LIKE THIS


O1

Watchtower

O2

Barbed Wire

O6

Camp Main Entrance

O3

Crematorium No. 2 Majdanek

O5

Gas Chamber Majdanek

O4

Camp Blocks


1939 SEPTEMBER 17

Soviet troops invade eastern Poland. .

Adolf Hitler is appointed Chancellor of Germany a nation with a Jewish population of 566,000.

1939 SEPTEMBER 1

England and France declare war on Germany.

1940 NOVEMBER

The Krakow Ghetto is sealed off containing 70,000 Jews.

1941 SEPTEMBER 29-30

SS Einsatzgruppen murder 35,000 Jews from 33,771 Jews at Babi Yar Odessa shot. near Kiev.

1933 1945

1939 SEPTEMBER 1

Nazis invade Poland (Jewish pop. 3.35 million, the largest in Europe). Beginning of SS activity in Poland.

1940 NOVEMBER

Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia become Nazi Allies.

1941 SEPTEMBER 27-28

23,000 Jews killed at Kamenets-Podolsk, in the Ukraine.

1942 JUNE 4

June 4, 1942 Heydrich dies of his wounds.

1942 MAY

In occupied Poland, Sobibor extermination camp becomes operational.

The history place / www.historyplace. com

Nazis open Dachau camp, to be followed by Buchenwald in central Germany, Sachsenhausen near Berlin and Ravensbrück for women.

1933 JANUARY 30

TIMELINE / THE HOLOCAUST

SS report 97,000 persons have been "processed" in mobile gas vans.

1942 JUNE 5

1941 OCTOBER

The Warsaw Ghetto, containing over 400,000 Jews, is sealed off.

1940 NOVEMBER 15

1933 MARCH 22

CHAPTER 2 / CASE NO.05 / HOLOCAUST : THE JEWS

THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

1942 JUNE 16-17

12,887 Jews of Paris are rounded up and sent to Drancy. A total of 74,000 Jews, will eventually be transported to Auschwitz.

Beginning of deportation of Dutch Jews to Auschwitz.

Theresienstadt Ghetto is established near Prague. The Nazis will use it as a model ghetto for propaganda purposes.

1942 JUNE 14

SS Einsatzgruppe B reports a tally of 45,476 Jews killed.

1941 NOVEMBER 24

Nazis invade Yugoslavia (Jewish pop. 75,000) and Greece (Jewish pop. 77,000).

Nazis occupy Bulgaria (Jewish pop. 50,000).

1941 NOVEMBER

1941 APRIL 6

Evacuation of Jews from Vienna.

1939 OCTOBER 12

The Gestapo is born, created by Hermann Göring in the German state of Prussia.

1933 APRIL 26

1941 MARCH 2

Nazis and Soviets divide up Poland. Over two million Jews reside in Nazi controlled areas.

1939 SEPTEMBER 29

Nazis issue a decree defining a non-Aryan as "anyone descended from non-Aryan, especially Jewish.

1933 APRIL 11

Beginning of deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto to Treblinka. Also, beginning of the deportation of Belgian Jews to Auschwitz.

Himmler orders Operation Reinhard, mass deportations of Jews in Poland to extermination camps.

At Auschwitz, a second gas chamber, Bunker II. is made operational at Birkenau due to the number of Jews arriving.

1942 SEPTEMBER 9 Open pit burning of bodies begins at Auschwitz in place of burial.

The start of deportations of Croatian Jews to Auschwitz. Treblinka extermination camp opened in occupied Poland, east of Warsaw.

The start of deportation of Slovak Jews to Auschwitz.

1942 AUGUST

In occupied Poland, Belzec extermination camp becomes operational.

1942 MARCH 24

Ghettos established at Bialystok and Lvov.

Jews in Romania forced into Transnistria. By December, 70,000 perish.

1942 MARCH

1941 AUGUST

Nazis invade France (Jewish pop. 350,000), Belgium (Jewish pop. 65,000) and Holland (Jewish pop. 140,000)

1941 AUGUST

The Lodz Ghetto in occupied Poland is sealed off from the outside world with 230,000 Jews locked inside.

1940 MAY 10

The German Gestapo is placed above the law.

Nuremberg Race Laws against Jews decreed.

1940 APRIL 30

1936 FEBREBUARY 10

1935 SEPTEMBER 15

1942 JULY 23

SS Einsatzgruppe A reports a tally of 229,052 Jews killed. Wannsee Conference to coordinate the "Final Solution."

1942 JULY 22

1942 JANUARY 31

3,800 Jews killed during a pogrom by Lithuanians in Kovno.

1941 JULY 25-26

Nazis invade Denmark (Jewish pop. 8,000) and Norway (Jewish pop. 2,000).

1940 APRIL 9

Hitler receives a 90 percent 'Yes' vote from German voters approving his new powers.

1934 AUGUST 19

1942 JANUARY 20

In occupied Poland near Lublin, Majdanek concentration camp becomes operational..

1942 JULY 19

Mass killings of Jews using Zyklon-B begin at Auschwitz in Bunker I in Birkenau with the bodies being buried in mass graves.

1941 JANUARY

Ghettos established at Kovno, Minsk, Vitebsk and Zhitomer.

1941 JULY 21

First deportation of German Jews into occupied Poland.

Nazis choose the town of Oswiecim (Auschwitz) in Poland near Krakow as site of new concentration camp.

1941 JULY

1940 FEBRUARY 12

1942 JUNE 30

In occupied Poland, near Lodz, Chelmno extermination camp becomes operational.

1941 DECEMBER 8

Nazis invade the Soviet Union (Jewish pop. 3 million).

1941 JUNE 22

Yellow stars required to be worn by Polish Jews over age 10.

1940 JANUARY 25

German President von Hindenburg dies. Hitler becomes Führer.

The SS (Schutzstaffel) is made an independent organization from the SA.

The Night of Long Knives occurs as Hitler conduct a purge of the SA (storm trooper) leadership.

1939 NOVEMBER 23

1934 AUGUST 2

1934 JULY 20

1934 JUNE 30

Himmler orders all Jews in concentration camps in Germany to be sent to Auschwitz and Majdanek.

1942 OCTOBER 5

The start of deportation of French Jews to Auschwitz.

1942 MARCH 27

The first test use of Zyklon-B gas at Auschwitz.

1941 SEPTEMBER 3

Paris is occupied by the Nazis.

Mass killing of Jews from Mizocz Ghetto in the Ukraine.

1942 OCTOBER 14

April 1942 - First transports of Jews arrive at Majdanek.

1942 APRIL

The Vilna Ghetto is established containing 40,000 Jews.

1941 SEPTEMBER 6

Nazis invade Romania (Jewish pop. 34,000).

1940 OCTOBER 7

Kristallnacht - The Night of Broken Glass.

Nazi troops enter Austria, which has a population of 200,000 Jews, mainly living in Vienna.

1940 JUNE 14

1938 NOVEMBER 9-10

1938 MARCH 12-13

58


NUMBER OF DEATHS

METHODS OF EXECUTION

60%

01. 02. 03. 04. 05.

4. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

1944 NOVEMBER 8

1944 OCTOBER 30

Last use of gas chambers at Auschwitz.

1944 OCTOBER 28

The last transport of Jews to be gassed, 2,000 from Theresienstadt, arrives at Auschwitz.

1944 AUGUST 6

The last Jewish ghetto in Poland, Lodz, is liquidated with 60,000 Jews sent to Auschwitz.

2. Totten and Parsons. (1998) Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views

Jews in Rome rounded up, with over 1,000 sent to Auschwitz.

1. Wikipedia / Jews / http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews

Exterminations cease Germans occupy Rome, at Treblinka, after an after occupying northern estimated 870,000 deaths. and central Italy, containing in all about 35,000 Jews.

SOURCES :

The Bialystok Ghetto is liquidated.

3. The Imperial War Museum, London

6,000,000 Of total European Jewish population before the Holocaust

1943 AUGUST

The targeted groups included people with physical and mental disabilities, Roma and Sinti, the small black community in Germany and homosexuals. Jews were singled out as posing a particular threat. During the course of the Second World War the Nazis conquered most of Europe. Six million of the continent’s Jews were murdered. In total, some eleven million people are estimated to have been killed by the Nazis and their collaborators for racial and political reasons.

1943 AUGUST 16

Death by starvation Forced labour Mass executions Diseases Gas extermination

Joseph Goebbles

Joseph Goebbels - Goebbels was Adolf Hitler's second best man. Goebbels, born in 1898, grew up to be a master of mass psychology, a skill that became an important aspect to the Nazis in their quest for power. During his life span, he was appointed the Reich Propaganda Director and the Minister of People's Enlightenment and Propaganda.

Heinrich Himmler - Himmler was probably the second most powerful Nazi force in Germany, right behind Hitler. He was the chief of police during the Nazi's reign in power and the head man of the SS.

Soviets liberate Budapest, freeing over 80,000 Jews.

The Nazis conduct death marches of concentration camp inmates away from outlying areas. Liberation of Warsaw by the Soviets.

1945 APRIL 29 U.S. 7th Army liberates Dachau.

1945 JANUARY 27 Soviet troops liberate Auschwitz. By this time, an estimated 2,000,000 persons have been murdered there.

Hitler commits suicide in his Berlin bunker.

1945 APRIL 30

Opening of the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal.

1945 NOVEMBER 20

Jews from Hungary arrive at Auschwitz. By June, - half of the Jews in Hungary - arrive at Auschwitz.

Bulgaria 50,000

Beginning of deportation of Jews from Hungary to Auschwitz.

1944 MAY 16

Soviet Union 2,525,000

1945 JANUARY 17

First transports of Jews from Athens to Auschwitz, totaling 5,200

Nazis occupy Hungary (Jewish pop. 725,000).

1944 MAY 15

Estonia 5,000

1945 JANUARY 6

Adolf Hitler - Hitler was a military and political leader of Germany 1933 - 1945, launched World War Two and bears responsibility for the deaths of millions. Hitler committed suicide in his bunker on 30 April 1945. 1944 APRIL 14

Latvia

1945

WHO LED THE GENOCIDE

1944 MARCH 19

Latvia 95,000

Auschwitz-Birkenau records its highestever daily number of persons gassed and at just over 9,000.

1944 JUNE

Exterminations at Chelmno cease. In all, Chelmno will total 300,000 deaths. Estonia

Nazis force 25,000 Jews to walk 100 miles from Budapest to Austria border, ending at Mauthausen.

GENOCIDE

The first transport of Jews from Vienna arrives at Auschwitz.

2002 1,558,500 Greece 100,000

Nazis carry out Operation Harvest Festival in occupied Poland, killing 42,000 Jews.

Albania 200

Belarus

The Danish Underground helps transport 7,220 Danish Jews to safety in Sweden by sea.

Italy 48,000

1943 DECEMBER 2

Ukraine

1943 NOVEMBER 3

Czech. 250,000 Austria Hungary 250,000 Hungary 445,000 Romania Romania . Yugoslavia 980,000 Bulgaria 70,000

1943 OCTOBER

Italy

Poland 3,000,000

1943 OCTOBER 16

.

Poland

1943 SEPTEMBER 11

Lithuania 155,000

Nazis declare Berlin to be Judenfrei (cleansed of Jews).

STATISTICS

Bulgaria states opposition to deportation of its Jews.

1943 APRIL 9

Soviet troops liberate first concentration camp at Majdanek where over 360,000 had been murdered.

1944 JULY 24

Newly built gas chamber opens at Auschwitz. With its completion, the four crematories have a daily capacity of 4,756 bodies.

1943 JUNE 25

1939 - 1945

The Krakow Ghetto is liquidated.

1943 MAY 19

GENOCIDE, INVASION ACCOMPANIED BY GENOCIDAL MASSACRES, ETHNIC CLEANSING, INTERNAL REPRESSION, MASS HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION

The start of deportations of Jews from Greece to Auschwitz, lasting until August, totaling 49,900 persons.

Yiddish, Hebrew, languages of native region

First resistance by Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto.

LANGUAGES 1943 MARCH 17

Judaism

The number of Jews killed by SS Einsatzgruppen passes one million.

The Nazi Party, under Adolf Hitler, came to power in Germany in 1933 and set about establishing a regime based on an extreme racial ideology. Measures were taken to remove so-called ‘undesirable elements’ from German society, including people with physical and mental disabilities, political and religious dissenters, Jews and Roma and Sinti (Gypsies) 1943 MARCH 14

WHO COMMITTED THE GENOCIDE

1943 MARCH

RELIGIONS

1943 JANUARY 18

1933 9,500,000

1943

Belgium Lux. 60,000 2,200

Exterminations at Belzec cease after an estimated 600,000 Jews have been murdered.

Germany Nether. 565,000 160,000Germany

The first transport of Jews from Germany arrives at Auschwitz.

MAP / JEWISH POPULATION IN EUROPE BEFORE WW2 (1933)

The mass killing of 170,000 Jews in the area of Bialystok.

WHO WERE THE VICTIMS

The first transport from Theresienstadt arrives at Auschwitz.

Heinrich Himmler

Deportations of Jews from Norway to Auschwitz begin.

Adolf Hitler

1942 DECEMBER

JEWISH POPULATION 1950 3,500,000

1942 DECEMBER 10

Switz. 18,000

1942 NOVEMBER

40,000

1942 OCTOBER 28

France France

1942 OCTOBER 25

Holocaust: The Jews


1939 SEPTEMBER 17

Soviet troops invade eastern Poland. .

Adolf Hitler is appointed Chancellor of Germany a nation with a Jewish population of 566,000.

1939 SEPTEMBER 1

England and France declare war on Germany.

1940 NOVEMBER

The Krakow Ghetto is sealed off containing 70,000 Jews.

1941 SEPTEMBER 29-30

SS Einsatzgruppen murder 35,000 Jews from 33,771 Jews at Babi Yar Odessa shot. near Kiev.

1933 1945

1939 SEPTEMBER 1

Nazis invade Poland (Jewish pop. 3.35 million, the largest in Europe). Beginning of SS activity in Poland.

1940 NOVEMBER

Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia become Nazi Allies.

1941 SEPTEMBER 27-28

23,000 Jews killed at Kamenets-Podolsk, in the Ukraine.

1942 JUNE 4

June 4, 1942 Heydrich dies of his wounds.

1942 MAY

In occupied Poland, Sobibor extermination camp becomes operational.

The history place / www.historyplace. com

Nazis open Dachau camp, to be followed by Buchenwald in central Germany, Sachsenhausen near Berlin and Ravensbrück for women.

1933 JANUARY 30

TIMELINE / THE HOLOCAUST

SS report 97,000 persons have been "processed" in mobile gas vans.

1942 JUNE 5

1941 OCTOBER

The Warsaw Ghetto, containing over 400,000 Jews, is sealed off.

1940 NOVEMBER 15

1933 MARCH 22

CHAPTER 2 / CASE NO.05 / HOLOCAUST : THE JEWS

THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

1942 JUNE 16-17

12,887 Jews of Paris are rounded up and sent to Drancy. A total of 74,000 Jews, will eventually be transported to Auschwitz.

Beginning of deportation of Dutch Jews to Auschwitz.

Theresienstadt Ghetto is established near Prague. The Nazis will use it as a model ghetto for propaganda purposes.

1942 JUNE 14

SS Einsatzgruppe B reports a tally of 45,476 Jews killed.

1941 NOVEMBER 24

Nazis invade Yugoslavia (Jewish pop. 75,000) and Greece (Jewish pop. 77,000).

Nazis occupy Bulgaria (Jewish pop. 50,000).

1941 NOVEMBER

1941 APRIL 6

Evacuation of Jews from Vienna.

1939 OCTOBER 12

The Gestapo is born, created by Hermann Göring in the German state of Prussia.

1933 APRIL 26

1941 MARCH 2

Nazis and Soviets divide up Poland. Over two million Jews reside in Nazi controlled areas.

1939 SEPTEMBER 29

Nazis issue a decree defining a non-Aryan as "anyone descended from non-Aryan, especially Jewish.

1933 APRIL 11

Beginning of deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto to Treblinka. Also, beginning of the deportation of Belgian Jews to Auschwitz.

Himmler orders Operation Reinhard, mass deportations of Jews in Poland to extermination camps.

At Auschwitz, a second gas chamber, Bunker II. is made operational at Birkenau due to the number of Jews arriving.

1942 SEPTEMBER 9 Open pit burning of bodies begins at Auschwitz in place of burial.

The start of deportations of Croatian Jews to Auschwitz. Treblinka extermination camp opened in occupied Poland, east of Warsaw.

The start of deportation of Slovak Jews to Auschwitz.

1942 AUGUST

In occupied Poland, Belzec extermination camp becomes operational.

1942 MARCH 24

Ghettos established at Bialystok and Lvov.

Jews in Romania forced into Transnistria. By December, 70,000 perish.

1942 MARCH

1941 AUGUST

Nazis invade France (Jewish pop. 350,000), Belgium (Jewish pop. 65,000) and Holland (Jewish pop. 140,000)

1941 AUGUST

The Lodz Ghetto in occupied Poland is sealed off from the outside world with 230,000 Jews locked inside.

1940 MAY 10

The German Gestapo is placed above the law.

Nuremberg Race Laws against Jews decreed.

1940 APRIL 30

1936 FEBREBUARY 10

1935 SEPTEMBER 15

1942 JULY 23

SS Einsatzgruppe A reports a tally of 229,052 Jews killed. Wannsee Conference to coordinate the "Final Solution."

1942 JULY 22

1942 JANUARY 31

3,800 Jews killed during a pogrom by Lithuanians in Kovno.

1941 JULY 25-26

Nazis invade Denmark (Jewish pop. 8,000) and Norway (Jewish pop. 2,000).

1940 APRIL 9

Hitler receives a 90 percent 'Yes' vote from German voters approving his new powers.

1934 AUGUST 19

1942 JANUARY 20

In occupied Poland near Lublin, Majdanek concentration camp becomes operational..

1942 JULY 19

Mass killings of Jews using Zyklon-B begin at Auschwitz in Bunker I in Birkenau with the bodies being buried in mass graves.

1941 JANUARY

Ghettos established at Kovno, Minsk, Vitebsk and Zhitomer.

1941 JULY 21

First deportation of German Jews into occupied Poland.

Nazis choose the town of Oswiecim (Auschwitz) in Poland near Krakow as site of new concentration camp.

1941 JULY

1940 FEBRUARY 12

1942 JUNE 30

In occupied Poland, near Lodz, Chelmno extermination camp becomes operational.

1941 DECEMBER 8

Nazis invade the Soviet Union (Jewish pop. 3 million).

1941 JUNE 22

Yellow stars required to be worn by Polish Jews over age 10.

1940 JANUARY 25

German President von Hindenburg dies. Hitler becomes Führer.

The SS (Schutzstaffel) is made an independent organization from the SA.

The Night of Long Knives occurs as Hitler conduct a purge of the SA (storm trooper) leadership.

1939 NOVEMBER 23

1934 AUGUST 2

1934 JULY 20

1934 JUNE 30

Himmler orders all Jews in concentration camps in Germany to be sent to Auschwitz and Majdanek.

1942 OCTOBER 5

The start of deportation of French Jews to Auschwitz.

1942 MARCH 27

The first test use of Zyklon-B gas at Auschwitz.

1941 SEPTEMBER 3

Paris is occupied by the Nazis.

Mass killing of Jews from Mizocz Ghetto in the Ukraine.

1942 OCTOBER 14

April 1942 - First transports of Jews arrive at Majdanek.

1942 APRIL

The Vilna Ghetto is established containing 40,000 Jews.

1941 SEPTEMBER 6

Nazis invade Romania (Jewish pop. 34,000).

1940 OCTOBER 7

Kristallnacht - The Night of Broken Glass.

Nazi troops enter Austria, which has a population of 200,000 Jews, mainly living in Vienna.

1940 JUNE 14

1938 NOVEMBER 9-10

1938 MARCH 12-13

58


Jews in Rome rounded up, with over 1,000 sent to Auschwitz.

1944 NOVEMBER 8

Exterminations cease Germans occupy Rome, at Treblinka, after an after occupying northern estimated 870,000 deaths. and central Italy, containing in all about 35,000 Jews.

1944 OCTOBER 30

Last use of gas chambers at Auschwitz.

1943 AUGUST

1944 OCTOBER 28

The last transport of Jews to be gassed, 2,000 from Theresienstadt, arrives at Auschwitz.

The Bialystok Ghetto is liquidated.

1944 AUGUST 6

The last Jewish ghetto in Poland, Lodz, is liquidated with 60,000 Jews sent to Auschwitz.

1943 SEPTEMBER 11

Nazis force 25,000 Jews to walk 100 miles from Budapest to Austria border, ending at Mauthausen.

1943 OCTOBER 16

The first transport of Jews from Germany arrives at Auschwitz.

1943 AUGUST 16

The mass killing of 170,000 Jews in the area of Bialystok.

The first transport from Theresienstadt arrives at Auschwitz.

1942 DECEMBER 10

Deportations of Jews from Norway to Auschwitz begin.

1942 NOVEMBER

1942 OCTOBER 28

1942 OCTOBER 25

1945 JANUARY 6 Soviets liberate Budapest, freeing over 80,000 Jews.

The Nazis conduct death marches of concentration camp inmates away from outlying areas.

Nazis carry out Operation Harvest Festival in occupied Poland, killing 42,000 Jews.

Liberation of Warsaw by the Soviets.

1945 JANUARY 17

The first transport of Jews from Vienna arrives at Auschwitz.

1943 DECEMBER 2

First resistance by Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto.

The number of Jews killed by SS Einsatzgruppen passes one million.

1943 NOVEMBER 3

1943 JANUARY 18

1943

1945

The Danish Underground helps transport 7,220 Danish Jews to safety in Sweden by sea.

1943 OCTOBER

Exterminations at Belzec cease after an estimated 600,000 Jews have been murdered.

1942 DECEMBER

1945 APRIL 29 U.S. 7th Army liberates Dachau.

Soviet troops liberate Auschwitz. By this time, an estimated 2,000,000 persons have been murdered there.

First transports of Jews from Athens to Auschwitz, totaling 5,200

Nazis occupy Hungary (Jewish pop. 725,000).

1945 JANUARY 27

1944 APRIL 14

The Krakow Ghetto is liquidated.

1943 MARCH 14

1944 MARCH 19

The start of deportations of Jews from Greece to Auschwitz, lasting until August, totaling 49,900 persons.

1943 MARCH

Hitler commits suicide in his Berlin bunker.

1945 APRIL 30

Beginning of deportation of Jews from Hungary to Auschwitz.

1944 MAY 15

Bulgaria states opposition to deportation of its Jews.

1943 MARCH 17

Opening of the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal.

1945 NOVEMBER 20

Jews from Hungary arrive at Auschwitz. By June, - half of the Jews in Hungary - arrive at Auschwitz.

1944 MAY 16

Nazis declare Berlin to be Judenfrei (cleansed of Jews).

1943 MAY 19

Auschwitz-Birkenau records its highestever daily number of persons gassed and at just over 9,000.

1944 JUNE

Exterminations at Chelmno cease. In all, Chelmno will total 300,000 deaths.

1943 APRIL 9

Soviet troops liberate first concentration camp at Majdanek where over 360,000 had been murdered.

1944 JULY 24

Newly built gas chamber opens at Auschwitz. With its completion, the four crematories have a daily capacity of 4,756 bodies.

1943 JUNE 25


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

60

CHAPTER 2 / CASE NO.05 / HOLOCAUST: THE JEWS

CASE NO.

05 IN BRIEF

THE BACKGROUND

The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January 1933, believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that the Jews, deemed "inferior," were an alien threat to the so-called German racial community.

The ideology and political programme of Nazism, the movement that seized power in Germany in 1933, was founded from the first on an abiding hatred of Jews as Untermenschen, or "sub-humans." They were accused of orchestrating the "stab in the back" that stripped Germany of victory in World War I and imposed upon it the humiliating surrender terms of the Versailles Treaty (1919). Exploiting deep anti-semitic strains in German and European culture, along with the catastrophic economic conditions of the late 1920's and early 1930's, the Nazis under their supreme leader or Führer, Adolf Hitler, succeeded in winning a plurality in 1932 parliamentary elections. In January 1933, Hitler was appointed Chancellor by the ageing German president, Paul von Hindenburg. When Hindenburg died in August 1934, Hitler took over as president, and set about using his police and paramilitaries to murder political opponents and ethnic "traitors" alike. Jews and "Bolsheviks" (communists) were at the top of the list for incarceration in the first "concentration camps."

During the era of the Holocaust, German authorities also targeted other groups because of their perceived "racial inferiority": Roma (Gypsies), the disabled, and some of the Slavic peoples (Poles, Russians, and others). Other groups were persecuted on political, ideological, and behavioral grounds, among them Communists, Socialists, Jehovah's Witnesses, and homosexuals.

THE HOLOCAUST

In 1933, the Jewish population of Europe stood at over nine million. Most European Jews lived in countries that Nazi Germany would occupy or influence during World War II. By 1945, the Germans and their collaborators killed nearly two out of every three European Jews as part of the "Final Solution," the Nazi policy to murder the Jews of Europe. Although Jews, whom the Nazis deemed a priority danger to Germany, were the primary victims of Nazi racism, other victims included some 200,000 Roma (Gypsies). At least 200,000 mentally or physically disabled patients, mainly Germans, living in institutional settings, were murdered in the so-called Euthanasia Program. As Nazi tyranny spread across Europe, the Germans and their collaborators persecuted and murdered millions of other people. Between two and three million Soviet prisoners of war were murdered or died of starvation, disease, neglect, or

maltreatment. The Germans targeted the non-Jewish Polish intelligentsia for killing, and deported millions of Polish and Soviet civilians for forced labor in Germany or in occupied Poland, where these individuals worked and often died under deplorable conditions. From the earliest years of the Nazi regime, German authorities persecuted homosexuals and others whose behavior did not match prescribed social norms. German police officials targeted thousands of political opponents (including Communists, Socialists, and trade unionists) and religious dissidents (such as Jehovah's Witnesses). Many of these individuals died as a result of incarceration and maltreatment. In the early years of the Nazi regime, the National Socialist government established concentration camps to detain real and imagined political and ideological opponents. Increasingly in the years before the outbreak of war, SS and police officials incarcerated Jews, Roma, and other victims of ethnic and racial hatred in these camps. To concentrate and monitor the Jewish population as well as to facilitate later deportation of the Jews, the Germans and their collaborators created ghettos, transit camps, and forced-labor camps for Jews during the war years. The German authorities also established numerous forced-labor camps, both in the so-called Greater German Reich and in Germanoccupied territory, for non-Jews whose labor the Germans sought to exploit. Following the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing units) and, later, militarized battalions of Order Police officials, moved behind German lines to carry out mass-murder operations against Jews, Roma, and Soviet state and Communist Party officials. German SS and police units, supported by units of the Wehrmacht and the Waffen SS, murdered more than a million Jewish men, women, and children, and hundreds of thousands of others. Between 1941 and 1944, Nazi German authorities deported millions of Jews from Germany, from occupied territories, and from the countries of many of its Axis allies to ghettos and to killing centers, often called extermination camps, where they were murdered in specially

developed gassing facilities. In the final months of the war, SS guards moved camp inmates by train or on forced marches, often called “death marches,” in an attempt to prevent the Allied liberation of large numbers of prisoners. As Allied forces moved across Europe in a series of offensives against Germany, they began to encounter and liberate concentration camp prisoners, as well as prisoners en route by forced march from one camp to another. The marches continued until May 7, 1945, the day the German armed forces surrendered unconditionally to the Allies. For the western Allies, World War II officially ended in Europe on the next day, May 8 (V-E Day), while Soviet forces announced their “Victory Day” on May 9, 1945. HOW MANY DIED?

Raul Hilberg writes that "The Jewish dead numbered more than 5 million: about 3 million in killing centers and other camps, 1.4 million in shooting operations, and more than 600,000 in ghettos." Hilberg adds that "Traditional estimates are closer to 6 million." (Hilberg, "Holocaust," Encarta Encyclopedia.) It is estimated that the Nazis succeeded in killing 60 percent of all the Jews in Europe. In addition to the Jews murdered in Poland (3 million) and the USSR (1 million), the worst-hit communities were in Hungary (550,000 Jews killed), Romania (275,000), Lithuania (150,000), Germany itself (135140,000), and the Netherlands (100,000) (all figures approximate). WHO WAS RESPONSIBLE?

Primary responsibility has long been assigned to Adolf Hitler, one of the most psychotic and sanguinary leaders in history, who consigned tens of millions of people to furnaces and firing squads. Debate still rages over whether and when Hitler personally gave the order to exterminate the


COURTESY OF THE UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM AND THE GENDERCIDE WATCH

Jews. But there is no doubt that he provided the venomous ideological framework for the genocide, headed the state and military apparatus that implemented it, and frequently proclaimed his approval of the perpetrators' actions. The Nazi Party that Hitler headed rapidly became indistinguishable from the German state. All party institutions and members -- especially Hitler's elite guard, the SS ("Death's Head" units, commanded by Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich), and the Einsatzkommanda (genocidal "action squads" in the East) -- shared responsibility for the Holocaust against Jews, Poles, Soviet prisoners-of-war, and Roma, among other groups. THE AFTERMATH

The German invasion of the USSR proved Hitler's undoing. The Second World War was won and lost on the eastern front, where about 80 percent of German forces were concentrated between 1941 and 1944. Despite the Nazi victories and unbridled mass killing of the first year of the war, the Soviets successfully withstood the German drive on Moscow. At the critical battles of Stalingrad (September 1942 -- January 1943) and Kursk (July 1943), Soviet forces turned the tide against the German armies. By April 1945, they had driven them back to the gates of Berlin, with late assistance from Allied forces (who invaded Nazi-occupied France in June 1944). Hitler killed himself in his bunker as Soviet troops approached. As the Soviet and Allied forces rolled back across Nazi-occupied Europe, they came across evidence of the holocaust against the Jews and others. For the first time, the outside world could see and be stunned by mountains of Jewish corpses in the concentration camps, and skeletal survivors gathered at the wire. The horror at the discoveries fuelled the Nürnberg (Nuremberg) Trials of 1945-47,

when surviving Nazi leaders (including Hermann Göring, Rudolf Hess, and Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel) were tried for crimes against humanity. Twelve were sentenced to death, but not Göring, who swallowed poison in his prison-cell hours before he was to be executed. Subsequent trials were held for doctors who had conducted medical experiments on concentration camp inmates and prisoners of war, judges who had committed murder under the guise of the judicial process, and industrialists who had participated in the looting of occupied countries and in the forced-labor program. Death sentences and long prison terms were the norm. The founding of the state of Israel in 1948, in large part by holocaust survivors, was assisted by global sympathy for the principal victims of Nazi genocide. In 1960, it was Israeli secret agents who tracked down one of the last surviving architects of the holocaust, Adolf Eichmann, and smuggled him from Argentina to Israel to stand trial. He was convicted and hanged in Jerusalem in 1962.

