Hybrid novels: A new way of reading narrative fiction

Page 1

HYBRID NOVELS A NEW WAY OF READING NARRATIVE FICTION

Alberto Hernández MA Graphic Design – LCC Nov 2009 –


Alberto Hernández MA Graphic Design – LCC Nov 2009 – h2alberto@gmail.com +44 (0)75 1656 1613 –

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

CONTENTS

Thank you to: Paul McNeil, Postgraduate Lead Tutor UAL – LCC (UK) – And specially to: My parents, who have been always on my side to support me in every possible way –

Foreword Introduction Hybrid novels Research methodology Visual devices Jekyll and Hyde Visual summary The remediation Conclusion Bibliography Appendix A. Graphic novels Appendix B. Survey Appendix C. Interviews

1 2 3 4 5 6


‘ LIFE IS MONSTROUS, INFINITE, ILLOGICAL, ABRUPT, AND POIGNANT; A WORK OF ART, IN COMPARISON, IS NEAT, FINITE, SELF-CONTAINED, RATIONAL’ R. L. STEVENSON –1884

‘ READING IS TO THE MIND WHAT EXERCISE IS TO THE BODY’ RICHARD STEELE –1711


FOREWORD Stories are an important aspect of culture. Many works of art, and most works of literature, tell stories; indeed, most of the humanities involve stories. Storytelling was probably one of the earliest forms of entertainment. Moreover, as Peter Brooks (1994) puts forward, narrating is never innocent, telling a story can change a life. 1 Brooks sees narrative as a vital and necessary element of our lives, a psychic process in which we recognize and work through essential psychological needs for coherence and understanding (p.3) 1 In addition, in a time in which the tradition of reading physical books is getting more and more lost and the sale of eBooks is rapidly increasing, the use of visual devices in books which encourage us to read with them in our own hands and feel the experience which we cannot feel through the digital world is more and more important. There are basically two reasons for my interest in this area. Firstly, England, specially London, has always attracted my attention because of the events which have taken place throughout the life of the city, whether they were fictitious or true, with characters like Jack the Ripper, Sweeney Todd or Mr Hyde himself. So, I thought it could be very interesting to work on a novel Ross MacDonald’s Dinero negro. Book cover by Daniel Gil (1986).

http://www.flickr.com/photos/alwayschapas/sets/72157608174037177/

produced at a period I am very keen on because of the literary creations and because of the gothic events which took place. Secondly, since I started studying design some years ago now, I have been always very interested in book design, possibly because of the long Spanish tradition in editorial and book cover design with important figures such as Daniel Gil or Manuel Estrada. Besides, during my short period as a graphic designer, I have barely worked on this field and especially together with narrative, so I thought I could not finish my studies without doing something related.

Therefore, what you have in your hands is not a simple document; this is the story, step by step, of how I came to a conclusion in my Major Project. –



The story you have in your hands is divided into six chapters. It starts with a short introduction where my intention is explained, followed by the first chapter, a description of hybrid novels. Next, there is an explanation of the methodology followed in the project. Afterwards there is an analysis of graphic elements in contemporary and classic novels and some other examples found by designers who have worked previously on the same subject. Then there is a chapter where Stevenson’s short story Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde is studied in depth. The chapter ‘Visual summary’ shows the experiments, what is behind each of the ideas and in the chapter ‘The Remediation’ the final outcome is developed. Finally, a short conclusion summarises the development of the project by putting all my ideas together. –

INTRODUCTION Once upon a time there was a twentyfour-year-old boy who found himself in a bookshop trying to come up with a good idea that he could develop as a project since he wanted to work about books in some way. Being there, immersed in piles of books, observing each of them meticulously, he noticed that he had two books with the same title in his hands and one of them was different from the other one on the inside. Why? After a long time searching through these piles of books for adults, particularly novels, he realised that barely any of them contained imagery. Why was this? He did not think it was because publishers wanted to reduce costs, his thought was that the older we are the less able we are to read images and that generally people tend to think that images diminish good writing; that is why he concluded that 95% of adult books that he saw that day did not contain imagery. He was wondering why if we learn to read images before words there are no illustrated adult books as there are books for children. He thought that books could be looked at as well as read. It is clear that when we are adults we are not content just looking at images, it is through reading that we learn new things, but could we imagine through reading as much as through imagery? Do we enjoy a book in the same way a child does? He did not think so. That twenty-four-year-old boy grew up,

just a little bit, and started working on what was going to be called the ‘Major Project’. This is how he got to the starting point in his own words. My intention in this project on graphic novels was to try, by adding playful graphic devices to a chosen novel, to engage readers in a more dynam¬ic narrative experience, help them at the same time to understand the story more easily and finally to give the printed page a multidi¬mensional visual surface. I am not only interested in the story the author creates for readers, but in the story readers create in their minds with a particular a novel. As Katherine Gillieson (2008) puts it: the idea that we all understand the same things when reading the same book is not quite right […] all readers make their own way through a book (p.60). 2 So, in order to achieve my aim, although I knew since the very beginning that there was not just one right and specific answer but many, I constantly explored different approaches and the possibilities of the reader’s actions in order to produce meaning outside the reading. On the other hand, nowadays we need books with visual effects more than ever in order to attract the attention of possible readers and make people read physical books since eBook sales are increasing. It is clear that the use of eBooks is more


Different versions of the same book: for children and for adults.

Mark Twain’s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland

http://www.amazon.co.uk/booksused-books-textbooks/b/ref=sa_ menu_bo0?ie=UTF8&node=266239


convenient and that they allow one to get involved in the story through a multimedia experience with music and lights but what is different about physical books is the feeling of having one in your hands, the feeling of flicking through backwards and forwards, the feel and smell of the paper, the colour of the illustrations and even the sound whilst flicking. Maria Fusco (2008) recently put forward that the physicality of books is another of their distinguishing social features. People want to own a book, hold it in their hands, and show it off. […] People want to own books, even if the same content can be acceded elsewhere. A book not only provides structures for content, but also builds relevant social ties with its maker, as well as with its reader (p.122). 2 Aiming the project at young-adult novel readers, since I thought this is the audience who has trouble when recreating the story they have in front of their eyes in their minds, and taking into account my strong awareness of books as visual objects and that the book is, above all nowadays, a container of narrative and that the purpose of this is to entertain, to gain and hold a readers’ interest, I was ready to state my research question. By intervening in the narrative of a chosen novel through visual and verbal techniques and devices, how could I retell the story so that readers get

involved in new ways and understand the narrative more easily? How could I enhance the experience of reading? In terms of the area of my study, it covered visual narrative and storytelling which could be grouped as ‘visual dialogue’ and is about two things: the content of a story and the form used to tell the story, that is, the way in which a narrative is exposed to a reader. Making a decision about the novel that I was going to work on was not an easy one. I considered various possibilities before picking Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. The main reason, which took me to work on this novel, was its narrative technique which is presented as a dossier of witness statements. Further arguments for this choice are given in great detail in the chapter ‘Jekyll and Hyde’. Lastly, before getting the work started it was important to define various aspects. First of all, I wanted something that was integral to the whole story and design, and not just images, for instance, on a page. Apart from that, the design and artwork had to have, as Hugo (Grafik book reviewer) puts it (2009): a total engagement with the text and story: there [must be] an interactive process between the two of continuity and disjuncture, clarification and confusion, beautifying and foreboding; all of which prepare you for and reflect the story itself (p.79). 3 –

eBooks allow one to get involved in the story through a multimedia experience but is not the same feeling

http://www.latheofdreams.com/ blogImages/SonyPRS505-2.jpg


1

Storytelling forms: 1. Silent film Charlie Chaplin’s The lion’s cage 2. Garfield comic 3. Spanish Rupestrian art 4. Phartenon frieze segment 5. Egyptian Hyeroglyphs 6. Roman Trajan’s column

