Heta Shah Nivida Malhotra
CROCHET A Craft Document for UST TAD
Guided By Shimul Mehta Vyas
Submitted By Heta Shah Nivida Malhotra
All rights reserved under international copy rights conventions. No part of this book may be reproduce or transmitted in anyform or by any means electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or anyother information storage and retrieval system without prior permission in writing from the publisher. B.Des Furniture and Interior Design 2013 Written and Designed by Heta Shah Nivida Malhotra Quotes Gargi Swami Photos Apoorva Chebrolu Heta Shah Nivida Malhotra Illustration Anwar Alam Madhu Kannabiran Nivida Malhotra Sonal Roy Guided By Shimul Mehta Vyas Proof Read Heta Shah Nivida Malhotra
Processed at National Institute of Design
You stand tall in all your glory before the humble ocean at you feet; what you don’t know is the power of the ocean to wipe your very existence.
1. Morjim Beach - Pg 5 -
A shell, no matter how small a part of the ocean, always carries the entire ocean within.
2. Art Installation at Museum Of Goa -6-
8 Acknowledgement .
State Of Goa
26 Arts and Crafts .
32 The Craft .
50 The Craftsmen .
54 Societies .
60 Products .
70 Conclusion .
10 Introduction .
The submission of the ‘India Report’ on April 7, 1958 by Charles and Ray Eames to the Government of India, led to the founding of NID which marked the beginning of design education in India. The Report recommended a problem-solving design consciousness that linked learning with actual experience and suggested that the designer could be a bridge between tradition and modernity. National Institute of Design thus came into existence in 1961, and since then has contributed relentlessly to the field of design, educating and providing efficient solutions to the people of the country. Today the National Institute of Design is internationally acclaimed as one of the finest educational and research institutions.It is an autonomous institution under the aegis of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India.
NID has been declared ‘ Institution of National Importance’ by the Act of Parliament, by virtue of the National Institute of Design Act 2014.
India is known for its traditions and culture and its minority communities for their traditional skills, arts and crafts. But due to forces of competitive market and globalization, and also due to deteriorating socioeconomic condition of master craftsmen/artisan, these skills are not being pursued by the young generation. These arts/crafts are needed to be preserved. Therefore, Ministry of Minority Affairs launched a project Upgrading the Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development (USTTAD) for the benefit of minority communities who are engaged in the practice of art and crafts. NID has been identified and appointed as a Knowledge Partner in implementing ‘USTTAD’ project.
In this regard the documentation of the diverse craft cultures of India, to understand the different aspects of craft in these clusters and gathering an in-depth knowledge about various cultures and practicesneeded to be conducted.
Goa is one such state where crafts have been practiced since many ages and these beautiful crafts handed from generation to generation are now on the verge of diminishing. Crochet is one of the crafts with intricate detailing and pleasing to look at, which has been cherished for long but is now at the rim. We as a team have documented the beautiful craft Crochet from the appealing state of Goa and we sincerely hope that we did justice to the craft while documenting every essence of it.
â€œAcknowledgement and celebration are essential to fueling passion, making people feel valid and valuable, and giving the team a real sesne of progress that makes it all worthwhile.â€?
- DWIGHT FRINDT
We would first like to express our special gratitude towards Shimul Mehta Vyas, for trusting us and giving us this opportunity of visiting the state of Goa with its captivating beauty to document and know its heritage craft Crochet.
Most importantly we would like to thank Mrs. Prama Joseph who gave us her time to know about the craft from her and also helped us acquiring all the necessary samples of the craft for the documentation. She provided us with the key insights which otherwise would have been difficult to understand. We are also very grateful to the other crafts women who took out time and shared with us their work experiences. Lastly, we thank Mr. Krishna Karapurkar the Deputy Manager of Goa Handicrafts Rural and Small Scale Industries Development Cooperation for informing us about the situation of the workers currently.
Goa is a beautiful state and the people residing in it makes it what it is and we thank our landlords with all our hearts for going to the limits and helping us find our way in their native place.
Finally, we would like to give credit to our families, who helped us out and supported us through the entire journey.
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3. A typical Goan house - 12 -
Int ro du c t ion
4. Illustration of Fort Sinquerim, Candolim - 14 -
GOA in the light of history
The first rulers of Goa were the Muslims in 1312 however as they weren’t big admirers of beaches in 1370 they left Goa. Afterwhich it fell in the hands of Harihara and later the Portuguese in 1510 with aim of controlling the spice route from the East. Once they established their colonial rule the Portuguese began a religious conquest to convert the Hindus in the city to Chritians. One of their strategies was to encourage the soliders to get married to the local women to ensure Christian children.
The Marathas later almost conquered the Portuguese in the late 18th century. Finally in December 1961 the Indian army defeated them and Goa was declared as the 25th state of India in 1987 officially by the Prime Minister Rajiv Ghandhi. Five years later the State’s official language Konkani was then declared as of the official regional language.
Today Goa has become as a symbol of harmonious co-existence of diverse religions and follows the spirit of “Sarva Dharma Sarva bhava” . In addition it is India’s highest per-capita incomes with farming, fishing and tourism.
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5. On a monsoon day in Margao - 16 -
St ate of G o a
Introduction India’s smallest state by area, Goa is settled on the shore of the Arabian sea. The name “Goa” comes from the Konkani language “Goyan” meaning a patch of tall grass. In Mahabharata it is referred as the nation of cowherds. A state known for its scenic beauty and dense forest is bordered by the state of Maharashtra to the north and Karnataka to the south. The Arabian Sea stretches its waves along the coastline of Goa which is well known as a tourist attraction. The rivers of Goa (Mandovi, Tiracol, Zuari, Sal and Talpona) form the network of navigation for transporting goods, mining ores and other agricultural products in Goa. It is Bounded by the Maharastra state in the north, Arabian sea in the west, Karnataka state on the south and east. The physical geography of the state divides itself into three divisions, mountainous region formed by Sahyadri, plateau region and a river basin. 6. Goa’s state map
Climate The climate can be summed up in word being costal. Like any other costal places Goa’s climate it humid and warm most of the year. The hottest time of the year is in May with temperatures reaching 35 degree Celsius. But it receives a full blast of Indian monsoon in early July, this is when Goa is as its best with sprouting greenery all around. Though its winter season is quite short starting from mid December till February with a low of 29 degree celsius. Generally the peak tourist season is from October onwards four four to five months once the skies clear out after the monsoon.
