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concrete laboratory

UG 11 Bartlett School of Architecture 2015 - 2016


A collection of research, investigation and experimentation into new methods of casting concrete, challenging the properties of this banal and beautiful material.


contents. Concrete ?

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Concrete Laboratory

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Centrifugal Casting / Concrete Walls Slip Casting / Concrete Deposits Internally Inflatable Casting / Concrete Lattice Inflatable Casting / Concrete Domes Wind Casting / Concrete Palettes Layered Casting / Concrete Whispers Human Hair Reinforced Casting / Concrete Fragments Moldless Casting / Concrete Statues Drip Casting / Concrete Stalactites Anti-Gravity Casting / Concrete Shells Gravity Casting / Concrete Drapes Knitted Casting / Concrete Structures Fabric Reinforced Casting / Concrete Cones Fabric Casting / Concrete Sealed, Pulled, Tight.

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Conclusion

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References

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Microscopic Concrete Structure

Image Source "Chapter 3. General Procedures." - Petrographic Methods of Examining Hardened Concrete: A Petrographic Manual, July 2006. July 2006. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/infrastructure/pavements/pccp/04150/chapt3.cfm.


concrete ? definition. /adjective/ existing in a material or physical form; not abstract. /noun/ a building material made from a mixture of broken stone or gravel, sand, cement, and water, which can be spread or poured into moulds and forms a stone-like mass on hardening. /verb/ cover (an area) with concrete. (archaic) form (something) into a mass; solidify. Latin Root "concretus", which means to grow together.

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concrete encounters

Concrete walls Concrete walls

Weathering Concrete Blocks Honduras Global Brigades

Honduras Global Brigades

Hong Kong Concrete blocks

Globally, concrete is the most used material after water

Concrete Walls

Concrete floor

Concrete Construction Structures

Concrete details

National Theater

Cidade de Artes, Rio de Janeiro

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Image Sources: "Brutalism." Brutalism. Accessed June 23, 2016. https://www.architecture.com/Explore/ArchitecturalStyles/Brutalism.aspx. "CIDADE DAS ARTES." 2013. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.christiandeportzamparc.com/en/projects/cidade-das-artes/. inhabitat.com Schiller, Ben. "This Concrete Fixes Itself When Exposed To Sunlight." Co.Exist. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.fastcoexist.com/1681557/this-concrete-fixesitself-when-exposed-to-sunlight. Cheng, Swee. Patches of Green in Concrete Jungle, Hong Kong # 2. February 8, 2010. https://www.flickr.com/photos/sweecheng/4381753655. "Dirt and Broken Concrete." LuGher Texture Library. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.lughertexture.com/bricks-walls-textures-free-hires/concrete-walls-hirestextures.


concrete elements

cement (15%)

The active ingredient of concrete

aggregate (75%)

Sand / Gravel / Rocks Choose dependent on level of detail

water (10%)

9 Water Cement ratio affects colour and strength of concrete.

fibre reinforcement

The equal distribution but random orientation improves the structual integrity of concrete

admixtures (Optional) Colour Curing Rate Fluidity Strength

Create different colours in concrete Affect rate at which concrete sets Plasticizer allowing complex shapes to be achieved Affect the concrete's strength


concrete processes 1. Source Raw Materials 2. Mix 3. Placing Pre-Cast Concrete

In-Situ Concrete

Concrete poured into mold in controlled environment. External vibrator attached to formwork removes air bubbles and compacts the concrete.

Concrete transpoted to site and poured into formwork. Internal vibrators used to compact concrete

Finish quality imporved as gravitational force and short path length allows air bubbles to rise through liquid concrete

Formworks Absorbent: Draws water out of surface Non abosrbent: Retains water in the mixture Release agent: between form work and concrete

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4. Curing Concrete left to cure. Concrete's strength is influenced by its moisture level during the hardening process: as the cement solidifies, the concrete shrinks, thus it should be kept damp in the curing process.