1

2

6

6

4

4

1 3 5


A hybrid novel can be seen as a hybrid image-text novel, not a children’s book, graphic novel/comic or gift book but a book where written text and graphic devices such as illustration, photography, information graphics or typographic treatments may interject in order to hold a readers’ interest, adding interactiveness to the book and also giving the printed page a multidimensional visual surface. It is a kind of book that requires to be handled and experienced, which requires the readers’ actions. As Stephen Farrell (designer of graphics novel ‘VAS: An opera in Flatland’) explains (2008), how this spatial, image-text experience collides or coincides with the linearity of reading is of prime interest to me. 4 According to Katherine Gillieson (2008): the design of the book is a compendium of strategies; structural elements that help, hinder, or guide the reader onward. Some of these actionoriented structures are inherent in the text and image, and conscious; others are standards of book design rooted in the history of the book (p.60). 2 But in order to reach the point where I considered hybrid novels important and/or necessary in our current society I had to go back to the moment when storytelling was conceived, when storytelling was really important and considered necessary because it could define people’s values, aspirations and dreams. According to the National 3Double page spreads from graphic novel Ukiyo-e’s The Floating World. Designed by Tomato (2008)

http://www.tomato.co.uk/#thefloating-world/

2

Storytelling Network (1998), storytelling is the interactive art of using words and actions to reveal the elements and images of a story while encouraging the listener’s imagination […] it is an ancient art form and a valuable form of human expression. 5 According to this, storytelling involves a two-way interaction between a storyteller and listeners where the responses of the listeners influence the telling of the story; uses language; uses actions such as physical movement and/or gesture; always involves the presentation of a story (a narrative) and encourages the active imagination of the listeners. For some the art of storytelling is coming to an end; Walter Benjamin (1994) argues that we are losing the ability to exchange experiences: the very communicability of experience is threatened with loss […] the art of storytelling is reaching its end because the epic side of truth, wisdom is dying out (p.80). 1 Naturally, what replaces storytelling is the novel, linked to the invention of printing and concept of book. So, it could be said that novels are written storytelling. If according to Brooks (1994) narrative is a vital and necessary element of our lives (p.3) 1, nowadays we need novels but with the same flavour


that storytelling used to have. This is where hybrid novels come into play, because they use interaction, language, actions and encourage the active imagination of the readers in the same way storytelling used to do. Therefore, I consider the designer of a graphic novel as a modern storyteller, someone who can make readers interact with the words from the novel and also retell the story in a particular way. On the other hand, the use of graphic elements in fiction is certainly not new, as Zoë Sadokierski, a graphic designer and illustrator from Australia, puts forward in her essay on ‘Typographic devices in fiction’ (2006):

opinion of Tristam Shandy, Gentleman (1759) who used hyphens, dashes, and asterisks, left pages blank, and published entire pages in black to denote a character’s death; James Joyce’s Finnegans Wake (1922) in which he scrambled the text to create a range of visual effects; William S. Burroughs’s Naked Lunch (1962) whose reordered text challenged conventional ideas of linear reading and narrative structure; or Georges Perec’s A void (1969) written without the letter e. Reviews, websites and readers (see Appendix B) indicate that people are quite divided; they either liked graphic novels or hated them. Perhaps people think that images diminish the writing, that a piece of text should appear alone because images usually appear in children’s books and other kinds of writing which are not serious. Some thoughts are shown here:

images have traditionally been used as decorative elements in fiction. Fancy title pages, or illustrated plates depicting characters or situations from the narrative were standard fare in Victorian literature, added or subtracted in different editions with no real effect on the narrative. What is different about the emerging narrative style now, is that graphic elements are being used in a way intrinsic to the narrative, much in the way graphic novels use a combination of word and image that is inseparable. 6

These storytelling techniques are still considered ‘experimental’ or even worse, ‘gimmicky’ in some book circles; whereas in art you can sit in a gallery with a dead lobster on your head for a week without fear of being accused of either. (2007) Steven Hall (book author) 6

Then, when did hybrid novels first appear? We can find some examples in pioneering work such as each of a series of five novels in which Lope de Vega Carpio (16th century) omitted one vowel; Laurence Sterne’s The life and

The use of images in novels is still considered to be a gimmick or some expression of the failure of language. […] Most of what I do in my books I do exactly because I can’t explain in any other way. (2006) S. Foer (book author) 7

3

Like anything new, you have to cultivate your interest. It’s like in Opera. You have to go a couple of times to appreciate it. (2003) Marjane Satrapi (graphic novelist) 6 According to Sadokierski, Emile Benveniste, a French structural linguist, comments that

Finally, in order to discover if graphic novels are a fashion which will become obsolete quickly and not take off particularly in the age of eBooks or a new novel style some interviews were attempted (see chapter ‘Research methodology’). –

not everything in print is to be read in a traditional way; there are new modes of reading which correspond to new modes of writing 6 ‘which correspond to new modes of designing too’ could be added. In order words, one will not experience a graphic novel correctly if one is reading it like a common novel. But, if there are actually many people, included graphic designers, who enjoy reading (or looking at) graphic novels why is there no more graphic novels on the market? Rick Poynor (2003) gives three reasons: First, because most writers have no desire to give up any aspect of their autonomy and no interest in extending the designer’s role. Second, because most designers don’t possess the degree of writing talent or commitment that ambitious writing requires [...] Third, because without works produced in sufficient number to establish their place in the bookshops and reviews pages, there can be no viable market for books of this kind. 8 4

Next page: Double page spread from Laurence Sterne’s The life and opinion of Tristam Shandy (1759)

http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger2/1827/595967488473184/1600/ CfNW_sterne.jpg


7

8


2

1. Hampstead cemetery 2. Alphonse Bertillon’s criminal anthropology methods 3. Hunterian museum 4. Photograph of a Harold Gillies’ plastic surgery patient at Hunterian Museum 5. Duchenne de Boulogne’s The mechanism of human facial expression.

1

5

3

4

1

2


To gain some knowledge about the field some graphic novels specifically chosen from the market (see Appendix A) were skimmed and analysed (see chapter ‘Visual devices’). The typo/ graphic devices that these novels used were categorised following Sadokierski’s PhD methodology (2008) and five categories came up: typographic treatments (which somehow interrupt the reading experience), photography, drawings, information graphics and flip books. The primary research was started by conducting a survey (see Appendix B) within a sample of the potential audience. Around forty young-adult readers, aged between 20 and 35, were asked by e-mail, in September 2009, about their preferences when reading and their opinion in terms of the usefulness of visual devices apart from their age, gender and origin (most of those polled were European by chance). Surveyed were selected according to their age and most of them were LCC students and acquaintances of mine. Primary research through interviews was also attempted by interviewing by email various professionals within the graphic novel field in order to discover if graphic novels are a fashion which will become obsolete quickly and not take off particularly in the age of eBooks or a new novel style. These people were from different professional fields. Firstly, Irma Boom, who is well known within the book design world for her original 3Albert Londe’s photographs of a hysteric. Nouvelle Iconographie de la Salpêtriére. Wellcome Collection

8

contributions. Secondly, Rick Poynor, design critic and writer who has written reviews of some new graphic novels. Thirdly, Penguin Books, which does not need any introduction at all and who through the company ‘Six to Start’ launched, in 2008, a group of digital graphic novels. Finally, Jonathan Safran Foer, the young contemporary writer of the well known Extremely Loud and Incredible Close. They were asked: Q1: Since this new kind of novel was originated by authors and are generally the work of the author and not a designer, I am interested in knowing if you see this type of novel as something to which designers should contribute and help writers from the beginning, as in the case of Jonathan Safran Foer’s Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close (2006), or as something an author should do on his/her own, as in the case of House of Leaves (2000), which Danielewski completely designed. Q2: I am also interested in your opinion on new graphic novels longevity. Is it a fashion which will become obsolete quickly and not take off particularly in the age of eBooks or on the contrary, it is a new novel style which we will start seeing more often despite all the criticism? Unfortunately all the potential interviewees approached were unable to respond; either there was no response or they indicated that