7. Sunset at Morjim beach - 18 -
State of Goa
People Goans are mainly Hindus followed by Roman Catholics as well as a small community of Muslims. The village names of Goa are used to identify their clans and someone of them known by the occupation their ancestors had taken up. As Goa was a Portuguese empire for 451 years the Catholics have a distinct Portuguese influence in their culture. Many of the Catholic families share Indo - Portuguese ancestry. The philosophy of the Goans is that they are “Goans” first and then followed by their religion. Goans use Konkani language which has various dialects. The one spoken by the Catholics is quite different as compared to the Hindus in which a lot Portuguese influenced vocabulary is used. Portuguese is still used by number of Goans due to the Indo-Portuguese ancestry. the people of Goa are lid-loving people and rather chilled with a very warm heart which is why the state attracts the international crowd and a high tourist flow.
8. Mario Miranda’s colourful vignettes of Goa - 19 -
9. Ruby throated yellow Bulbul - 20 -
State of Goa
Flora and Fauna Goa has a diverse forest cover as it is located in the western coast of India in the region of Konkan forest. A spread of 3000 different species of flowering plants is seen around the state. These flowers are in its full bloom stage just before the monsoon arrives giving Goa its colours. Coconut tree which can be seen in abundance everywhere is the most common tree of Goa. It is a major source of number of products such as the liquor from the sap, oil used for cooking and sold to cosmetics manufacturers. Moreover the coarse hair on the shell produces the fibers for ropes, furniture upholstery and coir-matting. Other plantation include cashews, jackfruit, mango, pineapple and banana. Cashews and mangos make a major part of the export supplies. Apart from these fruits the cultivation of spices like pepper and cinnamon is quite common in the rural areas. A variety of mammal species is found in the dense woodlands of Western Ghats. Among the animals found here are leopards, moneys, wild boars, mongoose and many more. A large population of snake resides on the lands of Goa which keeps the rodent population in control. An interesting mix of marine life can be found with long beaked dolphins in the shallow waters of isolated beaches, freshwater turtles and marine turtles. However, there has been a dramatic decline of the turtlesâ€™ nests in the last few years. Talking about the birdlife is Goa, common species of kingfisher tops the list and Ruby Throated yellow Bulbul is the stateâ€™s animal. Other birds are whitebellied fish eagle, brahminy kite which are found near the fishing towns. The variety in this is endless and it is an exotic mix with the hues and shades of colours of these birds.
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Religion Religion plays an important role in the Goan society as it is represents the ethos of religious tolerance. A harmonious co-existence exists between the different people belonging to various religions. Largely Hinduism is still a major religion in Goa despite of the Portuguese attempts of converting everyone forcefully into Christians during the invasion. Due to this destruction period lot of deities were taken to Ponda to make the makeshift temple and today it is the city with most of the Hinduism in Goa.
10. Shanta Durga temple, Kavalem, Ponda
Christianity was brought to Goa by the Portuguese when the priests arrived with the traders from Portugal. These missionaries preached Christianity as well contributing to the building of the Konkani language. It was during this time when a lot of churches were build as thousands of local were converted to Christianity. The Islamic culture was brought in by the Sultan Adil Shah when he was ruling over Goa and during this time quite a few mosques were build out which the biggest mosque is in Ponda where today the muslim community celebrates their festivals religiously.
11. Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception Church, Panjim
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State of Goa
Architecture The Goan architecture has many sources which is seen in monuments that showcase for the different cultures. Portuguese had build a number of churches to spread christianity which shows the strong European Influence with a baroque facade and structure as well as few gothic elements. The forts of Goa were quite practical than grandeur to serve its purpose. Lastly looking at the houses the most amusing structures can be seen in Goa with variety of bright colours such yellows and blues across the state with red tiled roofing.
12. A typical Goan house
13. Seashell window
Literature The state was the first place in India to be installed with a printing press in the year 1550 as the Portuguese invaders believed in record keeping. Most renowned write from the state are Laxmanrao Sardessai and R.V. Pandit who wrote in Marathi, Konkani and Portuguese. Konkani writing established in modern literary due to Shenoi Goembab as well as Dundalk Naik whose novel Acchev was the first novel to be translated into English. Later in nineteenth century wit the migration of British-ruled India it encouraged English-language Goan writing. To encourage literature a three day fest of debates,discussions,lectures on art, music, photography in Goa Arts and Literary Festival. 14. R.V. Pandit
15. Shenoi Goembab - 23 -
Dance and Music A land of talented, artistic people with a rich blend on East and West in its culture. The different classical forms have evolved over time but music and dance has been an extremely important part of rural Goa. There are quite a variety of dance forms which are inspired by the Portuguese and the Dutch religion. Forms such as Dekni is a rare blend of traditional music and modern music performed by the women, Fugdi and Dhalo are among the most common dance forms of Goa followed by a tribal folk dance Kunbi which is a group dance. Fudge is a way where women express their innermost devotion to the deity. During Shigmo festival the women hold lamps on their heads and dance to the huge drums with the colourful traditional costumes and
16. Tribal folk dance kunbi
during the same festival the backward community performs Morulem. Like dance the music follows the same synergy of classical and western mixture. Music flows through every Goanâ€™s blood and there is no need for an occasion to break into a song ! Folk music forms such as Mando (sung in a chorus for a dance), Ovi (songs about happy life are sung during weddings by the women folk present) and Suvari (an instrumental orchestra) is still popular. Along wit the folk music there was a trance music transition that took place in the 1960 - 70 when many hippies came to Goa. 17. Fugdi dance
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State of Goa
Fairs and Festivals A place where festivals are celebrated around the year. Most are based on religious stories however now they are celebrated mostly for the enjoyment derived from it. A carnival in Goa is a three day festival with music, colour and celebration. This occurs in February of every year which is a government initiative for the tourism industry where processions, parades and shows happen to make it a spectacular event. Another of a kind is Shigmo festival which is the Goan version of Holi celebrated in March marking the beginning of the spring. Every Goa despite of the religion they belong to attend the Shigmo parade in Panjim. One of the favourites to the Goans is the Sao Joa festival which happens in June which started off as a tradition where the newly wedded son in laws would jump in a pond as a ritual but now celebrated as a festival where people where colourful dresses and spend the whole day in water. Other festivals include Ganesh Chaturthi, Zatra, Eid, Diwali, feast of the passion of Christ and Christmas.
Food and Cuisine Like any other cultural aspect the food is also a mix of the east and the west. Authentic Goan food is the biggest attraction for tourists and addictive too ! The stateâ€™s food is quite different from other regions with favours of beef, coconut, jaggery and enormous variety of seafood. The similarity of cuisine of course lies with the Portuguese food due to the invasion. The use of bread, coconut, fish and spices in the cuisine is quite notable in its dishes. Few well known dishes are chicken caffreal, bebinca and to top it all up is the cashew drink, feni.