61


AJRINK ABRAM GRABOWIEC AJRNK ICKO GRABOWIEC AJRYNG GITLA GRABOVITZ AJRYNG ABRAM GRABOWIEC AJRYNG PERL GRABOVITZ AJRYNG SENE GRABOWIEC AJRYNG INDA GRABOWICE AJRYNG CHEJA GRABOWIEC AYNES HIRSCH GRABOWIEC AYNES RIVKAH GRABOWIEC AYNES FEIGA GRABOWIEC AYNES ABRAHAM GRABOWIEC AYNES BRAYNAH GRABOWIEC BECHER CIRIL GRABOWIEC BEZYM MYRJAM GRABOWIEC BLACHMAN RACHEL GRABOWIEC BLACHMAN SZMUEL GRABOWIEC BLACHMAN RAFAEL GRABOWIEC BLAFF DAVID GRABOWIC BORENSTEIN RYWKA GRABOWIEC BORENSZTEIN FROIM GRABOWIEC BORENSZTEJN PESIA GRABOWIEC BORNSTEIN MALKA GRABOWIC BORNSZTAJN KHAIM GRABOWIEC BORNSZTAJN PESIA GRABOWIC BORNSZTAJN PESIA GRABOWIC BRYKMAN ICCHAK GRABOWIEC BRYKMAN DWORA GRABOWIEC BRYKMAN BLUMA GRABOWIC CHUS CHMEL GRABOWIEC COHEN ALKANA GRABOWIEC CUKER RIVKA GRABOWIC CUKER ALEXANDER GRABOWIEC CUKER BERL GRABOVITZ EJNES DAVID GRABOWIEC EJNES CHAJA GRABOWIEC EJNES ABRAHAM GRABOWIEC ERLICH FREIDA GRABOWIC ERLICH RAKHEL GRABOWIC FAIWEL GRABOWIEC FASS LILI GRABOVITZ FRAIND GRINA GRABOWIC FRAJMAN HAIA GRABOWIEC FRAJMAN JOSEF GRABOWIEC FUCHS MORTKO GRABOWIEC GAIST SARA GRABOWIEC GAIST HINDA GRABOWIEC GAYZNER ITA GRABOWIEC GAYZNER ABRAHAM GRABOWIEC GERSZ PESACH GRABOWIEC GERSZ SZULIM GRABOWIEC GERSZ BLIMA GRABOWIEC GERSZ GITL GRABOWIEC GERSZTENBLIT LEIB GRABOWIEC GROJSER GITEL GRABOWIEC GROJSER ESTER GRABOWIEC GROJSER JOSEF GRABOWIEC GROJSER FISZEL GRABOWIEC GROJSER BASZA GRABOVITZ GROJSER MIRYAM GRABOWIC HAI DAWID GRABOWIEC HOSTIG MENDEL GRABOWIC JAK ABRAHAM GRABOWIEC KAHN ELKANA GRABOWIEC KAHN RYWKA GRABOWIEC KARSZEN SZLOMO GRABOWIEC KARSZN SARA GRABOWIEC KLAIDMAHER TIVIA GRABOWIEC KLENER FREIDA GRABOWIEC KROCKSTENGEL GITL GRABOWIEC KUCER PESSA GRABOWIEC KUCZER MORDHI GRABOWIEC KUCZER CHAYIM GRABOWIEC KUCZER ZLATAH GRABOWIC KUTCHER ROSHE GRABOWIC KUTCHER FRUMA GRABOWEC KUTCHER MOSHE GRABOWIC LAIFER YCKO GRABOWIEC LAJFER TAMAR GRABOWIEC LAJFER PINKHAS GRABOWIEC LEK PEREC GRABOWIEC LICHT ITA GRABOWEC LICHT ITA GRABOWIEC LICHTENBERG ESTER GRABOWEC LICHTENBERG SIMCHA GRABOWIEC MEJER DWORA GRABOWIEC MEJER SZYJA GRABOWIEC MERENSZTAJN HERSZ GRABOWIEC MERENSZTAJN NETEL GRABOWIEC MERENSZTAJN ZLATA GRABOWIEC MERENSZTAJN PESIA GRABOWIEC MERENSZTAJN FRIMCZA GRABOWIEC MERENSZTEJN MORDCHAI GRABOWEC MILSTEIN SHIYALE GRABOWIEC MILSTEIN ELIYE GRABOWIEC MIROCZNIK SARAH GRABOWIEC MULER MOSZE GRABOWIEC PACH CYWJA GRABOWIEC PACH BENTZION GRABOWIEC PACH MALKA GRABOWICE PACH JENTA GRABOWIEC PACH HERSZ GRABOWIEC PACH JENTE GRABOWIEC PACH CYWIA GRABOWIEC PACH HENIA GRABOWIEC PELTS LUZER GRABOVITZ PELTS JOCHEVED GRABOVITZ PELTS BELA GRABOVITZ PELTS ZALMAN GRABOWIC PELTS REUVEN GRABOVITZ PELTS YITSCHAK GRABOVITZ

POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND

1910 1882 1890 1888 1914 1890 1916 1892 1920 1915 1884 1887 1900 1885 1914 1909 1883 1910 1907 1896 1897 1914

1890 1922 1892 1902 1889 1896 1923 1896 1930 1896

1925 1887 1896 1890 1918 1921 1894 1890 1888 1916 1892 1919 1910 1882 1919 1874 1880 1876 1926 1922 1898 1909 1890 1925 1900 1902 1897 1923 1902 1894 1889 1907 1910 1920 1925 1930 1921 1924 1900 1890 1901 1905 1909

1912 1880 1920 1918 1882 1898

1897 1902 1919 1915 1890

1876

PELTS HAARON GRABOWIC RAJBER MASZA GRABOWIEC RAJCHMAN CHANA GRABOWIEC RAJCHMAN NATAN GRABOWIEC RAJCHMAN ICKO GRABOWIEC RAJCHMAN NACHUM GRABOWIC RAJCHMAN YTA GRABOWIEC RAJCHMAN MIRIAM GRABOWIC RAJS MALA GRABOWIEC REISS LEIBA GRABOWIEC REISS MALKA GRABOWIEC REISS ABUS GRABOWEC ROSENFELD HANYA GRABOWIC ROSENFELD SARA GRABOWIC ROSNFELD SHLOMO GRABOWIC ROYCHMAN CHAJA GRABOWIC ROZNFELD MRJAM GRABOWIC SAC BINA GRABOWIC SAC PNINA GRABOWIEC SAC MASCHE GRABOVITZ SCHARF MARIEM GRABOWIEC SCHAUFER JECHIEL GRABOWIEC SCHWARTENBERG SLOIMA GRABOWIC SCHWARTZENBERG ITHAK GRABOWIEC SCHWARTZENBERG DAVID GRABOWIEC SCHWARTZENBERG MOISZE GRABOWIEC SCHWARZENBERG DAVID GRABOWIEC ARZENBERG DVORA GRABOWIEC SHERER SHULIM GRABOWIEC SHERER MOTE GRABOWIEC SHLAIER YANKEL GRABOWIEC SHLAIER SARA GRABOWIEC SHLAIER MORDEKHAI GRABOWIEC SHLAIER KHANA GRABOWIEC SHLAIER RAKHEL GRABOWIEC SHLAYER KHINDE GRABOVITZ SILBER ICEK GRABOWIEC SINGER CHANA GRABOWIC SINGERMAN JOSZUA GRABOWIEC SINGERMAN PINCHAS GRABOWICE SINGERMAN SZALOM GRABOWIEC SISLER YCKO GRABOVETS STAW CHANA GRABOWIC STEINGER KASJA GRABOWIEC STENGER HAJA GRABOVITZ SZAUFER JOJNA GRABOWIEC SZEFER RAJZEL GRABOWIEC SZEK JENTA GRABOWIC SZEK SARA GRABOWIEC SZEK SZABATAI GRABOWIEC SZLAJER YAKOB GRABOWIEC SZLAYER JAKOB GRABOWIEC SZLEJER MOTE GRABOWIEC SZNAJDER RUCHL GRABOVITZ SZNAJDER ICE GRABOWIC SZNAJDER ZELDA GRABOWEC SZROIT MOSZE GRABOWIEC SZROJT BATSHEVA GRABOWIEC SZROJT CHAWA GRABOWIEC SZROJT DOV GRABOWIEC SZROJT REUVEN GRABOWIEC SZROJT RUWEN GRABOWIEC SZROJT JRACHMIEL GRABOWIEC SZROJT SARA GRABOWIEC SZROJT SIMAH GRABOWIEC SZROJT BERISZ GRABOWIEC SZROJT BAT SZEWA GRABOWIEC SZTERN FEJGA GRABOWEC SZTYGLIC JENTE GRABOWIEC SZTYGLIC RYWA GRABOWIEC SZULDMAN HADASA GRABOVETS SZWARC DAWID GRABOWIEC SZWARC ESTER GRABOWIEC SZWARC DAWID GRABOWIEC SZWARC ABA GRABOWIEC SZWARCENBERG ITZCHOK GRABOWIEC SZWARCENBERG SZEINDL GRABOWIEC SZWARCENBERG SZMUEL GRABOWIEC SZWARCENBERG SZLOIME GRABOWIEC SZWARCENBERG LEJZOR GRABOWIEC SZWARCENBERG MOSZE GRABOWIEC SZWARZENBERG MOSZE GRABOWIEC SZWARZENBERG IZCHAK GRABOVITZ SZWARZENBERG SZEINDEL GRABOWIEC SZWARZENBERG PNINA GRABOVITZ SZYLDMAN HUDESA GRABOWIEC SZYSLER BETZALEL GRABOWIC SZYSLER ITA GRABOWIEC SZYSLER HERSZL GRABOWIEC SZYSLER ZLATA GRABOWIEC TSIGEL MORDECHAY GRABOVITZ TSIGEL ZELIK GRABOVITZ TSIGEL RUSHI GRABOVITZ TSIGEL SARA GRABOWIEC TSIGEL SHUA GRABOWIEC WAJNRIB MOSZE GRABOWIEC WAJNRIB ESTER GRABOWIEC WAJSPUTER FRIDA GRABOWIEC WAKSMAN GOLDA GRABOWIEC WALDE SHEYNDL GRABOWIEC WALDE RIVKA GRABOWIC WALDE BRAKHA GRABOVITZ WAMZER SZAJNDEL GRABOWIEC WAMZER SZMUL GRABOWIEC WAMZER GITLA GRABOWIEC WEIC MENDEL GRABOWIEC WEIS HANA GRABOWEC WEIS MENDL GRABOWEC WEIS YEHUSZUA GRABOWEC WEIS JCCHAK GRABOWEC WEITZ CHANA GRABOWIEC

POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND

1919 1919 1867 1915 1885 1886 1916 1895 1895 1914 1912 1912 1885 1907 1867 1910 1902 1872 1902

1913 1924 1890 1864 1874 1860 1862

1898 1900 1923 1925 1929 1927 1912 1893 1891 1910 1912 1906 1905 1915 1915 1900 1913 1923 1898 1900 1907 1895 1919 1918 1922 1899 1900 1893 1922 1892 1924 1924 1927 1930 1879 1894 1895 1872

1895 1920 1918 1920 1922

1921 1926 1901 1870 1871 1893 1895 1873 1909 1919 1905 1933 1921

1902 1901 1919

1899 1899 1893 1900 1886 1894 1917 1919 1900

ZAC SARA ZAC RACHEL ZAC ARON ZAC JECHEZKEL ZAC TOBA ZAC MOSZE ZAC TZIPORA ZAC MOJSZE ZAC MOTEK ZATS MOSHE ZATS LEYZER ZATS SHIMI ZATS MIRYAM ZATS PESYA ZEIC RAFUEL ZILBERCWAJG ELIAHU ZILBERCWAJG ESTER ZILBERCWAJG SARA ZUCKER GOLDA ZUCKER BRONIA ZYSKIND RACHEL ZYSKIND KALMAN ADLERMAN PESZA OKHMAN YTZKHAK OKHMAN SARA UNTERHALTER ZELDA UNTERHALTER LIPA UNTERHALTER SARA UNTERHALTER DAVID UNTERHALTER KHAIA EIZEN AJDEL EIZEN KHANA EIZEN SARA EIZEN REUVEN EINES JACOB EINES MOISHE EINES KHAIA EINES FREIDA EINES DAWID EINES YOSEF EINES LEA EINES MORDEKHAI EINES MORDEKHAI EINES CHAJA EINES AHARON INTERHALTER DAVID APELBAUM ISRAEL AKER SZEWA AKER NUKHA AKER MALI AKER ABRAHAM ERLIKH DAVID ERLIKH PERLA ERLIKH RAKHEL ERLIKH GERSHON BURG MORDEKHAI BEZEM PERL BEZEM CHUNE BITERMAN GITEL BITERMAN RACHEL BITERMAN RACHEL BITERMAN ARON BEKHER YENTA BEKHER FEIGA BEKHER PINKHAS BEKHER DVORA BEKHER SHEINDL BEKHER MOSHE BRAND WOLF BRAND WOLWYSZ BRAND SHIMA BRAND FEGE GOLDBERG ROCHEL GOLDBERG WOLF GOLDBERG WOLF GOLDFARB CHAIA GOLOMB MOSZE GOLOMB RACHEL BALE FAIGELE GLOMB RAKHEL GLOMB ZELDA GLOMB ALEKSANDER GLOMB MIRIAM GLOMB ZYSKIND GLOMB RUWEN GLOMB RACHEL GLOMB DWORA GLOMB RAKHEL GLOMB ZELDA GLOMB NACHUM GELER ARSZ GRAU BERL GRAU JOSEF GRAU ICHAK GRAU FRUMETA GERBER HAJA GRUBER AVRAHAM GRUBER DAWID GRUBER MOTELE GERSHTENBLIT PEREL DATENSGELD HAYA DIKER FEIWEL DRUKER GOLDA DRUKER JECHEZKIEL DRUKER DAWID DRUKER DOW DRIKER BERISZ DRIKER DAWID DRIKER REIZE DRIKER GOLDA

GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOVETS GRABOWIEC GRABOVITZ GRABOVITZ GRABOVITZ GRABOVITZ GRABOVITZ GRABOVITZ GRABOWIEC GRABOWIC GRABOWIC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIC GRABOVETS GRABOVETS GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOVITZ GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIC GRABOWIEC GRABOVITZ GRABOWIEC GRABOWIC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIC GRABOWIEC GRABOWEC GRABOWIEC GRABOVITZ GRABOWIC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIC GRABOWIEC GRABOVETS GRABOWIEC GRABOVITZ GRABOVITZ GRABOVITZ GRABOWIC GRABOWIC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIC GRABOWIEC GRABOVITZ GRABOWIEC GRABOWIC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOVITZ GRABOVITZ GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIEC GRABOWIC GRABOWIEC

POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND

1903 1912 1889 1894 1922 1915 1910 1909 1922

1892 1895

1926 1904 1922 1887 1900 1900 1899 1897 1864 1892 1907 1934 1907 1907

1910 1903 1922 1905 1934 1932 1898 1893 1934

1917 1875 1909 1874 1925 1930

1913 1881 1879 1897 1867 1924 1880

1900 1914 1900 1917 1896 1896 1896 1877 1925 1870 1922 1882 1880 1928 1882 1931 1923 1872 1881 1923 1910 1878 1874 1892 1880 1892 1929 1897 1933 1902 1900 1917 1872 1910 1908 1906 1914 1877 1916


01

14

15

35

36

KRAUTMAN MARIEM GRABOVITZ POLAND HOZ LEA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1925 MUSKAL YAAKOV GRABOWIC POLAND 1912 KROTMAN MIRJAM GRABOWIEC POLAND HUS CHAIA GRABOWEC POLAND 1890 MUSKAL AHARON GRABOWIEC POLAND 1912 KROTMAN MORDKO GRABOWIEC POLAND HUS MIRL GRABOVETS POLAND 1916 MUSKAL GITEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1908 KROTMAN64MIRIAM GRABOWIEC POLAND HUS ZIRLA GRABOWIEC POLAND PICTURES 1904 FROM THEMITLER DAVID GRABOWIC POLAND 1896 FAMILY ALBUM KROTMAN MORDECHAI GRABOWIEC POLAND HUS MORDCHE GRABOWIC POLAND 1922 MITLER DAVID GRABOWIC POLAND 1907 KROTMAN MORDECHAJ GRABOWIC POLAND HUS SLOMO GRABOVETS POLAND 1886 MILER ABRAHAM GRABOWIEC POLAND 1928 KROKSHTENGEL SENDER GRABOWEC POLAND HUS MANIS GRABOWIEC POLAND 1874 MILER SAITI GRABOWIEC POLAND 1896 SZLOMA GRABOWIEC POLAND HUS BINA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1902 MILER KHANA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1925 ROZENFELD DAWID GRABOWIC POLAND HUS CIRL GRABOWIC POLAND 1906 MILER ESTER GRABOWIEC POLAND 1900 ROTBARD HAYA GRABOWIEC POLAND HUS CIRL GRABOWIC POLAND 1900 MILER GOLDA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1930 ROFER ETEL GRABOWIEC POLAND HUS YOSEF GRABOVITZ POLAND 1906 MILER MENDEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1880 RIES ISRAEL GRABOWIC POLAND HUS CHAYA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1895 MILER RACHEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1920 01. Zetl, Poland, Shlomo Zalman Dunetz | 02. Davidgrodek, Poland, a group photograph of the Begun family girls | 03. Latvia, A picture of a family, relatives of Shira Friedman | RIKHMAN KHAIA GRABOVETS POLAND HUS JOSEF GRABOWIC POLAND 1895 MILER ABRAM GRABOWIEC POLAND 1887 04. Ciechanow, Poland, a photograph of Lass family, before the war | 05. Zetl, Poland, Shlomo Zalman Dunetz | 06. Hungary, Prewar, Children of the Gal family | 07. Zagreb, Yugoslavia, The GRABOWIEC POLAND HUS MIRL GRABOWIC Rabinov POLAND MILER of MOSZE family,GRABOWIEC POLAND The Winkler 1920 family, Deutsch family | 08. Pinsk, Poland, A photograph of the family, 19381917 | 09. Greece, a photograph the Arinos before the war | 10. Oysha, Belorussia, who REIS SHMUEL REIS JOSEPH GRABOWIEC POLAND HOSTIK FAJWEL GRABOWIEC POLAND perished in August 1941 | 11. Lodz, Poland, The extended Korenberg family before the warMILER | 12. Lithuania, the Netos Family, and POLAND the Lipschitz Family, Prewar MOTEThe Price Family, GRABOWIEC 1903 | 13. A family photograph in the background | 14. Kaunas, family, 1940 | 15. Zandvoort, Netherlands, The family on the beach | 16. A family REIF TOVA GRABOWIC POLAND HOSTIK ESTHER with a Sukkah GRABOWIEC POLAND Lithuania, 1915 The LipmanMILER MOTEL GRABOWIEC Stopper POLAND 1900 photograph, before the photograph | 18. Yanina, Greece, The close and extended family of Janet Salomoni, prior to the deportation of the towns Jews to the extermination REICHMAN MENIE GRABOWIC POLAND HOSTIK HENA war | 17. Family GRABOWIEC POLAND 1918 MILER JOSEF GRABOWIEC POLAND 1910 camps, June 1943 | 19. Mazeikiai, Lithuania, a family photograph of the Kacev family, 6/7/1939 | 20. Wien, Austria, The Fuerst family in the therties | 21. Trzebinia, Poland, The Engelstein REICHMAN YEZE GRABOVETS POLAND HOSTIK ESTER GRABOWIEC POLAND 1898 MILER ABRAHAM GRABOWIEC POLAND 1890 family | 22. Miedeszyn, Poland, 1934, Hillmann family members | 23. Lodz, Poland, A photograph of the Feinzilberg family, 1934 | 24. Vienna, Austria, a family photograph | 25. Dusetos, SHVARTZ RIVKA GRABOWIEC POLAND HITER ETEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1889 MILER YOSEK GRABOVETS POLAND 1910 Lithuania, 09/10/1934, A family portrait | 26. A family photograph of the grandmother, mother, and uncles of Eva Erben, 1907 | 27. Poland, 1957, A Photograph of Yitzchak Redlich with his GRABOWIC POLAND HITER JITE GRABOWIEC 1907 and his family, HANA GRABOWIEC POLAND family | 28. Kremnic, Poland, Motel-Marcus Hazan, head POLAND of the Jewish community 10.05.1929 | 29. A photograph of the Scratscrofsky family | 30. Vienna, 1921 Austria, a family SHVARTZ ABA POLAND AJRYNG who POLAND 1888 | 32. A pohtograph MANDEL GITEL Lithuania, POLAND 1898 photographIDA | 31. Poland , ChildrenGRABOWIEC of the Hecht family perished in Auschwitz of Justus Von Kittlitz GRABOWIEC family | 33. Ignalina, The Aharonowich family before SHUSLER MEDEL GRABOVETS POLAND HENDLER BINA Dr. Motehes GRABOWIEC andPOLAND all perished in the Holocaust the war | 34. Yugoslavia, with his wife, son mother, who | 35. Komarno, Czechoslovakia, The Berger family, 1938 | 36. Transylvania, Romania SHTANGER YOSEF GRABOVITZ NUDEL KHANA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1938/39, Grunstein Szczuczyn, Poland. children, most | 38. Lodz, A photo of the | 39. Didymotikhon, Greece, A STERN SZAMAJ GRABOWEC POLAND HAKENThe MOSZE family | 37.GRABOWIEC TwoPOLAND likely 1922from the Kamieniecki NUDELfamily BARUKH Poland, GRABOWIEC Langa family POLAND family picture of parents five children, Holocaust | 40. 1938, Tzimberknipf family on summer vacation SHISTER ZLATA GRABOVITZ POLAND HAKEN TZVI GRABOWIC with their POLAND who perished in theNUDEL DVORA GRABOWIEC POLAND | 41. Krosno, Poland, The Axelrod family, 1935 | 42. Wolomin, Poland, The Friedman family on a balcony SHISLER KHANA GRABOVITZ POLAND HAKEN RACHEL GRABOWIC POLAND NUDEL CHAJA GRABOWEC POLAND SHISLER BEILA GRABOWIEC POLAND HAKEN CHANA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1918 SATZ ELIEZER GRABOWIC POLAND SHISLER DAVID GRABOWIEC POLAND HAKEN RYWKA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1920 SATZ NICHA GRABOWIC POLAND 1905 SHISLER LEIBEL GRABOWIC POLAND HAKEN HRON GRABOWIC POLAND SATZ SHARL GRABOVITZ POLAND SHISLER CHANA GRABOVITZ POLAND HAKEN ESTER GRABOWIC POLAND 1894 SATZ HAIM GRABOWIC POLAND SHISLER YEHUDIT GRABOVITZ POLAND HAKEN JESHUA GRABOWIC POLAND FUDIM MORDEHAI GRABOWIEC POLAND SHISLER GRABOWIC POLAND HAKEN CIPORA GRABOWIC POLAND FUDIM SHLOMO GRABOWIEC POLAND SHIFMAN BELA GRABOVITZ POLAND CHARNA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1883 FUDIM GERSHON GRABOWIEC POLAND SHNOL SHLOME GRABOWIEC POLAND ZUSMAN MALKA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1918 FUDIM DVORAH GRABOWIEC POLAND SHNOL PERL GRABOWEC POLAND ZUSMAN HERSH GRABOWIC POLAND 1900 FUDIM MOSZE GRABOWIC POLAND 1885 SHNOL CHANA GRABOWEC POLAND ZUSMAN ZUSMAN GRABOWIC POLAND 1908 FUDIM HENJE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1885 SHNOL SHALOM GRABOWEC POLAND ZIGEL JESHAIAHU GRABOWEC POLAND 1918 FOLBAUM RECHLA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1910 SHNOL LEISER GRABOWIEC POLAND ZIGEL ROSA GRABOWIEC POLAND FUKS JEKO GRABOVITZ POLAND 1884 SHPETER LEIBEL GRABOWIC POLAND ZIGEL SARAH GRABOWIEC POLAND FUKS YITZKHAK GRABOVITZ POLAND SHPETER BLUMA GRABOWIEC POLAND ZIGEL ZELIG GRABOWIEC POLAND03 FUKS SHLOMO HRUBIESZOW POLAND SHCHUPAK NECHA GRABOVITZ POLAND ZIGEL MORDCHAI GRABOVITZ POLAND FUKS MIRJAM GRABOWIEC POLAND ZIGEL HANA GRABOVITZ POLAND FUKS MOTEL GRABOWIC POLAND ZILBERTZVEIG EFRAIM GRABOWIEC POLAND 1898 FUKS CHAIM GRABOWIEC POLAND GRABOVITZ, POLAND - LIST OF VICTIMS 06 ZILBERTZVEIG TZVIA GRABOVETS POLAND 1900 FURER LEA GRABOVETS POLAND 1910 GRABOWIEC [POL], GRABOVITZ [YID], GRABOVYETS [RUS] ZILBERTZVEIG SHMUEL02 GRABOWIEC POLAND 1925 FURER MNACHEM GRABOWIC POLAND 1902 JEWISH POPULATION IN 1900: 1,717 POPULATION TODAY : 922 [2009] WITH NO JEWS ZINGER ISRAEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1921 FURER SARA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1884 07 ZINGER MIRL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1871 The small town of Grabovitz , place of residence of my family, FURER YOSEF GRABOWIEC POLAND 1892 the Miller family and the Lander family before the war. In the years ZINGER CHAJIM GRABOWIEC POLAND 1899 FURER YUDA GRABOWIC POLAND 1894 04 of the war 80% of the Jews who lived in the town were perished in 05 ZINGER ESTER GRABOWIEC POLAND 1919 FURER SEINDL GRABOWIC POLAND 1894 the death camps of Poland. After the war there were no Jews left. ZINGER CHANA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1899 FURER RAJZEL GRABOWIC POLAND 1903 A list is shown as it is displayed in the database of Yad Vashem. ZINGER SARA GRABOWIC POLAND 1917 FURER MRYAM GRABOVITZ POLAND 1920 ZINGERMAN YHOYOHUA GRABOWIC POLAND PAKH GITEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1925 ZISMAN MALKA GRABOWIC POLAND 1880 FEIL PESIE CHROBIESHOV POLAND 1907 ZISMAN RACHEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1909 FINK HANA GRABOWIC POLAND ZISMAN DVORA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1910 FINK CHANAH GRABOWIEC POLAND 1897 ZISMAN HERSH GRABOWIC POLAND 1880 13 FIFER DEWID GRABOWEC POLAND 1913 10 ZISMAN RACHL GRABOVETS POLAND 1909 FIRER GOLDA GRABOVITZ POLAND 1892 08 09 11 12 ZISMAN KHANA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1910 PAPIR TOVA GRABOWEC POLAND 1899 ZATZ JAKOB GRABOWIEC POLAND 1912 PAPIR ICZE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1921 ZATZ GRABOWIEC POLAND PAPIR SIYE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1907 ZAKS AHARON GRABOWIC POLAND 1880 PAPIR MALJA GRABOWEC POLAND 1904 ZAKS YEKHEZKEL GRABOWIC POLAND 1890 PAPIR YOCHEVED GRABOWIEC POLAND 1904 ZAKS KHAIM GRABOWIC POLAND 1917 PAPIR SHAUL GRABOWIC POLAND ZAKS RAKHEL GRABOWIC POLAND 1912 PAPIR FAVEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1899 20 ZAKS MOSHE GRABOWIC POLAND 1915 PAPIR SHLOMO GRABOWIEC POLAND ZAKS SARA GRABOWEC POLAND 1880 PAPIR YESHAYAHU GRABOWIEC POLAND 22 17 POLAND ZAKS SARA GRABOWIC 1870 PAPIR KHANA GRABOWIEC POLAND21 1919 19 ZAKS TEHILA GRABOWIC POLAND 1919 PAPIR DAVID GRABOWIEC POLAND ZAKS MENUKHA GRABOWIC POLAND 1890 PAPIR SAINDEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1910 ZAKS HIRSH GRABOWIC POLAND 1905 PAPIR HAIM GRABOWIEC POLAND 1922 TROK ZYSL GRABOWEC POLAND 1892 PAPIR ISRAEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1904 18 POLAND TROK ABRAHAM 16 GRABOWIEC 1922 PAPIR HERS GRABOVETS POLAND 1903 TROK KEJLA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1916 PAPIR PERL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1916 KOHEN RIWKA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1920 PAPIR RACHEL GRABOVETS POLAND 1919 KATZ SARA GRABOVITZ POLAND 1916 PERGAMENT SYLKA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1907 KATZ KHAVA GRABOWIC POLAND 1918 PERGAMENT CHANA GRABOWIC POLAND 1878 LAZAR NENY GRABOWIEC POLAND FREIMAN YOSEF GRABOVITZ POLAND LAMPER SARA GRABOWIEC POLAND FARER REUVEN GRABOWIEC POLAND 1917 LAK FROIM GRABOWIC POLAND 1904 TZUKER BERL GRABOWIEC POLAND 25TZUKER MATATIAHU26GRABOWIEC LERNER BLUMA GRABOVITZ POLAND 1884 POLAND 1934 LERNER SARA GRABOWEC POLAND 1923 KUGER FEIGA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1913 24 LERNER HANA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1909 KORN MOSHE GRABOWEC POLAND 1900 23 LERNER CHAVA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1921 KORN SZLOME GRABOWIC POLAND 190227 LERNER SZEVA GRABOVETS POLAND 1873 KORN MOSHE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1895 LERNER SLOMO GRABOWIC POLAND 1900 KORN NEKHE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1897 LERNER BAJLA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1892 KORN MORDEKHAI GRABOWIEC POLAND 1920 LERNER NECHEMJA GRABOWIC POLAND 1917 KORN SHOLEM GRABOWIEC POLAND 1928 LERNER BLUMA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1879 KORNBLIT HIRSH GRABOWIC POLAND LERNER HENE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1924 KEIZ HAJDL GRABOVETS POLAND 1910 LERNER NECHEMIA GRABOWIC POLAND 1922 KEIZ YCZE GRABOVETS POLAND 1900 30 31 ESTHER LERNER BLUMA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1898 KIND LERNER MORDCHAI GRABOWIEC POLAND 1914 KLEINER HERSZ GRABOWIEC POLAND 1910 33 34 28LERNER DEWORA GRABOWIC 29 32 POLAND KLEINER JAKUB GRABOWIC POLAND 1919 LERNER MORDCHAI GRABOWIEC POLAND 1916 KLEINER HENCH GRABOVITZ POLAND 1919 LERNER BLUMA GRABOWIC POLAND 1879 KLEINER CHANA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1904 LERNER BERL GRABOVETS POLAND 1916 KLEINER HERSZ GRABOVETS POLAND 1902 LERNER TEME GRABOVETS POLAND 1900 KLEINER HANA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1905 LERNER SARA GRABOVETS POLAND 1918 KLEINER JENTA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1894 LERNER KHANA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1920 KLEINER JERACHMIEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1906 39 LERNER KHANA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1920 KLEINER AHARON GRABOWIEC POLAND 1883K 40 LERNER SHMUEL GRABOVITZ POLAND LEINER ZALMAN GRABOVITZ 41 POLAND 1901 LERNER MOTIL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1921 KLEINER BAT SEVA GRABOVITZ POLAND 1891 LERNER CHAVA GRABOVITZ POLAND 1914 KLEINER ESTER GRABOWIEC POLAND 1915 38 LERER ZELIK 37 GRABOVETS POLAND 1897 KLEINER FRIDA GRABOWICE POLAND 1900 42 LERER ZVI GRABOVETS POLAND 1922 KLEINER MORDKEI GRABOVETS POLAND 1897 LERER KALMAN GRABOWIEC POLAND 1925 KLEINER HINDA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1922 LERER KALMAN GRABOVETS POLAND 1929 KLEINER FEIGA GRABOVITZ POLAND 1930 MEIER ELIA GRABOWIEC POLAND KLEINER SHMUEL GRABOWEC POLAND MABER FRYDA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1912 KLEINER RACHMIL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1902 MUSKAL HIRSH GRABOWEC POLAND 1880 KLEINER DEBORA GRABOWEC POLAND 1917 MUSKAL KHANA GRABOWIC POLAND 1908 KNOPF CHANA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1879 MUSKAL KHAIM GRABOWIC POLAND 1915 KRAUTMAN MORDCHE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1890

1890 1890 1889 1894 1889 1885 1895 1891 1880 1910 1912 1867 1893 1896 1919 1918 1915 1918 1912 1915 1897