IMG04

IMG02

IMG03

they were too busy to contribute (see Appendix C). Apart from the survey and the interviews I also wanted to get into the character of a Victorian citizen to produce a better piece of work, so I visited some places which could give me the exact information I needed for the project such as Hampstead cemetery (IMG01), full of Victorian tombs; St Pancras old church (IMG02), where some incidents of tomb robbery and body snatching took place; the Hunterian Museum (IMG03) since it is said that the house where Dr Jekyll live in the story is based on Dr Hunter’s house but also because it is a museum where one can learn what was done in terms of surgery and science in Victorian times; and lastly, the Freud museum (IMG04) as Freud’s ideas are essential to the entire novel because of the research into psychoanalysis and unconsciousness he carried out. In addition, I visited the V&A Museum, the Bristish Library and the Wellcome collection in order to gather some information about Victorian books and scientific research. –

IMG01

9

10

Next page: Duchenne de Boulogne’s The mechanism of human facial expression. Wellcome Collection


7

8


3


IMG07

Different graphic novels were analysed in order to get an overall view. To make the information more understandable I grouped the novels into: Contemporary novels, New editions based on classic novels and Previous works on Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. From the analysis some conclusions were drawn which are given at the end of this chapter.

Contemporary novels

IMG06

IMG05

3

The contemporary novels fell into in two different groups; firstly a group of graphic novels produced by designer/artists. Dave Egger’s A heartbreaking work of staggering genius (2001) and You shall know our velocity (2003), IMG05-06, use mainly photography and information graphic. Most of his books, including McSweeney’s, are like a theatre play where you can skip parts of the book, find out how much people involved in the production of the book were paid and even use objects that come with the book. IMG07 shows Graham Rawle’s Woman’s World (2006), a novel collaged from individual fragments of text (around 40,000 in all) found in women’s magazines published in the early 1960s (p.438) 9. Other models are found in the novels published in 2008 Charles Cumming’s The 21 steps (IMG08), Matt Mason’s Hard times (IMG09) 14

and Nicci French’s Your place and mine (IMG10) which through digital media make people intervene in the story and interact on a computer with the digital book whether using Google Maps, Acrobat Reader or reading a blog respectively. Steven Hall’s The raw shark texts (2007), IMG11, uses information graphics, typographic treatments and even a 50-page flipbook of an approaching shark made up of text on the page to explain certain facts. IMG012-13-14 shows Douglas Coupland’s Generation X (1998), Mark Haddon’s The curious incident of the dog in the nighttime (2004) and P. J. Barrington’s The Selman-Troytt papers (2007) respectively which use drawings and photography intersected with the text. All these are in black and white and may be seen to distract rather than help the reader. Jonathan Safran Foer’s Extremely loud and Incredibly close (2006), IMG15, uses a wide range of graphic devices, from blank pages and a flip book to photographs which work as a part of the text. It also includes typographic elements to alter the pace of the reading. Finally, two of the novels which seem to help the reader the most and which are more interesting graphically are Celine Minard’s Bastard battle (2008) IMG16, and Steve Tomasula’s VAS: An opera in Flatland (2004), IMG17. Both of them are in colour, the former using


IMG08

IMG09

IMG10


IMG12

IMG11


IMG13

only typographic treatments and the latter an historical sweep of representations of the body plus a wide range of graphic devices, in the same way Foer’s novel does but in a more dynamic and concise manner. On the other hand, the novels which none designer/artists have produced must be taken into account as well although the graphic elements have been used to tell the story in a traditional way in the sense an art book would contain images of the work in question. Some of these novels are Hubert Venables’ The Frankestein diaries

(1980), IMG18; Alasdair Gray’s Poor things (2002), IMG19; Alex Garland’s The coma (2004), IMG20; Rick Moody’s The Diviners (2005), IMG21; Umberto Eco’s The mysterious flame of Queen Loana (2006), IMG22; and Carrie Tiffany’s Everyman’s rules for scientific living (2006), IMG23. Mark Danielewski’s House of leaves (2000), IMG24, stands out since it is extremely experimental. The text has been set with different typefaces for each one of the four narratives to help the reader navigate, a colour system is also used for some words and the grids are quite complex. –

IMG16

IMG17

IMG14


IMG15

IMG19

IMG18

IMG20


IMG21

IMG24

IMG22

IMG23

13

14


IMG25

New editions based on classic novels Undoubtedly these were the works that attracted my attention the most. They are new editions of classics created with subtlety and delicacy. Dracula. Published by Four Corners Books (UK) in 2008 (IMG25) This edition pays homage to Stoker’s book. The novel is a golden-section edition encased in a bright yellow cover (the edition in 1897 actually had a yellow cover) with the title set in Art Nouveau blood red letters. The text has been set with a different typeface for each character (based on the ones in use at the time the book was first published). Finally, the endpapers, the head-and-tail-bands, and the tops of the pages are blood red as well. In this case, the typographic treatment is the device that stands out the most.

IMG27 IMG26

25

The Picture of Dorian Gray. Published by Four Corners Books (UK) in 2008 (IMG26) This edition pays homage to the magazine in which the book first appeared in 1890: Lippincott’s Monthly Magazine, presenting the book in the form of a large-format fashion magazine. The book combines motifs, typography and advertisements for Gitanes cigarettes showing handsome male models. The typographic treatment and the images of masculine beauty are the characteristic devices. 26

Blumfeld, an elderly bachelor. Published by Four Corners Books (UK) in 2008 (IMG27) The actual book was written around 1915 and was unfinished, reaching just 20 pages. The new edition uses wide margins and large text spreading it over 86 pages together with pencil illustrations. The cover is matte blackon-black embossed with hyphenated lettering and the spine is an fine example of the bookmaker’s craft and design where the title and the author fit by splitting words every two letters.

Previous works on Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde In this category, the standards are quite high and after seeing this, one wonders: what else is left to do? How could I turn this subject into other different idea? Some of the ideas such as the fluorescent colours, the UV ink or the medical imagery are common sense things but that limits one some way. But my challenge was there. How could I remediate a classic without referring to what others have already done? Many film directors have made remakes of the same film over and over again and have achieved a really good outcome, so why not me too? Although it is also true, that many have harmed the reputation of the film. Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde by Christopher Jung and Tobias Wenig. Produced as a


self-initiated project (Germany) in 2008 (IMG28). The illustrations come from a variety of different sources: flea markets, medical studies, domestic guidebooks, and examples from the very early days of photography. The first chapter is hidden under a finish, which the reader has to rub off before discovering the narration [excerpt from the project description]. 2

Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde by Tank Books. Published by Tank Books (UK) in 2008 (IMG31). The flip-top cigarette pack is one of the most successful pieces of packaging design in history […] We have launched a series of books designed to mimic cigarette packs – the same size, packaged in flip-top cartons with silver foil wrapping and sealed in cellophane [excerpt from the project description]. 2

Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde by Joie Kiandra Chan. Produced as a University project (UK) in 2008 (IMG29). The ‘Tree of Life’ is my main concept for Dr Jekyll’s life story […] Using the base of the story content to create a maze like root system representing the idea of confusion and speculations. The middle and the upper part of the structure is story content of Dr Jekyll, showing three stages of transformation phases [excerpt from the project description]. 10

IMG29

Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde by Matilda Saxow. Produced as a University project (UK) in 2008 (IMG30). This book is based on the conventions of classic novel design, but is subverted so that its physical form reflects the main character’s multiple personality disorder. A single short fold down the centre of each page effectively splits the content area into two planes [excerpt from the project description]. 2

27

IMG28

18


Conclusions from the analysis IMG30

30% of the novels analysed use colour and these seem to be the most interesting and the ones which involve readers in the story more easily. 70% of the novels analysed were designed by a designer or artist. Designed novels may be seen as more interesting and richer in terms of visual effects and originality since authors, most of the time, are not skilful enough to work graphically on their novels. 75% of the novels analysed used linear narrative containing some kind of construction of the idea of past, present and future.