18. Chicken Vindaloo, a famous Goan - 25 -
The main source of Goaâ€™s economy is agriculture, tourism and mining. It also earns its revenues form fisheries, exports of iron and manufacturing industry. It is said that Goaâ€™s GDP per capita is two and half times more than country alone.
Agriculture The beauty of Goa being the costal belt comes with a cost of not being able to be used for agriculture due to the high salinity levels. So, for its day to day resources it depends on Maharashtra and Karnataka. However, there have been
19. Cashewnut fruit , for which Goa is known for
developments to over these years making Gao famous for cashew-nuts, mangoes, coconuts and the basics such as paddy, rage, maize etc. In addition to the above vegetables also form a part of the cultivation such as cucumbers, pumpkins, drumsticks and varieties of gourds. The forest which is one-third part of Goa helps in the production of bamboo canes, Maratha barks, chiller barks. These forests are mostly owned by the government and a minor part by private people.
20. Coconut with extracted oil - 26 -
State of Goa
Mining Mining deals with iron ore extraction mainly as well as basalt, laterite stones, rubbles for construction of building. It is a leading producer of manganese, bauxite, limestone and clay. Major exports of iron ore of to China, Taiwan, South korea and eastern European countries. Most of the mines are located in Northern Goa, however due to this there has been leading destruction of the forests.
21. Iron ore mining
Tourism This industry deals with 12.5% of tourist influx in India. This is due to the lovely costal beaches, fresh greenery and the happy-go-luck people. These are the perfect ingredients to give a rejuvenating experience for the visitors. Another attractive feature is the blend of religion and ethnic history which is a rare find.
22. The regular touristi sight of Goa - 27 -
23. Coconut craft
Ar ts and Craf ts
As magnificent a place Goa is, it’s handicrafts are equally appalling and intricately beautiful. The streets of Goa are full of colors and beautiful items, which are made to perfection by the residing local craftsmen. The unique colors of joy that sit in the brightly lit markets, capture the fancies of locals and tourists alike. The art of making these traditional crafts have been passed on in Goa from generation to the next in almost every household. These crafts show the hint of Portuguese dominance, along with the aesthetic blend of other Indian cultures. Most of the handicrafts are made with the help of naturally available materials like clay, sea-shells, paper, bamboo, brass, coconut husk and palm leaves. In this highly competitive industry, the craftsmanship of the local artisans has managed to leave an impact in the market globally. The products have gained such attention, majorly due to the boom of tourism in Goa. With so many tourists coming in, there has been an increase in the rush to carry back traditional Goan souvenirs. Due to this the local handicrafts makers are in the limelight, and the Government of Goa is taking the possible measures to improve their situation and flourish this industry. The products are sold through various handicraft emporia set by the government and at stalls at all the major tourist spots and fairs throughout the year.
Potter y and Terracotta The world terracotta comes from the Latin ‘terra’ ‘cotta’ translated as ‘baked earth’. While pottery is art of traditional form made with earthen clay, terracotta is ceramic clay. Derived from clay, terracotta has been used throughout history with sculptures and pottery as well as for bricks and roof shingles. These are traditional crafts with utility-cum-decorative items produced by the potters with artistic perfection and realistic finish. The items produced with this craft include flower garden pots, bowls with floral designs, figures of Saints, Gods’ and Goddesses’, animals, ashtrays and penholders, etc.
24. Ceramic pots - 30 -
Art and craft
Bamboo Craft Bamboo Craft is considered to be the oldest craft, which was initiated by a community called ‘Maharas’ in Goa region. They initially used to make utility based things required by fishermen and farmers. With time this traditional craft has taken shape of decorative cum utility items. One of the major crafts industries of Goa is the bamboo craft. The lists of popular bamboo products include flower baskets, mats, letter-holders, pen stands, fans and other decorative items.
25. Bamboo baskets
Fiber Craft Nuns from Kerala brought the fiber craft to Goa. Fiber articles were earlier produced for utility purposes. The function of fiber is combined with some ornamentation to bring out some attractive and colorful items. Shopping bags, ladies’ purses, coasters, wall hangings and other essential accessory items used in daily purposes are made of banana or sisal fiber. The major fiber craft centre is situated in Corlim.
26. Banana fibre bag - 31 -
C oconut Mask Car ving and Sea Shell Craft Goa produces beautiful, decorative and utility items made out of coconut fiber. Apart from consuming the coconut in the meals it has done wonders to earn livelihood for the local artists. Mask carving has got a whole new look in Goa as it is done on coconut shells. Sea shell craft produces ashtrays, lamp shades, coasters, chandeliers, curtains, pot hangers, table mats, clocks, mirror frames, etc. 27. Seashell craft
Crochet and Embroider y Crochet, tatting and lace making were introduced into Goa by Portuguese nuns of the Santa Monica Church and Convent in 1606. Itâ€™s made using a simple hooked needle. Traditionally made by the women lace and crochet was evidence of their skill and used not only in the everyday but as part of ceremonial attire of the women too. Works such as tablecloths, children and ladiesâ€™ garments, pillow, cushion covers and linen form a breathtaking apparel range.
28. Crochet mat
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Art and craft
Wood Turning Lac, a material taken from insect resin, has been used in Indian craft for centuries. Colored lacquer is applied to wood by heat through turning with a hand lathe. Wood turning is a form of woodcarving that is used to create wooden objects on a lathe using cutting tools. Wood turning differs from most other forms of woodworking, here the wood is moving while a (relatively) stationary tool is used to cut and shape it. Some of the most exquisite items produced in Goan woodcraft include cradles, baby carts, toys, corner stands, etc.
Jute Macrame Craft Jute is woven into a coarse lace and knotted in pattern form. Sim-
29. Wooden toy
ilar to other crafts of Goa, this art also exhibits a blend of Portuguese and Indian culture. Jute craft is known to be one of the most unique crafts of India and items such as decorative bags, belts, wall hangings, lamp shades, flower pots, hangers, etc. are popular Goan souvenirs.
Brass Metal Ware Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. It is a typical material of art metal ware. It has been used since early times to make many items. While utensils of utility are made of sheet metal (copper), brass metal casting is a craft passed on from one generation to another practiced on hereditary basis. The items produced include oil lamps in various designs, candle stands, temple towers, church bells, ashtrays, etc.