Concrete Micrograph (meters) Identify mortar - aggregate randome composite

Magnified Concrete Micrograph (milimeters) Identify mortar - aggregate randome composite

Cement Paste Electron Micrograph (micro meters) (unreacted cement, capillary pores)

5. Remove form work Time of formwork removal will affect color and appearance of concrete.

6. Surface Finishes Different processes to create different surface textures: Sand blast finish / Brush Hammering / Exposed Aggregate / Polished Concrete

Transmission electron micrograph C-S-H calcium silicate hydrate (nanometers) Random porous nanostructure holds the mortar and concrete together.


concrete history

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Romans

Natural cement Limestone and volcanic ashes

1756

1800s

1888

1900s

First Manmade cement Hydraulic lime

Portland Cement Limestone and Clay

Prestressed concrete Compress a section of concrete before it is subjected to stress, increasing its ability to withstand tension.

Reinforced Concrete Steel bars embedded in areas subject to tensile stress.

Image Sources: Natural Cement. In 123rf. https://www.123rf.com/photo_30381067_vintage-or-grungy-white-background-of-natural-cement-or-stone-old-texture-as-a-retro-pattern-wall-it.html. 'Portland Cement." Natal Portland Cement. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.npc.co.za/.Accessed June 23, 2016. "Pre-stressed Concrete Lintels." McGrath Quarries Prestressed Concrete Lintels Comments. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.mcgrathquarries.com/?product_items=prestressed-concrete-lintels.

2015 Concrete Laboratory UG 11


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concrete laboratory. UG 11 operates as a material research laboratory, pursuing strategies of making to design new spatial typologies. Through investigation of cast material processes we look for the strange, the banal and the beautiful. We cast concrete. Our process is driven by experimentation on alternative uses of material and our investigation is informed by data collection, measuring, and analysis. The material experiments lead us in a constant feedback loop of design stages, physical models, digital aspirations and fabrication techniques. We engage with a process that welcomes material miss-use and misbehavior aspiring to systemitise knowledge garnered from failure. We examine the ways technology can push our material beyond established forms and types. By investigating recent concrete fabrication and structure methods we discover unexpected and productive design processes, potentially defining a new craft. A craft that can be both morphogenic and typological and will be responding to a variety of programmes. Concrete, the protagonist of cast building materials, becomes in the unit the vehicle to disrupt and redefine practices of architectural synthesis.

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Centrifugal Casting. concrete walls. Concrete is manipulated via a motion of spinning, forcing it into the periphery of the molds and spreading vertically as its setting process is obstructed. In this experimentation a great thinness and height is achieved, structural, demonstrating the power of centrifugal casting with the material, concrete.

Rupinder Gidar

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centrifugal casting

reference

Centrifugal Force The centirfugal force is the outward force on an object moving along a curved path. When an object moves in a circle, it accelerates since its velocity is constantly changing as its direction is changing. As such, it produces a resultant force: the centripetal force. The centripetal force acts towards the centre of a circle, preventing an object from moving in a straight line.

Spin Concrete Casting 16 A 2 part mold and specific spinning mechanism which allows the formation of a hollow pole with adense concrete wall. Concrete columns can range from 3000 - 30 000 mm long, with a diameter of up to 4000 mm.

1. Positioning molds

The columns are cast in circular steel molds, built in two halfs. The bottom half is positioned on the spinning bed.

2. Reinforcement

The reinforcement cage is then placed within the bottom half of the mold and high-strength concrete is distributed in the mold by an overhead hopper.

Sources: "Spun Concrete Columns." Building Design. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.bdonline.co.uk/spun-concrete-columns/5013936.article.

3. Spinning

The top half of the mold is then closed and claped tightly and the colun box is spun at around 15 revs/sec for 20 minutes. The concrete is compacted against the steel mold face, eliminating any air voids and giving a dense finish


method Process

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Concrete poured from openning into a replacable mold within a spinning device.

A drill spins the mold, interupting the concrete setting process.