1895 1902 1920 1922 1927 1920 1883


AJRINK ABRAM GRABOWIEC AJRNK ICKO GRABOWIEC AJRYNG GITLA GRABOVITZ AJRYNG ABRAM GRABOWIEC The Genocide AJRYNG Project PERL GRABOVITZ AJRYNG SENE GRABOWIEC AJRYNG INDA GRABOWICE AJRYNG CHEJA GRABOWIEC AYNES HIRSCH GRABOWIEC AYNES RIVKAH GRABOWIEC AYNES FEIGA GRABOWIEC AYNES ABRAHAM GRABOWIEC AYNES BRAYNAH GRABOWIEC BECHER CIRIL GRABOWIEC BEZYM MYRJAM GRABOWIEC BLACHMAN RACHEL GRABOWIEC BLACHMAN SZMUEL GRABOWIEC BLACHMAN RAFAEL GRABOWIEC BLAFF DAVID GRABOWIC BORENSTEIN RYWKA GRABOWIEC BORENSZTEIN FROIM GRABOWIEC BORENSZTEJN PESIA GRABOWIEC BORNSTEIN MALKA GRABOWIC BORNSZTAJN KHAIM GRABOWIEC BORNSZTAJN PESIA GRABOWIC BORNSZTAJN PESIA GRABOWIC BRYKMAN ICCHAK GRABOWIEC BRYKMAN DWORA GRABOWIEC BRYKMAN BLUMA GRABOWIC CHUS CHMEL GRABOWIEC COHEN ALKANA GRABOWIEC CUKER RIVKA GRABOWIC CUKER ALEXANDER GRABOWIEC CUKER BERL GRABOVITZ EJNES DAVID GRABOWIEC EJNES CHAJA GRABOWIEC EJNES ABRAHAM GRABOWIEC ERLICH FREIDA GRABOWIC ERLICH RAKHEL GRABOWIC FAIWEL GRABOWIEC FASS LILI GRABOVITZ FRAIND GRINA GRABOWIC FRAJMAN HAIA GRABOWIEC FRAJMAN JOSEF GRABOWIEC FUCHS MORTKO GRABOWIEC GAIST SARA GRABOWIEC GAIST HINDA GRABOWIEC GAYZNER ITA GRABOWIEC GAYZNER ABRAHAM GRABOWIEC GERSZ PESACH GRABOWIEC GERSZ SZULIM GRABOWIEC GERSZ BLIMA GRABOWIEC GERSZ GITL GRABOWIEC GERSZTENBLIT LEIB GRABOWIEC GROJSER GITEL GRABOWIEC GROJSER ESTER GRABOWIEC GROJSER JOSEF GRABOWIEC GROJSER FISZEL GRABOWIEC GROJSER BASZA GRABOVITZ GROJSER MIRYAM GRABOWIC HAI DAWID GRABOWIEC HOSTIG MENDEL GRABOWIC JAK ABRAHAM GRABOWIEC KAHN ELKANA GRABOWIEC KAHN RYWKA GRABOWIEC KARSZEN SZLOMO GRABOWIEC KARSZN SARA GRABOWIEC KLAIDMAHER TIVIA GRABOWIEC KLENER FREIDA GRABOWIEC KROCKSTENGEL GITL GRABOWIEC KUCER PESSA GRABOWIEC KUCZER MORDHI GRABOWIEC KUCZER CHAYIM GRABOWIEC KUCZER ZLATAH GRABOWIC KUTCHER ROSHE GRABOWIC KUTCHER FRUMA GRABOWEC KUTCHER MOSHE GRABOWIC LAIFER YCKO GRABOWIEC LAJFER TAMAR GRABOWIEC LAJFER PINKHAS GRABOWIEC LEK PEREC GRABOWIEC LICHT ITA GRABOWEC LICHT ITA GRABOWIEC LICHTENBERG ESTER GRABOWEC LICHTENBERG SIMCHA GRABOWIEC MEJER DWORA GRABOWIEC MEJER SZYJA GRABOWIEC MERENSZTAJN HERSZ GRABOWIEC MERENSZTAJN NETEL GRABOWIEC MERENSZTAJN ZLATA GRABOWIEC MERENSZTAJN PESIA GRABOWIEC MERENSZTAJN FRIMCZA GRABOWIEC MERENSZTEJN MORDCHAI GRABOWEC MILSTEIN SHIYALE GRABOWIEC MILSTEIN ELIYE GRABOWIEC MIROCZNIK SARAH GRABOWIEC MULER MOSZE GRABOWIEC PACH CYWJA GRABOWIEC PACH BENTZION GRABOWIEC PACH MALKA GRABOWICE PACH JENTA GRABOWIEC PACH HERSZ GRABOWIEC PACH JENTE GRABOWIEC PACH CYWIA GRABOWIEC PACH HENIA GRABOWIEC PELTS LUZER GRABOVITZ PELTS JOCHEVED GRABOVITZ PELTS BELA GRABOVITZ PELTS ZALMAN GRABOWIC PELTS REUVEN GRABOVITZ PELTS YITSCHAK GRABOVITZ

POLAND 1910 PELTS HAARON GRABOWIC POLAND ZAC SARA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1903 POLAND 1882 RAJBER MASZA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1919 ZAC RACHEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1912 POLAND 1890 RAJCHMAN CHANA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1919 ZAC ARON GRABOWIC POLAND 1889 POLAND 1888 RAJCHMAN NATAN GRABOWIEC POLAND LANDSCAPE 1867 ZAC JECHEZKEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1894 63 POLAND 1914 RAJCHMAN ICKO GRABOWIEC POLAND 1915 ZAC TOBA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1922 POLAND 1890 RAJCHMAN NACHUM GRABOWIC POLAND 1885 ZAC MOSZE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1915 POLAND 1916 RAJCHMAN YTA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1886 ZAC TZIPORA GRABOVETS POLAND 1910 POLAND 1892 RAJCHMAN MIRIAM GRABOWIC POLAND 1916 ZAC MOJSZE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1909 POLAND 1920 RAJS MALA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1895 ZAC MOTEK GRABOVITZ POLAND 1922 POLAND 1915 REISS LEIBA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1895 ZATS MOSHE GRABOVITZ POLAND POLAND REISS MALKA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1914 ZATS LEYZER GRABOVITZ POLAND POLAND 188401. Siauliai, Lithuania, REISS ABUS Jews were murdered GRABOWEC POLAND 1912 ZATS SHIMI POLAND | 05. Krasne, A site where | 02. Auschwitz, Poland, A partial view of the camp and its surrounding, Postwar | 03GRABOVITZ - 04. Slovakia, A view 19/02/1944 POLAND 1887 Poland, before ROSENFELD 40,000 POLAND murdered 1912 | 07. Krasne, ZATS MIRYAM war | 08. Slovakia, GRABOVITZ photograph POLAND the war | 06.HANYA Hasag, Poland, A GRABOWIC forest where about Jews were Poland, before the A landscape | 09. Poland, POLAND 1900 1940 | 10. Treblinka, ROSENFELD GRABOWIC Lithuania, POLAND 1885 ZATS PESYA 1965, A mass murder GRABOVITZ | 14.POLAND Poland, SARA View from the railway | 11. Stakliskes, View of the town | 12. Ponary, Poland, October site of Jews Wreschen, Poland, A Brest, Poland, The forest where GRABOWIC the Jews of Brest murdered, 1992 |16. Mogielnica, Poland, landscape photograph, before the war | 17. Piatnichanski, Ukraine,1892 A site POLAND 1885landscape | 15. ROSNFELD SHLOMO werePOLAND 1907 ZEIC ARAFUEL GRABOWIEC POLAND of Jews, 1944CHAJA |18. USSR, 1942, A line of entrenched German positions forest |19. Slovakia, A view | 20. The Danube, and Belgrade in the distance, POLAND 1914 of mass killing ROYCHMAN WinterGRABOWIC POLAND 1867in a snow covered ZILBERCWAJG ELIAHU GRABOWIC POLAND 1895 the Aliyat Hanoar ship Penelope | 21. Terezin, Czechslovakia, View of a forest | 22. Treblinka, postwar | 23. Treblinka, Poland, View from the railway | 24. Poland, A forest POLAND 1909 as seen from ROZNFELD MRJAM GRABOWIC POLAND 1910 ZILBERCWAJG ESTER GRABOWIC POLAND near Treblinka | 25. Germany, a view of a town | 26. Uman, Ukraine, A site in the forest where the mass murder of Jews took place, Postwar | 27. Staszow, Poland, Assembling Jews in POLAND 1883 SAC BINA GRABOWIC POLAND 1902 ZILBERCWAJG SARA GRABOWIEC POLAND preparation for sending them to a camp near Lublin, 1940 | 28 - 29. USSR, 1942, View of a river.USSR, 1942, View of a river | 30. Ostrowiec, Poland, Kuznia square and Sienkiewcza street, POLAND 1910 after the warSAC GRABOWIEC POLAND 1872 ZUCKER GOLDA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1926 | 31.PNINA Auschwitz-Birkenau, Poland, View of the mens camp from the west | 32 - 33. Gerlos, Austria, A mountain passage near town, that was used by the Bericha movement POLAND 1907 34. Czechoslovakia, SAC MASCHE 1939-41 | 35. GRABOVITZ Romania POLAND 1902 ZUCKER BRONIA GRABOWIC Europe, POLAND 1904 a landscape, The Danube, with in the distance, as seen from the Aliyat Hanoar illegal immigrant ship Penelope | 36. A rural landscape POLAND 1896 37. Zenkov, SCHARF || Birkenau | 39. Reitzenheim, Ukraine,MARIEM Remains of the JewishGRABOWIEC cemetery, 17/08/1988 POLAND | 38. Auschwitz A forest which a mass murder of Jews took place ZYSKINDGermany, RACHEL site inGRABOVETS POLAND 1922 Lithuania, A covered mass grave GRABOWIEC | 41. Brest, Poland, ThePOLAND site of a mass Brest were murdered, Luby, Czechoslovakia, The path to site POLAND 1897 | 40. Ponary,SCHAUFER JECHIEL grave 1913where Jews from ZYSKIND KALMAN 1992 | 42. GRABOVETS POLAND the1887 where German policemen performed an execution photographed after the war.GRABOWIEC POLAND 1914 SCHWARTENBERG SLOIMA GRABOWIC POLAND 1924 on 22/06/1942, ADLERMAN PESZA POLAND POLAND SCHWARTZENBERG ITHAK GRABOWIEC POLAND 1890 OKHMAN YTZKHAK GRABOWIEC POLAND 1900 POLAND SCHWARTZENBERG DAVID GRABOWIEC POLAND 1864 OKHMAN SARA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1900 POLAND SCHWARTZENBERG MOISZE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1874 UNTERHALTER ZELDA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1899 POLAND 1890 SCHWARZENBERG DAVID GRABOWIEC POLAND 1860 UNTERHALTER LIPA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1897 POLAND 1922 ARZENBERG DVORA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1862 UNTERHALTER SARA GRABOWIEC POLAND POLAND 1892 SHERER SHULIM GRABOWIEC POLAND UNTERHALTER DAVID GRABOWIEC POLAND 1864 POLAND 1902 SHERER MOTE GRABOWIEC POLAND UNTERHALTER KHAIA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1892 POLAND 1889 SHLAIER YANKEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1898 EIZEN AJDEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1907 POLAND 1896 SHLAIER SARA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1900 EIZEN KHANA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1934 POLAND 1923 SHLAIER MORDEKHAI GRABOWIEC POLAND 1923 EIZEN SARA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1907 POLAND 1896 SHLAIER KHANA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1925 EIZEN REUVEN GRABOWIEC POLAND 1907 POLAND 1930 SHLAIER RAKHEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1929 EINES JACOB GRABOWIEC POLAND POLAND 1896 SHLAYER KHINDE GRABOVITZ POLAND 1927 EINES MOISHE GRABOWIEC POLAND POLAND SILBER ICEK GRABOWIEC POLAND 03 1912 EINES KHAIA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1910 POLAND SINGER CHANA GRABOWIC POLAND 1893 EINES FREIDA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1903 POLAND SINGERMAN JOSZUA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1891 EINES DAWID GRABOWIEC POLAND 1922 06 POLAND SINGERMAN PINCHAS GRABOWICE POLAND 1910 EINES YOSEF GRABOVITZ POLAND 1905 POLAND 1925 SINGERMAN SZALOM GRABOWIEC POLAND 1912 EINES LEA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1934 02 GRABOVETS POLAND 1887 SISLER YCKO POLAND 1906 EINES MORDEKHAI GRABOWIEC POLAND 1932 04 POLAND 1896 STAW CHANA GRABOWIC POLAND 1905 EINES MORDEKHAI GRABOWIEC POLAND 1898 01 05 POLAND 1890 STEINGER KASJA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1915 EINES CHAJA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1893 POLAND STENGER HAJA GRABOVITZ POLAND 1915 EINES AHARON GRABOWIEC POLAND 1934 07 POLAND 1918 SZAUFER JOJNA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1900 INTERHALTER DAVID GRABOWIEC POLAND POLAND 1921 SZEFER RAJZEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1913 APELBAUM ISRAEL GRABOWIEC POLAND POLAND 1894 SZEK JENTA GRABOWIC POLAND 1923 AKER SZEWA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1917 POLAND 1890 SZEK SARA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1898 AKER NUKHA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1875 POLAND 081888 SZEK SZABATAI GRABOWIEC POLAND 1900 AKER MALI GRABOWIEC POLAND 1909 POLAND 1916 SZLAJER YAKOB GRABOWIEC POLAND 1907 AKER ABRAHAM GRABOWIEC POLAND 1874 POLAND 1892 SZLAYER JAKOB GRABOWIEC POLAND 1895 ERLIKH DAVID GRABOWIEC POLAND 1925 10 POLAND 1919 SZLEJER MOTE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1919 ERLIKH PERLA GRABOWIC POLAND 1930 11 POLAND 1910 SZNAJDER RUCHL GRABOVITZ POLAND 1918 ERLIKH RAKHEL GRABOWIEC POLAND POLAND 1882 SZNAJDER ICE GRABOWIC POLAND 1922 ERLIKH GERSHON GRABOVITZ POLAND POLAND 1919 SZNAJDER ZELDA GRABOWEC POLAND 1899 BURG MORDEKHAI GRABOWIEC 12POLAND 1913 09 POLAND 1874 SZROIT MOSZE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1900 BEZEM PERL GRABOWIC POLAND 1881 POLAND 1880 SZROJT BATSHEVA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1893 BEZEM CHUNE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1879 POLAND 1876 SZROJT CHAWA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1922 BITERMAN GITEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1897 POLAND 1926 SZROJT DOV GRABOWIEC POLAND 1892 BITERMAN RACHEL GRABOWIC POLAND 1867 POLAND 1922 SZROJT REUVEN GRABOWIEC POLAND 1924 BITERMAN RACHEL GRABOWIEC POLAND POLAND 1898 SZROJT RUWEN GRABOWIEC POLAND 1924 BITERMAN ARON GRABOWEC POLAND 1924 POLAND 1909 SZROJT JRACHMIEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1927 BEKHER YENTA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1880 19 POLAND 1890 SZROJT SARA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1930 BEKHER FEIGA GRABOVITZ POLAND POLAND 1925 SZROJT SIMAH GRABOWIEC POLAND 1879 16 BEKHER PINKHAS GRABOWIC POLAND 17 POLAND 1900 SZROJT BERISZ GRABOWIEC POLAND 1894 BEKHER DVORA GRABOWIEC POLAND POLAND 1902 SZROJT BAT SZEWA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1895 BEKHER SHEINDL GRABOWIEC POLAND POLAND 1897 SZTERN FEJGA GRABOWEC POLAND 1872 BEKHER MOSHE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1900 POLAND 1923 SZTYGLIC JENTE 15 GRABOWIEC POLAND BRAND WOLF GRABOWIC POLAND 1914 20 18 POLAND 1902 14 SZTYGLIC RYWA GRABOWIEC POLAND BRAND WOLWYSZ GRABOWIEC POLAND 1900 POLAND 1894 SZULDMAN HADASA GRABOVETS POLAND 1895 BRAND SHIMA GRABOVETS POLAND POLAND 1889 SZWARC DAWID GRABOWIEC POLAND 1920 BRAND FEGE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1917 23 POLAND 1907 SZWARC ESTER GRABOWIEC POLAND 1918 GOLDBERG ROCHEL GRABOVITZ POLAND 1896 POLAND 1910 SZWARC DAWID GRABOWIEC POLAND 1920 GOLDBERG WOLF GRABOVITZ POLAND 1896 POLAND 1920 SZWARC ABA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1922 GOLDBERG WOLF GRABOVITZ POLAND 1896 25 POLAND 1925 SZWARCENBERG ITZCHOK GRABOWIEC POLAND GOLDFARB CHAIA GRABOWIC POLAND POLAND 1930 SZWARCENBERG SZEINDL GRABOWIEC POLAND GOLOMB MOSZE GRABOWIC POLAND 1877 POLAND 1921 SZWARCENBERG SZMUEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1921 GOLOMB RACHEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1925 24 POLAND 1924 SZWARCENBERG22SZLOIME GRABOWIEC POLAND 1926 BALE GRABOWIC POLAND 26 POLAND 1900 SZWARCENBERG LEJZOR GRABOWIEC POLAND 1901 FAIGELE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1870 21 POLAND 1890 SZWARCENBERG MOSZE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1870 GLOMB RAKHEL GRABOVITZ POLAND 1922 POLAND 1901 SZWARZENBERG MOSZE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1871 GLOMB ZELDA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1882 POLAND 1905 SZWARZENBERG IZCHAK GRABOVITZ POLAND 1893 GLOMB ALEKSANDER GRABOWIC POLAND 1880 27 POLAND SZWARZENBERG SZEINDEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1895 GLOMB MIRIAM GRABOWIEC POLAND 1928 POLAND 1909 SZWARZENBERG PNINA GRABOVITZ POLAND 1873 GLOMB ZYSKIND GRABOWIEC POLAND 1882 POLAND 28 SZYLDMAN HUDESA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1909 GLOMB RUWEN GRABOWIEC POLAND 1931 29 POLAND SZYSLER BETZALEL GRABOWIC POLAND 1919 GLOMB RACHEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1923 POLAND 1912 SZYSLER ITA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1905 GLOMB DWORA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1872 POLAND 1880 SZYSLER HERSZL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1933 GLOMB RAKHEL GRABOWIC POLAND POLAND 1920 SZYSLER ZLATA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1921 GLOMB ZELDA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1881 34 POLAND 301918 TSIGEL MORDECHAY GRABOVITZ POLAND GLOMB NACHUM GRABOWIEC POLAND 1923 31 32 33 GRABOWIEC POLAND 1882 TSIGEL ZELIK GRABOVITZ POLAND GELER ARSZ POLAND 1910 POLAND 1898 TSIGEL RUSHI GRABOVITZ POLAND GRAU BERL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1878 POLAND TSIGEL SARA GRABOWIEC POLAND GRAU JOSEF GRABOWIEC POLAND 1874 POLAND TSIGEL SHUA GRABOWIEC POLAND GRAU ICHAK GRABOWIEC POLAND 1892 POLAND 1897 WAJNRIB MOSZE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1902 GRAU FRUMETA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1880 POLAND 1902 WAJNRIB ESTER GRABOWIEC POLAND GERBER HAJA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1892 POLAND 1919 WAJSPUTER FRIDA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1901 GRABOWIEC POLAND 1929 36 39 40 GRUBER AVRAHAM POLAND WAKSMAN GOLDA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1919 GRUBER DAWID GRABOWIEC POLAND 1897 POLAND 1915 WALDE SHEYNDL GRABOWIEC POLAND GRUBER MOTELE GRABOWIEC POLAND 1933 POLAND 1890 WALDE RIVKA GRABOWIC POLAND GERSHTENBLIT PEREL GRABOVITZ POLAND 38 POLAND WALDE BRAKHA GRABOVITZ POLAND DATENSGELD HAYA GRABOVITZ POLAND 1902 POLAND WAMZER SZAJNDEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1899 DIKER FEIWEL 41 GRABOWIEC POLAND 42 1900 37 POLAND WAMZER SZMUL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1899 DRUKER GOLDA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1917 POLAND 1876 WAMZER GITLA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1893 DRUKER JECHEZKIEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1872 POLAND WEIC MENDEL GRABOWIEC POLAND 1900 DRUKER DAWID GRABOWIEC POLAND 1910 POLAND WEIS HANA GRABOWEC POLAND 1886 DRUKER DOW GRABOWIEC POLAND 1908 POLAND WEIS MENDL GRABOWEC POLAND 1894 DRIKER BERISZ GRABOWIEC POLAND 1906 POLAND WEIS YEHUSZUA GRABOWEC POLAND 1917 DRIKER DAWID GRABOWIEC POLAND 1914 POLAND WEIS JCCHAK GRABOWEC POLAND 1919 DRIKER REIZE GRABOWIC POLAND 1877 POLAND WEITZ CHANA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1900 DRIKER GOLDA GRABOWIEC POLAND 1916

13

35


HOZ LEA GRABOWIEC HUS CHAIA GRABOWEC HUS MIRL GRABOVETS HUS ZIRLA GRABOWIEC HUS MORDCHE GRABOWIC HUS SLOMO GRABOVETS HUS MANIS GRABOWIEC HUS BINA GRABOWIEC HUS CIRL GRABOWIC HUS CIRL GRABOWIC HUS YOSEF GRABOVITZ HUS CHAYA GRABOWIEC HUS JOSEF GRABOWIC HUS MIRL GRABOWIC HOSTIK FAJWEL GRABOWIEC HOSTIK ESTHER GRABOWIEC HOSTIK HENA GRABOWIEC HOSTIK ESTER GRABOWIEC HITER ETEL GRABOWIEC HITER JITE GRABOWIEC AJRYNG IDA GRABOWIEC HENDLER BINA GRABOWIEC HAKEN MOSZE GRABOWIEC HAKEN TZVI GRABOWIC HAKEN RACHEL GRABOWIC HAKEN CHANA GRABOWIEC HAKEN RYWKA GRABOWIEC HAKEN HRON GRABOWIC HAKEN ESTER GRABOWIC HAKEN JESHUA GRABOWIC HAKEN CIPORA GRABOWIC CHARNA GRABOWIEC ZUSMAN MALKA GRABOWIEC ZUSMAN HERSH GRABOWIC ZUSMAN ZUSMAN GRABOWIC ZIGEL JESHAIAHU GRABOWEC ZIGEL ROSA GRABOWIEC ZIGEL SARAH GRABOWIEC ZIGEL ZELIG GRABOWIEC ZIGEL MORDCHAI GRABOVITZ ZIGEL HANA GRABOVITZ ZILBERTZVEIG EFRAIM GRABOWIEC ZILBERTZVEIG TZVIA GRABOVETS ZILBERTZVEIG SHMUEL GRABOWIEC ZINGER ISRAEL GRABOWIEC ZINGER MIRL GRABOWIEC ZINGER CHAJIM GRABOWIEC ZINGER ESTER GRABOWIEC ZINGER CHANA GRABOWIEC ZINGER SARA GRABOWIC ZINGERMAN YHOYOHUA GRABOWIC ZISMAN MALKA GRABOWIC ZISMAN RACHEL GRABOWIEC ZISMAN DVORA GRABOWIEC ZISMAN HERSH GRABOWIC ZISMAN RACHL GRABOVETS ZISMAN KHANA GRABOWIEC ZATZ JAKOB GRABOWIEC ZATZ GRABOWIEC ZAKS AHARON GRABOWIC ZAKS YEKHEZKEL GRABOWIC ZAKS KHAIM GRABOWIC ZAKS RAKHEL GRABOWIC ZAKS MOSHE GRABOWIC ZAKS SARA GRABOWEC ZAKS SARA GRABOWIC ZAKS TEHILA GRABOWIC ZAKS MENUKHA GRABOWIC ZAKS HIRSH GRABOWIC TROK ZYSL GRABOWEC TROK ABRAHAM GRABOWIEC TROK KEJLA GRABOWIEC KOHEN RIWKA GRABOWIEC KATZ SARA GRABOVITZ KATZ KHAVA GRABOWIC LAZAR NENY GRABOWIEC LAMPER SARA GRABOWIEC LAK FROIM GRABOWIC LERNER BLUMA GRABOVITZ LERNER SARA GRABOWEC LERNER HANA GRABOWIEC LERNER CHAVA GRABOWIEC LERNER SZEVA GRABOVETS LERNER SLOMO GRABOWIC LERNER BAJLA GRABOWIEC LERNER NECHEMJA GRABOWIC LERNER BLUMA GRABOWIEC LERNER HENE GRABOWIEC LERNER NECHEMIA GRABOWIC LERNER BLUMA GRABOWIEC LERNER MORDCHAI GRABOWIEC LERNER DEWORA GRABOWIC LERNER MORDCHAI GRABOWIEC LERNER BLUMA GRABOWIC LERNER BERL GRABOVETS LERNER TEME GRABOVETS LERNER SARA GRABOVETS LERNER KHANA GRABOWIEC LERNER KHANA GRABOWIEC LERNER SHMUEL GRABOVITZ LERNER MOTIL GRABOWIEC LERNER CHAVA GRABOVITZ LERER ZELIK GRABOVETS LERER ZVI GRABOVETS LERER KALMAN GRABOWIEC LERER KALMAN GRABOVETS MEIER ELIA GRABOWIEC MABER FRYDA GRABOWIEC MUSKAL HIRSH GRABOWEC MUSKAL KHANA GRABOWIC MUSKAL KHAIM GRABOWIC

POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND

1925 1890 1916 1904 1922 1886 1874 1902 1906 1900 1906 1895 1895 1917

1915 1918 1898 1889 1907 1888 1922

1918 1920 1894

1883 1918 1900 1908 1918

1898 1900 1925 1921 1871 1899 1919 1899 1917 1880 1909 1910 1880 1909 1910 1912 1880 1890 1917 1912 1915 1880 1870 1919 1890 1905 1892 1922 1916 1920 1916 1918

1904 1884 1923 1909 1921 1873 1900 1892 1917 1879 1924 1922 1898 1914

1916 1879 1916 1900 1918 1920 1920 1921 1914 1897 1922 1925 1929 1912 1880 1908 1915

MUSKAL YAAKOV GRABOWIC MUSKAL AHARON GRABOWIEC MUSKAL GITEL GRABOWIEC MITLER DAVID GRABOWIC MITLER DAVID GRABOWIC MILER ABRAHAM GRABOWIEC MILER SAITI GRABOWIEC MILER KHANA GRABOWIEC MILER ESTER GRABOWIEC MILER GOLDA GRABOWIEC MILER MENDEL GRABOWIEC MILER RACHEL GRABOWIEC MILER ABRAM GRABOWIEC MILER MOSZE GRABOWIEC MILER MOTE GRABOWIEC MILER MOTEL GRABOWIEC MILER JOSEF GRABOWIEC MILER ABRAHAM GRABOWIEC MILER YOSEK GRABOVETS HANA GRABOWIEC MANDEL GITEL GRABOWIEC NUDEL KHANA GRABOWIEC NUDEL BARUKH GRABOWIEC NUDEL DVORA GRABOWIEC NUDEL CHAJA GRABOWEC SATZ ELIEZER GRABOWIC SATZ NICHA GRABOWIC SATZ SHARL GRABOVITZ SATZ HAIM GRABOWIC FUDIM MORDEHAI GRABOWIEC FUDIM SHLOMO GRABOWIEC FUDIM GERSHON GRABOWIEC FUDIM DVORAH GRABOWIEC FUDIM MOSZE GRABOWIC FUDIM HENJE GRABOWIEC FOLBAUM RECHLA GRABOWIEC FUKS JEKO GRABOVITZ FUKS YITZKHAK GRABOVITZ FUKS SHLOMO HRUBIESZOW FUKS MIRJAM GRABOWIEC FUKS MOTEL GRABOWIC FUKS CHAIM GRABOWIEC FURER LEA GRABOVETS FURER MNACHEM GRABOWIC FURER SARA GRABOWIEC FURER YOSEF GRABOWIEC FURER YUDA GRABOWIC FURER SEINDL GRABOWIC FURER RAJZEL GRABOWIC FURER MRYAM GRABOVITZ PAKH GITEL GRABOWIEC FEIL PESIE CHROBIESHOV FINK HANA GRABOWIC FINK CHANAH GRABOWIEC FIFER DEWID GRABOWEC FIRER GOLDA GRABOVITZ PAPIR TOVA GRABOWEC PAPIR ICZE GRABOWIEC PAPIR SIYE GRABOWIEC PAPIR MALJA GRABOWEC PAPIR YOCHEVED GRABOWIEC PAPIR SHAUL GRABOWIC PAPIR FAVEL GRABOWIEC PAPIR SHLOMO GRABOWIEC PAPIR YESHAYAHU GRABOWIEC PAPIR KHANA GRABOWIEC PAPIR DAVID GRABOWIEC PAPIR SAINDEL GRABOWIEC PAPIR HAIM GRABOWIEC PAPIR ISRAEL GRABOWIEC PAPIR HERS GRABOVETS PAPIR PERL GRABOWIEC PAPIR RACHEL GRABOVETS PERGAMENT SYLKA GRABOWIEC PERGAMENT CHANA GRABOWIC FREIMAN YOSEF GRABOVITZ FARER REUVEN GRABOWIEC TZUKER BERL GRABOWIEC TZUKER MATATIAHU GRABOWIEC KUGER FEIGA GRABOWIEC KORN MOSHE GRABOWEC KORN SZLOME GRABOWIC KORN MOSHE GRABOWIEC KORN NEKHE GRABOWIEC KORN MORDEKHAI GRABOWIEC KORN SHOLEM GRABOWIEC KORNBLIT HIRSH GRABOWIC KEIZ HAJDL GRABOVETS KEIZ YCZE GRABOVETS KIND ESTHER KLEINER HERSZ GRABOWIEC KLEINER JAKUB GRABOWIC KLEINER HENCH GRABOVITZ KLEINER CHANA GRABOWIEC KLEINER HERSZ GRABOVETS KLEINER HANA GRABOWIEC KLEINER JENTA GRABOWIEC KLEINER JERACHMIEL GRABOWIEC KLEINER AHARON GRABOWIEC LEINER ZALMAN GRABOVITZ KLEINER BAT SEVA GRABOVITZ KLEINER ESTER GRABOWIEC KLEINER FRIDA GRABOWICE KLEINER MORDKEI GRABOVETS KLEINER HINDA GRABOWIEC KLEINER FEIGA GRABOVITZ KLEINER SHMUEL GRABOWEC KLEINER RACHMIL GRABOWIEC KLEINER DEBORA GRABOWEC KNOPF CHANA GRABOWIEC KRAUTMAN MORDCHE GRABOWIEC

POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND

1912 1912 1908 1896 1907 1928 1896 1925 1900 1930 1880 1920 1887 1920 1903 1900 1910 1890 1910 1921 1898

KRAUTMAN MARIEM GRABOVITZ KROTMAN MIRJAM GRABOWIEC KROTMAN MORDKO GRABOWIEC KROTMAN MIRIAM GRABOWIEC KROTMAN MORDECHAI GRABOWIEC KROTMAN MORDECHAJ GRABOWIC KROKSHTENGEL SENDER GRABOWEC SZLOMA GRABOWIEC ROZENFELD DAWID GRABOWIC ROTBARD HAYA GRABOWIEC ROFER ETEL GRABOWIEC RIES ISRAEL GRABOWIC RIKHMAN KHAIA GRABOVETS REIS SHMUEL GRABOWIEC REIS JOSEPH GRABOWIEC REIF TOVA GRABOWIC REICHMAN MENIE GRABOWIC REICHMAN YEZE GRABOVETS SHVARTZ RIVKA GRABOWIEC SHVARTZ ABA GRABOWIC SHUSLER MEDEL GRABOVETS SHTANGER YOSEF GRABOVITZ STERN SZAMAJ GRABOWEC SHISTER ZLATA GRABOVITZ SHISLER KHANA GRABOVITZ SHISLER BEILA GRABOWIEC SHISLER DAVID GRABOWIEC SHISLER LEIBEL GRABOWIC SHISLER CHANA GRABOVITZ SHISLER YEHUDIT GRABOVITZ SHISLER GRABOWIC SHIFMAN BELA GRABOVITZ SHNOL SHLOME GRABOWIEC SHNOL PERL GRABOWEC SHNOL CHANA GRABOWEC SHNOL SHALOM GRABOWEC SHNOL LEISER GRABOWIEC SHPETER LEIBEL GRABOWIC SHPETER BLUMA GRABOWIEC SHCHUPAK NECHA GRABOVITZ

1905

1885 1885 1910 1884

POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND POLAND

GRABOVITZ, POLAND - LIST OF VICTIMS

1910 1902 1884 1892 1894 1894 1903 1920 1925 1907

GRABOWIEC [POL], GRABOVITZ [YID], GRABOVYETS [RUS] JEWISH POPULATION IN 1900: 1,717 POPULATION TODAY : 922 [2009] WITH NO JEWS

The small town of Grabovitz , place of residence of my family, the Miller family and the Lander family before the war. In the years of the war 80% of the Jews who lived in the town were perished in the death camps of Poland. After the war there were no Jews left. A list is shown as it is displayed in the database of Yad Vashem.