30. Brass latern
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31. Jute holder
32. Crocheted Crochet toolsgranny - Pg 34 -
The Craf t
33. Nuns practicing crochet - Pg 36 -
Crochet, The Beginning Crochet is a process of creating fabric from yarn, thread using crochet hook. The word originates from the French word “crochet” meaning hook. There are multiple version of the origins of crochet. Some say it originated in Arabia and spread eastward to Tibet then to westward to Spain, finally following the trade routes of the Arab to the Mediterranean countries. However some say it was from South America among a primitive tribe and some believe it was rooted in Chinese needlework which reached Europe in the 1700s. Many sources also state that crochet has been known as far back as the 1500s in Italy under the name of ‘nun’s work’ or ‘nun’s lace,’ where it was worked by nuns for church textiles,” Sources times crochet was generally done with a bent finger, instead of using a hook. The earlier form of hooks included bent needles in a cork handle to crafted silver, brass, steel, ivory and bone hooks with a variety of handles. At the end of the 18th century, tambour (stitching done on stretched fabric) evolved into what the French coined as “crochet in the air,”as the background fabric was discarded and the stitch worked on its own. Afterwhich crochet began turning up in Europe in the early 1800s and was given a tremendous boost by Mlle. Riego de la Branchardiere, who took old-style needle and bobbin lace designs and turn them into crochet patterns. She published many pattern books so that millions of women could begin to copy her designs. Mlle. Riego also claimed to have invented “lace-like” crochet,” today called Irish crochet. One of the version of crochet’s craft value tells us that it was considered to be a wealthy form of hobby which allowed the make beautiful dresses and home décor. They expected the poor to knit the basic utilitarians such as socks and simple clothing. This was because the didn’t want to fall behind when they work for the rich.
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Crochet, The Fashion Histor y Crochet was initially invented as a cheaper substitute of traditional lace. So, during the potato famine in Ireland few English women taught the peasantry to help them out. In this duration Queen Victoria bought the crocheted lace from the Irish women as a gesture to help them out. This changed the image of crochet from being an inferior craft. After which The Queen started learning crochet and by the end of her reign England had become well acquainted with the craft. In the 1920’s and 30’s new forms of crochet got introduced such
34. Queen Victoria practicing crochet
as garments which surly made crochet quite popular amongst the women. During the wartime women contributed by making items for the troops in the US and Britain. After the interval of the 1940’s wartime crochet started to flare in the fashion world with attractive and evolving designs. While the consumption of garments was booming in 1960’s and 1970’s crocheted homeware started to emerge. Crochet remained popular through the mid 1970, then began to decline, but has made its way back into popularity in the 21th century.
35. “Granny square” motif used in a cariety of clothes and accessories - 38 -
Crochet, The Histor y of Goa In Goa the craft was brought in by the portuguese nuns and missionaries. Started off as a craft for high class, the rich and the affluent Christian families. Later it became a craft for the local women who practiced it in their homes to earn a little extra. Some women carried it further to make it more of a profession with taking large order intake and creating their own shops. Another story that follows the craft is its traditional value. It is said that the brides used to display their skills by creating beautiful Crochet pieces which would help the groom’s family judge the bride. The crochet craft is just not a mere craft it also connects on an emotional level as it also known as “ a mother and a daughter craft”. This is because it is passed down from a mother to daughter giving fond memories of that time .
36. Two generations together - 39 -
Methods and Types of Crochet Looking at the world scenario of crochet there are many variants of the basic crochet method which includes Filet crochet, Tunisian crochet, broomstick lace, hairpin lace, and Irish crochet among others.
Filet crochet A grid like crocheted fabric or lace with solid or filled in blocks against the background of open blocks. The patterns are made by combining blocks and meshes, in which usually the pattern is worked out in the blocks, leaving the background as open meshes. It uses only two crochet stitches namely chain stitch and the double crochet stitch. Filet crochet is most often worked in rows using cotton thread to create wall hangings, doilies, tablecloth, coasters, placemats etc. Using fine thread, it becomes possible to work on intricate patterns. 37. Filet crochet
Irish crochet It came to Ireland with Ursuline nuns who had learned the technique in France. But due to the Great Irish Famine during 18451849, the population immigrated to Europe and America. And when Queen Victoria promoted the lace, to help the poor the fashion took off. Irish crochet lace is characterized by its finely-worked motifs, often in the forms of flowers, leaves, vines, and butterflies. The motifs are often worked around a thicker cord, giving them a raised edge, and sometimes layers are added to give them a three-dimensional feel. The separately crocheted motifs are then assembled into a mesh background. 38. Irish crochet - 40 -
Broomstick lace A crochet technique that uses a long, slender item known as a knitting needle along with the hook. The needle used looks like a ver y large knitting needle, hence the origin of the name “broomstick”. A larger knitting needle or dowel results in a lace like effect, whereas a smaller one gives a more closely woven effect. It’s great for elegant stoles, household items and afghans.
Hairpin lace An easy, beautiful technique first practiced on ladies’ hairpins in Victorian times. Now a crochet hook and a special loom, which consists of two parallel metal rods held at the top and the bottom by removable bars is used to make the lace. It is the ultimate stitch craft for getting fast results. It involves creating strips that are then
39. Broomstick lace crochet
crocheted together to make a light weight fabric. Items such as scarves, shawls, hats, baby blanket, afghans, and clothing are made from it.
Tunisian crochet Also known as Afghan crochet which uses an elongated hook with a stopper on the handle end. Many people also considered it to be a cross between knitting and crochet. The distinctive fabric created by this technique looks almost woven instead of either knitted or crocheted. While making a piece, the work is never turned, and each row is worked in two halves, the first half is worked from right to left and the second half from left to right. This type of crochet creates a dense fabric with a definite front and back side. 41. Tunisian crochet - 41 -
40. Hairpin crochet
Tools and Materials Crochet is a craft which just requires a hook and some kind of material which can be crocheted by the hook. The hook and the yarn are the only basic materials and then there are other additional kind of tools which help in keeping stitches counted, measuring crocheted fabric, or making related accessories. All the artisans source their raw materials from local craft shops which sell fabrics, yarn and other hobby related items.
The Crochet Hook A crochet hook is used to make loops in a yarn and then interlock them into crochet stiches. The hook is a round shaft pointed on one end, with a lateral groove behind it. The point eases the insertion of the hook through the material being crocheted and the groove makes it possible to pull a loop back through the material. The tip and the throat of the hook are used to make a stitch; the diameter of the shaft section determines the size of the hook; and the grip and the handle are used to hold the hook. There is another kind of tool which is called a â€˜Cro-hookâ€™ which is basically a double ended crochet hook. It permits the maker to work stitches from either end and also to use two color threads simultaneously, by working loops over the hook. In the early cultures, they crocheted with a bent forefinger, instead of using a hook. The early hooks ranged from bent needles in a cork handle to beautiful crafted silver, brass, steel, ivory and bone hooks with a variety of handles. Now the crochet hooks come in two kinds, the yarn hook which is specifically made to crochet yarn and the steel hook, which is used to crochet threads. The yarn hook is made up of materials like plastic, acrylic, aluminum, bamboo, etc. Some are available with ergonomically shaped handles and comfort grips.