Although photography and illustration are the most used devices, the novels that use typographic treatments as one of their main devices are the most interesting since they play with visual games and evoke things that with photographs and illustrations may be too obvious. Almost all the books analysed use more than one device and these are possibly over elaborated. On the other hand, the books that use visual devices throughout the entire book seem to be the ones which grip you more, although they can become dull and repetitive. Amongst all the novels analysed just a few play with the physicality of the book; an option to bear in mind.

IMG31

29

20


4

1. Still from the first Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde film by Barrymore (1920) 2. Albert George Dew-Smith’s photograph of R. Louis Stevenson (1850 - 1894) 3. Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde poster film (1931) 4. Poster from the 1880s 5. Stills from Abbott and Costello Meet Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde film by Lamont (1953) 6. Still from Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde film by Mamoulian (1931)

1

3 6

4

1

5 2


Since the chosen novel was written more than a hundred years ago, it had to be studied from different angles: the period in which the novel was written, the style to which the novel belongs, that is, gothic fiction; what was being done in terms of book design at that time and finally the narrative, structure and subjects of the novel. The last aspects are explained below together with the reasons for the choice of the novel. R. L. Stevenson’s most famous story Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (as it was first entitled), conceived as a ‘crawler’ for Christmas, was dreamt up, written, rewritten and published inside ten weeks. It was issued in January 1886 by Longmans, Green and Co. in two formats: one of them with paper wrappers and the other bound in cloth, both of them of Crown octavo format and consisting of 144 pages with an advertising leaf on the back. Stevenson’s wife remembered how he had been deeply impressed by a paper he had read in a French scientific journal on sub-conscious [which] had given him the germ of the idea (Robert Mighall, 2002 p.145). 11 Although it is said that Stevenson wrote the tale under the influence of LSD, as a treatment for his illness, the story came to him in a dream, the medium of 3Title page of Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde issued in paper wrappers by Longmans, Green and Co (1886).

Digitalized for Microsoft Corporation by the Internet Archive in 2008.

32

self-revelation that was just beginning to be used by Charcot and Freud to penetrate a patient’s underlying anxieties and desires. Claire Harman (2005) explains that the story of the composition of Jekyll and Hyde is that of Stevenson’s most thoroughgoing collaboration of all: the collaboration of his conscious and unconscious selves (p.295). 12 Stevenson explains the idea of his subconscious as a story-mill in an essay titled ‘A chapter on dreams’ (1887): For two days I went about racking my brains for a plot of any sort; and on the second night I dreamed the scene at the window, and a scene afterwards split in two, in which Hyde, pursued for some crime, took the powder and underwent the change in the presence of his pursuers. All the rest was made awake, and consciously, although I think I can trace in much of it the manner of my Brownies (p.141). 11 Harman (2005) explains later that Stevenson represented his subconscious as a separate and independent state, personifying its forces […] as ‘the Brownies’, spirit-like, anarchic and amoral (p.298). 12 But, what is this short novel about? As Robert Mighall (2002) puts it,


Stevenson’s story is more known about than actually known (p.20) 11. Jekyll and Hyde is a tale of civilization and its discontents which functions as a historically specific moral allegory about Victoria hypocrisy and repression. It is about the fight between good and evil which exists in everybody. It is an allegory based on the two-foldednature of man, commonly known as split personality. According to Lyn Pykett (2001) Stevenson’s tale of Jekyll and his doppelgänger not only exemplifies that preoccupation with doubles and dualism that characterizes nineteenthcentury versions of gothic, but it also theorizes the double Jekyll’s experiment derives in part from his theory of the fractured, multiple modern subject (p.207) 13 But, apart from this central subject in the novel, there are other important latent meanings in the story. James Campbell, in his digital article ‘The best within’ (2008), observes that Jekyll has been seen as a drunk, a drug addict, a pederast 14. They are opinions, partly, but what seems to be common in the readers of Jekyll and Hyde’s mind is the meaning of sexual repression, or should we call it homosexual panic? Campbell comments on that: The double life of Jekyll and Hyde can be seen as parallel to ‘the necessarily double life of the Victorian homosexual’. 33

Even though Stevenson may not have intended leaving them, there are suggestive markers throughout the text: the suspected blackmail of Jekyll by his ‘young man’, his ‘favourite’; the ‘very pretty manner of politeness of Sir Danvers Carew’ when approached in the street – terms that may have denoted forbidden liaisons to a Victorian readership. The hidden door by which he enters Jekyll’s house is the ‘back way’, even ‘the back passage’. It happens that the year of composition was the year in which an amendment to an act of parliament made homosexual acts between men a criminal offence. 14 Other meanings or fields of interpretation take us mostly to the exploration into the recesses of human nature. The story inevitably suggests to the modern mind clinical case-studies and Freudian psychoanalysis, Jean Martin Charcot’s (Freud’s teacher) research into hysteria, moral insanity, alternating personalities and hypnotism; the advances in evolutionary anthropology and scientific criminology carried out by Cesare Lombroso and Alphonse Bertillon among others; the Londoner prostitution which leads us to think of Jack the Ripper and his possible dual life; the innovative and pioneering facial reconstruction surgery promoted by the surgeon Sir Harold Gillies; the electrophysiological experiments of Dr Duchenne de Boulogne (Charcot’s Double page spreads from the first 6 version of Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886).

Digitalized for Microsoft Corporation by the Internet Archive in 2008.


mentor) who wanted to determine how the muscles in the human face produce facial expressions which he believed to be directly linked to the soul of man; Joseph Gall’s phrenological theory which stated that the personality traits of a person can be derived from the shape of the skull; and last but not least, Darwin’s theory in which he claimed that, since the human race had evolved from an animal ancestor, our minds are not essentially different from those of animals (‘The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals’, 1872). 15 Finally, the power of the story derives largely from its innovative use of the subconscious, unimpeded, ‘irresponsible’ impulses (Harman, 2005) but one of the most important things in Stevenson’s story, which led me to work on this novel, is its narrative technique, which is presented as a dossier of witness statements, a ‘Case’ evoking the procedures of both legal and medical knowledge and testimony. Roger Luckhurst (2006) comments:

such a technique serves the interests of veracity, as the various documents are supposedly more ‘real’ than the overtly artificial observations of an omniscient narrator who has no existence within the world of fiction. It serves suspense […] and it helps to heighten the emotional impact of the narration (p.xviii). 11 Lastly, Roger Luckhurst (2006) regarding the idea of texts within texts, finishes his essay saying that the narrative moves from the outer edges of the secret to its final revelation. It unfolds like a sequence of Russian dolls nested inside each other (p.xiii). 16 –

the structure is the most ingeniously designed element of the book. It tells the story backwards, so that we work our way towards the confession of Dr Jekyll, which is revealed last (p.xii). 16 In addition, there are different overlapping narratives: two of the chapters are written by protagonists and a third is presented as a newspaper report of a crime. Robert Mighall (2002) explains that 7

Richard Mansfield 8 starred in Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde in both New York and London.