1897 1913 1892 1899 1921 1907 1904 1904 1899

1919 1910 1922 1904 1903 1916 1919 1907 1878

1917 1934 1913 1900 1902 1895 1897 1920 1928 1910 1900 1910 1919 1919 1904 1902 1905 1894 1906 1883K 1901 1891 1915 1900 1897 1922 1930 1902 1917 1879 1890

1890 1890 1889 1894 1889 1885 1895 1891 1880 1910 1912 1867 1893 1896 1919 1918 1915 1918 1912 1915 1897

1895 1902 1920 1922 1927 1920 1883


MICHAEL IGNATIEFF

THE GENOCIDE BY THE POL POT REGIME IN CAMBODIA WAS AN ATTEMPT TO SOLVE BY DEATH THE PROBLEM OF POLITICAL OR SOCIAL OR CULTURAL OPPOSITION. ALL OF THE CLASS ENEMIES OF THE REGIME - WHICH INCLUDED MINORITIES IN CAMBODIA, IT INCLUDED ANY POSSIBLE PERSON WHO RESISTED THE REGIME - WERE KILLED IN WHAT IS NOW KNOWN AS THE INFAMOUS KILLING FIELDS.

CASE NO.

06

1975 1979


MICHAEL IGNATIEFF

THE GENOCIDE BY THE POL POT REGIME IN CAMBODIA WAS AN ATTEMPT TO SOLVE BY DEATH THE PROBLEM OF POLITICAL OR SOCIAL OR CULTURAL OPPOSITION. ALL OF THE CLASS ENEMIES OF THE REGIME - WHICH INCLUDED MINORITIES IN CAMBODIA, IT INCLUDED ANY POSSIBLE PERSON WHO RESISTED THE REGIME - WERE KILLED IN WHAT IS NOW KNOWN AS THE INFAMOUS KILLING FIELDS.


The Cambodian Genocide 1975 - 1979 MASS MURDER UNDER A TOTALITARIAN REGIME, INCLUDING GENOCIDE AGAINST NATIONAL MAJORITY AND MINORITY PEOPLES

STATISTICS

181,035 km2 (88th) 69,898 sq mi

AREA

Phnom Penh

FLAG

1975 - 1979

TODAY

1970

TODAY

8,000,000

14,494,293 ( CIA 2009 )

COAT OF ARMS

POPULATION

ETHNIC DIVISIONS

Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

RELIGIONS

Buddhist 96.4%, Muslim 2.1%, other 1.3%, unspecified 0.2%

LANGUAGES

Khmer (official) 95%, French, English

GENOCIDE WHO COMMITTED THE GENOCIDE

The Khmer Rouge regime. The Khmer Rouge were highly unusual in their combination of Marxist, Maoist, ultra-nationalist and overtly racist ideas.

WHO LED THE GENOCIDE

Pol Pot was the leader of the Cambodian communist movement known as the Khmer Rouge and was Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea from 1976–1979. During his time in power, Pol Pot imposed a version of agrarian collectivization, forcing city dwellers to relocate to the countryside to work in collective farms and forced labor projects, with the goal of "restarting civilization" in a "Year Zero". The combined effects of slave labor, malnutrition, poor medical care, and executions resulted in the deaths of an estimated 1.2 to 1.7 million people.

Pol Pot

WHO WERE THE VICTIMS

NUMBER OF DEATHS

METHODS OF EXECUTION

The victims were minority groups. These included ethnic Chinese, Vietnamese and Thai, and also Cambodians with Chinese, Vietnamese or Thai ancestry. Half the Cham Muslim population was murdered, and 8,000 Christians.

20% 01. 02. 03. 04.

1,200,000 - 1,700,00 Of the Cambodian population

Death by starvation Mass executions Forced labour Torture

SOURCES :

1. Totten and Parsons. (1998) Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views 2. The Imperial War Museum, London. (Examples of genocide cases) 3. The CIA World Factbook


KHMER ROUGE PEASANT FARMERS IN PROPAGANDA PHOTOGRAPH, OUTSIDE PHNOM PENH © THE TUOL SLENG MUSEUM OF GENOCIDE


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

CHAPTER 02 / CASE NO.6 / THE CAMBODIAN GENOCIDE

70

CASE NO.

06 IN BRIEF

Between 1975 and 1979 the Khmer Rouge regime, led by Pol Pot, terrorised Cambodia. In pursuit of their goal of a pure Khmer (Cambodian) state, the regime forced the bulk of the population into slave labour on vast collective farms. More than a million people died from malnutrition, maltreatment and overwork. At least 200,000 more were murdered in what became known as ‘the killing fields’ for alleged crimes against the state. Particular targets included educated and urban Cambodians and Buddhist monks as well as minority peoples such as the Vietnamese, Chinese and Muslim Chams.

S-21: PHOTOGRAPHS FROM THE DEATH CAMP /

These photographs are from Pol Pot's secret prison, codenamed "S-21" during his genocidal rule (1975-79). Between 1-2 million Cambodians--and many thousands of foreigners--were starved to death, tortured, or killed, during this reign of terror. When the Vietnamese Army invaded in 1979 the S-21 prison staff fled, leaving thousands of written and photographic records. Altogether more than 6,000 photographs were left; the majority, however, have been lost or destroyed.

TIMELINE / THE CAMBODIAN GENOCIDE Candles And Ashes / Brief Chronology of Cambodia Genocide

19491952

1953

19601963

19671968

1975

1978

Saloth Sar, later known as Pol Pot, goes to Paris on government scholarship and becomes absorbed with communist ideology.

Pol Pot sets up communist party after Cambodia's independence from France.

Pol Pot becomes party's general-secretary. Flees to jungle to escape repression by Cambodia's ruler, Prince Norodom Sihanouk.

Khmer Rouge takes up arms in support of peasant against a government rice tax. Army suppresses insurrection.

Khmer Rouge seizes power, begins doomed experiment in agrarian communism. Up to 2 million people die over four years from starvation, overwork and execution.

Vietnam invades Cambodia to stop Khmer Rouge border attacks. Phnom Penh falls to Vietnamese two weeks later.


COURTESY OF THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, LONDON PHOTOGRAPHS : COURTESY OF THE TUOL SLENG MUSEUM OF GENOCIDE, CAMBODIA

71 73

CAMBODIA BEFORE THE KHMER ROUGE

WHAT DID THIS MEAN FOR THE PEOPLE OF CAMBODIA?

At independence in 1953 Cambodia was more isolated and underdeveloped than neighbouring South East Asian countries. Its monarchy and traditional social structure had been preserved by the French colonial protectorate. 80% of its overwhelmingly rural population were of Khmer ethnic origin. Minority ethnic groups, notably Chinese and Vietnamese, fulfilled many trading roles.

The two million inhabitants of Phnom Penh, and other Cambodian towns, were forcibly evacuated to the countryside. Those who survived deportation were put to work on giant agricultural projects.Money and private property were abolished. Modern technology largely disappeared from public life.

Travel within Cambodia was forbidden. The country became almost entirely isolated from the outside world. Religion, including Buddhism, so central to the Cambodian way Cambodia’s ruler Prince Sihanouk began a process of tentative of life, was banned. All social and sexual relations were to be state-led modernisation. Aspects of this included numbers of regulated by the ‘Centre’, the new shadowy government of Pol government-sponsored students being sent to complete their Pot. Children were required to spy on their parents. Urban people, studies in Paris. On their return, some of these, including Saloth Sar especially professionals, or indeed anybody suspected of ‘non(Pol Pot), became leaders of an emerging communist movement conformity’ was likely to be killed. Thousands were murdered in which also drew disaffected teachers, other students and peasants special detention centres, the most notorious of which was the into its ranks. This formative Khmer Rouge set up guerrilla bases in Tuol Sleng prison in Phnom Penh, known as S21. As the Khmer remote regions of the country. Rouge experiment began to fall apart, not least through mass starvation, the scale of their terror intensified. When its leadership 1965 in the Eastern Zone rebelled in May 1978, all 1.5 million people living in the region were branded as having ‘Khmer bodies with The war in neighbouring Vietnam began seriously to destabilise Vietnamese minds’. Marked out with special blue scarves, tens of Cambodia. Sihanouk had initially sought to remain neutral, but as thousands of them were deported to the north west of the country the North Vietnamese communists moved deeper and deeper into where they were murdered. Cambodia to avoid US bombing of their bases, his position became HOW WERE THE KHMER ROUGE OVERTHROWN? increasingly compromised. 1950S AND 1960S

1969

The US began a new secret, mass bombing campaign of Cambodia in order to obliterate the North Vietnamese communist bases. Tens of thousands of Cambodian civilians were killed or displaced. The Khmer Rouge exploited the US bombing, using it for recruitment propaganda among refugees and peasants alike. 1970

Sihanouk was overthrown by the US-backed General Lon Nol. Civil war broke out between Lon Nol’s army and the Khmer Rouge. 1975

On April 17, the Khmer Rouge captured the capital of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, and declared Year Zero of the newly renamed Democratic Republic of Kampuchea. WHAT WAS THE IDEOLOGY OF THE KHMER ROUGE?

The Khmer Rouge were highly unusual in their combination of Marxist, Maoist, ultra-nationalist and overtly racist ideas. They idealised the era of the Angkor kingdom which, at its high point in the 12th century, had covered all of modern day Cambodia, as well as parts of Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and Burma. To restore Cambodian greatness and to reclaim the ‘lost territories’ in Vietnam and Thailand they believed that the country had to be cleansed of not only non-Khmers but all those Khmer tainted by outside influences. Khmer Rouge hatred of the Vietnamese, whom they regarded as the historic oppressors of the Khmer people, was particularly intense. The other critical aspect of the Khmer Rouge drive to power was their fixation with the Khmer peasantry. The Khmer Rouge believed that if they could start again afresh from a rural, peasant-base, they could rapidly transform Cambodian society and make it once again powerful.

Despite being supposedly ‘fraternal’ communist allies, relations between Cambodia and Vietnam deteriorated rapidly after 1975. After raids on their own borders by Khmer Rouge forces, the Vietnamese responded in late 1978 by invading Cambodia, capturing Phnom Penh and overthrowing the regime. Pol Pot and his remaining forces fled to the border region with Thailand, from where they mounted a guerrilla war against the Vietnamesebacked government installed in Phnom Penh. The insurgency did not finally end until 1998, when the movement became split by internal dissent.For much of this period the Khmer Rouge received overt support from China and more covert assistance from the US: it was their interests to see Vietnam punished. The international community continued to recognise the Khmer Rouge as the legitimate government of Cambodia until the early 1990s. Not until 1996 did the UN adopt a resolution condemning the Khmer Rouge for its policies. Vietnamese troops withdrew from Cambodia in 1989. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 restored a multi-party democracy under a constitutional monarchy. The formation of a coalition government in 1998 further eased political tensions but Cambodian society remains severely traumatised by 30 years of civil war, and the aftermath of the Pol Pot years. WERE KHMER ROUGE LEADERS BROUGHT TO JUSTICE?

In 2001, Cambodia’s Senate approved the establishment of a national tribunal, with the assistance of the United Nations, to bring genocide charges against the Khmer Rouge leadership, many of whom remain at large. The process has been stalled for many years by contentions over the ability of the Court to function effectively within the Cambodian national system, and the cost of the trials - estimated to be over $60m. A $21m donation by the Japanese government gave impetus to the process, and hope that the UN-backed trials would finally begin, but disagreements over procedures and government interference continue to delay the process the trials. In early 2009 the trial began of the former commandant of Tuol Seng prison, Kaing Guek Eav – known as Comrade Duch – the first Khmer Rouge leader to be tried.

1991

1996 AUGUST

1997 JUNE 13

1997 JUNE 20

1997 JULY

1997 APRIL 9

1997 APRIL 15

All Cambodian factions sign peace agreement..

Government announces Khmer Rouge breakup. Pol Pot's brother-in-law, Ieng Sary, leads 10,000 guerrillas to defect.

Pol Pot reportedly orders top general Son Sen and family killed; hardliners split into factions. Officials offer a series of conflicting accounts on Pol Pot's fate.

Former comrades capture Pol Pot, both rival co-prime ministers say.

A "people's tribunal" held at the guerrillas' last stronghold in northern Cambodia condemns Pol Pot for crimes that included the killing of the group's defense minister, Son Sen, and his family.

United States offers assistance to any effort to bring Pol Pot before an international tribunal.

Pol Pot dies in his sleep, at 73, Khmer Rouge officials say.


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

72 70

CHAPTER 02 / CASE NO.6 / THE CAMBODIAN GENOCIDE

CASE NO.

06 IN BRIEF

Between 1975 and 1979 the Khmer Rouge regime, led by Pol Pot, terrorised Cambodia. In pursuit of their goal of a pure Khmer (Cambodian) state, the regime forced the bulk of the population into slave labour on vast collective farms. More than a million people died from malnutrition, maltreatment and overwork. At least 200,000 more were murdered in what became known as ‘the killing fields’ for alleged crimes against the state. Particular targets included educated and urban Cambodians and Buddhist monks as well as minority peoples such as the Vietnamese, Chinese and Muslim Chams.

S-21: PHOTOGRAPHS FROM THE DEATH CAMP /

These photographs are from Pol Pot's secret prison, codenamed "S-21" during his genocidal rule (1975-79). Between 1-2 million Cambodians--and many thousands of foreigners--were starved to death, tortured, or killed, during this reign of terror. When the Vietnamese Army invaded in 1979 the S-21 prison staff fled, leaving thousands of written and photographic records. Altogether more than 6,000 photographs were left; the majority, however, have been lost or destroyed.

TIMELINE / THE CAMBODIAN GENOCIDE Candles And Ashes / Brief Chronology of Cambodia Genocide

19491952

1953

19601963

19671968

1975

1978

Saloth Sar, later known as Pol Pot, goes to Paris on government scholarship and becomes absorbed with communist ideology.

Pol Pot sets up communist party after Cambodia's independence from France.

Pol Pot becomes party's general-secretary. Flees to jungle to escape repression by Cambodia's ruler, Prince Norodom Sihanouk.

Khmer Rouge takes up arms in support of peasant against a government rice tax. Army suppresses insurrection.

Khmer Rouge seizes power, begins doomed experiment in agrarian communism. Up to 2 million people die over four years from starvation, overwork and execution.

Vietnam invades Cambodia to stop Khmer Rouge border attacks. Phnom Penh falls to Vietnamese two weeks later.


PHOTOGRAPHS : COURTESY OF THE TUOL SLENG MUSEUM OF GENOCIDE, CAMBODIA

73


CASE NO.

07 1975 1999


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

MAPS / EAST TIMOR- 500 YEARS UNDER OCCUPATION

CHAPTER O2 / CASE NO.7 / GENOCIDE IN EAST TIMOR

76


Genocide in East Timor EAST TIMOR / COURTESY OF MELVIN CHIA

77

1975 - 1999 DOMESTIC POLITICAL MASSACRES, MASSACRES OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES, INVASION ACCOMPANIED BY GENOCIDAL MASSACRES

STATISTICS AREA

14,874 km2 (159th) 5,743 sq mi

Indonesia

East Timor Dili

FLAG

COAT OF ARMS

POPULATION

1975

2009

690,000

1,131,612 ( CIA 2009 )

ETHNIC DIVISIONS

Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian), Papuan, small Chinese minority

RELIGIONS

Roman Catholic 98%, Muslim 1%, Protestant 1%

LANGUAGES

Tetum (official), Portuguese (official), Indonesian, English

GENOCIDE WHO COMMITTED THE GENOCIDE

The Indonesian government who occupied East Timor in 1975

WHO LED THE GENOCIDE

Indonesian president Suharto.

Suharto

WHO WERE THE VICTIMS

NUMBER OF DEATHS

METHODS OF EXECUTION

Suharto was the second President of Indonesia. He held the office from 1967 following Sukarno's removal up to his resignation in 1998. Indonesia's 24-year occupation of East Timor during Suharto's presidency, resulted in at least 200,000 deaths.

The were the people of East Timor, particularly educated East Timorese such as public officials, nurses and teachers.

30%

200,000 - 250,000 Of the East Timor population before the occupation

01. Death by starvation 02. Using automatic weapon and machine guns 03. Rape 04. Administered diseases

SOURCES :

1. Totten and Parsons. (1998) Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views 2. The Imperial War Museum, London. (Examples of genocide cases) 3. The CIA World Factbook 4.Genderside Watch: East Timor 1975-1979 / http://www.gendercide.org/case_timor.html


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

MAPS / EAST TIMOR- 500 YEARS UNDER OCCUPATION

CHAPTER O2 / CASE NO.7 / GENOCIDE IN EAST TIMOR

76


EAST TIMOR / COURTESY OF MELVIN CHIA

77


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

CHAPTER O2 / CASE NO.7 / GENOCIDE IN EAST TIMOR

78

CASE NO.

07

In 1998 President Suharto was forced from power. The following year the people of East Timor voted overwhelmingly for independence in a UN-sponsored referendum. But the violence was not at an end. A backlash by anti-independence militia, assisted by the Indonesian army, left one thousand dead, whole towns destroyed and caused a quarter of the population to flee, mainly to West Timor. The scale of the repression resulted in the dispatch of an Australian-led international force to restore order. Many East Timorese remain in refugee camps in West Timor, however, prevented from returning by intimidation by the pro-Jakarta militia who forced their flight. In October 1999, Indonesia’s parliament

Militiamen in East Timor killed 3 people including a pregnant woman and a teenage student. Some 5,500 people fled their homes following the murders.

Xanana Gusmao, East Timor rebel leader, was arrested outside Dili for fighting Indonesian forces. He was sentenced to life in prison in 1993 following a trial in which he was represented by a member of the Indonesian security service.

1999 JANUARY

06

1992 NOVEMBER

Indonesian troops under Lt. Gen’l. Sintong Panjaitan killed at least 50 demonstrators in Dili. The total killed after a few days reached hundreds.

Nicolao Lobato, East Timor guerrilla commander, was killed and Jose Alexandre Gusmao was made the de facto Falintil leader.

1999 JANUARY 27

05

UN sponsored autonomy negotiations on East Timor were suspended after 44 people were reported killed under a military crackdown by the Indonesian government. The Red Cross later denied the reports of a massacre. 1978 DECEMBER

1998 NOVEMBER 20

Indonesia and the UN signed an agreement to allow human rights observers access to East Timor.

WHAT ENDED INDONESIA’S OCCUPATION OF EAST TIMOR?

04

Indonesia passed a law providing for annexation of East Timor, which the President of Indonesia signed on 17 July. East Timor became the 27th province of the Republic of Indonesia. The act was not recognized by the UN.

1998 MAY 1975 DECEMBER 4

1998 AUGUST 14

In Indonesia a recent visitor reported that some 40,000 Indonesian troops were stationed in East Timor among a population of 800,000. The Portuguese colonial rule collapsed and East Timor proclaimed independence, but 10 days later it was invaded by Indonesia.

03

1976 JULY 15

1997 NOVEMBER 26 1975 NOVEMBER 28

1975 1999

TIMELINE / EAST TIMOR

With Indonesian president Suharto‘s departure, various independence movements gained momentum around Indonesia including East Timor.

02

01

Ramos Horta helped form an independent East Timor government but was forced to flee 3 days before Indonesia invaded.

In 1975, Indonesian troops invaded and quickly occupied East Timor, which was proclaimed another Indonesian province. Continued Fretilin resistance was brutally suppressed; observers estimate that 200,000 East Timorese (the total population before the occupation was c. 690,000) perished in what is referred to as the Timorese Genocide.

or unreliable. This was partly due to the tacit support that western governments, particularly the US, Britain and Australia, East Timor’s closest neighbour, wished to give Indonesia. They regarded the country as an important bulwark against a perceived communist threat in the region and as a valuable market for western goods, particularly arms. Western nations, including the US, Britain and France, continued to supply arms to Indonesia, despite evidence that they were being used in East Timor against civilians.

In Indonesia legislators announced that independence for East Timor would be considered. Also Chief Xanana Gusmao was to be released from prison but kept in confinement.

torture, targeting in particular educated East Timorese such as public officials, nurses and teachers. Fretilin forces fought The island of Timor, on the eastern edge back and, until the early 1980s, managed of the Indonesian archipelago, was split to prevent the Indonesian army from between the Portuguese East and the taking effective control outside the main Dutch West in the eighteenth century. In towns. Thousands of East Timorese sought the aftermath of the Second World War, refuge behind Fretilin lines. Unable to West Timor became part of Indonesia, while support them, and with thousands dying East Timor remained under Portuguese of starvation and disease, Fretilin leaders control. The situation changed with a coup hoped that refugees who returned to the in 1974 which brought reforms to Portugal Indonesian-occupied areas would be safe. In after decades of authoritarian rule: these fact, those who did go back were forced into included a programme of withdrawing from military-controlled camps where food and the country’s colonies. medical supplies were kept in deliberately The Indonesian government was nervous short supply. about this prospect, fearing that an The teaching of East Timor’s most widely independent East Timor would encourage spoken languages, Tetum and Portuguese, discontented ethnic groups within Indonesia were banned and Bahasa Indonesian was to seek independence. enforced as the official language. Land was transferred to migrants from outside East By the end of 1974, Indonesia was accusing Timor as part of the government’s strategy Fretilin, the main political party in East of ‘Indonesian-isation’. Some 250,000 East Timor, of links with communist China and Timorese died unnatural deaths in the Vietnam. Talks between Indonesia and twenty five years of Indonesian occupation – Portugal over the future of East Timor broke around one third of the population. down. By September 1975, Indonesian forces were launching raids over the border WHAT WERE THE INTERNATIONAL RESPONSES? from West Timor. The Portuguese refused to intervene. On 28 November, Fretilin Reports of the brutal nature of the declared East Timor independent. Early in Indonesian occupation began to filter December, Indonesian troops invaded and out by the end of 1976, mainly through declared East Timor the twenty-seventh the Timorese Catholic Church, but they province of Indonesia. were often dismissed as exaggerated They began a campaign of killing, rape and EAST TIMOR – INVASION ACCOMPANIED BY GENOCIDAL MASSACRES

1991 NOVEMBER 12

IN BRIEF


The foreign ministers of Indonesia and Portugal completed an agreement for the people of East Timor to vote on their future.

The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Roman Catholic Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo of East Timor and Jose Ramos-Horta, in exile in Australia, for their work to end oppression and violence in East Timor.

The days surrounding the UN transitional elections in East Timor 2000. Suai was the location of the infamous Suai Church Massacre. It was one of a number of massacres perpetrated by a proIndonesia militia in the time of the Indonesian withdrawal of East Timor.

02-10 : SUAI, EAST TIMOR, 2000 / COURTESY OF RUSTY STEWART

10

From Dili, Indonesia, Jose Ramos Horta in 1997 presented video images taken at time of torture of East Timorese youths to the United Nations Human Rights Committee.

Indonesia and Portugal signed accords to enable the people of East Timor to vote on independence Aug 8.

1999 MAY 5

09

1996 NOVEMBER

The Australian Senate called for selfdetermination in East Timor and supported independence from Jakarta. The government had earlier recognized the incorporation of East Timor into Indonesia.

Pro-Indonesian militias were reported to have killed over 150 people in East Timor.

08

1996 OCTOBER 16

1999 APRIL 23

1996 OCTOBER 11

07

1999 APRIL 25

In East Timor the warring factions signed an agreement to end violence.

1999 APRIL 21

Konis Santana took over leadership of the guerrilla Fretilin Party after the arrest and jailing of Xanana Gusmao.

1993

COURTESY OF THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, LONDON 79

ratified the result of the East Timor referendum, and in May 2002 East Timor became an independent country. Povertystricken and drought-prone, however, it remains unstable. A new UN peace-keeping force was deployed following an outbreak of violence in 2006 and in February 2008 an attempt was made on the life of Prime Minister Jose Ramos-Horta.

Despite international concern that the full process of justice should be implemented with regard to the quarter of a century of atrocities in East Timor, when the Indonesian government put on trial eighteen members of its security forces suspected of human rights abuses all but one of them were acquitted. Another route favoured by the East Timorese leadership - perhaps with anxieties to the fore about inflaming tensions with a Jakarta upon whom East Timor remain heavily dependent for trade - is the creation of a Truth and Friendship Commission. A Joint Report by the Indonesian – East Timorese Truth and Friendship Commission in July 2008 blamed Indonesia for the crimes against humanity committed in East Timor in 1999. Although a major step forward, the Report did not identify precisely who had been responsible and no apology was forthcoming.


SUSAN SONTAG / "WHY ARE WE IN KOSOVO?"/ THE NEW YORK TIMES 02.05.99

STOP THE WAR AND STOP THE GENOCIDE, READ THE BANNERS BEING WAVED IN THE DEMONSTRATIONS IN ROME AND HERE IN BARI. FOR PEACE. AGAINST WAR. WHO IS NOT? BUT HOW CAN YOU STOP THOSE BENT ON GENOCIDE WITHOUT MAKING WAR?

CASE NO.

08

1991 1999

MAP / SERBIAN CONCENTRATION CAMPS


MAP / SERBIAN CONCENTRATION CAMPS SUSAN SONTAG / "WHY ARE WE IN KOSOVO?"/ THE NEW YORK TIMES 02.05.99

STOP THE WAR AND STOP THE GENOCIDE, READ THE BANNERS BEING WAVED IN THE DEMONSTRATIONS IN ROME AND HERE IN BARI. FOR PEACE. AGAINST WAR. WHO IS NOT? BUT HOW CAN YOU STOP THOSE BENT ON GENOCIDE WITHOUT MAKING WAR?


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

CHAPTER O2 / CASE NO.8 / FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

82

EVERY GUARD WOULD PICK A WOMAN HE WAS GOING TO ABUSE. I HAD THE BAD LUCK TO BE CHOSEN BY THE HEAD OF SECURITY AT THE CAMP. IT WOULD ALL START BY BEATING AND END WITH SEXUAL INTERCOURSE. AFTER WHICH HE’D TAKE ME BACK WITH A SMILE ON HIS FACE. JADRANKA CIGELJ / BOSNIAN RAPE VICTIM

MOSTAR 1993 / A BOSNIAN GIRL PRAYS IN A MOSQUE AT A REFUGEE CENTRE HOUSING MUSLIMS FLEEING SERBIAN TROOPS / COURTESY OF JUDAH PASSOW


Former Yugoslavia 1991 - 1995 MASS ETHNIC ELEANSING AND EXPULSIONS AFTER FEDERAL STATE COLLAPSE

STATISTICS AREA

51,209 sq km

CROATIA

BOSNIA-HERZ.

SERBIA

KOSOVO

56,594 km2 (126th) 21,851 sq mi

51,129 km2 (127th) 19,767 sq mi

88 361 km2 (113th) 34 116 sq mi

10,908 km2 4,212 sq mi

b Zagre de Belgra

Croatia

Bosnia & Herzegovina

Serbia

evo Saraj

Kosovo

a Pristin

FLAG

COAT OF ARMS

POPULATION

23,841,608 (July 1990)

ETHNIC DIVISIONS

36.3% Serb, 19.7% Croat, 8.9% Muslim, 7.8% Slovene, 7.7% Albanian, 5.9% Macedonian, 5.4% Yugoslav, 2.5% Montenegrin, 1.9% Hungarian, 3.9% other 50% Eastern Orthodox, 30% Roman Catholic, 9% Muslim, 1% Protestant, 10% other

RELIGIONS

LANGUAGES

Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, Macedonian (all official); Albanian, Hungarian

GENOCIDE WHO COMMITTED THE GENOCIDE

Bosnian Serb troops

WHO LED THE GENOCIDE

The vast majority of the mass killings were inflicted by the Yugoslav regime of Milosevic. Four top aides were indicted alongside him. Among Milosevic’s key co-conspirators is his wife, Mirjana Markovic, a leading party ideologue. The Yugoslav power structure is extensively penetrated by criminal and paramilitary elements, most notably those under the control of Zeljko Raznatovic and Vojislav Seselj. Both of these leaders were involved in the ground-level killing at major massacre sites. Radovan Karadzic, Prime Minister of the self-declared “Republika Srpska” (the Serb statelet in Bosnia-Herzegovina), has also been indicted on war-crimes charges. He was intimately involved in planning and preparing the genocidal actions against the Muslims of Bosnia. His top general, Ratko Mladic, supervised the gendercide at Srebrenica and other acts of mass killing.

Slobodan Milosevic

Radovan Karadzic

WHO WERE THE VICTIMS

Bosnian Muslims in Bosnia Herzegovina Albanian Muslims in Kosovo

NUMBER OF DEATHS

BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA

KOSOVO

The number of ethnic Albanians and Serbs killed during the war is a matter of ongoing dispute. A reasonable speculation at this early stage is 20,000-30,000 killed and missing, of which the overwhelming majority are ethnic-Albanian civilians

The number of Albanians killed continues to be unclear. Nongovernmental organisations’ (NGOs’) estimates range between 5000 and 30,000 victims, while Milosevic has been charged with responsibility for the murder of more than 900 Kosovo Albanians.

METHODS OF EXECUTION

01. Death using automatic weapon and machine guns 02. Rape

SOURCES :

1. /http://www.theodora.com/wfb1990/yugoslavia/ yugoslavia_people.html 1990 cia world factbook 2. Totten and Parsons. (1998) Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

CHAPTER O2 / CASE NO.8 / FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

82

EVERY GUARD WOULD PICK A WOMAN HE WAS GOING TO ABUSE. I HAD THE BAD LUCK TO BE CHOSEN BY THE HEAD OF SECURITY AT THE CAMP. IT WOULD ALL START BY BEATING AND END WITH SEXUAL INTERCOURSE. AFTER WHICH HE’D TAKE ME BACK WITH A SMILE ON HIS FACE. JADRANKA CIGELJ / BOSNIAN RAPE VICTIM

MOSTAR 1993 / A BOSNIAN GIRL PRAYS IN A MOSQUE AT A REFUGEE CENTRE HOUSING MUSLIMS FLEEING SERBIAN TROOPS / COURTESY OF JUDAH PASSOW


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

84

CHAPTER O2 / CASE NO.8 / FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

CASE NO.

08 IN BRIEF

WHY DID YUGOSLAVIA FRAGMENT?

THE WAR IN BOSNIA

THE DAYTON AGREEMENT

Between 1991 and 1999, the breakdown of the Communist state of Yugoslavia resulted in massive ethnic violence and the death of at least 250,000 people. Serb attempts to create a ‘greater Serbia’ which included Serb populations in neighbouring Croatia, Bosnia and Kosovo resulted in organised campaigns of ‘ethnic cleansing’ and the terrorisation of civilian populations. Efforts to create a ‘greater Croatia’ produced similar, if smaller, results. In fact, atrocities were carried out by all sides, although Bosnian Muslims were the targets of the largest and most efficientlyorganised operations between 1992 and 1995. In 1998 and 1999, Serb actions resulted in one million ethnic Albanians fleeing Kosovo.

Originally created in 1919, Yugoslavia was reconstructed as a federal state under communist rule in 1945 and remained one of the most ethnically diverse countries in Europe. It consisted of six semi-autonomous republics: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia and two provinces – Kosovo and Vojvodina – both within Serbia. Despite longlasting recriminations surrounding the persecution of Serbs and others by Croat fascists during the Second World War, the Yugoslav president, Marshal Josip Tito, forced the population to subsume their ethnic and religious differences within a single Yugoslav identity. Ethnic diversity remained pronounced. Bosnia’s population, for instance, included 44% Muslims, 31% Serbians and 17% Croatians as well as other smaller ethnic communities. However, communal co-existence was the norm and marriages across ethnic and religious boundaries were common.

In March 1992, Bosnia, unwilling to remain part of a shrunken Yugoslavia under Serb control, declared its independence – its first appearance as a truly independent state since 1463. Bosnian Serbs, supported by neighbouring Serbia, began a campaign of ‘ethnic cleansing’, forcing non-Serbs, mainly Bosnian Muslims, out of Serb areas. There was bitter fighting, and numerous atrocities were committed, including rape. Bosnia’s cosmopolitan and ethnically diverse capital of Sarajevo was besieged by the Yugoslav-backed Bosnian Serb army. Shelling, sniper fire and deprivation caused thousands of deaths.

