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level 3 btec dipoma fashion & clothing contextualise this.. heather bentley

The 1860s were an extremely turbulent decade with numerous cultural, social, and political upheavals in Europe and America. In America, civil war between the Confederacy of the South and the Northern states led to massive deaths and the destruction of cities such as Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, Richmond, Virginia and Atlanta, Georgia.

After the Civil War, turmoil continued white supremacist organizations granting Civil Rights to freed blacks. almost a century and their reverberations

The abolition of slavery in America led to the breakdown of the Atlantic Slave Trade, which was already suffering from the abolition of slavery in most of Europe in the late 1820s and '30s.

Sherman's march to the sea was one of the first times America experienced total war, and advancements in military technology, such as iron and steel warships, added to the destruction.

in Reconstruction, with the rise of like the Ku Klux Klan and the issue of These controversies would last for are still felt to the modern day.

1860’s Fashion 1860s fashion in European and European-influenced clothing is characterized by extremely full-skirted women's fashions relying on crinolines and hoops and the emergence of "alternative fashions" under the influence of the Artistic Dress movement.

Charles Frederick Fashion Designer: Charles Frederick Worth (13 February 1825- 10 October 1895), was widely considered the Father of Haute couture, was an English fashion designer of the 19th century, whose works were produced in Paris. Charles Frederick garments made big statements with their big trails and gathered waist making their waists look even more smaller. Comparing the Fashion to 1960’s, 1860’s fashion is all covered up with not much skin showing, more elegant time. Charles garments interest me because there are so grand and colourful For the 18th century, I would love to Go back into time and wear these Kind of garments for everyday wear.

1860’s Author

Charles Dickens

Charles John Hiuffam Dickens 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870 was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's most memorable fictional characters and is generally regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period. His novels and short stories continue to be widely popular. In a New York City theatre, British author Charles Dickens gives his first public reading in the United States (2 Dec 1867). Charles Dickens is much loved for his great contribution to classic English literature. He was the quintessential Victorian author. His epic stories, vivid characters and exhaustive depiction of contemporary life are unforgettable.

Charles dickens has done some fantastic work for example, ‘Christmas carol’ is a well known world wide novel. I admire the novel ‘Christmas carol’ it has met with instant success and critical acclaim. The novel has been credited with restoring the holiday to one of merriment and festivity in Britain and America after a period of sobriety and sombreness. I feel Charles Dickens's work expresses a lot of meanings, here’s a quote from Charles which links with my opinion; "Have a heart that never hardens, and a temper that never tires, and a touch that never hurts." Charles shows his peers as a loving and caring man.


Eugenie was a beautiful woman, elegant and genteel, and when she chose to wear full crinolines in public in 1855, she changed European fashion forever. With the help of her own personal designer, Charles Worth, set the standards of dress in France and the rest of Europe. Glorious colors, large patterns, and yards of trim accentuated these massive and elegant court dresses. Most of the fashion of the 1860's were greatly influenced by two prominent rulers: Queen Victoria and , and one famous female editor. I researched Eugenic because it shows how different things were compared to now, our role models are pretty, skinny women but back then role models were elegant women wearing fabulous garments. Key Points: Changed European Fashion forever after wearing full crinolines. Influences Charles Worth her designer, setting high standards in France and the rest of Europe.

Influences.. John Ruskin John Ruskin was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, also an art patron, draughtsman, water-colourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist. He wrote on subjects ranging from geology to architecture, myth to ornithology, literature to education, and botany to political economy. John Ruskin was hugely influential in the latter half of the 19th century up to the First World War. After a period of relative decline, his reputation has steadily improved since the 1960s with the publication of numerous academic studies of his work. Today, his ideas and concerns are widely recognized as having anticipated interest in environmentalism, sustainability and craft. Key Points: John Ruskin work was influenced by the 1st world war His work increasingly focused on social and political issues I chosen to research John Ruskin as I think his work is so interesting because some of his work I can not understand what it is but can understand it may have something to do with the environment.

Here is my mood board for the advertisement in 1860’s. As you can see there is literally the tiny bit of colour on here, most was in black and white because it was too expensive to use colour and also is wasn’t at all common back in 1860’s then it is now. The font is very large, most of it is in capitals which I feel is because they never had many fonts in 1860’s

When you look at the advertisements they are very plain and simple they do not draw your attention in by the colour, font , quotes. They are very boring and dull compared to the advertisement now days it is most colour and images, 1860 it is mostly writing.

The birth control pill was introduced in 1960. Hippie culture was only one of the fads that entertained Americans throughout the 1960s. In the midst of considerable strife, people still knew how to have fun.