42. The crochet needle : technical terms
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43. The range of steel needles
Yarn crochet hook sizes are always listed from the smallest (used
listed from the largest (used with thicker threads) to the smallest
(used with finer threads), ranging from 3.50mm to .75mm. It is
with thinner yarns) to the largest (used with thicker yarns), ranging from 2.25mm to 12mm. While steel crochet hooks are always
designed to be used with certain types of crochet thread, such as cotton and linen.
44. Information table - 43 -
The Crochet Yarn Throughout the ages, a variety of materials have been used: hair, grasses, reeds, animal fur, hemp, flax, wool, gold and silver and copper strands. Today we have at our disposal an enormously wide selection of cotton, wool, silk and synthetic yarns. Crochet thread comes in various sizes, types, colors and quantities. Threads are sized by weight with each weight identified by a number; the lower the number, the thicker the thread. The higher the number, the finer the thread is. There are plenty of different yarns and different fibers of yarn which will result in a different look depending on what yarn one uses. The yarn patterns generally fall into three categories, i.e. Natural, Synthetic and Blends. The Natural sources of yarn consists of Plant sources which include Linen, Bamboo and Cotton whereas Animal sources which include Cashmere, Mohair, Camel, Alpaca, Lama and Silk. Then there are Synthetic sources which include Nylon, Polyester and Acrylic. And finally Blend sources include yarn blends of natural fibers, synthetic fibers or natural fibers with synthetic fibers for a much softer feel. What kind of yarn to use is more of a personal preference. However, it can depend on the type of pattern or the final outcome one is making. Like the lower gauge crochet thread is softer and thicker, and one can use it in fashion apparel and accessories. Also, it is great for babies and kids for summer (baby hats, baby booties, baby dresses and blouses, appliques). The yarns also come in different textures which include Plied yarns in which several strands are twisted together, and is generally viewed as traditional yarn. Then there are Boucle yarn which is a combination of thread and loops and is a highly bumpy and textured yarn. Another type is Chenille, although it is tricky to knit with this but it has a very attractive appearance with soft, round and velvety texture. There is Eyelash yarn which is generally used in scarves. Ribbon yarn which looks like a ribbon and is made of rayon or rayon blend. Finally there is combination yarn which is produced with two or more yarns having the same or different fibers or twist.
45. Information table - 44 -
Material : Wollen yarn
Material : Chenille yarn
Material : Silk yarn
Source : Sheep (Animal Fibre)
Composition : Mainly cotton but can also be acrylic, rayon and olefin.
Source : Silkworms
Material : Cotton yarn
Material : Alpaca yarn
Material : Llama yarn
Source : Cotton pods
Composition : Alpaca (Animal Fibre)
Composition : Llama (Animal Fibre)
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Basic Hand Gestures
Right hand (holding the hook)
Left hand (casting the yarn)
The hook is held in the right hand with the thumb and the forefinger. The middle finger is put halfway through. This is done to lead the yarn on the hook and controls stich tension.
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Version one of holding the yarn
Version two of holding the yarn
The yarn is placed between the little finger and the third finger from its outward. The shorter end of the yarn is casted on the forefinger from its outward to the side. The thumb and the middle finger control the yarn constantly so that it wonâ€™t slack.
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Chain Stich The Chain stich is the basis for all crochet. Every chrochet pattern begins with this stitch. The starting of the first row comprises of these chains and known as a foundation chain. Each chain stich should be the same ize as the oe before it meaning the even tension should be maintained.
A slip knot is made by sliding the shaft of the hook.
The yarn is then slid through the throat of the hook.
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Gentle pressure is put on the hook on the upward direction,
The continuous repition of this stich leads to the
which is then pulled carrying the wrapped strand of yarn,
through the loop. Figure 2.3
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Foundation Ring This is the method of starting from center working in a ring and is mostly used for making motifs.
One firm chain stitch is made.
Yarn wrapped around the finger twice. Figure 3.1
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Stiches worked according the requirement. Figure 3.4
The yarn end sightly pulled.
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Without craftsmanship, inspiration is a mere reed shaken in the wind - Johannes Brahms
52. In the making - 52 -
The Craf tsmen
Gender distribution This craft is generally performed by women. In all the encounters with finding out artisans names from differnet governing bodies there were only women registered for this craft. Main reason behind this is the fact that our world is a male dominating society where sitting in a one place with needle and thread wouldn’t really be suffice for living. Also, considering the earlier history of it being a display of a bride’s skills it makes Crochet a very feminine craft.
Religion distribution Crochet in the begining was a popular craft among the Christians as it was passed down from the Portuguese families to their younger generations. Later as the times evolved it started spreading to other religious communities and now mostly being practiced by the Hindus.
Geographical distribution Unlike other Indian crafts this one isn’t practised in a certain region or a cluster. Due to the minimal tools and materials needed its mostly done at home hence all over the state the artisans could be found. Moreover, it isn’t just a craft to Goa but many more homes in India.
Seasonal distribution Mostly done at home so the weather is not a question here and it can be practised all year round. When it comes down to festivities these women said that there is more production of their Crochet items as they tend to sell a lot over Diwali times and at the time of Kala Academy’s (Panjim, Goa) annual fair. - 54 -
Prama Joseph Shriguri
Financial Status Most of these women would classify just above the poverty line, so for them this a way to make a little earning and contribute to the family. A very feasible option as they don’t have to go outside their house and can be done along with the houseold chores. However, Prama Joseph one of the artians we met had a full fleged shop running in Ponda and about hundred women working under her in her hometown (Hyderabad). So there are a few exceptions here !
Learning “A mother and a daughter craft” as someone rightfully had said because most of these women had learned it from their mothers in their teens. If not their mothers than aunts and grandmother. Later to try out few other patterns the books would always come in handy. No one knows where did these patterns originated from, when asked about this they stated that we saw it in a book and learned it from there.
Health concerns Many of them said that they would have major issues with the eyes as this requires a lot of constant focus. Hence they would try and work with beige and white colours to do crochet with and give less preference to colours like black and red. Another health concern is the risk of getting spondylitis as they sit all day long in the same posture which isn’t entirely ergonomic.