In September 1995, Croatian and Bosnian forces with US backing made dramatic military gains against the Serbs in western Bosnia – the first serious Serb defeat of the war. This, together with American diplomatic pressure and NATO air attacks on Bosnian Serb positions, led to the Dayton Agreement of November 1995, signed by Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic, Tudjman and Milosevic, who represented the Bosnian Serbs. This created two self-governing entities within Bosnia, the Bosnian Serb Republic, known as Republika Srpska, and the Muslim-Croat Federation. A NATO-led international force – IFOR - was set up to enforce the peace.

By the end of June 1992, the Serbs controlled more than two thirds of Bosnia. In August, western journalists discovered a system of Serb-run concentration camps in northern Bosnia in which Muslims and others were tortured and murdered. In Central Bosnia, the mainly Muslim Bosnian army was fighting a separate war In 1980, the death of Tito left a political against Bosnian Croats who wished to vacuum. This, combined with an economic be part of a greater Croatia. The fighting crisis which by 1985 had lowered standards was particularly intense in Mostar, much of living to 1965 levels, increased tension of which was destroyed, including, in between the republics. These were exploited November 1993, the famous sixteenth by communist politicians like Slobodan century Old Bridge. However, in March Milosevic in Serbia and Franjo Tudjman in 1994, under US pressure, a ceasefire led Croatia. Tudjman had a long track record of to the establishment of a Bosnian-Croat playing the nationalist card, but in the late Federation to fight the Serbs. 1980s Milosevic found that the notion of a Repeated attempts to introduce both ‘greater Serbia’ had tremendous popular local and national ceasefires were made appeal, especially among Serb minorities by the United Nations and the European living in Bosnia, Croatia and Kosovo. Community with little lasting success. THE WAR IN CROATIA Unwilling to intervene militarily, the international community focused its efforts Croatia and Slovenia resented Serb on providing aid for the thousands of dominance within the Yugoslav federation. refugees created by the conflict. They saw support of those republics less In May 1993, a number of ‘safe areas’ were successful and less westernised than designated by the UN for Muslim refugees themselves as a drain on their resources. in Bosnia. But without an adequate mandate In June 1991, Slovenia declared its to protect them they proved far from safe. independence from Yugoslavia. Croatia In July 1995, Serb forces entered the ‘safe soon followed. The Yugoslav army, loyal area’ of Srebrenica. They deported the to Serbia, began an unsuccessful ten-day women and children and killed between attempt to thwart Slovene independence. seven and eight thousand men and boys in When this failed, the Serb minority in Croatia the biggest single massacre in Europe since looked to Milosevic for support in their own the Second World War. The indictment of the demands for autonomy. By August 1991, Bosnian Serbs’ leader, Radovan Karadzic, Serbia and Croatia were at war, with both and his military commander, General Ratko sides committing massacres of civilians. Mladic at the ICC for the former Yugoslavia The war was ended by a UN ceasefire in in November 1995 specifically focused on January 1992. charges relating to these massacres.

KOSOVO

The Serbs view Kosovo as an integral part of their nation and as the cradle of historic Christian Orthodox Serbia. Yet by the 1990s ethnic, mostly Muslim, Albanians constituted around 90% of Kosovo’s population. From the 1970s Tito had permitted Kosovo a degree of autonomy with concessions to Albanian language and culture. Once in power however, Milosevic claimed that the minority Serb population were facing potential genocide at the hands of the majority Albanians. In 1989, at a rally marking the 600th anniversary of the Battle of Kosovo Polje in which the Serbs had been defeated by the Turks, Milosevic invoked modern Serbia’s historic right to the land. The following year he revoked the province’s autonomy and imposed direct rule from Serbia. In response, the Kosovar Albanians, led by Ibrahim Rugova, adopted a policy of passive resistance and established a parallel administration, campaigning for independence or union with Albania. Rugova’s strategy failed to win any concessions from Serbia and, in 1997, the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) began launching attacks on Serb police. These KLA raids formed a pretext for a Serb campaign of destruction against Albanian villages in the spring and summer of 1998, with some 250,000 Kosovar Albanians driven from their homes. Rugova’s peaceful policy was swept away in a mass uprising against the Serbs. Early in 1999 Serb military and para-military forces began a new offensive against ethnic Albanian villages centred on Racak, where more than forty civilians were massacred.

TIMELINE / THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

1991 JUNE

1992 JANUARY

1992 APRIL

1992 APRIL

1995 NOVEMBER

Slovenia and Croatia declare independence. With 90% of its population ethnic Slovenians, Slovenia is able to break away with only a brief period of fighting.

Macedonia declares independence.

Bosnia and Herzegovina declares independence. Ethnic tensions strain to breaking point, and Bosnia erupts into war. By the time a peace is achieved in 1995, the country has been partitioned into 3 areas, with each region governed by one of the 3 ethnic groups.

Serbia and Montenegro form the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, with Slobodan Milosevic as its leader. This new government, however, is not recognized by the United States as the successor state to the former Yugoslavia.

Bosnia, Serbia, and Croatia sign the Dayton Peace Accord to end the war in Bosnia.

1996 In the southern Yugoslavian province of Kosovo, the militant Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) begins attacking Serbian policeman.

1998 MARCH

1999 MARCH

2000 JANUARY

Milosevic sends troops to Kosovo to quash unrest in the province. A guerrilla war breaks out.

After peace talks fail, NATO carries through on its threat to launch airstrikes on Serbian targets.

In the face of trade sanctions from the U.S. and other nations, the Serbian economy continues to deteriorate and dissent spreads. Montenegro discusses separating from Serbia.


COURTESY OF THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, LONDON

Outrage at the discovery of this massacre prompted a number of western countries to convene a peace conference in Rambouillet, near Paris. The conference demanded that Serbia accept a NATO security force in Kosovo as well as military rights of passage across Yugoslavia as a whole. Milosevic refused. NATO responded with aerial bombardment of Serb military targets and bridges, power supplies and communications centres in Serbia and Kosovo. This was the first time that NATO had coordinated an attack on a sovereign European country.

Within hours of the first NATO bombs falling, Serb forces within Kosovo had embarked on a campaign of murder, rape, looting and intimidation aimed at driving the remainder of Kosovo’s Albanian population out of the province. Up to a million people were forced onto trains or coaches or fled by other means to the Macedonian, Montenegrin and Albanian borders.

85

in communities which remain divided and traumatised. As of May 2002, verdicts have been issued on more than 560 suspects, and more than 160one hundred individuals indicted with more than 40fifty currently in detention. The two main Bosnian Serb suspects, Radovan Karadzic and Ratko Mladic, are still at large. The former Serb and Yugoslav president, Slobodan Milosevic, was brought to trial at the Hagueis currently on trial, charged with genocide in Bosnia and crimes against humanity in Croatia and Kosovo, but died in March 2006. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic was arrested and is currently on trial at the Hague. THE USE OF HISTORY AS A WEAPON

“In these lands, every lie becomes a truth in the end.”

and remained intent on destroying the Serbs.Ironically, the Tudjman regime leading the newly independent Croatia of the early 1990s was not averse to resuscitating the symbols or commemorating the memory of the Ustasha. This only served to heighten the official anti-Croat propaganda from Belgrade. Croats were not the only targets of such distortions of history. There was also a significant anti-Islamic element sentiment in Serb nationalism, focusing on both the majority ethnic Albanian population of Kosovo and on the Bosnian Muslims, who represented more than 40% of the population of Bosnia. Both were frequently referred to in a derogatory way as ‘Turks’, invoking Serb myths of centuries of brutal Ottoman Turkish rule over the Balkans. Anti-Islamic rhetoric also took on a more contemporary distortion, conjuring up an image of fanatical Muslim fundamentalists set on a ‘jihad’ or holy war against the Serbs. This was despite the fact that Bosnian Muslims were among the most secularised Islamic populations anywhere in the world.

inhabited the area since the Bronze Age. The Albanians are ethnically and religiously different from the Serbs – the majority are Muslim, a smaller number Catholic. Their presence in Kosovo was, for some Serbs, a constant reminder that the Ottoman Turks had once ruled over Serbia. In fact, both historical claims are fragile: most of the major population groups in the Balkans have undertaken migrations at some point in their history. Only in the nineteenth century did relations sour between Serbs and Albanians in Kosovo.

One of Kosovo’s most famous reminders of Ottoman rule is the site of the fourteenth century Battle of Kosovo Polje, ‘the battle of the blackbirds’, when the Serbs were defeated by the Ottoman Turks. The battle is represented in Serb mythology as a cataclysmic defeat, bringing to an end medieval Serb independence and ushering in a ‘new Dark Age’ of Ottoman rule, Albanian settlement of Kosovo and Christian Serb suffering. A further aspect of the myth is that Serbia’s great ‘sacrifice’ KOSOVO saved the rest of Christian Europe from a similar fate. Milosevic repeatedly exploited As Serb propaganda was reviving memories the symbolism of the battle, most notably of the Ustasha, Kosovo became the main when he stood on the battlefield on the focus for the revival of Serb nationalism. The 600th anniversary in 1989 and told a crowd province had its own special place in Serb of Kosovo Serbs that it was in their spirit to mythology – it has been called the ‘Serb fight in the face of injustice and humiliation. Jerusalem’ and contains some of the Serbian By playing on the perceived grievances of Orthodox Church’s oldest monasteries. the Serbs of Kosovo against their Albanian Serbs claim that Kosovo was overwhelmingly neighbours, he underlined his own Serbian until a few generations ago. commitment to the idea of a Albanians, who were in the majority in greater Serbia. Kosovo, argue that their ancestors have

The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was established in May 1993 in The Hague to prosecute human rights abuses in the former Yugoslavia. A pioneering institution which has set a number of important legal precedents, the Court may be a signpost to reconciliation

Dubravka Ugre’ic, Croatian author The conflict in the former Yugoslavia saw distorted versions of history exploited by all sides, but especially by the Serbs. Under Tito, ethnic tensions had been held in check and discussion of the ‘nationalities question’ suppressed. With his death these tensions began to resurface in the context of a deepening political and economic crisis. In 1986 two hundred Serb intellectuals signed the ‘Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Arts and Sciences’ This proclaimed Serbs as the most oppressed group in Yugoslavia and urged that the only solution to their suffering was territorial unity for the Serbian people. The revival of the nineteenth century idea of a greater Serbia, which would include all the Serbs living throughout Yugoslavia, was adopted as a political creed by Slobodan Milosevic. Non-Serbs became the subject of hate propaganda which revived historical grievances and stereotypes. Serb propaganda repeatedly labelled Croats as Ustasha, the name used for the Croat fascist regime allied with the Nazis during the Second World War. The Ustasha represented a distinct political minority within Croat society. Nevertheless, the regime was responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Serbs, as well as thousands of Jews and Gypsies, many in the notorious Jasenovac concentration camp. These massacres are regarded by many Serbs as a genocide. In referring to Croatian fascist atrocities, the Serbian authorities were implying that all Croats were still Nazis

2000 SEPTEMBER

2000 OCTOBER

2001 APRIL

2001 JUNE

2001 SEPTEMBER

2002 FEBRUARY

2003 FEBRUARY

2004 MARCH 17

2006 MAY

In the face of trade sanctions from the U.S. and other nations, the Serbian economy continues to deteriorate and dissent spreads. Montenegro discusses separating from Serbia.

A popular uprising begins. A general strike is called and one million people flood Belgrade. Mobs attack Parliament building, security forces join them or retreat. Milosevic's support crumbles, he steps down.

Milosevic is arrested by Yugoslavian authorities and charged with corruption and abuse of power.

Milosevic is turned over to the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague.

The UN Security Council lifts its arms embargo against Yugoslavia, abolishing the last remaining sanction by the international community.

Milosevic begins his trial at the UN International Criminal Tribunal on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity in Bosnia, Croatia, & Kosovo, as well as for committing genocide in Bosnia. He is the first head of state to face an international war-crimes court.

The nation agrees to form a new state, replacing Yugoslavia with a loose federation called Serbia and Montenegro. The new arrangement was made to placate Montenegro’s restive stirrings for independence, and allows for a referendum on independence to occur in 3 years’ time.

Mitrovica, in Kosovo, experiences the worst ethnic violence in the regions since the 1999 war. At least 22 people are killed, and another 500 are injured. NATO sends in an extra 1,000 troops to restore order.

Montenegro holds a referendum on independence, which is narrowly passed. On June 4 the Federal President of Serbia and Montenegro announced the dissolution of his office, and the following day Serbia acknowledged the end of the union.

After ten weeks of NATO attacks, Milosevic agreed to withdraw Serb forces from Kosovo, allow the Kosovar Albanians refugees to return to their homes and permit the deployment of an UN force, including NATO troops, to keep the peace. Kosovo was granted a ‘substantial autonomy’ but not independence. NATO troops entering Kosovo found a number of mass graves from which investigators continue to exhume bodies. Estimates of total deaths from the Kosovo war are put at around 12,000. NATO’S arrival, however, failed to halt a mass exodus of both the minority Serbs and Roma in the face of reprisals committed by Kosovar Albanians. The majority fled to a remaining Serb enclave in the region or to Serbia itself. Kosovo proclaimed its secession from Serbia in February 2008, but suffers sporadic violence and tension in particular in the ethnically divided town of Mitrovica. HOW WAS JUSTICE SOUGHT?


CASE NO.

08

TRAVNIK,1993 / MUSLIM CHILDREN PLAYING WAR GAMES WITH WOODEN COPIES OF AUTOMATIC WEAPONS IN A SHOP DESTROYED BY SERBIAN ARTILLERY / COURTESY OF JUDAH PASSOW


HUTU


ALISON DES FORGES

IMAGINE A SOCIETY WHERE 60% OR MORE THAN 60% OF THE CHILDREN HAVE SEEN SOMEONE MURDERED BEFORE THEIR EYES? WHAT CONSEQUENCES DOES THAT HAVE?

CASE NO.

09

1994 -

TUTSI


HUTU


TUTSI

ALISON DES FORGES

IMAGINE A SOCIETY WHERE 60% OR MORE THAN 60% OF THE CHILDREN HAVE SEEN SOMEONE MURDERED BEFORE THEIR EYES? WHAT CONSEQUENCES DOES THAT HAVE?


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

MAP / THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE, 1994

CHAPTER O2 / CASE NO.09 / THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE

90


The Rwandan Genocide

RWANDAN GENOCIDE VICTIMS, TAKEN OUT OF LAKE VICTORIA BY UGANDAN FISHERMEN, 1994Â / COURTESY OF DAVID BLUMENKRANTZ

1994

STATISTICS

26,338 km2 (147th) 10,169 sq mi

AREA

Kigali

FLAG

COAT OF ARMS

POPULATION

10,264,947 (2010)

ETHNIC DIVISIONS

Hutu (Bantu) 84%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 15%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%

RELIGIONS

Roman Catholic 56.5%, Protestant 26%, Adventist 11.1%, Muslim 4.6%, indigenous beliefs 0.1%, none 1.7% (2001)

LANGUAGES

Kinyarwanda (official) universal Bantu vernacular, French (official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili) used in commercial centers

GENOCIDE WHO COMMITTED THE GENOCIDE

The planners of the genocide were military leaders and political party chiefs associated with Hutu Power. The killing was planned by the radical Hutu power regime, and carried out by militias, the army and the police, along with thousands of ordinary Hutu.

The genocidal and gendercidal strategy was conceived and implemented by a small coterie of Rwandan government officials, led by the Hutu extremist Theoneste Bagosora, a retired army Theonese Colonel who held the post of acting defense minister on the day Bagosora Habyarimana was killed. Another key organizer of the holocaust was Mme. Agathe Habyarimana, wife of the murdered president and one of the very few women who have played a central role in the planning and perpetration of genocide.

WHO LED THE GENOCIDE

Agathe Habyarimana

WHO WERE THE VICTIMS NUMBER OF DEATHS

METHODS OF EXECUTION

Most of the victims from the minority Tutsi group.

10%

800,000 Of Rwanda population of 8,000,000 before 1994

01. Death using automatic weapon and machine guns 02. Rape 03. Starvation 04. Using machetes

SOURCES :

1. Totten and Parsons. (1998) Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views 2. The Imperial War Museum, London. (Examples of genocide cases) 3. The CIA World Factbook 4. Gendercide watch: Rwanda. http://www.gendercide.org/case_rwanda.html

91


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

MAP / THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE, 1994

CHAPTER O2 / CASE NO.09 / THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE

IF THE PICTURES OF TENS OF THOUSANDS OF HUMAN BODIES BEING GNAWED ON BY DOGS DO NOT WAKE US OUT OF OUR APATHY, I DO NOT KNOW WHAT WILL 90

UNDERSECRETARY-GENERAL OF THE UN KOFI ANNAN ,1994


RWANDAN GENOCIDE VICTIMS, TAKEN OUT OF LAKE VICTORIA BY UGANDAN FISHERMEN, 1994 / COURTESY OF DAVID BLUMENKRANTZ

91


1994

TIMELINE / 100 DAYS OF GENOCIDE

09

CASE NO.

THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

As the slaughter continues the U.N. agrees to send 6,800 troops and policemen to Rwanda. A Security Council resolution says "acts of genocide may have been committed." Deployment of the mainly African U.N. forces is delayed because of arguments over who will pay the bill and provide the equipment.

The U.N. Security Council spends eight hours discussing the Rwandan crisis. The resolution condemning the killing omits the word "genocide." Had the term been used, the U.N. would have been legally obliged to act to "prevent and punish" the perpetrators.

1995 JULY

More than 720,000 Hutu refugees around Goma refuse to return to Rwanda.

The U.N. cuts its forces from 2,500 to 250 following the murder of ten Belgian soldiers assigned to guard the moderate Hutu prime minister, Agathe Uwiliyingimana. The prime minister is killed and the Belgians are disarmed, tortured, and shot and hacked to death.

1995 JUNE 10

U.N. Security Council unanimously agrees to cut by more than half the number of U.N. troops in Rwanda after a direct request from the Rwandan government to withdraw U.N. forces.

U.N. Security Council lifts arms embargo until

1995 AUGUST

1994 MAY 17

1994 APRIL 30

1994 APRIL 21

1990 - 1991

The Rwandan army begins to train and arm civilian militias known as interahamwe. For the next 3 years Habyarimana stalls on the establishment of a multiparty system. Throughout this period thousands of Tutsis are killed in separate massacres around the country.

1990 OCTOBER

RPF guerillas invade Rwanda from Uganda. After fierce fighting in which French and Zairean troops are called in to assist the government, a cease-fire is signed on March 29, 1991.

800,000 WERE KILLED IN THE 1994 RWANDAN GENOCIDE. SOME 800,000 RWANDANS, MAINLY TUTSIS, WERE MURDERED IN A 100-DAY PERIOD FOLLOWING THE KILLING OF THE HUTU PRESIDENT OF RWANDA, JUVENAL HABYARIMANA.

CHAPTER 2 / CASE NO. 09 / THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE

At a Mass in Nairobi, Pope John Paul II urges an end to the bloodshed in Rwanda and Burundi.

1995 SEPTEMBER 20

With still no sign of U.N. deployment, the Security Council authorizes the deployment of French forces in south-west Rwanda. They create a "safe area" in territory controlled by the government. Killings of Tutsis continue in the safe area, although some are protected by the French.

1994 JUNE 22

Prominent Hutu activist Dr. Leon Mugusera appeals to Hutus to send the Tutsis "back to Ethiopia" via the rivers.

1992 NOVEMBER

United Nations Tribunal for Rwanda announces first indictments against eight suspects; charges them with genocide and crimes against humanity.

1995 DECEMBER 12

The RPF captures Kigali. The Hutu government flees to Zaire, followed by a tide of refugees. The French end their mission and are replaced by Ethiopian U.N. troops. The RPF sets up an interim government of national unity in Kigali. A cholera epidemic sweeps Genocidethe refugee camps in Zaire, killing thousands.

1994 JULY

RPF launches a fresh offensive and the guerillas reach the outskirts of Kigali. French forces are again called in to help the government side. Fighting continues for several months.

1993 FEBRUARY

U.N. Security Council extends its peacekeeping mission for three more months and agrees to reduce the number of troops.

1995 DECEMBER 13

New Rwandan government agrees to trials before an international tribunal established by the U.N. Security Council.

1994 AUGUST

Following months of negotiations, Habyarimana and the RPF sign a peace accord that allows for the return of refugees and a coalition Hutu-RPF government. 2,500 U.N. troops are deployed in Kigali to oversee the implementation of the accord.

1993 AUGUST

Trials begin for Hutus involved in 1994 genocide.

Mass repatriation from Zaire begins; the Rwandan government orders a moratorium on arrests of suspected genocide perpetrators.

Tanzania closes refugee camps and repatriates Rwandans, bringing the total to over one million.

1996 DECEMBER

Western governments, including the U.S. ($60 million), pledge $600 million in aid to Rwanda.

U.N. begins process towards finalizing plans with Zaire and Tanzania that will lead to the return of one and a half million Hutus to Rwanda over the next five months. U.N. Security Council refuses to dispatch an international force to police refugee camps.

1996 DECEMBER

1995 FEBRUARY 19

President Habyarimana and the president of Burundi, Ntaryamira, are killed when Habyarimana's plane is shot down. Extremists, suspecting that the president is finally about to implement the Arusha Peace Accords, are believed to be behind the attack.

1994 APRIL 06

1995 JANUAR 05-10

Many Rwandan human rights activists evacuate their families from Kigali believing massacres are imminent.

1994 MARCH

1996 NOVEMBER

U.N. Security Council establishes an international tribunal that will oversee prosecution of suspects involved in genocide.

1994 NOVEMBER

President Habyarimana stalls on setting up of power-sharing government. Extremist radio station, Radio Mille Collines, begins broadcasting exhortations to attack the Tutsis. Human rights groups warn the international community of impending calamity.

SEPTEMBER 1993 MARCH 1994

1997 JANUARY 17 In a Rwanda court, Francois Bizimutima becomes the third Hutu convicted and sentenced to death for his role in genocide.

First case in the Rwandan genocide trials comes before the International Criminal Tribunal. The case is against Jean Paul Akayesu.

Tensions increase between the United Nations and the Rwandan government; the government growing resentful of the lack of international financial aid

1995 MAY 16

The RPF launches a major offensive to end the genocide and rescue 600 of its troops surrounded in Kigali. The troops had been based in the city as part of the Arusha Accords.

1994 APRIL 8

1997 JANUARY 10

U.N. Security Council urges all states to arrest people suspected of involvement in the Rwandan genocide.

1995 FEBRUARY 27

The Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) and the interahamwe set up roadblocks and go from house to house killing Tutsis .Thousands die on the first day. U.N. forces stand by while the slaughter goes on. They are forbidden to intervene.

1994 APRIL 7

92


Paul Kagame succeeds Pasteur Bizimungu as president.

Kagame cements his position by winning the first presidential election since the genocide.

2003 AUGUST 26

2008 DECEMBER 18

Theoneste Bagosora, a former Rwandan army colonel, was convicted of genocide and sentenced to life in prison,

The ICTR convicts former colonel Theoneste Bagosora, who is described as the 'kingpin' of the genocide.

United Nations watchdog agency criticizes the management of the Rwandan genocide trials.

1997 FEBRUARY 12

2008 DECEMBER 18

Five human rights observers are killed in an ambush in Cyangugu, Rwanda. The murders are viewed as an effort by Hutu terrorists to get foreign observers out of the country. All human rights observers are withdrawn by the U.N. to Kigali.

Venuste Niyonzima is the first man tried locally for crimes against humanity in his own village. A U.N. Human Rights official in Rwanda expresses "serious concern" over the lack of lawyers and adequate defense for those accused of participation in the 1994 genocide.

Over 300 are killed in an attempt by the Rwandan army to capture Hutu insurgents responsible for killings in Rwanda. U.N. officials state many victims are recently returned refugees who witnessed the 1994 genocide and are potential trial witnesses.

2000 MARCH 24

1997 FEBRUARY 04

1997 FEBRUARY 02

1997 JANUARY 22

2009 JANUARY 26 The armies of Congo and Rwanda clashed with fighters trying to retake a village and killed 4 of them.

Hundreds of Rwandan rolled into the DRC to join Congolese forces hunting Rwandan rebels operating there.

Frodouald Karamina, leader of a Hutu extremist political movement, is sentenced to death for his involvement in the genocide. Karamina is believed to be one of the leaders and organizers of the genocide.

1997 FEBRUARY 14

2009 JANUARY 20

United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan asks the five permanent security council members to look into reports that the Zairean army is providing arms to Rwandan Hutus in an Eastern Zaire refugee camp.

1997 FEBRUARY 14 1997 FEBRUARY 23 Israel Nemeyimana is the first defendant in the genocide trials to be found not guilty. Authorities state there was a lack of evidence and witnesses.

1997 FEBRUARY 19-20 Four prominent Rwandans accused of genocide appear in court for the first time. Citing mismanagement and inefficiency, U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan fires the chief administrator Andronico Adede, and deputy prosecutor Honore Rakoromoanana in the Rwanda criminal trials.

1997 FEBRUARY 26 Virginia Mukankusi is sentenced to death for her participation in the genocide.

1997 FEBRUARY 28 A leader of a Hutu militia that helped lead the genocide, businessman Georges Rutaganda, is found guilty of genocide, crimes against humanity, and sentenced to life in prison. He is the sixth person found guilty since the tribunal began hearings in Arusha, Tanzania.

1999 DECEMBER

THE VICTIMS OF THE GENOCIDE IN BISESERO /

1994


1994

TIMELINE / 100 DAYS OF GENOCIDE

09

CASE NO.

THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

As the slaughter continues the U.N. agrees to send 6,800 troops and policemen to Rwanda. A Security Council resolution says "acts of genocide may have been committed." Deployment of the mainly African U.N. forces is delayed because of arguments over who will pay the bill and provide the equipment.

The U.N. Security Council spends eight hours discussing the Rwandan crisis. The resolution condemning the killing omits the word "genocide." Had the term been used, the U.N. would have been legally obliged to act to "prevent and punish" the perpetrators.

1995 JULY

More than 720,000 Hutu refugees around Goma refuse to return to Rwanda.

The U.N. cuts its forces from 2,500 to 250 following the murder of ten Belgian soldiers assigned to guard the moderate Hutu prime minister, Agathe Uwiliyingimana. The prime minister is killed and the Belgians are disarmed, tortured, and shot and hacked to death.

1995 JUNE 10

U.N. Security Council unanimously agrees to cut by more than half the number of U.N. troops in Rwanda after a direct request from the Rwandan government to withdraw U.N. forces.

U.N. Security Council lifts arms embargo until

1995 AUGUST

1994 MAY 17

1994 APRIL 30

1994 APRIL 21

1990 - 1991

The Rwandan army begins to train and arm civilian militias known as interahamwe. For the next 3 years Habyarimana stalls on the establishment of a multiparty system. Throughout this period thousands of Tutsis are killed in separate massacres around the country.

1990 OCTOBER

RPF guerillas invade Rwanda from Uganda. After fierce fighting in which French and Zairean troops are called in to assist the government, a cease-fire is signed on March 29, 1991.

800,000 WERE KILLED IN THE 1994 RWANDAN GENOCIDE. SOME 800,000 RWANDANS, MAINLY TUTSIS, WERE MURDERED IN A 100-DAY PERIOD FOLLOWING THE KILLING OF THE HUTU PRESIDENT OF RWANDA, JUVENAL HABYARIMANA.

CHAPTER 2 / CASE NO. 09 / THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE

At a Mass in Nairobi, Pope John Paul II urges an end to the bloodshed in Rwanda and Burundi.

1995 SEPTEMBER 20

With still no sign of U.N. deployment, the Security Council authorizes the deployment of French forces in south-west Rwanda. They create a "safe area" in territory controlled by the government. Killings of Tutsis continue in the safe area, although some are protected by the French.

1994 JUNE 22

Prominent Hutu activist Dr. Leon Mugusera appeals to Hutus to send the Tutsis "back to Ethiopia" via the rivers.

1992 NOVEMBER

United Nations Tribunal for Rwanda announces first indictments against eight suspects; charges them with genocide and crimes against humanity.

1995 DECEMBER 12

The RPF captures Kigali. The Hutu government flees to Zaire, followed by a tide of refugees. The French end their mission and are replaced by Ethiopian U.N. troops. The RPF sets up an interim government of national unity in Kigali. A cholera epidemic sweeps Genocidethe refugee camps in Zaire, killing thousands.

1994 JULY

RPF launches a fresh offensive and the guerillas reach the outskirts of Kigali. French forces are again called in to help the government side. Fighting continues for several months.

1993 FEBRUARY

U.N. Security Council extends its peacekeeping mission for three more months and agrees to reduce the number of troops.

1995 DECEMBER 13

New Rwandan government agrees to trials before an international tribunal established by the U.N. Security Council.

1994 AUGUST

Following months of negotiations, Habyarimana and the RPF sign a peace accord that allows for the return of refugees and a coalition Hutu-RPF government. 2,500 U.N. troops are deployed in Kigali to oversee the implementation of the accord.

1993 AUGUST

Trials begin for Hutus involved in 1994 genocide.

Mass repatriation from Zaire begins; the Rwandan government orders a moratorium on arrests of suspected genocide perpetrators.

Tanzania closes refugee camps and repatriates Rwandans, bringing the total to over one million.

1996 DECEMBER

Western governments, including the U.S. ($60 million), pledge $600 million in aid to Rwanda.

U.N. begins process towards finalizing plans with Zaire and Tanzania that will lead to the return of one and a half million Hutus to Rwanda over the next five months. U.N. Security Council refuses to dispatch an international force to police refugee camps.

1996 DECEMBER

1995 FEBRUARY 19

President Habyarimana and the president of Burundi, Ntaryamira, are killed when Habyarimana's plane is shot down. Extremists, suspecting that the president is finally about to implement the Arusha Peace Accords, are believed to be behind the attack.

1994 APRIL 06

1995 JANUAR 05-10

Many Rwandan human rights activists evacuate their families from Kigali believing massacres are imminent.

1994 MARCH

1996 NOVEMBER

U.N. Security Council establishes an international tribunal that will oversee prosecution of suspects involved in genocide.

1994 NOVEMBER

President Habyarimana stalls on setting up of power-sharing government. Extremist radio station, Radio Mille Collines, begins broadcasting exhortations to attack the Tutsis. Human rights groups warn the international community of impending calamity.

SEPTEMBER 1993 MARCH 1994

1997 JANUARY 17 In a Rwanda court, Francois Bizimutima becomes the third Hutu convicted and sentenced to death for his role in genocide.

First case in the Rwandan genocide trials comes before the International Criminal Tribunal. The case is against Jean Paul Akayesu.

Tensions increase between the United Nations and the Rwandan government; the government growing resentful of the lack of international financial aid

1995 MAY 16

The RPF launches a major offensive to end the genocide and rescue 600 of its troops surrounded in Kigali. The troops had been based in the city as part of the Arusha Accords.

1994 APRIL 8

1997 JANUARY 10

U.N. Security Council urges all states to arrest people suspected of involvement in the Rwandan genocide.

1995 FEBRUARY 27

The Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) and the interahamwe set up roadblocks and go from house to house killing Tutsis .Thousands die on the first day. U.N. forces stand by while the slaughter goes on. They are forbidden to intervene.

1994 APRIL 7

92


Paul Kagame succeeds Pasteur Bizimungu as president.

Kagame cements his position by winning the first presidential election since the genocide.

2003 AUGUST 26

2008 DECEMBER 18

Theoneste Bagosora, a former Rwandan army colonel, was convicted of genocide and sentenced to life in prison,

The ICTR convicts former colonel Theoneste Bagosora, who is described as the 'kingpin' of the genocide.

United Nations watchdog agency criticizes the management of the Rwandan genocide trials.

1997 FEBRUARY 12

2008 DECEMBER 18

Five human rights observers are killed in an ambush in Cyangugu, Rwanda. The murders are viewed as an effort by Hutu terrorists to get foreign observers out of the country. All human rights observers are withdrawn by the U.N. to Kigali.

Venuste Niyonzima is the first man tried locally for crimes against humanity in his own village. A U.N. Human Rights official in Rwanda expresses "serious concern" over the lack of lawyers and adequate defense for those accused of participation in the 1994 genocide.

Over 300 are killed in an attempt by the Rwandan army to capture Hutu insurgents responsible for killings in Rwanda. U.N. officials state many victims are recently returned refugees who witnessed the 1994 genocide and are potential trial witnesses.