The stage adaptation opened in London in 1887, a year after the publication of the novel.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ commons/4/48/Jekyll-mansfield.jpg


5

1


Various aspects had to be taken into account at the time of working on the story and undertaking the experiments, the most important one was to pay close attention to Raymond Queneau who stated (1998) that it is important that it should be the same story all the time. Anybody can –and automatically does– describe different thing in different ways (‘Exercises in style’, p.15). 17 Taking this as my maxim I started the experiments with one chapter, Chapter 9, a page size, a typeface, and the use of the original text and title of the novel (as I think true meaning lies in original things) in order to make the experiments systematic and comparable. So, in the same way as Victorian writers liked to experiment with the narrative forms, I also wanted to experiment with their narratives and I explored the structure, the form, the materials and new ways of reading which can affect narrative and offer readers a more active form of engagement by using the visual devices of typography and imagery. Steven Hall, according to Sadokierski, commented (2008) that this new interactivity is less about the reader having to create a story and more about offering the reader opportunities to find more of the story for themselves if they’re interested in doing so. 6 Experimentation at Stage 1 3

38

Katherine Gillieson (2008) stated that design will influence the way readers handle a book […] Reading is a process, an event, where the reader’s perspective about the text is always changing. This is difficult to account for because it will always involve an interplay of material book, the ‘object of reading’, time and space (p.60). 2 One of the strongest ideas in the book is the subject of duality which I tried to get across to readers without revealing the novel’s ending. The other strong point is that we are dealing with horror/ gothic fiction therefore we will not get anywhere if while reading the story we do not feel terrified, even if only a little bit. We must remember that what, in Victorian times, was call fear and horror does not exist nowadays, but even so I had to make readers jump from their seats and have an emotional response when reading the story. So, in order to achieve that I constructed a narrative which is an interplay of fact and fiction: part novel, part photo book of actual cases in Victorian times. After watching a few Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde films I realised that something was missing in the newest versions and it was that gothic flavour, that fear, something which made your hair stand on end and it was in my hands to choose how to remediate Stevenson’s work. I could adapt if from a completely new, modern point of view or I could do so from a classic, Victorian one.


Both of them had pros and cons, the former would have given me certain freedom to work with new typefaces, colours, materials and modern imagery but recognising I could achieve a somewhat more kitsch outcome. The latter would have made me stick to the Victorian style but there was a lot of good material to work with which I could not waste and which carefully selected could give a good outcome. So, bearing in mind that form and content have to make a combination, I eventually opted to remediate the story combining both styles, that is, using the media, materials and technique of Victorian times but shedding new light on it, so that the book would balance a traditional and contemporary feeling. In addition, I wanted to stick to the original version of the story and not to make use of feminine symbols and objects unlike some film, theatre versions and later versions of the book, in which Dr Jekyll is often connected with a woman or even Mr Hyde being his sister, thus identifying the text with homosexual ideas just as in Victorian times. Finally, the biggest challenge was to make something readable and outstanding at the same time since I have come across a few graphic novels which could be very well designed but did not fulfil their obligation, that is, to communicate the story. We must not forget that it is a novel and as such it needs to be read at ease. – 5

6


41

8


Experimentation at Stage 2 9

44


11

12


13

48


15

16


51

18


19

20


21

22

Experimentation at Stage 3


23

24


Half way through the project I found some examples of what has been done on duality before. For instance, IMG32 shows the Why Not Associates’ Sensation poster exhibition (1997) in which two completely different things in meaning but similar in shape are placed facing each other, perhaps showing the controversy the show generated. IMG33-34, Katherine McCoy’s Cranbrook Design: The new discourse book exhibition (1990), shows, on the one hand, the text of the book broken into two columns so that it is pretty difficult for readers to follow the lines with their sight, and on the other, some works like the theatre brochure which is divided into two parts cutting text and images in half. Thonik’s The Best of Wim T. Schipper (1997), IMG35, and Vaughan Ward’s Graphic knowledge (2007), IMG36, use a system to unlock the information by using colour filters to create different pieces of information and show different texts on a single page. Sagmeister’s Made you look book, IMG37, uses the same colour filters system on the cover and also when one flips the book forward an image appears on the spine whilst flipping it over reveals other. Finally, at the end of my project, I found by chance some of Chip Kidd’s works (IMG38) and I found out that I had been putting into practice some ideas of duality, asymmetrical images and change of meaning that he usually works with. –

IMG32

IMG33

IMG34

59

60


IMG35

IMG36

61

62

IMG37


63

64

IMG38


Experimentation at Stage 4 31

32


33

34


35

36


37

70

Experimentation at Stage 5


Stills from Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde film directed by Rouben Mamoulian (1931). Scene of the transformation.

The idea for this chapter is based on this scene in which the character, whilst transforming, makes many

quick and odd facial expressions until he is completely the opposite character.

74


41

74


Experimentation at Stage 6

78


The striped pattern inside the slip case is based on Saul Bass’ titles for Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho (1960)

in which by using vertical bars it suggests the mental illness of the main character. In addition, two of

the sides of the box, in the inside, are mirrors which, together with the striped pattern, create a moiré

effect and optical illusion that perfectly suits the story since it is to do with unconsciousness.

Stills from Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho (1960). Titles by Saul Bass.


47

48


6

1


STRANGE CASE OF DR JEKYLL AND MR HYDE

MAIN IDEA

DUALITY SPLIT PERSONALITY shown through structure of the book typographic treatment way of reading imagery

SECONDARY IDEAS

HOMOSEXUALITY & SEXUAL REPRESSION (19th c. blackmail + Freud’s pyschoanalisis) shown through male imagery symbology

EVOLUTIONARY ANTHROPOLOGY, SCIENTIFIC CRIMINOLOGY, & PHRENOLOGY shown through real cases images

UNCONSCIOUSNESS (surrealism, hypnotisation, realm of dreams) shown through duality in images slip case

INSANITY (multiple personality, hysteria) shown through real cases images

RELIGION shown through symbology imagery

3

SCIENCE & MEDIAL STUDIES & EXPERIMENTATION shown through real cases images

Stevenson’s story Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde is, as it has been commented before, about duality and split personality but it also contains various secondary ideas. All these concepts are shown throughout the remediation so that the main idea is shown in a deeper level and the most noticeable thing when looking at the whole novel is the idea of dualism whilst making one’s way through the book one discovers the secondary ideas which are shown mainly through imagery (see chart in opposite page). The remediation is a compendium of things which are to do with dualism, asymmetric things and combinations. This is visible throughout, from the two different typefaces used to the kinds of paper or even colours. There are various aspects in common in the remediation. First of all, two completely different typefaces were used to set the text of the story. On the one hand, ‘New Caledonia’ which has elements of the Scotch Roman typeface, one of the most widely used book types in Victorian times. On the other hand, one of the earliest sans serif typefaces: ‘Grotesque’, was used to the set the title page and chapter order. These two types give a complete Victorian flavour to the remediation. Secondly, a wide range of paper was used to print all the material, from Bible paper to newsprint paper or glossy paper. In addition, a different variety of peach/salmon colours was 84

used for the text pages; this is so: first, to communicate the hidden idea of homosexuality in the story, secondly, to get a good contrast of colours between black and white imagery and these pastel colours and thirdly, having a range of different colours gives the remediation a more odd feeling and suggests the idea that there are different documents. Besides, the contrast between the pastel colour and black makes readers think of dichotomy. In terms of the format of the page, two different sizes were chosen for the remediation. The biggest one has the format of the original novel: Crown Octavo (12,5 x 19 cm) and the small one is proportional to the other. Most of the time, one of the books is within the other, the concept behind this is that Hyde is within Jekyll, in Jekyll’s words: ‘If each, I told myself, could but be housed in separate identities (p.109)’, therefore some of the booklets are designed so that readers have two different ways of experiencing the story, either through the imagery contained in one of the parts or through the text contained in the other. In addition, although there are two different page sizes, in order to be consistent, the text in the booklets is set with the same size (11pt), leading (17pt) and tracking (20pt), except the booklets which, because of the layout, required other specifications. The imagery used comes from a variety of different sources but mainly from medical studies and