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Tracing the movement of concrete with time 

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   

   




Tracing the flow of concrete

19

Time lapsed: 15 s Max Frequency: 6 rev / s

            

RADIUS 60 mm

RADIUS 60 mm

RADIUS 60 mm

RADIUS 60 mm







   

   

   

   

  

  

   

   

RADIUS 60 mm

RADIUS 60 mm

RADIUS 60 mm

RADIUS 60 mm

   

   

   

   

  

  

   

    6 revs/sec

5 revs/sec

5 revs/sec

5 revs/sec

5 revs/sec

5 revs/sec

5 revs/sec

6 revs/sec 5 revs/sec

3 revs/sec

3 revs/sec 2 revs/sec

2 revs/sec

2 revs/sec

2 revs/sec

2 revs/sec

2 revs/sec

2 revs/sec

2 revs/sec

3 revs/sec

3 revs/sec

3 revs/sec

3 revs/sec

3 revs/sec

3 revs/sec

5 revs/sec

6 revs/sec

6 revs/sec

6 revs/sec

6 revs/sec

6 revs/sec

6 revs/sec

       

                   

       

                   

Time lapsed: 2 s Early distortion from inital acceleration of motion

Time lapsed: 5 s Reduction in distortion as angular velocity increases

Time lapsed: 10 s Near circular motion as velocity remains constant

Time lapsed: 15 s Concrete spins at maximum angular velocity.


casting device An evolution of centrifugal devices. Using research of current methods for centrifugal casting, the casting device was repeatedly refined to reach a scale at an architectural level, maximising the size of the cast. The mold is spun on a spinning bed which has a motor spinning various wheels along a vertical pole. These wheels are in contact with the column's steel mold and therefore spin the central cage purely due to friction or in some cases, grooves.

20

An evolution of centrifugal concrete casts.


21


evolution of centrifugal casts

22


23


cluster forming. The casts were rearranged to explore its spatial potentials.

24


25

Centrifugal Casting. concrete walls.


26


Slip Casting concrete deposits. An investigation into concrete depositing as a mouldless 3D printing process via manual and mechanised methods. Various means of casting layers of concrete via a series of original devuce desugbs were explored. Beginning with a manual method of casting, this experimentation led to the development of a mechanised approach, thus allowing for the standardisation of this process of casting. Despoting concrete in non-homogenous foramtions allowed for the achievement of an ultimate cast with six columns, each testing verticality by varying degress of inclination. Justin Li

27


slip casting

reference

Industrial Slip Casting

28

Continuous slip formed gravity-based structure, Norwegian fjord

Slip forming is a construction method in which concrete is poured into a continuously moving form. Slip forming allows for seamless, non-interrupted concrete structures to be erected, which have much higher performance characteristics to other means of constuction using discrete form elements. It relies on the quick setting nature of concrete and requires a balance between quick-setting capacity and workability. The concrete needs to be workable enough to be placed into the mould, yet sufficiently quick setting as to emerge from the mold with rigidity. The concrete form is usually surrounded by a platform on which workers stand, placing steel reinforcement rods into the concrete. Together, the concrete form and working platform are raised by hydraulic jacks.

Sources: Nawy, Concrete Construction Engineering Handbook, 2008, p. 10-33


method

29

A time lapse series of photographs taken throughout the duration of creating the tall slanted column with metal reinforcement using the moveable mechanism

A mechanism utilising reinforcement at the centre of the concrete cast made out of steel


mega cast

30

Day 1

Time elapsed over two-day casting process: 16 h 20 min Amount of quick setting cement used: 18 kg

Day 2

DAY 1: 9 h 14 min / DAY 2: 7 h 6 min

A time lapse collage made up from 40 still images taken from the process of creating a mega cast,


31

The casting process of concrete using a handheld jig, which is raised up at 1cm increments for each layer as they stack up on top of one another.

The handheld jig being used during the casting process of concrete. Both ends of the device are held with one hand always available to pour more concrete into the hole while the other holds the device in place.


slip casting

32

A sequence of rendered images showing the various stages of creating the final cast from start to finish, showing in each row how much concrete was used all up until its completion.


33

Avector drawing jusxtaposed to rendered images showing the various stages of creating the final cast from start to finish, with points from plan view corresponding to those in elevation view.


casts catalogue

DEVICE EVOLUTION

FAILED DEVICE

HANDHELD JIG

catalogue showing the different combinations for individual columns that deliver the structural system.

HEIGHT (mm) 1550

34

1500 1450 1400 1350 1300 1250 1200 1150 1100 1050 1000 950 900 850 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 268 mm (1 h 48 min)

350 278 mm (52 min)

300 250

222 mm (9 min)

192 mm (30 min)

271 mm (1 h 34 min)

265 mm (1 h 27 min)

200 - 215 mm (18 - 30 min)

215 - 220 mm (30 - 52 min)

215 - 220 mm (30 - 52 min)

201 mm (30 min)

154 mm (18 min)

200 150 100 50 0 OPTIC FIBRE (FAILED)

SHAPE SHIFTING EXPERIMENTS (FAILED)

An evolution of casts as the casting device evolved.