2000 MARCH 24

1997 FEBRUARY 04

1997 FEBRUARY 02

1997 JANUARY 22

2009 JANUARY 26 The armies of Congo and Rwanda clashed with fighters trying to retake a village and killed 4 of them.

Hundreds of Rwandan rolled into the DRC to join Congolese forces hunting Rwandan rebels operating there.

Frodouald Karamina, leader of a Hutu extremist political movement, is sentenced to death for his involvement in the genocide. Karamina is believed to be one of the leaders and organizers of the genocide.

1997 FEBRUARY 14

2009 JANUARY 20

United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan asks the five permanent security council members to look into reports that the Zairean army is providing arms to Rwandan Hutus in an Eastern Zaire refugee camp.

1997 FEBRUARY 14 1997 FEBRUARY 23 Israel Nemeyimana is the first defendant in the genocide trials to be found not guilty. Authorities state there was a lack of evidence and witnesses.

1997 FEBRUARY 19-20 Four prominent Rwandans accused of genocide appear in court for the first time. Citing mismanagement and inefficiency, U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan fires the chief administrator Andronico Adede, and deputy prosecutor Honore Rakoromoanana in the Rwanda criminal trials.

1997 FEBRUARY 26 Virginia Mukankusi is sentenced to death for her participation in the genocide.

1997 FEBRUARY 28 A leader of a Hutu militia that helped lead the genocide, businessman Georges Rutaganda, is found guilty of genocide, crimes against humanity, and sentenced to life in prison. He is the sixth person found guilty since the tribunal began hearings in Arusha, Tanzania.

1999 DECEMBER


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CHAPTER 02 / CASE NO.09 / THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE

CASE NO.

09 IN BRIEF

BACKGROUND

WHO WERE THE KILLERS?

JUNE 1994

In a one hundred day period between April and June 1994 some 800,000 out of a population of around eight million Rwandans were slaughtered, most of them from the minority Tutsi group. The killing was planned by the radical Hutu power regime, and carried out by militias, the army and the police, along with thousands of ordinary Hutu.

Hutu and Tutsi are terms used in Rwanda to denote different ‘ethnic’ identities, although the two have much in common. The German colonisers who reached Rwanda in the 1890’s, and their Belgian successors who took control after the First World War, regarded the Tutsi as racially superior to the majority Hutu and treated them accordingly. From 1933, everybody in colonial Rwanda was issued with an identity card stating their ethnic background. This system survived into independence and was still in place in 1994. When Belgium granted Rwanda independence in 1962, the pro-Tutsi policy was reversed and a Hutudominated government installed. Amidst massive inter-communal bloodshed many Tutsi fled from Rwanda to neighbouring Uganda, hoping one day to return.

The planners of the genocide were military leaders and political party chiefs associated with Hutu Power. Their aim was to eradicate all Tutsi from Rwanda. Before 1994, they had already recruited and trained thousands of Hutu militia, including the Interahamwe, or ‘those who stand together’. In addition to the militias, the army and the police, thousands of ordinary Hutu peasants were also participants in the genocide. Radio-Télévision Libre des Mille Collines, set up by Hutu extremists, was the basic instrument of hate propaganda against the Tutsi and one of the most powerful factors in the genocidal campaign. The message it broadcast, both before and during the genocide, helped convince many Hutu that they were under threat from the RPF and that the only way to stop them was to kill all Tutsi.

The French mounted Operation Turquoise in Rwanda, which though claiming to be humanitarian was widely suspected of protecting the flight of retreating Hutu Power leaders, with whom the French government had strong links.

Much later, in 1990, a new armed movement of mostly Tutsi exiles formed the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) and invaded Rwanda from Uganda. Relations between Tutsi and Hutu inside Rwanda were massively destabilised. The military successes of the RPF and international pressure forced the Rwandan government of Juvénal Habyarimana to accept the 1993 Arusha Peace Accords. They established plans for a government of both Hutu and Tutsi. UN troops were sent to Rwanda to keep the peace. WHAT WAS THE IMMEDIATE TRIGGER FOR THE GENOCIDE?

On 6 April 1994, the plane in which President Habyarimana was travelling was shot down as he flew back to Rwanda from a regional summit where he had just signed the Arusha Accords. To date it has not been proven who was responsible for this act. However, within a few hours of Habyarimana’s death a new radical regime, Hutu Power, was installed in Rwanda. In the following days thousands of people in the capital Kigali were murdered, including the majority of Tutsi and moderate Hutu opposition figures. Roadblocks were set up all over the country, with Hutu militias demanding to see everybody’s identity cards. Anybody identified as a Tutsi was killed. Thousands of panic-stricken Tutsi fled their homes; some were sheltered by Hutu neighbours, others fled to RPFcontrolled areas. Many sought sanctuary in churches but this did not prevent some of the worst massacres taking place in them. Mass rape and looting accompanied the slaughter. Although the killings were well organised, often the instruments used to carry them out were primitive, including machetes and clubs.

WHAT HALTED THE GENOCIDE?

JULY 1994 The first significant international effort was mounted to help the thousands of Hutu refugees crossing into Zaire.

Significant numbers of Interahamwe and others who had been involved in the genocide used the refugee camps in Zaire as bases to launch raids into Rwanda. President Mobutu of Zaire did not act on Rwandan demands to banish them. The Rwandan conflict began to spill over into Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo), where war continues to the present day.

In July 1994, the RPF captured Kigali and declared a ceasefire. On 19 July, a multiethnic government was formed, promising all refugees a safe return to Rwanda. The defeated Hutu Power government and most of the killers, however, fled into neighbouring Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo), along with an estimated two million Hutu, all fearing Tutsi retaliation.

THE SEARCH FOR JUSTICE

WHAT WAS THE INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE?

In early 2003 more than 20,000 prisoners were released and returned to their villages to face justice from local ‘Gacaca’ courts. Though some argue that these intensify local hatreds, the courts – named after the patches of grass on which the witnesses and nine judges gathers to deliver their verdicts – are widely accepted as the most effective route to justice in a situation where the number of accused could rise to 600,000.

JANUARY 1994 Three months before the genocide started, the Head of the UN Mission in Rwanda, Major General Dallaire, gave a warning to the UN Peacekeeping Department that wide scale massacres of Tutsi were being planned. No action was taken. There is evidence that a number of Western governments also received information about the plans. APRIL 1994

The genocide began. Within a few days almost every Westerner in Rwanda was evacuated. Nearly all the UN troops were withdrawn. MAY 1994

A US government memo cautioned against using the term ‘genocide’ to describe events in Rwanda. Under the 1948 Genocide Convention, this would legally oblige intervention by the United Nations.

The ICTR was established by the United Nations in November 1994 in Arusha, Tanzania to prosecute those responsible for the Rwandan genocide. In 1998, former Hutu Power prime minister Jean Kambanda was sentenced to life in prison after pleading guilty to charges of genocide.


COURTESY OF THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, LONDON

COME FRIENDS, LET’S CELEBRATE THE TUTSIS HAVE BEEN EXTERMINATED COME FRIENDS, LET’S CELEBRATE GOD REWARDS THE JUST

95

01

02

04

03

SONG BROADCAST BY THE RWANDAN RADIO STATION RADIO MILLES COLLINES, 1994

THE USE OF HISTORY AS A WEAPON

The European colonisers of Rwanda (and Burundi) at the end of the nineteenth century encountered very complex, organised and sophisticated societies. Puzzled by this – the European perception at that time was that all Africans were primitive – the German, and later Belgian, colonial powers sought a scientific explanation in the differences they perceived between the majority Hutu population (who were mostly peasants) and the minority Tutsi (who were mostly cattleherders). Despite the fact that the two groups shared the same religion, myths and language, the politically and economically dominant position of the Tutsi was assumed to derive from racial characteristics. The assumption was backed by the ‘Hamitic’ theory, fashionable amongst late nineteenth century European ethnographers and explorers, that the Tutsi were part of a taller, nobler race originating in northeastern Africa (and thus more closely related to Europeans). The Tutsi, they thought, were responsible for the civilising of ‘black’ central and southern Africa.

01

02

03

04

A RWANDA HUTU AMONGST REFUGEES OUTSIDE GOMA DRC / COURTESY OF MATT MAWSON

A SILENT RWANDAN PROTESTOR AT THE MASS BURIAL OF RWANDAN VICTIMS OF THE GENOCIDE / COURTESY OF MATT MAWSON

THE VICTIMS OF THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE / COURTESY OF BLACKWINE

A REFUGEE CAMP IN GOMA DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO / COURTESY OF MATT MAWSON

This largely manufactured and distorted version of the past reflected the attitudes of European colonisers much more than the actual history of Rwanda. However, it ensured that the Tutsi, under colonial rule, continued to have a favoured position. From 1933, moreover, the introduction of identity cards in Rwanda made what had once been flexible distinctions between Tutsi and Hutu into rigid categories.Despite having no scientific foundations, the Hamitic myth survived long after Rwanda had become an independent Hutu-led state in the 1960s, and was exploited during the 1994 genocide as a way of encouraging popular Hutu hatred of Tutsi. Radio-Télévision Libre des Mille Collines, the main instrument of Hutu extremist propaganda , declared that the Tutsi-led Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF) were cunning foreigners intent on stealing Rwanda from its rightful inhabitants. They would show no mercy to Hutu should they ‘conquer’ the country. Hutu, the radio station urged, should ‘cut the Tutsi down to size’ (a reference again to the tendency of many Tutsi to be taller than Hutu). Tutsi should be sent ‘back to Ethiopia’ via the nearest river – a direct reference to the

Hamitic myth.While long-held fear and resentment were exploited to encourage Hutu hatred of Tutsi, they were made worse by existing economic tensions. Rwanda is one of the poorest, most overpopulated countries in the world, and in the 1980s was in deep economic crisis, largely due to the prices for its main export – coffee – falling on the world markets. Under intense pressure from the international community to share power with the RPF, many increasingly desperate and impoverished ordinary Hutu were easily persuaded by a militant state leadership that it was the Tutsi who were to blame for all their troubles.


CASE NO.

10 2003 ONWARDS

SUDANESE PRESIDENT OMAR AL-BASHIR / AUGUST 2006


SUDANESE PRESIDENT OMAR AL-BASHIR / AUGUST 2006


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

CHAPTER O2 / CASE NO.10 / THE DARFUR GENOCIDE

98


The Darfur Genocide

REFUGEE CAMP IN CHAD / COURTESY OF URIEL SINAI

2003 - Onwards CONSIDERED BY MANY TO BE A GENOCIDE

STATISTICS

2,505,813 km2 (10th) 967,495 sq mi

AREA

Khartoum

r Darfu

FLAG

COAT OF ARMS

POPULATION

42,272,000 (2010)

ETHNIC DIVISIONS

Black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%

RELIGIONS

Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum), indigenous beliefs 25%

LANGUAGES

Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages

GENOCIDE WHO COMMITTED THE GENOCIDE

The Janjaweed (a local term for highwaymen or robbers) are the Arab militia men, mounted on camel or horseback, who have relentlessly looted, murdered and raped. Recruited into the government - sponsored popular defense force, they include mainly nomadic or semi- nomadic groups of Arab origin, for whom joining the militia offered the opportunity to loot and gain access to land.

WHO LED THE GENOCIDE

President Omar Hassan Al-Bashir.

Omar Al Bashir

WHO WERE THE VICTIMS NUMBER OF DEATHS

METHODS OF EXECUTION

Al-Bashir is the current president of Sudan and the head of the National Congress Party. He came to power in 1989 when he led a group of officers in a bloodless military coup that ousted the government of Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi. In 2004, al-Bashir's government negotiated an end to the Second Sudanese Civil War, one of the longest-running and deadliest wars of the 20th century, by granting limited autonomy to Southern Sudan. Since less than a year before that, however, there has been a violent conflict in Darfur that has resulted in death tolls between 200,000 and 400,000. The Black - African of Darfur

10%

400,000 Of a population around 37,000, 000 at 2002

01. Death by starvation 02. Rape 03. Mass executions 04. Bombing

SOURCES :

1. Totten and Parsons. (1998) Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views 2. The Imperial War Museum, London. (Examples of genocide cases) 3. The CIA World Factbook

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THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

CHAPTER O2 / CASE NO.10 / THE DARFUR GENOCIDE

WE ALL MIGHT ASK OURSELVES WHY WE TUNE IN TO THESE MORE TRIVIAL MATTERS AND TUNE OUT WHEN IT COMES TO DARFUR. 98

NICHOLAS D. KRISTOF

THE USHMM / DECEMBER 18, 2009 “MASS GRAVES? WE’VE NEVER HAD MASS GRAVES.”

The year 2009 was the most violent South Sudan has seen since the signing of the 2005 peace agreement, with the death rate higher than in Darfur. In clashes far more serious than simple cattle raids, villages — rather than cattle camps — have been attacked and women and children targeted. “Violence is surging,” reports Medecins Sans Frontieres. “Plunging people from one disaster to the next.” UN officials have noticed an unusual “ease and availability of ammunition” in the

region, which suggests an influx of weapons, possibly from northern Sudanese officials interested in breeding chaos in the south. “This is madness,” said Diing Akol Diing, a county commissioner near Duk Padiet, one of the sites of recent violence. Showing a photograph of a dozen people wrapped in blankets, buried in a ditch, he tells The New York Times, “Mass graves? We’ve never had mass graves.”


REFUGEE CAMP IN CHAD / COURTESY OF URIEL SINAI

99


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

REFUGEE CAMP IN CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC / COURTESY OF URIEL SINAI

CHAPTER O2 / CASE NO.10 / THE DARFUR GENOCIDE

CASE NO.

10 IN BRIEF

BACKGROUND: THE PEOPLE OF DARFUR

In 2003 the Arab dominated Sudanese government crushed a revolt by black African rebels in Darfur, a region on Sudan's western border with Chad. It armed a militia , the Janjaweed, and directed it to pursue a policy of ethnic cleansing against people of the same ethnicity as the rebels.

Ethnically Sudan’s population comprises an estimated 39% Arabs, mostly in the north and 61% black Africans, mostly in the south. Such divisions, however, are often fluid and complex not least as many Africans are Muslim. That said, the central government has been Arab-Muslim dominated since Sudan gained independence in 1956.

International experts say up to 400,000 people have been killed and more than 2.6 million driven from their homes in almost seven years of ethnic and politically driven fighting in Darfur. In July 2008 the International Criminal Court requested an arrest warrant against president Omar Al- Bashir for genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in Darfur. This prompted a backlash resulting in the expulsion and harassment of many of the aid agencies working in the area.

Darfur is Sudan’s largest region, on its western border with Libya, Chad and the central African Republic. The Fur and the Masalit are the dominant ethnic groups among the 17 million strong population of west Darfur. They are black African but Muslim. There has been long-running tension in Darfur over land and grazing rights but in recent decades these have been exacerbated by accelerating environmental degradation. Age-old disputed in which more nomadic Arabs sought better water and grazing for their livestock while Darfur’s mostly black-African farmers resisted their land being trampled on by herds of cattle or camels were, thus, until the 1960s or 1970s usually resolved by negotiation. By the late 1990s, however, a combination of drought population increase and also agricultural expansion led to mush more serious and persistent violence erupting. In this situation, too, the increasing divergence between those in Darfur, who thought of themselves as ‘Arabs’ and those who considered themselves ‘Africans’ became starker and more uncompromising. HOW DID THE CONFLICT START?

As insurrection by the Sudan liberation front began in February 2003, and intensified over the following months. The Sudanese government responded vehemently with indiscriminate bombing and a ‘scorched earth’ campaign (involving the filling of wells, slaughter of cattle and destruction of food stores) carried out by militias known as the Janjaweed. The following years year Sudan's twenty year long civil war came to an end fought between the main southern rebel group, the African SPLA (Sudan People's Liberation Army). and the khartoum government , it had claimed some two million lives. Historic peace deal was signed in Naivasha, Kenya in May 2004. Power and wealth- sharing deals were agreed for the three oil - producing central regions of the country, and the government

and southern rebels agreed to set up a 39,000 strong army drawing on both groups. The Darfur rebels felt excluded from these talks and feared that the Sudanese government and the SPLA would divide the power and oil money between them. This situation intensified the conflict. WHAT HAS HAPPENED TO THE CIVILIANS?

By March 2005 nearly two million people had fled their homes often to remote desert areas making aid deliveries extremely difficult.Hundreds of villages have been destroyed with reports of the men being rounded up and shot and systematic rape including gang-rape perpetrated against women and girls. Many displaced survivors have been relocated by the government to camps elsewhere in Darfur often far from their homes and under Sudanese police or Janjaweed supervision. There are fears that this is part of a government policy to set up new resettlement villages in hostile terrain as well as to make the displacement permanent. More than 200,000 other survivors fled to neighboring Chad, many of them now camped along the border and vulnerable to attack , retaliatory attacks from the Sudan Liberation Army ( SLA) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) heightened the conflict as did the fragmentation of many of the rebel groups. WHO ARE THE KILLERS?

The Janjaweed ( a local term for highwaymen or robbers ) are the Arab militia men, mounted on camel or horseback, who have relentlessly looted, murdered and raped. Recruited into the government - sponsored popular defense force, they include mainly nomadic or seminomadic groups of Arab origin, for whom joining the militia offered the opportunity to loot and gain access to land. In addition the government has used helicopter gun-ships in bombing attacks on civilian targets.The Sudanese government led by president Omar Hassan Al-Bashir persists in denying the gravity of the situation. It denies arming and encouraging the Janjaweed although it admits mobilising 'self defense' militias.

100

REFUGEE CAMP IN CHAD / COURTESY OF URIEL SINAI


UN official says progovernment Arab "Janjaweed" militias are carrying out systematic killings of African villagers in Darfur.

2008 SEPTEMBER

Darfur rebels accuse government forces backed by militias of launching air and ground attacks on two towns in the region.

Army moves to quell rebel uprising in western region of Darfur; hundreds of thousands of refugees flee to neighbouring Chad.

2008 JULY

The ICC top prosecutor calls for the arrest of President Bashir for genocide and war crimes in Darfur; the appeal is the first ever request to the ICC for the arrest of a sitting head of state.

Rebels in western region of Darfur rise up against government, claiming the region is being neglected by Khartoum.

2008 APRIL

Counting begins in national census which is seen as a vital step towards holding democratic elections after the landmark 2005 northsouth peace deal.

2004 MARCH

2004 JANUARY

Allegations that Ukrainian tanks hijacked off the coast of Somalia were bound for southern Sudan spark fears of an arms race between the North and former rebels in the South.

President Bashir announces a ceasefire in Darfur, but the region's two main rebel groups reject the move, saying they will fight on until the government agrees to share power in the region.

2008 NOVEMBER

Sudanese Islamist leader Hassan al-Turabi is arrested after saying President Bashir should hand himself in to The Hague to face war crimes charges for the Darfur war.

2009 JANUARY

2005 AUGUST 1 Vice president and former rebel leader Garang is killed in a plane crash. Garang's death sparks deadly clashes in the capital between southern Sudanese and northern Arabs.

The International Criminal Court in The Hague issues an arrest warrant for President Omar al-Bashir on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur.

2009 MARCH

Power-sharing government is formed in Khartoum.

2005 SEPTEMBER

An estimated 250 people in central Sudan are killed during a week of clashes between nomadic groups fighting over grazing land and cattle in the semiarid region of Southern Kordofan.

2009 MAY

Khartoum government and the main rebel faction in Darfur, the Sudan Liberation Movement, sign a peace accord. Two smaller rebel groups reject the deal. Fighting continues. .

2006 MAY

JUSTICE

2008 OCTOBER

2005 JULY 9 Former southern rebel leader John Garang is sworn in as first vice president. A constitution which gives a large degree of autonomy to the south is signed.

Leaders of North and South say they have reached a deal on the terms of a referendum on independence due in South by 2011.

2009 DECEMBER

Sudan rejects a UN resolution calling for a UN peacekeeping force in Darfur, saying it would compromise sovereignty.

2006 AUGUST

Judges of International Criminal Court are ordered to review their decision to omit genocide from the war crimes arrest warrant issued for President Omar al-Bashir

2010 FEBRUARY

Sudan says it will accept a partial UN troop deployment to reinforce African Union peacekeepers in Darfur, but not a full 20,000strong force.

2007 APRIL

International Criminal Court issues arrest warrants for a minister and a janjaweed militia leader suspected of Darfur war crimes.

2007 MAY

UN Security Council approves a resolution authorising a 26,000strong force for Darfur. Sudan says it will co-operate with the UNAfrican Union Mission.

2007 JULY

MAP / DARFUR: CONFIRMED DAMADGED AND DESTROYED VILLAGES 2003 - 2009

UN says Sudan has not met targets for disarming progovernment Darfur militias and must accept outside help to protect civilians.

2004 SEPTEMBER

In July 2008 the chief prosecution of the International Criminal Court files five charges of crimes against humanity and two of war crimes against Sudan's president Omat Al-Bashir for his leading role in the Darfur campaign. In the following March the LCC issued a warrant for his arrest, the first ever against an incumbent head of state. Sudan, in turn, has rejected the authority of the ICC. At the present time the UN estimates 2.5 million Darfurians have been forced from their homes.

2003 FEBRUARY

2003-2009

The US and many human rights groups have described these events in Darfur as 'genocide'. There have been several efforts at peace making. In late 2008 the Arab league brought the Sudanese government and rebel groups together at Qatar for talks. Only when the displaced peoples can return voluntarily and safety to their farms and replant for the next season can the region begin to recover economically. But the entire region remains extremely unsafe. Roads are poor and difficult to negotiate and the onset of the rainy season brings with it the risk of water - borne diseases. The African Union had a military presence of some 7,000 soldiers in Darfur. A joint African Union - UN peacekeeping mission, UNAMID took over in January 2008, but the mission has just 10,000 troops- well short of the 26,000 promised and insufficient to deal with a problem which extends over such a large area.

http://news.bbc.co.uk

WHAT IS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY'S RESPONSE?

TIMELINE / THE CONFLICT IN SUDAN

CAR, 2008, CHILDREN PLAYING IN A CLASS AT A PRIMARY SCHOOL FOR DISPLACED PEOPLE / COURTESY OF PIERRE HOLTZ FOR UNICEF 101 103


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

REFUGEE CAMP IN CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC / COURTESY OF URIEL SINAI

CHAPTER O2 / CASE NO.10 / THE DARFUR GENOCIDE

CASE NO.

10 IN BRIEF

BACKGROUND: THE PEOPLE OF DARFUR

In 2003 the Arab dominated Sudanese government crushed a revolt by black African rebels in Darfur, a region on Sudan's western border with Chad. It armed a militia , the Janjaweed, and directed it to pursue a policy of ethnic cleansing against people of the same ethnicity as the rebels.

Ethnically Sudan’s population comprises an estimated 39% Arabs, mostly in the north and 61% black Africans, mostly in the south. Such divisions, however, are often fluid and complex not least as many Africans are Muslim. That said, the central government has been Arab-Muslim dominated since Sudan gained independence in 1956.

International experts say up to 400,000 people have been killed and more than 2.6 million driven from their homes in almost seven years of ethnic and politically driven fighting in Darfur. In July 2008 the International Criminal Court requested an arrest warrant against president Omar Al- Bashir for genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in Darfur. This prompted a backlash resulting in the expulsion and harassment of many of the aid agencies working in the area.

Darfur is Sudan’s largest region, on its western border with Libya, Chad and the central African Republic. The Fur and the Masalit are the dominant ethnic groups among the 17 million strong population of west Darfur. They are black African but Muslim. There has been long-running tension in Darfur over land and grazing rights but in recent decades these have been exacerbated by accelerating environmental degradation. Age-old disputed in which more nomadic Arabs sought better water and grazing for their livestock while Darfur’s mostly black-African farmers resisted their land being trampled on by herds of cattle or camels were, thus, until the 1960s or 1970s usually resolved by negotiation. By the late 1990s, however, a combination of drought population increase and also agricultural expansion led to mush more serious and persistent violence erupting. In this situation, too, the increasing divergence between those in Darfur, who thought of themselves as ‘Arabs’ and those who considered themselves ‘Africans’ became starker and more uncompromising. HOW DID THE CONFLICT START?

As insurrection by the Sudan liberation front began in February 2003, and intensified over the following months. The Sudanese government responded vehemently with indiscriminate bombing and a ‘scorched earth’ campaign (involving the filling of wells, slaughter of cattle and destruction of food stores) carried out by militias known as the Janjaweed. The following years year Sudan's twenty year long civil war came to an end fought between the main southern rebel group, the African SPLA (Sudan People's Liberation Army). and the khartoum government , it had claimed some two million lives. Historic peace deal was signed in Naivasha, Kenya in May 2004. Power and wealth- sharing deals were agreed for the three oil - producing central regions of the country, and the government

and southern rebels agreed to set up a 39,000 strong army drawing on both groups. The Darfur rebels felt excluded from these talks and feared that the Sudanese government and the SPLA would divide the power and oil money between them. This situation intensified the conflict. WHAT HAS HAPPENED TO THE CIVILIANS?

By March 2005 nearly two million people had fled their homes often to remote desert areas making aid deliveries extremely difficult.Hundreds of villages have been destroyed with reports of the men being rounded up and shot and systematic rape including gang-rape perpetrated against women and girls. Many displaced survivors have been relocated by the government to camps elsewhere in Darfur often far from their homes and under Sudanese police or Janjaweed supervision. There are fears that this is part of a government policy to set up new resettlement villages in hostile terrain as well as to make the displacement permanent. More than 200,000 other survivors fled to neighboring Chad, many of them now camped along the border and vulnerable to attack , retaliatory attacks from the Sudan Liberation Army ( SLA) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) heightened the conflict as did the fragmentation of many of the rebel groups. WHO ARE THE KILLERS?

The Janjaweed ( a local term for highwaymen or robbers ) are the Arab militia men, mounted on camel or horseback, who have relentlessly looted, murdered and raped. Recruited into the government - sponsored popular defense force, they include mainly nomadic or seminomadic groups of Arab origin, for whom joining the militia offered the opportunity to loot and gain access to land. In addition the government has used helicopter gun-ships in bombing attacks on civilian targets.The Sudanese government led by president Omar Hassan Al-Bashir persists in denying the gravity of the situation. It denies arming and encouraging the Janjaweed although it admits mobilising 'self defense' militias.

100

REFUGEE CAMP IN CHAD / COURTESY OF URIEL SINAI


UN official says progovernment Arab "Janjaweed" militias are carrying out systematic killings of African villagers in Darfur.

2008 SEPTEMBER

Darfur rebels accuse government forces backed by militias of launching air and ground attacks on two towns in the region.

Army moves to quell rebel uprising in western region of Darfur; hundreds of thousands of refugees flee to neighbouring Chad.

2008 JULY

The ICC top prosecutor calls for the arrest of President Bashir for genocide and war crimes in Darfur; the appeal is the first ever request to the ICC for the arrest of a sitting head of state.

Rebels in western region of Darfur rise up against government, claiming the region is being neglected by Khartoum.

2008 APRIL

Counting begins in national census which is seen as a vital step towards holding democratic elections after the landmark 2005 northsouth peace deal.

2004 MARCH

2004 JANUARY

2003 FEBRUARY

2003-2009

http://news.bbc.co.uk

TIMELINE / THE CONFLICT IN SUDAN

Allegations that Ukrainian tanks hijacked off the coast of Somalia were bound for southern Sudan spark fears of an arms race between the North and former rebels in the South.

2008 OCTOBER

President Bashir announces a ceasefire in Darfur, but the region's two main rebel groups reject the move, saying they will fight on until the government agrees to share power in the region.

2008 NOVEMBER

2005 JULY 9 Former southern rebel leader John Garang is sworn in as first vice president. A constitution which gives a large degree of autonomy to the south is signed.

Sudanese Islamist leader Hassan al-Turabi is arrested after saying President Bashir should hand himself in to The Hague to face war crimes charges for the Darfur war.

2009 JANUARY

2005 AUGUST 1 Vice president and former rebel leader Garang is killed in a plane crash. Garang's death sparks deadly clashes in the capital between southern Sudanese and northern Arabs.

The International Criminal Court in The Hague issues an arrest warrant for President Omar al-Bashir on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur.

2009 MARCH

Power-sharing government is formed in Khartoum.

2005 SEPTEMBER

An estimated 250 people in central Sudan are killed during a week of clashes between nomadic groups fighting over grazing land and cattle in the semiarid region of Southern Kordofan.

2009 MAY

Khartoum government and the main rebel faction in Darfur, the Sudan Liberation Movement, sign a peace accord. Two smaller rebel groups reject the deal. Fighting continues. .

2006 MAY

Leaders of North and South say they have reached a deal on the terms of a referendum on independence due in South by 2011.

2009 DECEMBER

Sudan rejects a UN resolution calling for a UN peacekeeping force in Darfur, saying it would compromise sovereignty.

2006 AUGUST

Judges of International Criminal Court are ordered to review their decision to omit genocide from the war crimes arrest warrant issued for President Omar al-Bashir

2010 FEBRUARY

Sudan says it will accept a partial UN troop deployment to reinforce African Union peacekeepers in Darfur, but not a full 20,000strong force.

2007 APRIL

International Criminal Court issues arrest warrants for a minister and a janjaweed militia leader suspected of Darfur war crimes.

2007 MAY

UN Security Council approves a resolution authorising a 26,000strong force for Darfur. Sudan says it will co-operate with the UNAfrican Union Mission.

2007 JULY

MAP / DARFUR: CONFIRMED DAMADGED AND DESTROYED VILLAGES 2003 - 2009

UN says Sudan has not met targets for disarming progovernment Darfur militias and must accept outside help to protect civilians.

2004 SEPTEMBER

103


CASE NO.

10

SUDANESE REFUGEES IN CHAD / COURTESY OF URIEL SINAI


CHAPTER 03

Aftermath

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RECONSTRUCTION, 2010


ALISON DES FORGES / THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE

HOW DO YOU CREATE A HISTORY? HOW DO YOU CREATE A WAY TO REMEMBER WHEN PART OF THE POPULATION WERE THE VICTIMS AND PART OF THE POPULATION ARE ACCUSED OF BEING THE KILLERS? HOW DO YOU BALANCE THE NEED FOR REMEMBRANCE AGAINST THE NEED FOR MOVING FORWARD?


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RECONSTRUCTION, 2010


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

108

CHAPTER 03 / AFTERMATH

AFTERMATH

FIVE CASES OF GENOCIDE

EAST TIMOR

All genocide, ethnic cleansing and other related episodes create shock waves that extend far beyond their immediate geographical location. Surviving victims suffer from direct physical loss in the form of property, livelihood and community. But they also suffer long-term psychological damage from the loss of loved-ones – often whole families – the effects of which can last for generations. In addition, many such survivors end up internally displaced or as refugees in alien environments abroad. Refugees are defined by the UN as those who leave their home ‘owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reason of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion.’ There are currently an estimated fifteen million refugees in the world and more than twenty two million people displaced within their own countries. The number of Kurds, Kosovar Albanians, Afghans, Iraqis, Somalis and others who have sought and continue to seek asylum in Britain is again indicative of the impact that violence can have.

RWANDA

In East Timor a quarter of the population is thought to have died under Indonesian occupation. Squalid camps in West Timor still give ‘shelter’ to the thousands who fled across the border in 1999 to escape the violent pro-Indonesian militias. East Timor became independent in 2002 and the new country now seeks to establish its own government, legal and education system, and make itself economically viable, after twenty five years of brutal and destructive Indonesian rule.

The violence in Rwanda was on such a scale that few Rwandans can have escaped physical or psychological damage. Rwanda’s ongoing intervention in the civil war in the neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo has made for continuing instability and violence in the north west of Rwanda. Most children who lived in the country at the time of the genocide have, at the very least, witnessed bloodshed, many the killing of family members.100,000 children were orphaned or separated from their parents. Tens of thousands of women and girls were raped, many contracting HIV as a result. Those who became pregnant were frequently ostracised by their families The effects of genocide last far beyond the generation in which the violence occurred. “Here was a society whose soul had been shredded .. where hardly a person could be found who was not related to someone who had either killed or been killed …”(Philip Gourevitch, Rwanda) BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA

Bosnia-Herzegovina is struggling to recover from three years of war in which 250,000 people died. The Dayton Peace Accords, which ended the conflict in 1995, left the country divided uneasily between Serb and Bosnian Muslim/Croat entities. Thousands of people are still displaced from their homes. Unemployment remains high. A UN study found that more than 60% of young Bosnians want to emigrate so Bosnia also faces a skills shortage at a time of massive reconstruction efforts. “What motivated people to fight may indeed have been their half-baked notions of historical grandeur, and their secret grudges. But what divides them now are not ideas but the dead and the ethnically cleansed, the raped women and the mutilated children.” (David Rieff, writer on Bosnia)

CAMBODIA

In Cambodia, as well as the psychological and physical impact on those who suffered under Pol Pot, twenty years of continuing conflict between the Khmer Rouge and the government resulted in the laying of more than four million land mines. 35,000 people have lost limbs as a result. In a country where 85 % of the population is dependent on agriculture or related activities, such widespread risk from mines severely restricts the scale on which land can be used for farming.