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60. Women practicing crochet
S o ciet ies
Ind i an Hand ic r af ts and Hand l o om C o -op e r at ive S o c iet y
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The Co-Operation was established on the 14 th of August, 1980 by Smt. Vijayadevi Rane, wife of the ex-chief minister of Goa. The society deals with crochet, stitching and embroidery. It was formed with the initiative of providing employment to those women who can work form their homes and help their spouses make a living and bring their skills to some use. It is a part time job for many women, as most of them work in the farms. When this society started, around six hundred women got their names registered but then most of these women got married, and due to a change in their contact numbers and their addresses, they lost touch with the society. Now only 200 women are working and making craft items for them. The old women who are engaged with this society are the fastest workers amongall. The general age group of these women is around forty to fifty years. The society takes bulk orders from different factories and institutions and then distribute the task towomen. Most of the orders come from Aparant, the Goa Handicrafts Rural & Small Scale Industries Development Corporationâ€™s (GHRSSIDC LTD) store. The design of the required product is given by Mrs. Hemlata Naik (who manages the society and her office is in Panaji) from the various crochet books available and then the employed women crochet according to that. Generally, order of a dozen pieces is given to one woman. The labor cost of these women is paid according to the number of thread balls they use to make the item which is â‚š100 per ball. The raw material is provided by the society to them and before giving them the thread balls the weight of the raw material is measured, which is then later compared to the weight of their final products so as to make sure that all the raw material given to the women has been consumed. Each ball costs â‚š100 and the material comes from Madgaon. For the costing of the product another 100% on the markup is added to the value. Earlier these women also used to go to exhibitions outside the city where travelling and the stay was funded by the government but now they only put up stalls in Goan Exhibitions. Only one stall is put up in one exhibition where the crochet work of all the women is kept and the stall is managed by only one person.
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G o a Hand ic r af ts Ru r a l & Sma l l S c a l e Indust r i e s D e vel opme nt C or p orat ion
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The Goa Handicrafts Rural & Small Scale Industries Development Corporation (GHRSSIDC LTD), was established in 1980 by the Government of Goa. GHRSSIDC is registered under the Companies Act, 1956. The main objective of GHRSSID is to manufacture, sell products of rural, cottage, handicrafts, village industries, and handloom & textile goods. GHRSSIDC also works with aim to encourage, procure and make available expert advice and guidance and to undertake and provide all sorts of marketing facilities including export market for products of handicrafts, rural, small scale, village & cottage industries. GHRSSIDC provides support to the artisans and handicrafts in Goa through its various activities and schemes. GHRSSIDC through ten emporia in various locations in Goa and one emporium in Delhi sells and promotes the handicrafts made by the artisan and thus providing a source of income to the artists. There is a vast scope to improve the position of traditional Goan crafts both in domestic and overseas market. And GHRSSIDC is trying to do the same by bridging the gap between the craftsmen and the buyers. It organizes various exhibitions in Goa and also helps the artisans in sending their work to the other exhibitions all over India, to provide marketing support to Goan artisans. It laid emphasis on drawing up training programs for native Goan handicrafts like brassware, coconut shell crafts, terracotta and also the languishing native crafts of the state. Any craftsman can go to the department and can get their name registered. After that they get regular notifications about the orders, or fairs where they can sell their work. But most of the registrations are very old and many a times the contact information stops working due to some reason or they donâ€™t respond to the notification. Even though this is a government organization, the artisans get very little or nothing out of the exhibitions they go to. There have been complaints that the donâ€™t get enough facilities, and whatever facilities they do get are not of good quality.
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61. Crochet Duppata - 62 -
Pro duc ts
62. Stole with beads
64. Crocheted Skirt with a cotton inner
63. Crocheted Duppata
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65. Crocheted Shrug
66. Crocheted dress for girls
67. Crocheted top for women
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68, Crocheted doilie
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69. Sling bags with Crocheted outer surface with cotton lining
71. Crochet Coaster , available in a range of colours
72. Crocheted Bookmark and Lace
70. Crocheted Tote Bag - 67 -
73. Crocheted table cover
74. Crocheted table cover - 68 -
75. Crocheted doily
76. Crocheted table cover - 69 -
77. Wollen crocheted toran
78. Wollen crocheted toran with grapes
79. Wollen crocheted toran with bananas
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80. Wollen crocheted toran with oranges
As seen in the product range crochet craft inclines towards home dĂŠcor, garments and accessories. It can be noticed that most of these products are single coloured i.e. the yellow dress or the peach shrug. During the field visit, barely any multicoloured crocheted products were noticed. However, when crochet used in an Indian context such as the toran (as shown on the right side) much brighter and a varied of colours is seen. This element is what adds to the adaption of crochet in an Indian context.
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81. Crochet baskets
C onclusi on
Economical Problem This craft is labour intensive by nature and completely handcrafted. On an average these women can make a crochet sample sized 3.5inches by 3.5inches in half day for which they earn an estimate figure of only Rs.50. Due to the growing inflation the raw materials cost being the yarn is increasing and hence the cost of making it in turn reducing their profit margins. This is because the customers arenâ€™t able to understand the time and effort that goes into making a small piece of crocheted item as their aim is to get good stuff at cheaper stake leading to the unwillingness of paying more for it. Hence, there has been a constant decline in this craft over the years as it is not â€œvalue for moneyâ€?.
L ack Of Awareness
82. Anjuna flea market
Goa is among the most frequently visited tourist destinations in India. So, there is a lot of demand of Goan souvenirs in the state which are mostly the traditional handicrafts of Goa, and Crochet is one such craft. But the problem arises when there is a lack of awareness among the consumers about the time, efforts and money which goes into making crocheted products. The consumer is ready to pay more for the same product if bought from a particular brand, but is not ready to pay even the actual cost of the product if bought from the local markets. The artisans feel demotivated by such consumer behavior. Also, the artisans are unaware about the progress which the world has made in the particular craft. They keep on producing the same designs over and over, and put no thought into being more creative or experimenting a bit. 83. Local handicraft market - 74 -
Social Problem It started of as a cultural activity which now is only done by the middle aged women as an extra earning source and to kill the time at home. Out of all the artisans we met, only Mrs. Prama Joseph had a full fledged shop in which her sons help her run it due to her health issues. Although sadly she is the last in her family to be able to do crochet. With such statistics in mind, when asked if they are teaching crochet to their children most of them conveyed a loss of hope. This is due to the insufficient returns for the effort that they have to put into the making. Also, the children are disinterested in learning for the same reason, as now they are educated and can get much more secured options to make their living. Even the artisans believe that and why wonâ€™t they as that earning would surly be more than the average daily earning of Rs200. In the end it is all about sustainable and better living for which these artisans feel that this will be the last generation practicing this craft at such pace.