CONCRETE DEPOSITS (SINGLE DUAL

TRIPLE

SPIRALLING)

REFINEMENTS (STRAIGHT

BENT)

1:5 FAMILY D

HERE IS A DRAWING SHOWING T THROUGHOUT THIS PROJECT, CA SECTIONS WHICH CORRELATE T


MECHANISM: MDF

MECHANISM: STEEL

TIME ELAPSED 1534 mm (16 h 20 min) 16 h 20 min 16 h 02 min 15 h 48 min 15 h 23 min 15 h 01 min

14 h 42 min

14 h 30 min

14 h 09 min

13 h 45 min 13 h 24 min 12 h 53 min 12 h 29 min

743 mm (3 h 6 min)

9 h 14 min 8 h 59 min 8 h 27 min 537 mm (4 h 37 min)

608 mm (2 h 13 min)

612 mm (2 h 52 min)

7 h 31 min 7 h 17 min 6 h 58 min 6 h 46 min 6 h 01 min 5 h 32 min 5 h 11 min 4 h 37 min 4 h 01 min 3 h 49 min

236 mm (30 min)

227 mm (52 min)

3 h 06 min 2 h 52 min 2 h 13 min 1 h 48 min 1 h 33 min 1 h 27 min 1 h 15 min 1 h 06 min 0 0 0 0 0

LARGER VERSIONS (SINGLE DUAL)

5 DRAWING

THE EVOLUTION OF MY CASTS ATEGORISED INTO FOUR MAIN TO THE DEVICE EVOLUTION.

MEGA CAST (SINGLE + DUAL + TRIPLE + SPIRALLING)

CASTS WITH REINFORCEMENT (STRAIGHT BENT

FINAL CAST TALL & SLANTED)

h h h h h

52 30 18 09 00

min min min min min

35


slip casting BACK

VI

IV

II

V LEFT

RIGHT

36

I

FRONT

RIGHT

BACK

LEFT

III V RIGHT

HEIGHT (mm)

550 540 530 520 510 500 490 480 470 460 450 440 430 420 410 400 390 380 370 360 350 340 330 320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 80 60 40 20 0

TIME ELAPSED

FRONT PLAN VIEW 900 111

4 h 37 min 770 640 0 125 1140 720 880

850

0

43 1480

490 0 151

810 830

820

930 910

890 840 1230

1130 670

1120 0 73

980 740 820

830 930

940 910

820

840 850

870

840 90 900 930

740 930 890

89

1 h 48 min

960

780 800

0

84 890

840 910

810

810 1010

0

810

2 h 13 min

1040 840

1140

1 h 33 min

0

80

13400 60

910

900 880

1 h 27 min 1 h 15 min

10400 84

160

870

760 1 h 06 min 980

910

850

94 960

2 h 52 min

830

940 910

920

920 890 900 860

0

820 760

900 830

830

920 880

1360 510

3 h 06 min 800 11300 76 1100 890 830

850 910

910 1450 610

1120 760

880

890

970 920

900 10300 79 850

4 h 01 min

3 h 49 min

810

80 890

860 9400 92 880

810 880 1000 800

820

220 0

880 840

960

820 950

890 930

830 880 1110 910

1110 600 1280 750

720

820 860

910 1090 830

910 840 1230 820

1000

80 880

840 710

920 780

920 1140

830 1090 840 860 880 930

180

0

12200 71

850

820

1080

920

930 800

730 890 920

700

1080 880

740 970

0

770 800 880 1040 870

0 h 52 min

11100 86 920 0 h 30 min

910 920

730 810 1080 930

820

0

82

0 h 18 min 0 h 09 min

0

0 h 00 min

I

II

III

IV

1:2 FINAL DRAWING THIS IS MY FINAL DRAWING FOR MY FINAL CAST, DESCRIBING THE PROCESS OF ITS CREATION, INCLUDING THE ANGLES OF TILT AT VARIOUS POINTS FOR THE REINFORCEMENT, THE AMOUNT OF CONCRETE POURED RELATIVE TO THE TIME ELAPSED, AS WELL AS THE HEIGHTS OF THE SIX SEPARATE COLUMNS. THE CAST IS VIEWED FROM FOUR DIRECTIONS, WITH EACH INDIVIDUAL COLUMN STUDIED ACROSS ITS RESPECTIVE VIEWPOINT.