Mary Poppins is a famous musical film made in 1964, which has won over 5 Oscars. Drug use was a fad during the 1960s, as well. LSD ("acid") was the drug of choice for intellectuals in the early years of the decade. Psychologist – Leary says, the drug was a way to escape the social conditioning that limited human consciousness.

1960’s Fashion

Barbara Hulanickiis a Warsaw-born fashion designer, known for being the founder of the iconic clothes store Biba. I like Barbara clothing's because they show exactly what clothes/ prints were out in 1960’s. Brilliant example.

Emilio Pucci was a Florentine Italian fashion designer and politician. He and his eponymous company are synonymous with geometric prints in a kaleidoscope of colours. Emilio have a wide range of colours in the patterns which is what I like the most, personally I don’t really like the style of clothing compared to Barbara Hulanickiss I feel this style is more older and Barbara is targeted for younger age.

1960’s Authors

Jacqueline Susann was an American novelist. Her most famous work is Valley of the Dolls when the novel was published on February 10, 1966, it was an immediate hit. Jackie got her inspiration for her novels from herself. The novel Valley of the Dolls was a saga of the tough life of actresses in New York and Hollywood, most of it direct from her diaries.

Jackie Susann was confrontational, sassy, entertaining and proud of her achievements. “A new book is like a new brand of detergent,” she explained. “You have to let the public know about it. What’s wrong with that?” quote from Jackie. Jackie lets the public know in her book about her tough life as a actress which links with her quote, expressing herself.

Why I like Jacqueline is because she does not seem bothered what people think, she is happy for people to know about her life which I feel she may want people to learn from and be a role model to other young actresses starting from the begin.

Here is my 1960’s advertisement board mixed with todays advertisement letting you see the different between the adverts for the same brands. The burger king at the top is a good example, the 1960’s one is more cartoon with dull colours with boring quotes ‘A meal In itself’ but the todays advert, has the quote ‘what a whopper’ ‘100% beef’ these quotes attract the audience because its 100% beef and it may mean you get a big burger for the price. But the 1960’s quotes do not attract the audience.


The Campbell soup is a another great example, because the 1960’s ad just has the title and brand on the can but the todays ad has a lovely image of the soup which will attract customer because it looks tasty and more appealing then just a plain soup can. Colour in 1960’s was a big thing so not a lot of the ads are different because it is full of colour but just shows how much changes.

Influences.. Pop Art was the art of popular culture. It was the visual art movement that characterised a sense of optimism during the post war consumer boom of the 1950's and 1960's. It coincided with the globalization of pop music and youth culture, personified by Elvis and the Beatles. Pop Art was brash, young and fun and hostile to the artistic establishment. It included different styles of painting and sculpture from various countries, but what they all had in common was an interest in mass-media, mass-production and mass-culture.

British Pop Art

The word 'POP' was first coined in 1954, by the British art critic Lawrence Alloway, to describe a new type of art that was inspired by the imagery of popular culture.

Pop art is an art movement that emerged in the mid-1950s in Britain and in the late 1950s in the United States. Pop art employs aspects of mass culture, such as advertising, comic books and mundane cultural objects. It is widely interpreted as a reaction to the then-dominant ideas of abstract expressionism, as well as an expansion upon them. By creating paintings or sculptures of mass culture objects and media stars, the Pop art movement aimed to blur the boundaries between "high" art and "low" culture. The concept that there is no hierarchy of culture and that art may borrow from any source has been one of the most influential characteristics of Pop art. Artists who worked within Pop Art: Andy Warhol Roy Lichtenstein James Rosenquist Claes Oldenburg I Have chosen to research this art movement Pop Art because I feel it is very interesting and is very clever how it does attach the audience with their funky images and really bright colours. I feel Pop Art gives off expression for each work making you feel what is going on in the image, for example the title is Pop Art work and I feel it gives off a fun feeling, with the mix and matching colours.

Andy Warhol – Pop Art Artist (August 6, 1928 – February 22, 1987) was an American artist who was a leading figure in the visual art movement. His works explore the relationship between artistic expression, celebrity culture and advertisement that flourished by the 1960s. Warhol's art encompassed many forms of media, including hand drawing, painting, printmaking, photography, silk screening, sculpture, film, and music. "Everything is beautiful. Pop is everything." Quote from Andy Warhol

Roy Lichtenstein was one of the first American Pop artists to achieve widespread renown, and he became a lightning rod for criticism of the movement. His early work ranged widely in style and subject matter, and displayed considerable understanding of modernist painting: Lichtenstein would often maintain that he was as interested in the abstract qualities of his images as he was in their subject matter. However, the mature Pop style he arrived at in 1961, which was inspired by comic strips, was greeted by accusations of banality, lack of originality, and, later, even copying. His highimpact, iconic images have since become synonymous with Pop art, and his method of creating images, which blended aspects of mechanical reproduction and drawing by hand, has become central to critics' understanding of the significance of the movement. Roy Lichtenstein played a critical role in subverting the skeptical view of commercial styles and subjects established by the Abstract Expressionists. By embracing "low" art such as comic books and popular illustration, Lichtenstein became one of the most important figures in the Pop art movement.