84. Mrs. Prama Joseph at her warehouse - 75 -
Our say ... India, a blend of extravagant cultures and tradition is a perfect place for one to experience the variety in craft culture. A craft to its state is a proudly owned rich tradition , something that each one of them flaunt. Each one of these crafts come with stories and experiences to share, we have been lucky enough to be a part of one such craft : Crochet of Goa. In todayâ€™s world where we are constantly progressing towards tech savvy consumerism such crafts reminds us the value of handcrafted objects. It is for these crafts that one realises the need to have hands on learning. Crochet being a simple craft to catch up with is what makes it special as it allows everyone and anyone to acquire this particular skill. The craftswomen have developed their craftsmanship over the years allowing them to do the beautiful work which has been presented in the document. We are glad to have experience the first hand information to the insights to their craft, their skills and their lives. What made this journey really special for us was the warm and welcoming nature of every artisan that we met in Goa. To read about them or the craft through books and internet is one thing but to go out there and talk is another. This project was certainly an eye opener for the efforts that goes into this craft and still how lowly it is valued. Before this we would have just walked past any crochet items or if we liked one we would have bargained just like any other tourist. But, now we would look at the item in admiration and realise the hard work that would have gone in the making in turn encouraging not to bargain to others and ourselves. By this document we have also tried to cover the crochet variety in other countries to show the possibilities that design intervention can take place. It has been a challenge to put together this document together but by all means it can always be revised and reviewed once in the groove of making it. Although, we hope that the information put together will help the future audience to generate new concepts to help this craft evolve.
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Crochet is an outstandingly versatile technique whose applications have ranged from the most basic utilitarian to haute couture. Over the past two centuries it has cycled in and out of fashion, but its potential for creative experimentation has regenerated attention from those who engage in it as a leisure pursuit, as well as professional designers.
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Websites - National Institute of Design : History & Backgroundhttp , ://www.nid.edu/institute/history-background.html, 2015 -Destinations : History of Goa, http://www.lonelyplanet.com/india/goa/history, 2016 - Goa Weather : Climate in Goa, Weather in Goa, Monsoon in Goa, http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/goa/geography-and-history/climate-of-goa.html - Goa tours India : Geography of Goa, http://www.goa-tours-india.com/goa-information/geography-of-goa.html - Wikipedia : Goans, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goans - government of goa department of tourism : local fauna, http://www.goatourism.gov.in/general-information/local-fauna - government of goa department of tourism : local flora, http://www.goatourism.gov.in/general-information/local-flora - Religion in goa, http://www.bharatonline.com/goa/culture/religion.html - Music and Dance, https://www.tourmyindia.com/states/goa/music.html - Goa Music and Dances Information : Music & Dances, http://www.iloveindia.com/states/goa/culture.html - Music and Dance in Goan Culture, http://planetgoaonline.com/places-to-visit/Culture-n-Heritage/Music-And-Dance-in-Goan-Culture - Goa Music : Music of Goa India, Goa Traditional Music, Folk Music of Goa, Goa Trance Music, http://www.goavacationguide.com/goan-music.html - IND Travel : fairs & festivals of goa , http://www.indtravel.com/goa/festival.html - Architecture in Goa : History of Architecture Goa, http://www.goatrip.co.in/travel-guide/architecture.html - Department of information and publicity : Goan literature, http://www.dip.goa.gov.in/goan-literature.php - Wikipedia : Goan Literature, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goan_literature - NDTV Food : 10 Best Goan Recipes - Malik Kriti, http://food.ndtv.com/lists/10-best-goan-recipes-695849, 2016 - Agriculture in Goa, http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/goa/goaagriculture.htm - Goa Economy, https://www.goacity.com/v/economy - Economy of Goa, http://www.iloveindia.com/states/goa/economy.html - Handicrafts of Goa, http://goa-tourism.com/GTDC-holidays/learn-handicrafts-of-goa.htm - IndiaLine : Art and Crafts of Goa, http://www.indialine.com/travel/goa/art-craft.html, 2013 - Handicrafts of Goa - Parsekar Shambhav, http://spashtta.blogspot.in/2013/02/handicrafts-of-goa.html, February 11, 2013 - Crochet History, Where and When Did Crochet Originate? - Rhelena R, http://ezinearticles.com/?Crochet-History,-Where-and-When-Did-Crochet-Originate?&id=146795, September 4, 2008 - WATG Blog : A Brief History of Crochet, https://www.woolandthegang.com/blog/2015/05/a-brief-history-of-crochet/, May 13, 2015 - Textile Exchange : Crocheted Fabric - Origin and Types of Crochet, http://www.teonline.com/knowledge-centre/crocheted-fabric.html -Crochet Tutorial : Filet crochet basics - open and filled meshes. (LESSON 1), http://www.smartcrochet.com/lesson1.shtml - Interweave Store : Irish Crochet and Clones Lace: Exploring Lace Making - Read, Sarah, http://www.interweavestore.com/irish-crochet-clones-lace-guide, 2016 - Stitch Story : Hairpin Lace...My Next Crochet Adventure! - Allaho, Shelby, http://www.stitch-story.com/2010/10/hairpin-lacemy-next-crochet-adventure.html, October 8, 2010 - Wikipedia : Broomstick lace, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broomstick_lace, May 13, 2016 - Diva Studios : Tunisian Crochet Stitch, http://www.stitchdiva.com/tutorials/tunisian-crochet - Vogue Knitting : Before You Get Started..., http://www.vogueknitting.com/pattern_help/how-to/learn_to_crochet/before_you_get_started - GHRISSIDC : Company Profile, https://www.ghrssidc.org/content/company-profile
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Books - Chastang, Emmanuel, and Simone St. Anne. Goa, Ma Belle--. Reunion Island, France: Ma Belle Editions, 2001. - Basic Crochet & Knit. Tokyo: Ondorisha Publishers, 1976. - Temple, Mary Beth. Hooked for Life: Adventures of a Crochet Zealot. Kansas City, MO: Andrews McMeel Pub., 2009. - Issar, T. P. Goa Dourada: The Indo-Portuguese Bouquet. Bangalore, India: Issar, 1997.
Craft Documents - Nimisha Singhal. Jodhpur juttie - footwear of the aristocrats. 2015. -Preeyal Patil , Niveda Austin, and Taruna Singh. Blue city bone craft. 2015.