This drawing describes the process of its creation, including the angles of tilt at various points for the reinforcement, the amount of concrete poured relative to the time elapsed, as well as the heights of the six separate columns.

V

VI


37

Slip Casting. concrete deposits.


38


Internally Inflatable Casting concrete lattice. The 'Inflatable Lattice' is an investigation into the relationship between concrete and a recursive system of inflatable moulds. The space bewtween the moulds is controlled through diffrent air pressure values given to each inflatable module, the process of concrete casting is used to define this continuous space and explore the relationships between moulds of different qualities. Cherie Wong

39


internally inflatable casting Device

timer

a holder that keep the outer mould and pipes for air pumps in place.

air pump for filler moulds

40

air pump for outer mould

air compressor

The sizes of the balloons are controlled by timing how long the air pump is connected to the filler balloons. Each balloon is pumped to an accurately amount volume, thus, the triangular structure that is going to be produced are made precisely.


method Process

Each filler mould are attached to a air pipe that could be connected to the air pump.

41

Each filler mould is pump for different length of time to get different volume.

Adjust the position of filler moulds by pulling the air pipes that they are connected to.

Rotation of the cast when concrete is hardening.


internally inflatable casting

42

A drawing showing the relationship between the cross sections of the triangular structure and how far apart the moulds sit. Every four mould, there will be one traingular structure created at the centre of the pyramid formed by linking the centre points. Angles of the structure changes according to the sizes and positions of the moulds.


43

3D Scan of a 6-filler-balloon cast

A structural triangulation is created through casting the space between the filler balloons, form ''bones'' between voids and linking spaces together.


internally inflatable casting

44

Water is used to fill the filler balloons in this experiment in order test out how the weight of water would affect the mould and also the cast.


45

Drawings of 3-D scanned casts allow a better understanding of how triangulated structures are formed between filler moulds and how these structures are connected to form varies geometry. They also show the relationship between different volume of filler moulds, and the distance between mould in relation to the thickness of walls


Internally Inflatable Conrete.

46

A family photo showing the evolution of the casting method.


47

Internally Inflatable Casting. concrete lattice.


48


Inflatable Casting. concrete domes. An investigation in the relationship between inflatable mould, mesh reinforcement and poured concrete as a process to create thin shells fields. The perfomative aspect of the casting and demoulding is an integral part of the casting process. Sardonna Leung

49


pneumatic casting

reference

Bini Shell

Binishells were the first type of Pneumatic Concrete Casting, using air as the formwork. The form directly determines the structural behaviour and also reduces construction time - total construction hours could be as little as 30hours.

50 1. Prepare Foundation/Anchor Blocks

2. Lay Balloon Membrane and attach to anchor blocks

3. Attach expandable reinforcement to membrane

4. Pour concrete over reinforcements.

5. Lay an outer membrane to maintain moisture.

6. Inflate Balloon at air pressure 0.03 P.S.I. 30 minutes for full inflation for a balloon with a diameter of 12.5m

7. Attach and conduct vibrators. Allow to set.

8. Remove Outer Membrane

9. Deflate and remove internal balloon membrane. Create opennings

Sources: "Inflatable Concrete Housing." Phaidon. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.phaidon.com/agenda/architecture/articles/2014/july/31/inflatable-concrete-housing-who-knew/.


method

Process

51

The balloons are place within the circle cut outs on the mdf sheet and tied together with fishing wire at the bottom to keep them in place


balloon casts

52

Initial attempts to cast a balloon shell. The cast was partially cracked which lead the cast to crumble when the balloon is popped leaving the strongetst section behind -the top section of the balloon where the concrete is poured intially.


53


multiple balloon cast

54

Each shell is positioned closely to increase points of contact between the inflatables. This reduced the excess concrete in between the casts.


55


56

An exploration of the combinations of molds.


57

Inflatable Casting. concrete domes.