THE HOLOCAUST The Holocaust has had perhaps the most visible legacy – at least in the West. Academic study of the subject was slow to gain ground, but from the 1980s there was a huge outpouring of books and films, and more recently official efforts to remember the loss of the Jews of particular countries – with the setting up of museums and the institution of memorial days. Added to this has been a number of well publicised, sometimes controversial issues relating to the restitution of confiscated property, compensation for years spent in concentration camps, the bringing to justice of war criminals and the public atonement by nations and organisations for their complicity in the murder programme.


“WHERE PARTICIPATION IN ATROCITIES IS WIDESPREAD, JUSTICE CAN ONLY BE SYMBOLIC.”

COURTESY OF THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, LONDON

109

GERARD GAHIMA, PROSECUTOR GENERAL OF RWANDA

SEEKING JUSTICE / A NEW ERA OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE

In 1945 the victorious Allied powers set up war crimes trials in Nuremberg, to prosecute Nazi war criminals, and in Tokyo to prosecute Japanese war criminals. These tribunals introduced two important new concepts, the charge of ‘crimes against humanity’ and the principle of universal jurisdiction. From that timeIn future, state agents who authorised torture or genocide would become criminally responsible under international law and could theoretically be tried by any court capable of catching them, regardless of where the crimes were carried out or the nationality of victim and accused. The politics of the Cold War stalled the development of international justice. The two Superpowers – the US and the USSR – signed numerous human rights conventions, but took no action to enforce them. They vied for the support of dictators responsible for massive human rights abuse, while the USSR was itself guilty of such abuses within its own territory, as were both the US and USSR in their own spheres of influence. TRANSITIONS / It was not until the early 1990s that 2010the UN established international war crimes tribunals again - , this time for crimes committed in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. While it is true that these were created partly as a compensation for the failure of the international community to intervene effectively in either case, they have been responsible for significant developments in international human rights law - for example in the recognition of rape as a form of genocide. Other countries have set in motion their own UN-sponsored justice. In 2001, the Cambodian government approved legislation for a joint UN-Cambodian tribunal to prosecute members of the Khmer Rouge. However, disagreements over the impartiality of the court have prompted the UN to threaten to withdraw support for it. In January 2002, East Timor set up a Truth and Reconciliation Commission which, unlike its South African forerunner, will not offer amnesties to those who admit to serious crimes such as murder or rape, but will pass their cases on to the courts. Most of those responsible for planning and implementing atrocities in East Timor, however, have returned to Indonesia. The new Indonesian government has promised to set up its own tribunal to try members of the army suspected of war crimes, but has so far failed to bring any senior figures to justice. The last fifteen years have seen remarkable developments in international justice. No fewer than ten former presidents and military dictators are currently facing legal proceedings.

THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was established by the United Nations in The Hague in 1993 to prosecute individuals responsible for war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide in the break-up of Yugoslavia. The Tribunal was slow to begin work and has continued to suffer from difficulties, most notably in its reliance on NATO to arrest war criminals in the former Yugoslavia. Some of the worst crimes of the war – including the massacre at Srebrenica in July 1995 – took place while lawyers at the ICTY were still arguing their preliminary motions. The first major culprit to be convicted was Bosnian Croat general Tihomir Blaskic, who was given forty five years in jail for command responsibility of the massacre of Muslim families in 1993 in the village of Ahmici. The arrest and trial of former Serb president Slobodan Milosevic was a significant step for the ICTY. He faced charges relating to atrocities carried out in Bosnia, Croatia and Kosovo which were heard in a single trial after the prosecution argued that his alleged crimes in all three were part of a master plan to create a Greater Serbia. Milosevic himself rejected the legitimacy of the Tribunal, calling it ‘victors’ justice’. His trial began in July 2001 but Milosevic died in The Hague in March 2006 before a verdict could be given. Former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic was arrested in Belgrade in July 2008 after resisting capture for over a decade and sent for trial at the Hague. RWANDA

The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda was established by the United Nations in November 1994 in Arusha, Tanzania to prosecute those responsible for the Rwandan genocide. Legal wrangling and bureaucracy means that the ICTR has tried only nine defendants in its first seven years, although these were all highranking government officials and other influential figures in the Hutu Power regime, including the former prime minister Jean Kambanda. In 1998 he was sentenced to life imprisonment after pleading guilty to charges of genocide. On September 2, 1998, the ICTR issued the world’s first conviction for genocide in an international tribunal when Jean-Paul Akayesu was judged guilty of genocide and crimes against humanity for acts he engaged in and oversaw as mayor of the Rwandan town of Taba. Most Rwandans see the Arusha Tribunal as remote from themselves, both geographically, and in terms of its procedures. A parallel system of justice is operating in Rwanda where the death sentence, a punishment not open to the ICTR, can be issued. However, a large

number of lawyers and judges were killed, or were killers, in the genocide, 120,000 suspects remain in prison and the country lacks the administrative infrastructure to proceed rapidly with these cases. In an attempt to deal with this backlog, a new system of electing judges for local ‘gacaca’ courts from within communities was has been established, which has tried will try many of those accused of involvement, directly or indirectly in the genocide. Unfair as it may seem, iIn a society where hundreds of thousands of people were involved in killing, torture and rape, it seemed a pragmatic route to justice, but there have been instances of reprisal killings of both witnesses and of those in charge of the gacaca courts. is proving difficult to bring every one of them to justice. CAMBODIA

A six-year negotiation between Cambodia and the UN eventually brought an agreement to establish a mixed UN-Cambodian tribunal in Phnom Penh, but obstruction by the Cambodian government meant that the trials were slow to start. Fears remain that corruption and political interference will mean that few of the surviving perpetrators will actually be brought to justice. THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

An international criminal court (ICC) to try individuals accused of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity was proposed in 1951. In 1998, spurred on by the establishment of the ICTY and the ICTR, and after intense lobbying by human rights groups, 120 countries signed the Treaty of Rome calling for the formation of such a court. The tribunal, based at The Hague, was established in July 2002 and has jurisdiction by remit from the Security Council, by consent of the state of which the defendant is a national or by consent of the state in which the crime was committed. The first person to be handed over to the ICC was Thomas Lubanga, leader of a militia group in the Democratic Republic of Congo, who is accused of war crimes relating to the use of children as fighters. The ICC is currently investigating events in the Darfur region, where almost two million people have been displaced. A major stumbling block has been is the refusal of the US, and other significant countries including China and Israel, to accept the Court. The US is concerned that it may attempt to try American citizens as war criminals. Barack Obama has given signs that the US may accept the Court. Without the support of the US and China – both permanent members of the Security Council – the Court will have difficulty operating effectively.


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

108

CHAPTER 03 / AFTERMATH

AFTERMATH

FIVE CASES OF GENOCIDE

EAST TIMOR

All genocide, ethnic cleansing and other related episodes create shock waves that extend far beyond their immediate geographical location. Surviving victims suffer from direct physical loss in the form of property, livelihood and community. But they also suffer long-term psychological damage from the loss of loved-ones – often whole families – the effects of which can last for generations. In addition, many such survivors end up internally displaced or as refugees in alien environments abroad. Refugees are defined by the UN as those who leave their home ‘owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reason of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion.’ There are currently an estimated fifteen million refugees in the world and more than twenty two million people displaced within their own countries. The number of Kurds, Kosovar Albanians, Afghans, Iraqis, Somalis and others who have sought and continue to seek asylum in Britain is again indicative of the impact that violence can have.

RWANDA

In East Timor a quarter of the population is thought to have died under Indonesian occupation. Squalid camps in West Timor still give ‘shelter’ to the thousands who fled across the border in 1999 to escape the violent pro-Indonesian militias. East Timor became independent in 2002 and the new country now seeks to establish its own government, legal and education system, and make itself economically viable, after twenty five years of brutal and destructive Indonesian rule.

The violence in Rwanda was on such a scale that few Rwandans can have escaped physical or psychological damage. Rwanda’s ongoing intervention in the civil war in the neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo has made for continuing instability and violence in the north west of Rwanda. Most children who lived in the country at the time of the genocide have, at the very least, witnessed bloodshed, many the killing of family members.100,000 children were orphaned or separated from their parents. Tens of thousands of women and girls were raped, many contracting HIV as a result. Those who became pregnant were frequently ostracised by their families The effects of genocide last far beyond the generation in which the violence occurred. “Here was a society whose soul had been shredded .. where hardly a person could be found who was not related to someone who had either killed or been killed …”(Philip Gourevitch, Rwanda) BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA

Bosnia-Herzegovina is struggling to recover from three years of war in which 250,000 people died. The Dayton Peace Accords, which ended the conflict in 1995, left the country divided uneasily between Serb and Bosnian Muslim/Croat entities. Thousands of people are still displaced from their homes. Unemployment remains high. A UN study found that more than 60% of young Bosnians want to emigrate so Bosnia also faces a skills shortage at a time of massive reconstruction efforts. “What motivated people to fight may indeed have been their half-baked notions of historical grandeur, and their secret grudges. But what divides them now are not ideas but the dead and the ethnically cleansed, the raped women and the mutilated children.” (David Rieff, writer on Bosnia)

CAMBODIA

In Cambodia, as well as the psychological and physical impact on those who suffered under Pol Pot, twenty years of continuing conflict between the Khmer Rouge and the government resulted in the laying of more than four million land mines. 35,000 people have lost limbs as a result. In a country where 85 % of the population is dependent on agriculture or related activities, such widespread risk from mines severely restricts the scale on which land can be used for farming. THE STAIN REMAIN ON THE WALL / DAVID AVIDAN

THE HOLOCAUST

The Holocaust has had perhaps the most visible legacy – at least in the West. Academic study of the subject was slow to gain ground, but from the 1980s there was a huge outpouring of books and films, and more recently official efforts to remember the loss of the Jews of particular countries – with the setting up of museums and the institution of memorial days. Added to this has been a number of well publicised, sometimes controversial issues relating to the restitution of confiscated property, compensation for years spent in concentration camps, the bringing to justice of war criminals and the public atonement by nations and organisations for their complicity in the murder programme.


“WHERE PARTICIPATION IN ATROCITIES IS WIDESPREAD, JUSTICE CAN ONLY BE SYMBOLIC.”

COURTESY OF THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, LONDON

109

GERARD GAHIMA, PROSECUTOR GENERAL OF RWANDA

SEEKING JUSTICE / A NEW ERA OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE

In 1945 the victorious Allied powers set up war crimes trials in Nuremberg, to prosecute Nazi war criminals, and in Tokyo to prosecute Japanese war criminals. These tribunals introduced two important new concepts, the charge of ‘crimes against humanity’ and the principle of universal jurisdiction. From that timeIn future, state agents who authorised torture or genocide would become criminally responsible under international law and could theoretically be tried by any court capable of catching them, regardless of where the crimes were carried out or the nationality of victim and accused. The politics of the Cold War stalled the development of international justice. The two Superpowers – the US and the USSR – signed numerous human rights conventions, but took no action to enforce them. They vied for the support of dictators responsible for massive human rights abuse, while the USSR was itself guilty of such abuses within its own territory, as were both the US and USSR in their own spheres of influence. It was not until the early 1990s that the UN established international war crimes tribunals again - , this time for crimes committed in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. While it is true that these were created partly as a compensation for the failure of the international community to intervene effectively in either case, they have been responsible for significant developments in international human rights law - for example in the recognition of rape as a form of genocide. Other countries have set in motion their own UN-sponsored justice. In 2001, the Cambodian government approved legislation for a joint UN-Cambodian tribunal to prosecute members of the Khmer Rouge. However, disagreements over the impartiality of the court have prompted the UN to threaten to withdraw support for it. In January 2002, East Timor set up a Truth and Reconciliation Commission which, unlike its South African forerunner, will not offer amnesties to those who admit to serious crimes such as murder or rape, but will pass their cases on to the courts. Most of those responsible for planning and implementing atrocities in East Timor, however, have returned to Indonesia. The new Indonesian government has promised to set up its own tribunal to try members of the army suspected of war crimes, but has so far failed to bring any senior figures to justice. The last fifteen years have seen remarkable developments in international justice. No fewer than ten former presidents and military dictators are currently facing legal proceedings.

THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was established by the United Nations in The Hague in 1993 to prosecute individuals responsible for war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide in the break-up of Yugoslavia. The Tribunal was slow to begin work and has continued to suffer from difficulties, most notably in its reliance on NATO to arrest war criminals in the former Yugoslavia. Some of the worst crimes of the war – including the massacre at Srebrenica in July 1995 – took place while lawyers at the ICTY were still arguing their preliminary motions. The first major culprit to be convicted was Bosnian Croat general Tihomir Blaskic, who was given forty five years in jail for command responsibility of the massacre of Muslim families in 1993 in the village of Ahmici. The arrest and trial of former Serb president Slobodan Milosevic was a significant step for the ICTY. He faced charges relating to atrocities carried out in Bosnia, Croatia and Kosovo which were heard in a single trial after the prosecution argued that his alleged crimes in all three were part of a master plan to create a Greater Serbia. Milosevic himself rejected the legitimacy of the Tribunal, calling it ‘victors’ justice’. His trial began in July 2001 but Milosevic died in The Hague in March 2006 before a verdict could be given. Former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic was arrested in Belgrade in July 2008 after resisting capture for over a decade and sent for trial at the Hague. RWANDA

The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda was established by the United Nations in November 1994 in Arusha, Tanzania to prosecute those responsible for the Rwandan genocide. Legal wrangling and bureaucracy means that the ICTR has tried only nine defendants in its first seven years, although these were all highranking government officials and other influential figures in the Hutu Power regime, including the former prime minister Jean Kambanda. In 1998 he was sentenced to life imprisonment after pleading guilty to charges of genocide. On September 2, 1998, the ICTR issued the world’s first conviction for genocide in an international tribunal when Jean-Paul Akayesu was judged guilty of genocide and crimes against humanity for acts he engaged in and oversaw as mayor of the Rwandan town of Taba. Most Rwandans see the Arusha Tribunal as remote from themselves, both geographically, and in terms of its procedures. A parallel system of justice is operating in Rwanda where the death sentence, a punishment not open to the ICTR, can be issued. However, a large

number of lawyers and judges were killed, or were killers, in the genocide, 120,000 suspects remain in prison and the country lacks the administrative infrastructure to proceed rapidly with these cases. In an attempt to deal with this backlog, a new system of electing judges for local ‘gacaca’ courts from within communities was has been established, which has tried will try many of those accused of involvement, directly or indirectly in the genocide. Unfair as it may seem, iIn a society where hundreds of thousands of people were involved in killing, torture and rape, it seemed a pragmatic route to justice, but there have been instances of reprisal killings of both witnesses and of those in charge of the gacaca courts. is proving difficult to bring every one of them to justice. CAMBODIA

A six-year negotiation between Cambodia and the UN eventually brought an agreement to establish a mixed UN-Cambodian tribunal in Phnom Penh, but obstruction by the Cambodian government meant that the trials were slow to start. Fears remain that corruption and political interference will mean that few of the surviving perpetrators will actually be brought to justice. THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

An international criminal court (ICC) to try individuals accused of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity was proposed in 1951. In 1998, spurred on by the establishment of the ICTY and the ICTR, and after intense lobbying by human rights groups, 120 countries signed the Treaty of Rome calling for the formation of such a court. The tribunal, based at The Hague, was established in July 2002 and has jurisdiction by remit from the Security Council, by consent of the state of which the defendant is a national or by consent of the state in which the crime was committed. The first person to be handed over to the ICC was Thomas Lubanga, leader of a militia group in the Democratic Republic of Congo, who is accused of war crimes relating to the use of children as fighters. The ICC is currently investigating events in the Darfur region, where almost two million people have been displaced. A major stumbling block has been is the refusal of the US, and other significant countries including China and Israel, to accept the Court. The US is concerned that it may attempt to try American citizens as war criminals. Barack Obama has given signs that the US may accept the Court. Without the support of the US and China – both permanent members of the Security Council – the Court will have difficulty operating effectively.


CHAPTER 03 / AFTERMATH

02

THE SERBS OF KOSOVO

Following NATO’s bombing campaign and the subsequent ousting of ethnic Serb forces loyal to the then Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic in 1999, the Serb minority in Kosovo faced harsh reprisals: several dozen Serb farmers were murdered in that year, and allegations of abduction, beatings and harassment continue. Around 120,000 Serbs remain in Kosovo but most are in enclaves guarded by the 14,000strong NATO-led Kosovo force, K-For. Kosovo’s declaration of independence in February 2008 brought an angry response from the region’s Serbs who have held regular protests in Mitrovica resulting in violence. Although widely accepted, Russia opposed the recognition and uncertainty in the region looks likely to continue.

11

THE ABKHAZIANS, SOUTH OSSETIANS AND GEORGIA

Situated on the Black Sea coast and formerly an autonomous republic within Soviet Georgia, Abkhazia seceded from Georgia following a year-long war in 1992-93. As a result of that conflict the vast majority of the republic’s ethnic Georgian population was displaced from Abkhazia. To the east, mountainous South Ossetia, two-thirds inhabited by ethnic Ossetians, was in 2008 the object of a ground- assault by Georgia. A counter-attack by Russia brought a five-day war resulting in both breakaway regions being recognised by Russia as independent states, but with only Nicaragua following suit, the region remains set for an uncertain future.

01

ROMA AND SINTI

Some eight million Roma are believed to live in Europe. Widely thought to originate in India, they speak several dialects, but share common cultural characteristics and a nomadic lifestyle difficult to reconcile with sedentary urban life. Roma have been widely discriminated against in many countries, and as a result tend to live on the margins of society. They were the target for particular abuse during the ethnic strife in Kosovo (1999) and Macedonia (2001). In 2005 eight countries in central and south east Europe signed up to a Decade of Roma Inclusion, aimed at tackling social exclusion and educational disadvantages, but the mob burning of a Roma settlement on the outskirts of Naples in 2008 highlighted the continuing marginalisation of this group.

10

THE ARMENIANS AND THE AZERIS

The onset of political reform in the Soviet Union in the late-1980s opened up opportunities for the Armenian population of Nagorny Karabakh, an autonomous region in Soviet Azerbaijan, to campaign for union with Armenia. By 1991 the conflict had erupted into a full-scale war costing 30,000 lives and the displacement of over a million people. As a result of the war Nagorny Karabakh seceded from Azerbaijan but remains unrecognized by any state, including Armenia. Armenians and Azeris continue to dispute the history and ownership of Nagorny Karabakh and peace talks have yet to find a solution acceptable to all sides.

Current and future flashpoints

THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

Pashtuns account for around 40 per cent of Afghanistan’s population. The deposed Taliban regime was led by ethnic Pashtuns, and although many Pashtuns had no hand in the bloodshed carried out by the Taliban since the regime’s fall they have been an obvious target for reprisal attacks. The Hazaras, the second largest group in the country, are a predominantly Shia community who suffered at the hands of both the Taliban and the Northern Alliance, their livelihoods destroyed by looting and burning. In a country divided by a quarter of a century of almost constant war, the new administration in Kabul faces considerable challenges in reconciling these and other ethnic tensions.

THE PASHTUN AND THE HAZARAS

12

More than 20,000 people are thought to have died in the Bosnian war, the majority of them Muslims. The efforts of this group to rebuild their lives are hampered by continued antagonism with Serbs. Humanitarian agencies and others monitoring the post-war scene have accused local government authorities in Serb regions of obstructing returning Bosniaks in the repossession of their homes and resisting the rebuilding of mosques and other symbols of Muslim culture erased during the war. Kosovo’s declation of independence in February 2008 brought renewed tension, however, with divisive rhetoric from politicians giving concern for the stability of the region.

BOSNIAKS IN BOSNIA

03

The Ijaw and the Ogoni have complained for several years about the environmental damage done by oil companies working in the Niger delta region in southern Nigeria. Some two million gallons of oil are exported daily, yet 70 per cent of the country’s people live on less than $1 a day. The execution in1995 of nine Ogoni activists, including the writer Ken Saro-Wiwa, brought the people’s plight to international attention. Violence has continued to simmer, and has escalated significantly in recent years with separatist attacks in the oil rich delta region, and abductions of expatriate oil workers, as a result of which 20-25% of the country’s oil production has been shut down.

THE IJAW AND OGONI OF NIGERIA With a long history of battling against British and Dutch colonisers, the strongly Islamic Acehnese, who live in north west Sumatra, have been demanding greater autonomy from the Indonesian government since the 1950s. Brutal counter–insurgency operations by the latter in the 1990s cost around 2000 lives, and resulted in the Indonesian government placing a military commander in charge of the province. The Tsunami of December 2004 devastated the province, claiming over 200,000 lives. International attention was focussed on the region and the former Finnish President helped bring peace talks to a successful conclusion in 2005.

THE ACEHNESE OF WEST SUMATRA

14

The failure of the Camp David summit reignited the Palestinian intifada in late 2000, which continued undiminished throughout 2001– 4. The new tactic of attacking Israeli civilians by suicide bombers was met with repeated incursions by the Israeli army into key Palestinian towns on the West Bank and Gaza and the building of a security barrier on Palestinian soil, in an attempt to isolate the threat. The death of President Arafat in 2005, and the democratic election in his place by Abbas, alongside Israel’s evacuation of settlers from the Gaza strip in 2005 offered hope, but Israel, the US and the EU imposed an economic embargo on the Palestinians – with devastating results on Gaza’s economy.

A rebel group of ethnic Albanians emerged in Macedonia at the start of 2001 and sporadic incidents escalated into sustained fighting. A peace deal was brokered in August 2001, and a subsequent NATO weapons collection programme saw more than 3,300 rebel weapons seized. International effort has been focussed on upgrading the status of Macedonia’s two million ethnic Albanians, who from 2005 have had the right to fly their flag in districts where they form the majority. President George Ivanov has declared it a priority to resolve the ongoing dispute with Greece over the country’s name – the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia - vital if the country is to progress to EU and NATO integration.

13

THE PALESTINIANS

05

THE ALBANIANS IN MACEDONIA

04

Set against the civil war in the Congo, the long-standing rivalry between the pastoralist Hema tribe and the mainly farming Lenda has brought low-level conflict in recent years, erupting into a massacre of several hundred in January 2000. External interference by other African states and competition for valuable resources is behind the continuing destabilisation and economic decline of the region. Fighting in the north east of Congo has displaced in the region of 190,000 people since 2008, while some 250,000 people have been displaced in the provinces of North and South Kivo, following the joint offensive between former enemies Rwanda and DRC to disarm the rebel Hutu FDLR.

THE PEOPLES OF THE EASTERN REGION, DRC

15

The Maya civilisation flourished across Central America between 150 and 900 AD. Today the Maya are spread across five central American countries, and make up half the population of Guatemala. They suffered devastating losses during the 36 year-long civil war which reached its height in the early 1980s and in which some 600 indigenous villages were eliminated. The election of the progressive centre-left Alvaro Colom in 2007 promised a more positive and inclusive approach to the Mayans. But overbearing attitudes persist: a Canadian company was accused in 2008 of failing to prevent contamination from a giant open-pit mine they had excavated on Mayan land.

THE MAYA OF GUATEMALA

06

Savage sectarian violence erupted in the Moluccan capital of Ambon in January 1999, spreading to other islands with the loss of around 2000 lives over the following two years. Christians – who have traditionally dominated the Moluccan Islands – fear the impact of Muslim incomers who, they say, are taking their jobs. An extremist paramilitary group – Lashkar Jihad – is said to have been responsible for raids on Christian villages, but recent peace efforts have insisted on the disbandment of the Christian separatist group. In April 2004 violence flared again in Ambon resulting in forty deaths.

THE CHRISTIANS AND MUSLIMS OF MOLUCCA

16

Subsistence farmers in the northcentral area of Uganda, the Acholi have since the mid-1990s suffered massive displacement in the fighting between the Lord’s Resistance Army and the Ugandan government. Joseph Kony, the LRA’s leader, appears to want the Acholi punished and ‘cleansed’. Hundreds of thousands have abandoned their homes and around 16,000 people – mainly children – have been abducted and forced to train as soldiers in Sudan. A deal with Sudan has allowed Ugandan troops to cross the border and gives hope that the LRA will be defeated but much will have to be done to rectify the shattered economy and society of the region.

THE ACHOLI OF UGANDA

07

Some 250 tribal groups make up the province of Papua (formerly Irian Jaya) which passed from Dutch to Indonesian control in 1963. A pro-independence movement was fuelled by resentment of Jakarta’s exploitation of the province’s rich mineral resources. In 2002 the Indonesian government conceded that the Papuan provincial government could retain 70% of revenue from oil and gas production and 80% from other mineral and forestry activity. The province’s name was changed to West Papua in 2007 – a decision which remains controversial.

THE PAPUANS (FORMERLY THE PEOPLE OF IRIAN JAYA)

17

Proclaiming itself independent in 1991 after the fall of communism, Chechnya was invaded in 1994 by Russian troops. An intermittent war has continued since then, characterized on the one hand by hostage taking and bombing campaigns by the Chechen resistance, and on the other by massive Russian counter-insurgency sweeps leading to repeated charges of human rights violations against the army and other security forces. The installation of a loyal leader - Ramzan Kadyrov - has allowed Russia to reassert overall control of Chechnya, but accusations of human rights abuses persist. Chechnya is now starting to rebuild, though tensions and violence remain.

THE CHECHENS

08

COURTESY OF THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, LONDON

International attention on the plight of these peoples has caused the Brazilian government to respond to the situation – the latest measure being an ambitious $1.4 billion radar vigilance system to monitor all activity in the rainforest. But deep concern remains for the indigenous peoples – frequently exploited as cheap labour, forced to live on tiny, crowded plots of land and made ill by diseases brought in by outsiders. The London-based group Survival International is campaigning for recognition of the land-ownership of these and other tribal peoples.

THE INDIGENOUS OF THE AMAZON REGION

18

The Tamil people of Sri Lanka have fought for self- rulesince Sri Lankan independence in 1948 and before – claiming that they are discriminated against by the Sinhalese majority. The government argued that it was redressing an imbalance inherited from colonial times. The Tamil Tigers, a militant separatist movement, have fought an armed struggle for independence since 1982. The group is notorious for suicide attacks on – among others – former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Sri Lankan president Premadasa. The conflict has killed about 70,000 people and badly affected the country’s tourist industry.

THE TAMILS IN SRI LANKA

09

110


20

THE KIKUYU OF KENYA

The Kikuyu are the largest tribe in Kenya, and although traditionally agriculturalists are also noted for their entrepreneurship. Sporadic killings of Kikuyu have taken place in the north west Rift Valley province, the most serious being the burning of hundreds of homes and the killing of around eighty Kikuyu in the wake of the December 1997 elections. A further flare-up left 15 dead in January 2005. December 2007 saw the worst violence since independence, when people loyal to Raila Odinga’s party claimed that the presidential elections had been rigged and turned on the Kikuyu. In the violence which followed 1,500 people were killed and 600,000 displaced.

29

THE OROMO OF ETHIOPIA

Making up nearly 40% of Ethiopia’s population, the Oromo claim they have been colonised and oppressed since they were annexed by Ethiopia in the late nineteenth century. The armed Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) – barred from effective power-sharing after the 1992 elections – has conducted a campaign to gain independence. Oromo are frequently suspected by government officials of being sympathetic to the OLF, and measures against them included the deliberate burning of Oromia forest land in 2000. Oppositional gains in the May 2006 elections resulted in heavy-handed repression by the government and thousands of arrests and imprisonments.

38

THE NDEBELE, ZIMBABWE

The Ndebele make up 20% of Zimbabwe’s population. Originally conquerors from South Africa and having a language similar to Zulu, they suffered extreme repression in 1983/84 when, following independence, governmentsponsored military units killed thousands of their number after they had voted for Joshua Nkomo’s Zapu-PF. Marginalised by Robert Mugabe’s predominantly Shona government, and in the face of Zimbabwe’s severe economic decline, some Ndebele have called for the restoration of their old kingdom.

19

THE MUSLIM MINORITY IN THE PHILIPPINES

Tension between Muslims and the Christian majority dates back some 400 years to the point when Spanish and Moorish colonisers arrived in the islands. Efforts over twenty four years by Nur Misuari, leader of the Moro National Liberation Front, to create an autonomous Islamic region for the Philippines’ four million Muslims in the south of the islands (Mindanao) has produced an ongoing crisis. The Philippines government is urged by many to find a military solution to its socalled ‘Wild South’. A peace agreement due to have been signed in 2008 collapsed when Christian communities claimed they had not been consulted on the proposed enlargement of the Muslim autonomous region.

28

RIVAL FACTIONS IN SOMALIA

A civil war has been fought in Somalia since 1991 causing more than a half million deaths. In 1993 a predominantly US force under a UN mandate attempted to stabilise the country to allow aid to be delivered to droughtstricken areas, but Operation Restore Hope as it was known, ended in disaster. With no effective administration, the country was for 13 years policed by warlords and plagued by internal violence. In 2006 an Islamist group took control of much of Somalia including the capital Mogadishu. Following a UN-backed peace process in Djibouti in 2008, Ethiopia withdrew its troops and the moderate Islamist Sheikh Sheikh Ahmad was elected president, but the Islamists remain in control of the country.

37

THE MERINA OF MADAGASCAR

An ethnic divide exists between the indigenous Merina or Malgasy people of the highlands of Madagascar, and the coastal people who are of African origin. In 2002 these divisons were heightened by the political struggle between the ousted former president Didier Ratsiraka and the newly elected selfmade millionaire Marc Ravalomanana. The coup which took place in early 2009, however, which saw President Ravalomanana deposed in favour of Andry Rajoelina, does not reflect this divide, suggesting that ethnicity is less politically divisive than in the past.

In Turkey official attitudes towards the country’s 12 million Kurdish population remain harsh, although demands that Turkey grant Kurds more rights as a condition of EU membership have brought a slight improvement in their situation. In Iraq, the Kurdistan Regional Government has a large degree of autonomy. Iran’s four millionstrong Kurdish population today enjoys a measure of cultural independence but remains isolated politically.

THE KURDS

39

About 90% of Fiji’s land is owned by the indigenous population, but the country’s main crop – sugar – is mainly tended by Indian tenant farmers, first brought to Fiji as indentured labour by the British more than 100 years ago, and today making up 44% of the population. Nationalists urged indigenous Fijians to throw the Indians off their land, with the result that thousands of Indians left the islands. Ethnic divisions continue to destabilise the political situation the country’s economy. In early 2009 armed forces chief Commodore Bainimarama returned to power, proclaiming a state of emergency and promising governance which would overcome the longstanding ethnic divisions.

THE INDIANS IN FIJI

30

In January 2002 a ten-year civil war was officially declared over – the result of efforts by Britain – the former colonial power – which is now helping reform the Sierra Leonean army and providing substantial development assistance. The war left an estimated 50,000 killed, millions homeless and deliberately maimed, and thousands of refugees in nearby Liberia, Guinea and Gambia. Chronic poverty continues to plague the country, and drug barons and organised crime are gaining a hold. In 2004 a UN-backed Special Court of Sierra Leone began the trials of eleven people accused of bearing the greatest responsibility for the excesses of the war.

SIERRA LEONE

21

2008 saw a sudden outbreak of xenophobic mob violence against Zimbabweans who had fled Mugabe’s regime to South Africa. Some three million Zimbabweans are thought to have sought refuge from the economic collapse and human rights abuses in their own country. Fears that they were getting preferential treatment and taking jobs from South Africans caused over 60 to be killed and some 100,000 drive from their homes.