Photographs and Illustrations - Front cover image : crocheted cosaters, Heta Shah - Images 1, 2 and 85 : Apoorva Chebrolu - Images 7, 52 and 84 : Heta Shah - Images 3 and 4 , Figures 1.1 - 3.10 : Nivida Malhotra - Images 9 and 23 : Sonal Roy - Image 33 : Anwar Alam and Madhu Kannabiran - Craftsmen images : (53 - 59), Heta Shah and Nivida Malhotra - Product images : (61 - 80), Heta Shah and Nivida Malhotra - Back cover image : crocheted cosater, Heta Shah
Images - 5, 36 : Chastang, Emmanuel, and Simone St. Anne. Goa, Ma Belle--. Reunion Island, France: Ma Belle Editions, 2001. - 8 : Pg 183, Issar, T. P. Goa Dourada: The Indo-Portuguese Bouquet. Bangalore, India: Issar, 1997. - 6 : Tsakmaki, Eleni. Goa India Art Map. Behance. https://www.behance.net/gallery/7240895/ASIA-Maps-IndiaJerusalemUAEVietnamMaldives-isl - 10 : Shanta Durga Temple. Pilgrimaide. http://www.pilgrimaide.com/shree-shantadurga-temple-bardez.html - 11 : Digital Image. Goa Tourism Development Corporation Ltd. https://goa-tourism.com/GTDC-holidays/places-to-see-goa/church-of-our-lady-of-immaculate-conception.htm - 12 : Digital image. Talk about travelling. http://talkabouttravelling.com/paradise-goa/ - 13 : Parrikar, Ranjan. In Cortin, Panjim. Photo blog by Ranjan Parrikar. http://blog.parrikar.com/2011/03/28/windows-of-nacre/ - 14 : Castro, Paul. Digital image. Archive of Goan writing in Portuguese. June 19, 2011. http://archiveofgoanwritinginportuguese.blogspot.in/2011/06/rv-pandit-espera-de-rama-1967.html - 15 : Prabhudesai, Sandesh. Digital image. Goa News. April 09, 2000. http://www.goanews.com/news_disp.php?newsid=35 - 16 : Kunbi Dance. Find in Goa. http://www.findingoa.com/TGartandculture.php - 17 : Digital Image. Our Jaipur.Com. October 13, 2014. http://www.ourjaipur.com/2014/10/lokrang-jawahar-kala-kendra-jaipur.html - 18 : Digital Image. Rachnaâ€™s Kitchen. http://www.mytaste.co.uk/r/chicken-vindaloo-recipe-authentic-chicken-vindaloo-recipe-42621134.html - 19 : Digital image. Cure Joy. http://www.curejoy.com/content/cashew-nut-the-cholesterol-and-fat-busting-super-nut/ - 79 -
Images - 20 : Digital Image. Nutrition Review. http://nutritionreview.org/2013/04/medium-chain-triglycerides-mcts/ - 21 : Digital Image. Minning.com. http://www.mining.com/india-picks-worst-time-to-resume-iron-ore-mining-analysts/ - 22 : Digital Image. Travel Triangle. http://traveltriangle.com/blog/tourist-places-in-goa/ - 24 : Digital image. Mayank Jain Pottery. 2013. http://mayankjainpottery.com/sample-page/dsc00796/ - 25 : Digital image. May 31, 2016. http://www.azmlive.in/2016/05/handycraft.html - 26 : Clutch banana rainbow ribbon. Max Marino. http://www.maxmarino.com/product-category/fashion-accessories/bags/ - 27 : Shell craft. Export India. http://www.exportersindia.com/indian-suppliers/coconut-shell-crafts.htm - 28 : Bjorn, Lilla. Digital image. Lilla Bjornâ€™s crochet world. May 27 2016. http://www.lillabjorncrochet.com/2016/05/spanish-mandala-create-your-own-sun.html - 29 : Narayanan , Anusha. Goobe Series. KYOORIUS. December 2013, 2014. http://kyoorius.com/2014/12/kyoorius-knocks-karthik-vaidyanathan-varnam/ - 30 : Digital image. - 31 : Digital image. Pinterest. https://in.pinterest.com/pin/382806037059671808/ - 32 : Crochet Squares. Country Days. http://www.country-days.co.uk/2013/02/24/sunday-morning-make-crochet-for-charity/ - 34 : Digital Image. Blogger. http://the-history-girls.blogspot.in/2012/10/knitting-for-victory-by-laurie-graham.html - 35 : Digital Image. Wool and the Gang. https://www.woolandthegang.com/blog/2015/05/a-brief-history-of-crochet - 37 : Milje, Ovalno. Digital Image. Gallery.RU. http://hris58.gallery.ru/watch?ph=TrT-cYQti#feature=topscroll - 38 : Digital Image. Pic Click. http://picclick.ca/Antique-Edwardian-Jabot-Collar-Bow-W-Irish-Crochet-291850602667.html - 39 : Digital Image. Etsy. https://www.etsy.com/listing/110790837/crochet-pattern-easy-broomstick-lace - 41 :Perry, Stacy. Digital Image. Ravelry. http://www.ravelry.com/patterns/library/tunisian-shaker-dishcloths - 42, 44, 45 : Digital Image. Vouge Knitting. http://www.vogueknitting.com/pattern_help/how-to/learn_to_crochet/before_you_get_started - 40 : Morningwynd. Ravelry. http://www.ravelry.com/patterns/library/hairpin-lace-baby-blanket - 46 : Digital image. Ali Express. 2010. http://es.aliexpress.com/cp/hand-knitting-for-kids-online-shopping.html - 47 : Digital image. http://demo.citrus.ph/yarnsource/product/cheer-dance/ - 48 : Silk knitting yarn (GIF). Yarnia. http://www.yarniapdx.com/silk-yarn/ - 49 : Digital image. Yarnsub. 2014. http://yarnsub.com/yarns/aunt_lydias/bamboo_crochet_size_10 - 50 : Digital image. Fabulous yarn. http://www.fabulousyarn.com/alpaca_yarn.shtml - 51 : (261) Berry Heather. WEBS. 2005. https://www.yarn.com/products/knit-one-crochet-too-brae-tweed - 60 : Mehta, Pranav. St+ARTIndia. The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.in/entry/olek-womens-shelter-delhi_b_6935794 - 81 : Digital Image. Crochetholics. http://crochetholics.blogspot.in
- 82; Digital Image. India Travel Blog. http://www.indianholiday.com/blog/common-konkani-phrases-for-tourist-visiting-goa/ - 83; Digital Image. Goa Tourism Development Corporation Ltd. http://goa-tourism.com/GTDC-holidays/learn-handicrafts-of-goa.htm
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85. The Goan fisherman
â€œ - 81 -
An eternal bond : The sea, the fisherman, the boat and the fish