58


Wind Casting concrete palettes Using the force of wind as a catalyst for casting cocnrete, influencing the behaviour and shape of the cast and exploring the extent to which the unpredictability of the concrete can be controlled, discovering how it affects both the surface and the body of the cast before scripting the process to achieve more scientifically accurate results. Alexandra Campbell

59


spray concrete

reference

Industrial Spray Concrete

60 My experiments are based on the methods used for industrial sprayed concrete, a method that consists of releasing high-pressure liquid concrete onto a surface or reinforcement mesh. To create my casts I reversed this excecution and used the force of pressured air on concrte to disrupt the otherwise smooth casting process. The concrete continues to be distorted right up until it has set and the surface of the resultant cast captures the final moments of motion.

"Free Form Structures." Sprayed Concrete Association. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://sca.associationhouse.org.uk/case_study_list.php?id=36.


method

Process

Pen at the centre pantograph positioned above the centre of the frame

Concrete poured onto the centre directly beneath the pantograph

61

Three drops of ink applied beneath the pantograph

Move the air gun according the concrete’s behaviour

Concrete reaches a viscosity where the radius is gradually increased by the force of the air


wind casting

62

Drawing to show the magnitude and direction of impact of wind on concrete


63

Concrete on tights.


wind casting

P7 C1 P1.3 C1 P5.1 C1

P1.4 C1

P1 C1

P1.2 C1

P1 C2

10 MINUTES

P1.5 C1

P1.3 C2

P1.5 C2

P1 C3

P1.4 C2

P1.1 C1

P7.4 C2 P5.5 C1

P2 C2

P1.2 C2

P2.2 C2 P2.5 C2

P3 C3

P7.2 C2

P7 C2

P6 C2 P3.2 C2

P2.3 C2

P3.3 C2

P6.4 C2

P7.3 C2 P5.2 C1 P7.5 C2

P5.4 C1

P6.3 C2

P7.1 C2

P2.3C1 P1.1 C2

P2.4 C2

P2.2 C1

P2.1 C2

P1 C0

P5.3C1

P3.4 C2

P1.5 C3 P1.4 C3

P6.2 C2

P6 C3

P2.1 C1

P2.5 C3

P2.5 C1

P3 C2

P4 C3

64

P4.1 C3

P3.1 C3

P4 C2 P5 C0

P3.2 C1

P2 C0

P3 C1 P4.3 C2

P7 C0

P4.1 C1

P6 C1

P5.5 C2 P6.5 C2

P4.2 C2

P3.1 C1P4.5 C2

P5 C3

P5 C2

P4.2 C1

P5.1 C2 P4.5 C1

P4.4 C2

P3.4 C1

P5.2 C2

P4.3 C3

P4.2 C3

P5.1 C3

P5.3 C2

P4.5 C3

P3.5 C3

P3.3 C3 P3.4 C3 P3.2 C3

P6 C0

P4.4 C3

P4 C0

P2.1 C3

P2 C1 P3.3 C1

P7 C3

P5.4 C2

P1.1 C3 P3.5 C2

P3.1 C2

P5.2 C3

P6.1 C2

P1.2 C3

P5.5 C3

P5.4 C3 P5.3 C3

P2 C3P1.3 C3

P2.4 C1

P4.3 C1

P4.4 C1

P4.1 C2

P3.5 C1

P3 C0

P5 C1

P4 C1

P9 C3

P9 C1

2:1

KEY

CAST AFTER 3 MINUTES CAST AFTER 6 MINUTES CAST AFTER 9 MINUTES

P1.1 C1

P9 C2

DISPACEMENT OF A POINT BETWEEN THE THREE CAST STAGES

P10P10.2 C1 C1

DISPLACEMENT OF A POINT WITHIN A CAST STAGE

P10 C3

P11 C1

P1 C1

“POINT 1, FIRST CAST STAGE”

P1.2 C1

“POINT 1, SECOND POSITION, FIRST CAST STAGE”