Soap and Glory's advertisement on the products and on adverts is similar to the 1960's style of advertisement with the black and white photos, I feel Marylyn Monroe my muse has been an inspiration for Soap and glory because the hairs of the models on the product are similar to her hair style in the 1960's, also the image on the first advert looks similar to Marylyns photo shoot in her bikini.

Influences DKNY, have been influenced by Pop Art for the advertisement and packaging for their perfume. I feel like it was inspired more by the artist Roy Lichtenstein especially with Ben-day dots on the packaging design, also the cartoon advert links with pop art as a lot of Roy's work is a cartoon look a like. DKNY have included Pop Art's bright colours, for example the advert at the front interests the target audience because it is bright and makes the customers want to read the advert with the cartoon bubble speeches.

I like this advertisement for DKNY, It is fun and funky, I feel the target market for this is age 18-35.

Platt Hall Platt Hall is a museum with hundreds of garments from the 16th century all the way to the 20th century. When we went on our trip to Platt Hall we had a A1 piece of paper to draw a garment from each century and write information about the garment. I presented these drawings in my sketch book with the images I took my self at Platt Hall.

Platt Hall

Platt Hall

Platt Hall

Platt Hall

Platt Hall

Platt Hall

Platt Hall

Platt Hall


Working Sketch When sewing the sleeves, I will gather them making them look more puffed and loose when wearing.

I chosen long sleeve because in the 1960/1860 this style was quite popular in coats.

The panel at the front of the coat will have pin tucks in, this was inspired by old books in the 1860’s.

Zoom In of the pin tucks on the front Hook and eye will be attached at the waist belt of the coat on the panels. to clip the coat together.

Waist Belt is connected to the top half and the bottom half making it a long coat.

The bottom of the sleeves will also be gathered to create the same effect, puffy and loose. Below the waist belt there is gathers to make the bottom half puff out which was inspired by my 1960’s research ‘Grease’.

I have put cuffs at the bottom of the coat to make it look more smart inspired by my 1960 research.

Final Design

Photo Shoot What Influenced my idea for the photo shoot was rococo art, After researching artists they made me come up with the idea of using a mop hat which was wore in them days, part of the fashion. A floaty skirt with a puffy neckline and cuffs which links with their fashion big ruffs, and big garments.

I like the photos I Got but If I was to Do this again I would Make a better back Ground that linked With rococo art making the photos more interesting to look at because I feel they look boring and plain.

Photo Shoot

The work he did which influenced me for this shoot was his portrait shoots of a model who looks flawless so I thought Id capture the face more than the outfit for this shoot.

For this Photo Shoot, I was inspired by the Photographer Ed Pfizenmaier who has worked with my muse Marilyn Monroe and Andy Warhol.

1960 Photographer Ed Pfizenmaier Ed Pfizenmaier was born in 1926 and resides in New York. He was a photographic assistant at Vogue studios during the 1940’s and the 1950’s where he worked with Horst, Beaton and Penn on fashion and celebrity shoots. He has photographed Dali, Andy Warhol, George Balanchine and Marilyn Monroe. Ed has influenced me for one of my photo shoots, I tried capture more of the face in the shoots because I think it looks really good and clearly shows what the photo is about, her beauty and fabulous garments she is wearing.

Photo Shoot I like this shoot the best because I feel it

shows clearly what the art movement was I was looking at ‘Pop Art’. I would of prefer having a fun background maybe of some pop art work or done my own style of pop art.

I like the angles we have took the photos at, feel like it has capture everything. if it was more zoomed out I don’t feel the face design would of stood out as much as It does now.

Photo Shoot

For this shoot, I developed my old one with Amber but changed the model to Hannah because I felt her face expression was better for this era and put a gold background trying to experiment with different backgrounds than just white. Still I don’t think the background work as I though it would of just looks odd.


Final Illustration

Magazine Article

Heather Bentley Contextualise This Presentation  
Heather Bentley Contextualise This Presentation