5

6


IMG39

87

examples from the very early days of photography. The use of black and white halftone images with photographic grain is for two reasons, firstly, it gives an old and scary feel to the novel, secondly, the quality of the images found was extremely low therefore it was necessary to find a way to sort that out and the best way was by evening the level of halftone in all the images so that they looked from the same source. Male imagery is also used almost at all times to suggest the idea of homosexuality. The booklets were bound using either glue, which, according to the British Library, was starting to be used in Victorian times, or black staples, which gives a feeling of dealing with coarse and old documents. Finally, the structure of the book is to do with the story narrative technique, which is presented as a dossier of witness statements. Therefore, this remediation is grouped, according to its narrative tension, into 7 different booklets, containing the 10 chapters the original novel consists, where 5 of them are intervened. 4 out of those 5 show the main idea: duality/split personality and also each of them show a different secondary idea depending on the subject of the chapter. From the outside of the book to the inside, the first thing readers find is the slip case (IMG39), which is wrapped in black book cloth on the outside and a striped pattern in the inside which works as a symbol of Dr Jekyll’s 88

fractured psyche just in the same way Saul Bass used vertical bars in the titles of Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho (1960) to suggest the mental illness of the main character. Apart from that, two of the sides of the box, in the inside, are mirrors which, together with the striped pattern, create a moirÊ effect and optical illusion that perfectly suits the story since it is to do with unconsciousness. Since the narrative in the story unfolds like a sequence of Russian dolls nested inside each other, the remediation has been designed so that the text booklets, most of the time, are within the image booklets, which, in turn, are within the slipcase. The first booklet (IMG40), which contains Chapter 1, shows the concept of dual meaning in images by placing them next to each other in pairs and creating a unique image made of each two of them. This gives readers a feeling of strangeness, something irrational and surreal. The images, which come mainly from an old photo book on criminology, are of murderers (like Mr Hyde) combined with animals, patients of plastic surgery and other criminals. They are combined with animals because, according to Darwin, our minds are not essentially different from those of animals; because Mr Hyde is described in the story as less developed, hardly human and with apelike fury and lastly because according to phrenological theories, an animal is similar to human, in physical and mental


IMG40

IMG40

IMG40

condition and power. Subtle images of patients who took part in the birth of plastic surgery were also used because the story is to do with experimentation and science and because Mr Hyde is described as someone deformed and with something wrong with his appearance. In addition, Dr Jekyll’s house is said to be based on the house of the scientist/surgeon, Dr Hunter, who together with Harold Gillies carried out these advances. Finally, Victorian engravings of objects are also used, to show the concept of duality as well, which according to Freud are to do with criminality and homosexuality. The text is placed in small pages every other page of images. The second booklet (IMG41) contains Chapter 2, which is laid out normally, and Chapter 3, also laid out normally but with the exception that it has a photograph, overlapping the text, of a Victorian still life which transmits an idea of calmness and peace which suits this chapter, ‘Dr Jekyll was quite at ease’, perfectly. Chapter 4 is in the third booklet (IMG42). This chapter is written as a newspaper report so it is designed following the layout of a British newspaper, The Times, during the Victorian period, in other words, small type size, more than one column of text, short leading and a lot of advertising. The use of advertisements in the chapter is for two reasons, first, to suggest the idea of reading an actual newspaper and secondly, because 90

gothic fiction used to have numerous advertisements at the front and back of the books. The advertisements used, which come from the first issues (19101915) of the British Medical Journal, are to do with science, medicine and pharmaceutical products in order to transmit the feeling of dealing with scientific information. The fourth booklet contains Chapter 5, 6 and 7 which are laid out normally since there is not much tension in the narrative of these chapters. The fifth booklet (IMG43) contains Chapter 8. The idea of this chapter is based on a scene of the film Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde directed by Rouben Mamoulian in 1931 in which the character, whilst transforming, makes many quick and odd facial expressions until he is completely the opposite character. The booklet is a triple flip book, which tells the scene of the transformation of Dr Jekyll into Mr Hyde. Flipping the book forward the reader sees a man making many different facial gestures (Duchenne’s facial expression experiments imagery); flipping it over shows the transformation nowadays but also with different characters/people as if the character were passing through different stages and personalities. Finally, the idea of duality is shown through a double flipbook trick. The reader must divide the book into two parts and then flip them from each end side of the book to the middle so that it will be discovered the transformation


IMG41

IMG42

91

of a person into various; readers also see how the face features seem to melt and alter. The text is placed on small pages in between the images pages and in order to follow the story the reader must read one page together with the next one since the text is laid out as double-page spreads. Chapter 9 is in the sixth booklet (IMG44) and shows the idea of doubleness by setting the text in different type sizes so that, Dr Jekyll’s dialogues are in double size, the narrator’s voice is set normally and Mr. Hyde is set in half the size of that of the narrator. In addition, readers must read first the right side of the book and then other, that is, the next page would always be the one underneath. Mr. Hyde’s voice, apart from being laid out in two columns, is set in New Caledonia together with Old English, which gives a slight feeling of something wicked, gothic, old, dismal and shady. It also reminds readers of the language of a Bible and this typeface was also used on the cover of the original book. In terms of the imagery, in Victorian times it was pretty common to paste the original photographic prints on the pages, so photographs of people suffering from hysteria attacks, the main subject of this chapter, are shown overlapping the text, that is, a kind of postcard which fits in the page by using some cuts previously made and which readers can remove to read the text underneath ending up eventually with a bunch of 92

loose photographs like in the dossier of a case. In the seventh booklet (IMG45) the reader finds the last chapter, the tenth, which is written as a letter and is to do with the revelation of Dr Jekyll’s split personality case. The reader has to rip the pages off in half in order to make his/her way through the novel since half of the text is hidden. The column of text looks like a unique one but it is actually two, one part is placed on one page whilst the following is on the next one so that it hampers the way of reading and makes readers feel the gap in something split as in a case of split personality. Muybridge’s images are hidden throughout the chapter, which suggest, on the one hand, the idea of the inner fight in Dr Jekyll and on the other, the idea of both personalities/ lives working as one. These images, quite symmetrical, are placed so that when opening those pages it seems one is peeling one body off the other. In addition, French folding is used to hide a mirror in the last two pages where the reader would reflect him/ herself, peel off and distort showing the concept that everybody has a Mr Hyde inside. The idea of destroying this chapter comes from Jekyll’s words in a letter: ‘Private: for the hands of J. G. Utterson alone and in case of his predecease to be destroyed unread (p.59)’. –


IMG43

13

14


IMG44

IMG45

95

CONCLUSION The style of new graphic novels leaves a lot to be desired for many people and provides just what is needed to many others but undoubtedly it helps readers to understand the story in other way. It is an style that, although we are not used to seeing it very often, we should take into account above all nowadays since digital reading is becoming much more common. Personally, I think this is a style that could gradually take off but it is clear that the author and graphic designer should work side by side. The series of experiments I undertook and the research on this subject really changed the way I viewed graphic novels as I had a very low opinion of them. As many people, I thought they are easy to look at but hard to read. I also had no idea of the first graphic novels, as the concept we are dealing with, appeared more than 200 years ago. Now, I know that if one wants to make readers believe the story of a book one has not only the words but the body of the book as well. The choice of this novel was actually because of the opportunities it offered and although every novel could be designed as a graphic novel, not all have a strong narrative and structure on which to have innovative ideas and not simply place images on a page. Although I do not feel I have done something new compared to what others have done before, something which stands out in my work is the play 96

of duality and split personality which I tried to work with at all times and which is the main subject of the book. It is for that reason that I concentrated on showing duality in the novel rather than other ideas. Some issues that concerned me throughout were that apart from working on a project which had an open ending, I only have 4 months of professional experience and I was not used to embarking on a long-term project. In addition, it is hard to design from something given, that is, the text of an old novel, since one must put oneself in the author’s shoes, his time, his living conditions and understand how and why he wrote the story. It is not as easy as working on a brief given on a daily basis. But on the other hand, I have seen a lot of material and acquired new knowledge in terms of book design, the Victorian period, science and criminology, things in which I am extremely interested and which I have tried to put into practice in my project. Finally, if I was given the opportunity to work once more on the same project I would test my ideas with the real world and not only my classmates but I also would work from the very beginning on fewer ideas, working in depth on each of them. –


BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Narrative & Storytelling Bellantoni, Patti. (2005) If it’s purple, someone’s gonna die: the power of color in visual storytelling, London: Focal Press Brooker, Christopher. (2004) The seven basic plots: why we tell stories, London: Continuum Brooks, Peter. (1992) Reading for the plot: design and intention in narrative, London: Harvard University Press

Fawcett-Tang, R. (2004) New book design, London: Laurence King McLean, Ruari. (1972) Victorian book design and colour printing, London: Faber & Faber Victorian fiction & Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde David, Deirdre. (2001) The Cambridge companion to the Victorian novel, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

13

Forster, E. M. (1990) Aspects of the novel, London: Penguin

1

Brooks, Peter. (1994) Psychoanalysis and storytelling, Oxford: Blackwell

Harman, Claire. (2005) Robert Louis Stevenson: A biography, London: Harper Collins

Littleton, C. Scott. (2002) Mythology: the illustrated anthology of world myth & storytelling, London: Duncan Baird

Stevenson, R. L. (2003) The strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde and othe tales of terror, London: Penguin Classics

Queneau, Raymond. (1998) Exercises in style, London: John Calder

Book design

Stevenson, R. L. (2008) The strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde and othe tales, New York: Oxford World’s Classics

Baines, Phil. (2005) Penguin by design: a cover story 1935-2005, London: Penguin

Stevenson, R. L. (1994) The strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, London: Penguin Popular Classics

Bettley, James. (2001) The art of the book: from medieval manu script to graphic novel, UK: V&A

O’Gorman, Francis. (2002) The Victorian novel, London: Wiley Blackwell

17

Klanten, Robert & Hübner, Matthias. (2008) Fully booked: cover art & design for books, Berlin: Gestalten 2

12

11

16

Wordless Banyai. (1995) Zoom, New York: Viking


Beronä, David A. (2008) Wordless books: the original graphic, New York: Abrams

Campbell, James. (2008) Article history: The beast within. The guardian (13 December)

Evamy, M. (2003) World without words, London: Laurence King

Farrelly, Liz. (2009) Review: The Floating World: Ukiyo-e. Eye, No. 73 (pp. 4-5)

Holmes, Nigel. (2005) Wordless diagrams, London: Duckworth Livingstone, Marco. (1997) The Essential Duane Michals, Boston: Bulfinch Press Miscellaneous

14

Gerber, Anna and Triggs, Teal. (2006) Acrobat Reader. Print, No. 85 (pp. 68-73) 7

Hugo. (2009) Review: Bookshelf Essentials. Grafik, No.174 (pp. 78-79) 3

Crow, David. (2003) Visible signs: an introduction to semiotics, Lausanne: AVA Publishing

Poynor, Rick. (2003) Critique: Evolutionary tales. Eye, No. 49 (vol. 13

Crow, David. (2006) Left to right: the cultural shift from words to pictures, Lausanne: AVA

Websites

Heller, Steven. (1999) Paul Rand, London: Phaidon

8

Apter, Seth. (2007) The Altered Page [Internet]. <http://thealteredpage. blogspot.com> [Accessed Oct 2009]

Hall, Sean. (2007) This means this, this means that: a user’s guide to semiotics, London: Laurence King

British Library. (2008) Aspects of the Victorian book [Internet]. <http://www. bl.uk/collections/early/victorian/intro. html > [Accessed Oct 2009]

Kalman, Maira and Peltason, Ruth. (2002) Colors: issues 1-13: the Tibor Kalman years, London: Thames

Brook, James. (2007) Book works [Internet]. <http://www.bookworks.org. uk> [Accessed Oct 2009]

McLuhan, Marshall. (2001) The medium is the massage: an inventory of effects, Corte Madera: Gingko Press

Classic Reader. (2008) Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson [Internet]. <http://www.classicreader. com/book/85> [Accessed Oct 2009]

Articles Bracewell, Michael. (2008) Editions of You. Frieze, No. 116

Cooper Union Typography. (2009) Cooper Union Typography [Internet]. <http://coopertypography.wordpress. com/> [Accessed Oct 2009] 4

Drucker, Johanna. (2006) Artists’ Books Online [Internet]. <http://www. artistsbooksonline.org> [Accessed Oct 2009] Eye blog. (2009) The form of the book 5 [Internet]. <http://blog.eyemagazine. com/?p=173> [Accessed Oct 2009] Four Corners. (2008) Four Corners Familiars series [Internet]. <http:// www.fourcornersbooks.co.uk/Familiars. html> [Accessed Oct 2009] Kiandra C, Joie. (2009) Joie Kiandra C: Graphic Design & Art [Internet]. <http://www.joiec.com/> [Accessed Oct 2009] 10

Kidd, Chip. (2008) Good is dead [Internet]. <http://www.goodisdead. com> [Accessed Oct 2009] Mullen, Chris. (2005) The visual telling of stories [Internet]. <http:// www.fulltable.com/VTS/index2.htm> [Accessed Oct 2009] National Storytelling Network. (1998) National Storytelling Network [Internet]. <http://www.storynet.org/> [Accessed Oct 2009] 5

Sadokierski, Zöe. (2006) PhD Research [Internet]. <http://zoesadokierski. blogspot.com> [Accessed Oct 2009] 6

Penguin Books. (2008) We tell stories [Internet]. <http://wetellstories.co.uk> [Accessed Oct 2009] University of Cambridge. (2006) Endless Forms: Charles Darwin,

15

Natural Science and the Visual Arts [Internet]. <http://www. darwinendlessforms.org/> [Accessed Oct 2009] Films / Series / Documentaries Charming Augustine (2008) Directed by Zoe Beloff, USA. 40mins [Video: DVD] Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1920) Directed by John S. Robertson, USA: Paramount Picture. 80mins [Video: AVI] Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1931) Directed by Rouben Mamoulian, USA: Paramount Picture. 92mins [Video: AVI] Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1941) Directed by Victor Fleming, USA: Metro Goldwyn Mayer. 110mins [Video: AVI] Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (2002) Directed by Maurice Phillips, UK: Universal Studios. 95mins [Video: AVI] Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (2008) Directed by Paolo Barzman, USA: RHI Entertainment. 90mins [Video: AVI] Ian Rankin Investigates: Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (2007) Directed by Richard Downes, UK: BBC. 90mins Jekyll (2007) Directed by Douglas Mackinnon and Matt Lipsey, UK: BBC. 55min (6 episodes) [Video: AVI] The Painted Lady (1912) Directed by D. W. Griffith, USA: Biograph. 12mins [Video: AVI]


Remediation imagery sources Bloomingdale Brothers. [1988] Bloomingdale’s illustrated 1886 catalog, London: Dover British Medical Journal. (1995) British Medical Journal [Internet]. <http:// www.bmj.com/archive> [Accessed Oct 2009] Didi-Huberman, Georges. (2003) Invention of hysteria: Charcot and the photographic iconography of the Salpêtrière, London: The MIT Press Duchenne de Boulogne, G. B. (2006) The mechanism of human facial expression: Studies in emotion & Social interaction, USA: Cambridge University Press Hart, Harold. [1982] Weapons & armor: a pictorial archive of woodcuts & engravings, London: Dover Harter, Jim. [1998] Plants: 2400 copyright-free illustrations of flowers, trees, fruits, and vegetables, New York: Dover Hartley, Paddy. [2005] Project Facade [Internet]. <http://www.projectfacade. com> [Accessed Oct 2009] Grafton, Carol Belanger. [2006] Victorian goods and merchandise, New York: Dover Parry, Eugenia. (2000) Crime album stories: Paris 1886-1902, New York: First Scalo