P6.5 C2

P8 C3

P10.3 C1

P1.2 C1

P11 C0 P10.1 C2

MAGNITUDE OF WIND’S IMPACT ON CAST

P12 C1

P8 C2

P10 C2 P9 C0

P10.2 C2 P9.5 C1

P6.4 C2 P6.5 C1

P11 C2

P1.3 C1 P8.5 C2

P10.5 C1

P11 C3

P7.5 C1 P10.3 C2

P8.4 C2

P7.5 C2

P8.5 C1

P7.3 C2

P8 C1 P1.4 C1 P8.3 C2

P9.1 C2

P9.2 C2

P13 C1

P10.4 C2

SECTION DRAWING EXPLORING THE WIND FORCE ON THE CAST AT THREE STAGES OF SETTING

P6.4 C3

P6.5 C3

P8.4 C1

P6.3 C3

P10.1 C1

P8.2 C2

P9.2 C3

P6.4 C1

P7.2 C2

P7.4 C2 P9.1 C3

P9.3 C3

P9.4 C1

P7.5 C3

P9.4 C3

P7.4 C3

P2.2 C1

P9.5 C3

P8.1 C2

P6.2 C3

P7.3 C3

P6.1 C3

P7 C3

P8.5 C3 P9.3 C2

P10 C0

P8.4 C3

P7.2 C3

P8.3 C3

P2.3 C1

P1.5 C1

P7.1 C2

P7.1 C3

P13 C0

P13 C2

P6.3 C2

P7.4 C1

P10.4 C1

P12 C0 P12 C2

P12 C3

P9.3 C1

P9.2 C1

P5.5 C3 P8.2 C3

P6.3 C1

P9.5 C2

P9.4 C2

P8.3 C1

P7P5.4 C2C3

P2.4 C1

P5.3 C3

P2 C0

P2.1 C1 P3.1 C1

P8.1 C3

P8 C0

P5.2 C3

P3 C0

P7.3 C1

P7 C1

P5.1 C3

P7 C0 P10.5 C2

P1.1 C3 P1.2 C3 P2.1 C2

P3.2 C1

P13 C3

P1.3 C3

P1.1 C2

P1.5 C3

P3.1C1 C2 P5.1

P5.4 C2

P9.1 C1 P8.2 C1

P1.4 C3

P1 C0 P2.5 C1 P2 C1

P3.2 C3

P5.4 C1

P3.3 C1

P3.4 C3

P3.1 C3

P2.1 C3

P6 C0

P2.2 C3

P1.3 C2

P3 C3

P2.3 C3 P2.4 C3

P1 C1

P4.3 C3

P2.4 C2

P4.1 C3 P4.2 C3

P2.3 C2 P2.5 C3

P1.4 C2

P6.2 C1

P5.3 C2 P8.1 C1

P3.3 C3

P1.2 C2

P3 C1

P6 C3 P5.5 C2

P3.5 C3

P5 C0

P2.2 C2

P6.1 C2 P4.5 C3

P5.1 C2

P5.2 C2 P7.2 C1

P4.4 C3 P4.3 C2

P5.2 C1 P4.2 C2

P3 C2

P7.1 C1

P5.3 C1

P1.5 C2

P4.5 C2

P6 C1

P2.5 C2

P2 C2

P3.2 C2

P3.4 C1

P1 C2 P4.4 C2

P2 C3

P5.5 C1

P4.1 C1

P4 C0

P5 C1

P1 C3

P4.1 C2 P3.3 C2 P4.2 C1

P5 C3 P3.5 C2

P3.5 C1 P4.3 C1

P4 C2 P4.4 C1

P4 C1

P4.5 C1 P3.4 C2

P4 C3

2:1

Section and plan drawing exploring the wind force on the cast at three stages of setting

KEY

CAST AFTER 3 MINUTES CAST AFTER 6 MINUTES

P5 C2

P6 C2

P6.1 C1

P6.2 C2


50

56

62

15 65

67

68 30

40

50

56

62

65

67

68

65

KEY

CASTING STAGE 1, 3 MINUTES INTO CASTING CASTING STAGE 2, 6 MINUTES INTO CASTING CASTING STAGE 3, 9 MINUTES INTO CASTING FINAL CAST CONTOUR OUTLINE

Drawing to show the impact of the wind on a cast over three moments in time while the air gun was directed at the centre of the frame

DENSITY OF CROSSES REPRESENTING THE INTENSITY OF THE WIND FORCE ACROSS THE CAST

2:1

FINAL AXO SHOWING THE IMPACT OF THE WIND ON A CAST OVER THREE MOMENTS IN TIME WHILE THE AIR GUN WAS DIRECTED AT THE CENTRE OF THE FRAME


wind casting. A family tree showing the evolution of the project.