ZIMBABWEANS IN SOUTH AFRICA

40

A potential trouble spot since 1947, the disputed territory of Kashmir has fuelled two full-scale wars between India and Pakistan. It became the focus for mounting international concern in 2002, with hundreds of thousands of Indian and Pakistani troops massed on either side of the border, and fears that one or other side might resort to the use of nuclear weapons. Peace talks gave hope that this long-running conflict might be resolved, but 2008 saw renewed fears of communal violence when the majority Muslim population was outraged by the proposed transfer of land to a Hindu shrine in the Kashmir valley.

KASHMIR

31

Burundi saw continual Hutu-Tutsi violence from 1993 to 2001, during which some 200,000 lives were lost. A power-sharing agreement mediated firstly by the Tanzanian president and subsequently Nelson Mandela came into effect in November 2001, and had at its heart efforts to incorporate Hutu rebel forces into the previously Tutsi dominated army. The first parliamentary elections took place in 2005 producing a power-sharing constitution. 2008 brought further violence as rebels attacked the capital Bujumbura. A UN-brokered peace agreement signed in 2008 is hoped to pave the way for free elections in 2010.

THE HUTU AND TUTSI OF BURUNDI

22

The native Christian minority in Egypt make up 10% of the population, most belonging to the Coptic Church, an autonomous Christian sect. Sporadic acts of violence by Muslim fundamentalists have claimed the lives of 100 Copts in the last decade. January 2000 saw the killing of 19 Christians – the worst inter-communal violence in Egypt for decades. Occasional flare-ups continue, often over the building of churches.

THE COPTS OF EGYPT

41

The Turkic-speaking eight-millionstrong Uighur ethnic minority in the far-western province of Xinjiang in China claim that their human rights are violated by the Chinese authorities, who in turn accuse Uighur ‘terrorists’ of seeking to establish an independent state of ‘East Turkestan’ or ‘Uighurstan’. Human rights organisations are concerned that China has used the ‘war on terrorism’ to crack down on Uighur separatists, but the risk posed by the group was made plain at the start of the 2008 Beijing Olympics when seventeen policemen were killed in the city of Kashgar.

THE UIGHURS OF XINJIANG

32

Caught up in the long-running civil war between the government and the South, the hill-farming Nuba have suffered bombing to their villages, and feel that they are treated as second-class citizens. In the context of the second civil war in Sudan – ended with a fragile peace in 2005 - government-backed militias targeted the Dinka and Nuba people of the south of the country, enslaving thousands. Oil reserves in southern Sudan are a key factor in the ongoing destabilisation of the region. March 2009 saw a new spate of killings over cattle raids, with several hundred women and children killed in the province of Jonglei.

THE NUBA AND DINKA OF SUDAN

23

Tajikistan was plagued by a five-year civil war between Islamists and ex-communists. Ethnic conflict presents further difficulties: the country has a majority Tajik population, but approximately a quarter of the population belongs to ethnic Uzbek communities. Sporadic conflict in the form of bombings and minelaying continues.

THE TAJIKS AND THE UZBEKS

42

The ‘Jumma’ of this ethnically and linguistically diverse area in south eastern Bangladesh fought to preserve the individuality of the region in the wake of the encroachment of some 300,000 Bengali settlers between 1977 and 1987. The peace deal signed in December 1997 has allowed the area to be opened again to foreigners and a Regional Council to be started up. The poverty of the area was further exacerbated in early 2008 when a plague of rats decimated bamboo forests, leaving the population to face near-famine.

THE CHITTAGONG HILL TRACTS

33

Once a British colony, Burma (now called Myanmar) endures extreme repression following the crushing of a pro-democracy group in 1988. Since that time military action against minority ethnic groups such as the Karens, and relocations within the Shan State, have forced about 200,000 people into refugee camps in Bangladesh. Forced labour, the destruction of crops and relocation by the army continue, resulting in some of the worst health conditions in the world. In early 2009 nearly 1,000 captured Rohingyas and Bangladeshis who were trying to reach Thailand were forced out to sea by the Thai military. Around 500 perished.

THE MINORITY PEOPLES OF MYANMAR

24

For over two decades, the government of Botswana has attempted to force the Gana and Gwi Bushmen off their ancestral lands in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve and into ‘resettlement camps’ so as to gain access to rich diamond deposits and develop tourism.

THE SAN BUSHMEN OF BOTSWANA

43

The Western Indian state of Gujarat has seen sporadic inter-communal violence between majority Hindus and minority Muslims over recent years, fuelled largely by the Hindu nationalist party, the BJP and other more extreme groupings. Attacks, particularly on mosques, set off a sequence of events in 2002 in which Muslims torched part of a train carrying Hindu militants in Godhra, leaving 59 dead. More than a thousand people were killed in the violence which followed and around 100,400 people displaced.

THE MUSLIMS OF GUJARAT

34

The Tuareg – a Berber tribe who for centuries traded across the Sahara, and bred stock – are spread across five different states. Motorised transport has long destroyed their traditional way of life, while successive droughts have meant that thousands now live in refugee camps in Sahara and Sahel. Tuareg calls for autonomy in the early 1990s the integration of many Tuaregs into the army, more decentralized government, and repatriation to Mali. The Tuareg-led Niger Movement for Justice, on the other hand, wants a greater share in the mineral wealth and claims that peace agreements have been ignored.

THE TUAREG OF NIGER AND MALI

25

During Saddam Hussein’s rule 95 % of the Marsh Arabs’ wildlife habitat was destroyed by dam-building and drainage works. In 2004 the UN announced a US$11m scheme – funded by Japan – to reshape the marshlands and recreate their ancient reedbed habitats, allowing some 40% of the marshes to be re-flooded by mid-2006. Concern remains, however, at the amount of water required to sustain these wetland habitats, and at low rainfall and dam construction and irrigation schemes upstream on the Tigris and Euphrates causing the marshes to dry up.

THE MARSH ARABS OF IRAQ

35

Outbreaks of violence in Kalimantan (formerly Borneo) between the indigenous Christian Dayaks and the Muslim Madurese (migrants from a small island off Java) have been frequent in recent years. The most serious was in 1997 when at least 1000 people are thought to have been killed. The Dayaks – politically marginalized and dispossessed of land lost to loggers – have united against what they see as violent, predatory incomers. A further outbreak of violence claimed several hundred lives in February 2001, with some 24,000 Madurese displaced from their homes.

THE DAYAKS AND MADURESE IN INDONESIA

26

Chinese rule over Tibet remains controversial. The Government of Tibet in Exile disputes the legality of Tibet’s incorporation into the People’s Republic of China, while the Chinese authorities claim that Tibet has flourished since the end of self-rule in 1950. The Chinese authorities are accused of the systematic destruction of Tibetan Buddhist culture, facilitating mass in-migration into Tibet of ethnic Han Chinese and of allowing environmental damage to the region in the form of uncontrolled mining and logging, and water pollution by chemical, industrial and nuclear waste.

THE TIBETANS

36

Although Rwanda is now moving towards greater democracy, tensions between Hutu and Tutsi remain. The enormous scale of the 1994 genocide, in which 800,000 Tutsi and moderate Hutus were killed, means that the judicial system is faced with a colossal challenge if suspects are to be properly tried. An innovative system of justice using local gacaca courts has been used to try and bring to justice some 100,000 Hutu suspects, but there are fears that this quick, informal route to justice is far from perfect and that the courts are being used to settle personal vendettas.

THE HUTU AND TUTSI OF RWANDA

27


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

CHAPTER 03 / AFTERMATH

112


113

MARK LATTIMER /

THERE ARE SOME FIVE THOUSAND, MAYBE SEVEN THOUSAND, DIFFERENT PEOPLES ALIVE IN THE WORLD TODAY - PEOPLES WITH DIFFERENT ETHNIC, LINGUISTIC, RELIGIOUS IDENTITIES. THERE ARE LESS THAN TWO HUNDRED STATES. WE CANNOT CREATE A WORLD IN WHICH EVERY PEOPLE HAS ITS OWN NATIONALIST STATE. THAT IS A RECIPE FOR UNENDING CONFLICT. ETHNIC DIVERSITY IS THE NORM IN OUR CURRENT WORLD AND THAT’S WHY ETHNIC CO-OPERATION MUST BE THE WAY FORWARD.


30.

127.

87.

185.

187.

.

133.

38.

26.

Diversity

g

80.

CHAPTER 03 / AFTERMATH

196 COUNTRIES. 5000 ETHNIC GROUPS

THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

89.

122.

01.

06.

131.

11.

190.

192.

37.

61.

188.

59.

111.

62.

116.

107.

163.

54.

39.

162.

102.

101.

114.

130.

34.

41.

03.

40.

66.

123.

81.

79.

174.

114

129.

153.

169.

145.

164.

23.

138.

166.

08.


134.

142.

27.

117.

77.

94.

14.

161.

71.

103.

48.

167.

44.

139.

68.

193.

175.

85.

91.

47.

146.

177.

93.

16.

171.

97.

33.

51.

60.

120.

157.

76.

141.

137.

113.

99.

104.

72.

121.

07.

43.

196.

88.

77.

152.

124.

86.

31.

74.

90.

09.

148.

13.

155.

144.

70.

64.

106.

10.

158.

126.

154.

18.

73.

143.

108.

189.

109.

05.

156.

19.

173.

132.

168.

118.

21.

125.

25.

04.

110.

186.

56.

67.

105.

84.

128.

12.

42.

140.

151.

170.

147.

179.

22.

92.

15.

58.

28.

95.

36.

135.

115.

35.

176.

160.

83.

49.

78.

46.

119.

24.

112.

98.

172.

182.

150.

32.

96.

136.

100.

53.

178.

20.

52.

183.

195.

57.

159.

184.

29.

194.

17.

55.

2.

69.

181.

149.

191.

50.

165.

45.

65.

63.

180.

82.


Akan 42.1%, Voltaiques or Gur 17.6%, Northern Mandes 16.5%, Krous 11%, Southern Mandes 10%, other 2.8%

58. ESTONIA

Estonian 67.9%, Russian 25.6%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Belarusian 1.3%, Finn 0.9%, other 2.2%

72. GUINEA

White (including Mestizo) 94%, black 3%, Amerindian 1%, Chinese 1%, other 1%

57. ERITREA

Tigrinya 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%, Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%, other 3%

71. GUATEMALA

73. GUINEA-BISSAU

Oromo 32.1%, Amara 30.1%, Tigraway 6.2%, Somalie 5.9%, Guragie 4.3%, Sidama 3.5%, Welaita 2.4%, other 15.4%

59. ETHIOPIA

Japanese 98.5%, Koreans 0.5%, Chinese 0.4%, other 0.6%

33. CAMEROON

Fleming 58%, Walloon 31%, mixed or other 11%

19. BELGIUM

Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6%

05. ANDORRA

46. CUBA

Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%

88. JORDAN

East Indian 43.5%, black (African) 30.2%, mixed 16.7%, Amerindian 9.1%, other 0.5%

74. GUYANA

Fijian 57.3% ( Melanesian with a Polynesian admixture), Indian 37.6%, Rotuman 1.2%, other 3.9% (European, Chinese)

60. FIJI

Kazakh (Qazaq) 53.4%, Russian 30%, Ukrainian 3.7%, Uzbek 2.5%, German 2.4%, Tatar 1.7%, Uyghur 1.4%, other 4.9%

89. KAZAKHSTAN

Black 95%, Mulatto and White 5%

75. HAITI

Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.6%, Russian 0.5%, Estonian 0.3%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.1%, Sami 0.1%

61. FINLAND

Greek 77%, Turkish 18%, other 5%

47. CYPRUS

Khmer 90%, Vietnamese Cameroon Highlanders 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4% 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%

32. CAMBODIA

Belarusian 81.2%, Russian 11.4%, Polish 3.9%, Ukrainian 2.4%, other 1.1%

18. BELARUS

native Pacific islander 91.6%, Asian 2.8%, white 1.1%, mixed 4.2%, other 0.3%

04. AMERICAN SAMOA

Croat 89.6%, Serb 4.5%, White 65.1%, mulatto other 5.9% (including and mestizo 24.8%, Bosniak, Hungarian, Black 10.1% Slovene, Czech, and Roma)

45. CROATIA

Black 91.2%, mixed 6.2%, other or unknown 2.6%

44. COTE D'IVOIRE

43. COSTA RICA

Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000

Italian (includes small clusters of German, French, and SloveneItalians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)

Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%, Mon 2%, other 5%

Mossi over 40%, other approximately 60% (Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, and Fulani)

31. BURUNDI

87. JAPAN

30. BURMA

29. BURKINA FASO

Black 90%, white 4%, Asian and mixed 6%

86. JAMAICA

Bengali 98%, other 2% (includes tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims)

Bahraini 62.4%, nonBahraini 37.6%

17. BARBADOS

85. ITALY

16. BANGLADESH

15. BAHRAIN

Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

African 99% (includes Balanta 30%, Fula 20%, Manjaca 14%, Mandinga 13%, Papel 7%), European and mulatto less than 1%

Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Roma (Gypsy), Serb, Macedonian, Bulgarian)

Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%, Baloch 2%, other 4%

03. ALGERIA

Mestizo & European 59.4%, Peuhl 40%, Malinke 30%, K'iche 9.1%, Kaqchikel Soussou 20%, smaller 8.4%, Mam 7.9%, Q'eqchi ethnic groups 10% 6.3%, other Mayan 8.6%, indigenous non-Mayan 0.2%,

02. ALBANIA

01. AFGHANISTAN

Bantu tribes, including four major tribal groupings (Fang, Bapounou, Nzebi, Obamba); other Africans and Europeans, 154,000

Celtic & Latin, Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities, Black, White, Mulatto, East Indian, Chinese

Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African 1%

90. KENYA

Micronesian 98.8%, other 1.2%

91. KIRIBATI

mestizo (mixed Hungarian 92.3%, Roma Amerindian and European) 1.9%, other 5.8% 90%, Amerindian 7%, Black 2%, white 1%

76. HUNGARY

63. GABON

62. FRANCE

76. HONDURAS

Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, German, Turkish, Iranian, Somali

49. DENMARK

Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%

35. CAPE VERDE

Fon 39.2%, Adja 15.2%, 12.3%, Bariba and related 9.2%, Peulh 7%, Ottamari 6.1%, Yoa-Lokpa 4%, Dendi 2.5%, other 1.6%

21. BENIN

Black 91%, mixed 4.4%, white 1.7%, other 2.9%

07. ANTIGUA & BARBUDA

Czech 90.4%, Moravian 3.7%, Slovak 1.9%, other 4%

48. CZECH REPUBLIC

British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed 26%

34. CANADA

Mestizo 48.7%, Creole 24.9%, Maya 10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%, other 9.7%

20. BELIZE

Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, Mestico 2%, European 1%, other 22%

06. ANGOLA

51. DOMINICA

Sara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tandjile 6.5%, Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-4.7%,

37. CHAD

Quechua 30%, Mestizo 30%, Aymara 25%, white 15%

23. BOLIVIA

Armenian 97.9%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.3%, Russian 0.5%, other 0.3%

09. ARMENIA

racially homogeneous; there is a small Chinese community and a few ethnic Japanese

92. KOREA, NORTH

homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norse and Celts 94%, population of foreign origin 6%

78. ICELAND

African 99% (Mandinka 42%, Fula 18%, Wolof 16%, Jola 10%, Serahuli 9%, other 4%), nonAfrican 1%

64. GAMBIA, THE

homogeneous (except for about 20,000 Chinese)

93. KOREA, SOUTH

Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3%

79. INDIA

Georgian 83.8%, Azeri 6.5%, Armenian 5.7%, Russian 1.5%, other 2.5%

65. GEORGIA

Somali 60%, Afar 35%, Black 86.8%, mixed 8.9%, other 5% (includes French, Carib Amerindian 2.9%, Arab, Ethiopian, White 0.8%, other 0.7% and Italian)

50. DJIBOUTI

Baya 33%, Banda 27%, Mandjia 13%, Sara 10%, Mboum 7%, M'Baka 4%, Yakoma 4%, other 2%

36. CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35% (includes Lhotsampas), indigenous or migrant tribes 15%

22. BHUTAN

White (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, Mestizo, Amerindian, or other nonwhite groups 3%

08. ARGENTINA

25. BOTSWANA

White 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%

11. AUSTRALIA

Akan 45.3%, MoleDagbon 15.2%, Ewe 11.7%, Ga-Dangme 7.3%, Guan 4%, Gurma 3.6%, Grusi 2.6%, Mande-Busanga 1%, other 7.8%

German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish)

Kuwaiti 45%, other Arab 35%, South Asian 9%, Iranian 4%, other 7%

94. KUWAIT

Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other 29.9%

Kyrgyz 64.9%, Uzbek 13.8%, Russian 12.5%, Dungan 1.1%, Ukrainian 1%, other 5.7%

95. KYRGYZSTAN

Persian 51%, Azeri 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%

81. IRAN

67. GHANA

66. GERMANY

80. INDONESIA

Mestizo 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%

53. ECUADOR

Han Chinese 91.5%, Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uyghur, Tujia, Yi, Mongol, Tibetan, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Korean, and other nationalities 8.5%

39. CHINA

Mixed 73%, White 16%, Black 11%

52. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

White and WhiteAmerindian 95.4%, Mapuche 4%, other indigenous groups 0.6%

38. CHILE

Tswana 79%, Kalanga Bosniak 48%, Serb 37.1%, 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% including Kgalagadi and white 7%

24. BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

mixed white, Caribbean Amerindian 80%, other 20%

10. ARUBA 13. AZERBAIJAN

Black 82%, mixed Black &European 13%, European and East Indian 5%, trace of Arawak/ Carib Amerindian

Greek 93%, other (foreign citizens) 7% (percents represent citizenship, since Greece does not collect data on ethnicity)

Lao 55%, Khmou 11%, Hmong 8%, other (over 100 minor ethnic groups) 26%

96. LAOS

Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian, or other 5%

Latvian 57.7%, Russian 29.6%, Belarusian 4.1%, Ukrainian 2.7%, Polish 2.5%, Lithuanian 1.4%, other 2%

97. LATVIA

Irish 87.4%, other white 7.5%, Asian 1.3%, black 1.1%, mixed 1.1%, unspecified 1.6%

83. IRELAND

69. GRENADA

68. GREECE

82. IRAQ

Mestizo 90%, White 9%, Amerindian 1%

55. EL SALVADOR

over 200 African ethnic groups. The majority are Bantu; Mongo, Luba, Kongo, & MangbetuAzande 45%

41. CONGO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE

Malay 66.3%, Chinese 11.2%, indigenous 3.4%, other 19.1%

27. BRUNEI

Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4%

54. EGYPT

Mestizo 58%, White 20%, Mulatto 14%, Black 4%, Mixed Black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%

40. COLOMBIA

White 53.7%, Mulatto 38.5%, black 6.2%, other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 0.9%, unspecified 0.7%

26. BRAZIL

Austrians 91.1%, former Azeri 90.6%, Dagestani Yugoslavs 4%, Turks 1.6%, 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, German 0.9%, other 2.4% Armenian 1.5%, other 3.9%

12. AUSTRIA

Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%

98. LEBANON

Jewish 76.4% (Israel-born 67.1%, Europe/Americaborn 22.6%, Africa-born 5.9%, Asia-born 4.2%), non-Jewish 23.6% (mostly Arab)

84. ISRAEL

Chamorro 37.1%, Filipino 26.3%, Pacific islander 11.3%, White 6.9%, Asian 6.3%, ethnic origin 2.3%, mixed 9.8%

70. GUAM

Fang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4%

56. EQUATORIAL GUINEA

Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans and other 3%

42. CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE

Bulgarian 83.9%, Turk 9.4%, Roma 4.7%, other 2% (including Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar)

28. BULGARIA

Black 85%, white 12%, Asian and Hispanic 3%

14. BAHAMAS, THE


Mestizo (AmerindianSpanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%

130. NIGERIA

More than 250 ethnic Norwegian 94.4% (includes groups; the most Sami, about 60,000), other populous: Hausa and European 3.6%, other 2% Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%

Indo-Mauritian 68%, Creole 27%, SinoMauritian 3%, FrancoMauritian 2%

129. NIGER

Haoussa 55.4%, Djerma Sonrai 21%, Tuareg 9.3%, Peuhl 8.5%, Kanouri Manga 4.7%, other 1.2%

Mixed Moor Black 40%, Moor 30%, Black 30%

128. NICARAGUA

Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, White 17%, Black 9%, Amerindian 5%

142. PUERTO RICO

Marshallese 92.1%, mixed Marshallese 5.9%, other 2%

127. NEW ZEALAND

European 69.8%, Maori 7.9%, Asian 5.7%, Pacific islander 4.4%, other 0.5%, mixed 7.8%, unspecified 3.8%

141. PORTUGAL

homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent number less than 100,000

173. TAJIKISTAN

Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 15.3%, Russian 1.1%, Kyrgyz 1.1%, other 2.6%

Chinese 76.8%, Malay 13.9%, Indian 7.9%, other 1.4%

172. TAIWAN

Taiwanese (including Hakka) 84%, mainland Chinese 14%, Indigenous 2%

20 African ethnic groups 90% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%, other 30%), Creole (Krio) 10%

171. SYRIA

Arab 90.3%, Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7%

185. UKRAINE

Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%

Mixed French, African, Indian, Chinese, and Arab

170. SWITZERLAND

German 65%, French 18%, Italian 10%, Romansch 1%, other 6%

184. UGANDA

Banyakole 9.5%, Basoga 8.4%, Bakiga 6.9%, Iteso 6.4%, Langi 6.1%, Acholi 4.7%, Bagisu 4.6%, Lugbara 4.2%, Baganda 16.9%, other 29.6%

Serb 82.9%, Hungarian 3.9%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.4%, Yugoslavs 1.1%, Bosniaks 1.8%, Montenegrin 0.9%, other 8%

169. SWEDEN

Swedes with Finnish and Sami minorities; foreign-born immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks

183. TUVALU

Polynesian 96%, Micronesian 4%

Emirati 19%, other Arab and Iranian 23%, South Asian 50%, other (includes Westerners & East Asians) 8%

186. UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

158. SINGAPORE

157. SIERRA LEONE

156. SEYCHELLES

155. SERBIA

146. RWANDA

Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African

132. OMAN

Moldovan, Romanian 78.2%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.8%, Gagauz 4.4%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1.3%

118. MOLDOVA

Luxembourger 63.1%, Portuguese 13.3%, French 4.5%, Italian 4.3%, German 2.3%, other EU 7.3%, other 5.2%

104. LUXEMBOURG

160. SLOVENIA

White (English 83.6%, Scottish 8.6%, Welsh 4.9%, Irish 2.9%) 92.1%, Black 2%, Indian 1.8%, Pakistani 1.3%, mixed 1.2%, other 1.6%

187. UNITED KINGDOM

White 79.96%, Black 12.85%, Asian 4.43%, Amerindian & Alaska 0.97%, Hawaiian 0.18%, more races 1.61%

188. UNITED STATES

African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1%

174. TANZANIA

Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Slovak 85.8%, Hungarian Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, 9.7%, Roma 1.7%, other or unspecified 12% Ruthenian/Ukrainian 1%, other and unspecified 1.8%

159. SLOVAKIA

Russian 79.8%, Tatar 3.8%, Hutu (Bantu) 84%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 15%, Twa Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1%, other (Pygmy) 1% or unspecified 12.1%

Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4%

Arab 40%, Indian 18%, Pakistani 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%

white (mostly Spanish origin) 76.2%, black 6.9%, Asian 0.3%, Amerindian 0.2%, mixed 4.4%, other 12%

145. RUSSIA

131. NORWAY

Chuukese 48.8%, Pohnpeian 24.2%, Kosraean 6.2%, Yapese 5.2%, Yap 4.5%, Asian 1.8%,other 6.4%

117. MICRONESIA, FEDERATED STATES OF

144. ROMANIA

116. MEXICO

143. QATAR

115. MAURITIUS

Lithuanian 83.4%, Polish 6.7%, Russian 6.3%, other or unspecified 3.6%

114. MAURITANIA

Liechtensteiner 65.6%, other 34.4%

113. MARSHALL ISLANDS

Berber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians)

103. LITHUANIA

indigenous African 95% (Kpelle, Bassa, Gio, Kru, Mano, Loma, Vai, Dei, Bella, and Mende), Americo-Liberians 2.5% Congo 2.5%

102. LIECHTENSTEIN

Sotho 99.7%, Europeans, Asians, and other 0.3%

101. LIBYA

100. LIBERIA

99. LESOTHO

White 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%, Amerindian (practically nonexistent)

189. URUGUAY

Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%

175. THAILAND

Melanesian 94.5%, Polynesian 3%, Micronesian 1.2%, other 1.1%, unspecified 0.2%

177. TOGO

176. TIMOR-LESTE (EAST TIMOR)

178. TONGA

Composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types

Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5%

190. UZBEKISTAN

Ni-Vanuatu 98.5%, other 1.5%

191. VANUATU

Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab, German, African, indigenous people

192. VENEZUELA

Kinh (Viet) 86.2%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.7%, Muong 1.5%, Khome 1.4%, Hoa 1.1%, Nun 1.1%, Hmong 1%, others 4.1%

193. VIETNAM

Indian (South Asian) 40%, African 37.5%, mixed 20.5%, other 1.2%, unspecified 0.8%

179. TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

Sinhalese 73.8%, Sri Lankan Moors 7.2%, Indian Tamil 4.6%, Sri Lankan Tamil 3.9%, other 0.5%, unspecified 10%

165. SRI LANKA

Sammarinese, Italian

Samoan 92.6%, Euronesians (persons of European and Polynesian blood) 7%, Europeans 0.4%

164. SPAIN

151. SAN MARINO

Mestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) 95%, other 5%

137. PARAGUAY

Black 87.5%, White 6%, Mixed 6.5% other groups Herero 7%, Damara 7%, Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, Bushmen 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana 0.5%

123. NAMIBIA

Malay 50.4%, Chinese 23.7%, indigenous 11%, Indian 7.1%, others 7.8%

109. MALAYSIA

150. SAMOA

African (37 tribes; largest Polynesian, Europeans Austronesian (Malayoare Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) Polynesian), Papuan, small 99%, European and Chinese minority Syrian-Lebanese less than 1% Tokelau Polynesian

Black African 79%, white 9.6%, colored 8.9%, Indian/Asian 2.5%

163. SOUTH AFRICA

Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including Arabs 30,000)

162. SOMALIA

Black 82.5%, mixed 11.9%, East Indian 2.4%, other or Black 66%, mixed 19%, unspecified 3.1% East Indian 6%, European 4%, Carib Amerindian 2%, Other 3%

predominantly Black; some British, Portuguese, and Lebanese

149. SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES

148. SAINT LUCIA

147. SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS

161. SOLOMON ISLANDS

136. PAPUA NEW GUINEA

African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%

122. MOZAMBIQUE

Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuka, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian, European

108. MALAWI

Melanesian, Papuan, Mestizo (mixed Negrito, Micronesian, Amerindian and white) Polynesian 70%, Amerindian and mixed (West Indian) 14%, white 10%, Amerindian 6%

135. PANAMA

Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%

121. MOROCCO

Malayo-Indonesian, Cotiers (mixed African, Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran

107. MADAGASCAR

Palauan 69.9%, Filipino 15.3%, Chinese 4.9%, other Asian 2.4%, White 1.9%, Carolinian 1.4%, other 1.1%

134. PALAU

Montenegrin 43%, Serbian 32%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5%, other (Muslims, Croats, Roma (Gypsy)) 12%

120. MONTENEGRO

Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Roma (Gypsy) 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2%

106. MACEDONIA

Punjabi 44.68%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.42%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.38%, Muhagirs 7.57%, Balochi 3.57%, other 6.28%

133. PAKISTAN

Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic 5%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 0.1%

119. MONGOLIA

Chinese 94.3%, other 5.7% (includes Macanese - mixed Portuguese and Asian ancestry)

105. MACAU

Predominantly Arab; but also Afro-Arab, South Asians, Europeans

194. YEMEN

Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%

180. TUNISIA

Black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%

166. SUDAN

Mestico, Angolares, Forros, Servicais, Tongas, Europeans (primarily Portuguese)

152. SAO TOME & PRINCIPE

Amerindian 45%, Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

138. PERU

Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese 8%, European 8%

124. NAURU

South Indians, Sinhalese, Arabs

110. MALDIVES

African 99.5% (includes Bemba, Tonga, Chewa, Lozi, Nsenga, Tumbuka, Ngoni, Lala, Kaonde, Lunda), other 0.5%

195. ZAMBIA

Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 18%, other minorities 7-12%

181. TURKEY

Hindustani 37%, Creole 31%, Javanese 15%, "Maroons" 10%, Amerindian 2%, Chinese 2%, white 1%, other 2%

167. SURINAME

Arab 90%, AfroAsian 10%

153. SAUDI ARABIA

Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/ Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3%

139. PHILIPPINES

Chhettri 15.5%, BrahmanHill 12.5%, Magar 7%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.5%, Newar 5.4%, Muslim 4.2%, Kami 3.9%, Yadav 3.9%, other 32.7%

125. NEPAL

Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%

111. MALI

African 98% (Shona 82%, Ndebele 14%, other 2%), mixed and Asian 1%, white less than 1%

196. ZIMBABWE

Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%, other 6%

182. TURKMENISTAN

African 97%, European 3%

168. SWAZILAND

Wolof 43.3%, Pular 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%

154. SENEGAL

Polish 96.7%, German 0.4%, Belarusian 0.1%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 2.7%

140. POLAND

Dutch 80.7%, EU 5%, Indonesian 2.4%, Turkish 2.2%, Surinamese 2%, Moroccan 2%, Netherlands Antilles 0.8%, other 4.8%

126. NETHERLANDS

Maltese (descendants of ancient Carthaginians and Phoenicians with strong elements of Italian stock)

112. MALTA


THE GENOCIDE PROJECT

118

Acknowledgements I WOULD LIKE TO THANK THE FOLLOWING PEOPLE AND INSTITUTIONS FOR THEIR GREATLY APPRECIATED CONTRIBUTIONS TO THIS PROJECT

IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, LONDON

TUOL SLENG MUSEUM, CAMBODIA

US HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM

www.iwm.org.uk

www.tuolsleng.com

www.ushmm.org

www.yadvashem.org

JUDAH PASSOW

URIEL SINAI

DAVID BLUMENKRANTZ

RUSTY STUART

PHOTOGRAPHER

PHOTOGRAPHER

PHOTOGRAPHER

PHOTOGRAPHER

www.judahpassow.com

www.urielsinai.org

www.daveblumenkrantz.com

www.rustystewart.com

MATT MAWSON

MELVIN CHIA

STEVEN HELLER

PROF. YAIR AURON

PHOTOGRAPHER

PHOTOGRAPHER

DESIGNER AND AUTHOR

HISTORIAN. SPECIALIZING ON GENOCIDE STUDIES

www.mattmawson.com

www.flickr.com/photos/ melvinchia

www.hellerbooks.com

CHRIS CAMPBEL

LISA LAM

ORANGE PRINT, LND

DESIGNER

PROOF READING

PRINTING

THANK YOU / ANDY HASLAM MARIA DA GANDRA ROS STREETEN SAAR FRIEDMAN TAMAR MANI RONIT KIDRON

YAD VASHEM MUSEUM, JERUSALEM

NOAM KORIN ANNA SHAPIRO LIRON KROLL MICHAL LEVI ADILA GOLAM RASSOUDE THE BEN-NAVAT FAMILY


UNTO EVERY PERSON THERE IS A NAME Unto every person there is a name bestowed on him by God and given to him by his parents. Unto every person there is a name accorded him by his stature and type of smile and style of dress. Unto every person there is a name conferred by the mountains and the walls which surround him. Unto every person there is a name granted him by Fortune's wheel or that which neighbors call him. Unto every person there is a name assigned him by his failings or contributed by his yearnings. Unto every person there is a name given to him by his enemies or by his love. Unto every person there is a name derived from his celebrations and his occupation. Unto every person there is a name presented him by the seasons and his blindness. Unto every person there is a name which he receives from the sea and is given to him by his death. -Zelda


This project is dedicated to my family, The Miller family and the Lander family who was perrished during the Holocaust 1942-1943


END.


The Genocide Project  

The purpose of the project was to explore the meaning of Genocide In modern times. I examine the term and its uniqueness and discuss the cir...

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