APPENDIX A. GRAPHIC NOVELS Barrington, P. J. (2007) The SelmanTroytt papers, London: Old Street Publishing Ltd Coupland, Douglas. (1998) Generation X, London: Abacus Cumming, Charles. (2008) The 21 steps, London: Penguin Danielewski, Mark Z. (2000) House of leaves, London: Anchor Eco, Umberto. (2006) The mysterious flame of Queen Loana, London: Vintage Eggers, Dave. (2001) A heart breaking work of staggering genius, London: Picador Eggers, Dave. (2003) You shall know our velocity, London: Penguin French, Nicci. (2008) Your place and mine, London: Penguin Garland, Alex. (2004) The coma, London: Faber and Faber Gray, Alasdair. (2002) Poor things, London: Bloomsbury Publishing Haddon, Mark. (2004) The curious incident of the dog in the night-time, London: Vintage Hall, Steven. (2007) The raw shark texts, London: Canongate Kafka, Franz. (2008) Blumfeld, an elderly bachelor. London: Four Corners Books

Mason, Matt. (2008) Hard times, London: Penguin Minard, Celine. (2008) Bastard battle, France: Leo Scheer Moody, Rick. (2005) The Diviners, New York: Little Brown 9 Rawle, Graham. (2006) Woman’s world, London: Atlantic books

Safran Foer, Jonathan. (2006) Extremely loud & Incredibly close, London: Penguin Stoker, Bram. (2008) Dracula. London: Four Corners Books Tiffany, Carrie. (2006) Everyman’s rules for scientific living, London: Picador Tomasula, Steve. (2004) VAS: An opera in Flatland, New York: Barrytown Venables, Hubert. (1980) The Frankestein diaries, USA: The Viking Press Wilde, Oscar. (2008) The Picture of Dorian Gray. London: Four Corners Books


62 38 0 100 0

APPENDIX B. SURVEY

FEMALE

%

Q2 AGE

MALE

%

BETWEEN AGE 18 AND 35

UNDER 18 YEARS OLD

%

%

35 YEARS OLD OR ABOVE

%

Q3 WHAT GENRE DO YOU USUALLY READ?

23 10 8

LITERARY FICTION

%

FANTASY

%

%

14 9 6

HISTORICAL FICTION

%

%

ROMANCE

%

10 9 2

SCIENCE FICTION

%

SUSPENSETHRILLERCRIME

ACTIONADVENTURE

69 31 Q4 HAVE YOU EVER READ A GRAPHIC NOVEL?

Q1 GENDER

YES

%

81 15 4 ABERRATION AGAINST THE CLASSIC NOVEL

%

MYSTERY

%

Q5 HOW DO YOU FIND THEM?

INTERESTING, ENTERTAINING & ORIGINAL

DRAWINGS 37

%

HORROR

%

TYPOGRAPHIC TREATMENTS 25 PHOTOGRAPHY 19

%

INFORMATION GRAPHICS 12 % FLIP BOOK 8

%

SO SO, I DO NOT AGREE WITH ANY OF THEM

%

%

Q6 WHAT KIND OF GRAPHIC DEVICE DO YOU FIND MORE USEFUL IN TERMS OF UNDERSTANDING THE PLOT AND AMUSEMENT?

%

NO

%


Q7 YOUR NEEDS WHEN READING A NOVEL?

A1: More images because sometimes one gets bored reading novels. They should look more like a children’s book rather than a bible. A2: Very verbally descriptive. I like to be able to imagine and create the scene on my own without any given images, but having a descriptive text to go by helps. A3: As long as the text isn’t too small I dont care. A4: Entertainment, more images. A5: If there are a lot of characters, there would be a good idea to add a list of them, explaining their role, so later we can look up it. A6: The most important element is story for a novel. If it is a gripping story then the use of illustration is not necessary. Illustrated narrative to me seems completely separate from the literary novel, both are a valuable read. A7: I guess my need is balance, in all images and text and graphics, as they all play a major part in graphic novels. A8: I just need a good story and a good ending.

A11: I guess, more originality graphically, as it helps the narrative, the spacing and sizes of type should be carefully handled as to keep me relaxed when reading.

When I read a novel I am happy reading words. I don’t like images or anything like that. I rather have my own imagination to visualise what the words paint for me. A12:

A13: A good organization of chapters and paragraphs, typography (of course) and an appropriate use of images in order to describe the events or even just suggest a feeling. A14: Good typographic design. A15: Just a good story, well written and well type-setted. But some times like in ‘Extremely loud & incredibly close’, the adding of graphics and typographic games as part of the story complete the experience and leave the reader space for self-reflection.

A9: First of all: a good story! All the other visual elements must make sense within the narrative.

A16: I only care about the content, to me, graphics are only suitable for some genres.. like action, thriller.. I actually prefer no graphics for genres otherwise.

A10: Big and clear font, beautiful cover, and of course interesting story.

A17: Entertaining tone of voice of the narrative. More originality graphically.

Q8 HOW DO YOU THINK NOVELS COULD BECOME MORE INTERESTING IN TERMS OF GRAPHICS AND INTERACTIVENESS?

A10: Really don’t know, I think the biggest deal is the novel itself. A11: Combine text and graphic or different or unusual formats.

A1: I guess, the most exciting part like comics, that certain things on different issues or different directly relates to the story as a whole, and you begin to decode why certain things are presented before and have more meaning later on.

A12: That everything on the page has its purpose and adds to the whole experience. The graphics should be there to add depth, not just be fancy. It should help increase the engagement of the story and the reader.

A2: Using more visual games throughout the book.

A13:

A3: Better typography and page design. Interest in paper and binding aids the way in which one reads a novel. A4: I don’t think they could be improved to be honest. A5: If you have to jump from one chapter to another one. A6: Maybe with maps, but graphics can be boring. A7: If we could interfere in the story. If we could write it too.

If there was a way to make a digital graphic novel that was interactive.

A8:

A9: I can’t see anything beating good old books. Text, written words are interesting enough. I don’t feel anything needs to be more engaging. The classic book to me can’t be improved.

Must have some kitkat and twix for the break. A14: If the reader can leave a mark on the pages of the novel. A15: With a good combination of storyline and illustration. A16: Maybe using the typesetting as a ‘voice’, to highlight dramatic or key parts of the story. The use of images can be appropiate in some cases, but it gives a preconception over the reader imagination. A17: Understandable instruction with graphics. A18: I have no idea. A19: I don’t know, maybe digital books will open a new range of possibilities. A20: Handwriting text and doodled images like the writer’s manuscript. A21: Maybe giving a mini-biography of the characters would help.


APPENDIX C. INTERVIEWS These were the responses to the attempts of interviewing various professionals within the graphic novel field: Irma Boom No response. Rick Poynor No response. Nicole Aragi: J. S. Foer’s agent Hello Alberto, thank you for your letter and for your interest in Jonathan Safran Foer. Unfortunately, Jonathan is hard at work on his next book and must regretfully turn down interviews and other requests. Our apologies for this disappointing response, but we wish you the best with your project. Yours, Lisa Smith Penguin Books We regularly receive a large number of requests for information from students undertaking research. Unfortunately, due to time constraints, we are unable to agree to interviews with our employees and cannot send out information. We wish you all the best in the completion of your studies.


Thank you so much! –