66


67

Wind Casting. concrete pallettes.


68


Layered Casting. concrete whispers. An investigation into the process of casting concrete in superimposing layers consecutively over time, interchanging its role between mold and the cast. Simultaneously, challenging the limit of each layer's minimum thickness in proportion to its area and studying of the consequent transfer and loss of information as undulations are displaced between the layers of concrete casts.

Heidi Au Yeung Yat Ning

69


concrete curves.

reference

The concrete casts area combination of anticlastic and synclastic structure

Synclastic structures

Anticlastic structures

All curvatures on a synclastic structure are on the same direction.

Anticlastic structures is where curvatures are in opposite direction.

R = Radius of Curvature Tx = Tension of Curve X Caternary Structures Caternary: a curve that an idealized hanging chain or cable assumes under its own weight when supported only at its ends, often achieved where there is susbstantial curvature in opposing axes. Frei Otto Caternary Structure Catalogue

70

Sources: Nathalie Ramos. Concentrated Loads on Anticlastic Shells. Report. Delft University of Technology. June 14, 2013. Accessed June 23, 2016.


layered cast. Latex is an effective separator between layers as it is a flexible material that could be reused. However, it doesn't take the exact form of the mold therefore there are variations between layers that become interesting spaces.

00:00:00 Preparing the frame with space formers beneath latex

00:05:00 Pour concrete mix onto frame

00:06:35 Shake and rotate the frame in circular motionto distribute the mix

00:06:45

00:06:55

00:07:25

00:07:30 Sit the frame on top of the previous layer

71


inbetween spaces.

72

Latex is an effective separator between layers as it is a flexible material that could be reused. However, it doesn't take the exact form of the mold therefore there are variations between layers that become interesting spaces.


distortions.

73

An investigation of the distortions of the latex due to the concrete cast reveals the arreas of high/less stress in these casts, thus informing the cable net structure reinforcement for the casts.


cantilevers.

74

Layered casts could be inversed such that it performs as a cantilever, balancing on its peak formed by the space-former. As the distance from the Center of Gravity increases, the weight needed to cantilever the layer cast reduces.


75

cantilevers. Forces are asserted and trnsfered between each layer of cast as they balance on top of each other.


concrete whispers

76

The undulations of the initial layer is absorbed by and slowly dissappears into the next layered cast, just as the messageis distorted and lost in Chinese Whispers as the message is passed onto the next person.


distortions.

77

A drawing exposing the spaces formed inbetween the layers of cast and the transfer of undulations.


layered casting. A family tree showing the evolution of the project.

78


79

Layered Casting. concrete whispers.


80


Human Hair Reinforced Casting concrete fragments. This project is an experimentation of human hair as a concrete reinforcement addition. It is a study of the malleability and strength of the concrete by varying the quantity and length of hair used. A change in the behaviour of the concrete has been observed. Casts have been produced at different scales and with varying thicknesses, and have been tested through the process of controlled breaking.

Nour Al Ahmad

81


human hair.

reference

Human Hair Samples Human hair is strong in tension and can be used as a fibre reinforcement material. 82

Detail of external hair surface 'The main element of hair composition is keratin - proteins with long chains of amino acids. These chains help the control of shrinkage and cracks which are caused in normal concrete.

Sources: Jain D, Kothari A. Hair Fibre Reinforced Concrete, Research Journal of Recent Sciences, Vol. 1 (ISC-2011), 128-133 (2012) .Human Hair Close Up Image, Unknown source Monteiro, F, Natal, A, Soledade, L, Longo, E, Morphological analysis of polymers on hair fibers by SEM and AFM, vol.6, oct/Dec.2003


method.

Hair strands are separated from clumps

Concrete mix Hair is brushed over the comb

150+mm length hair

83

The rubber sheet with holes is carefully detached from the hair comb

Rubber sheet with 21 x 24 hole grid

Hair comb made out of nails fits directly into the top layer of rubber

The concrete mix is evenly spread out on the rubber mould


breaking the cast Size: 65mm widest point Weight: 16g

Size: 22mm widest point Weight: 4g

Size: 85mm widest point Weight:13g

40m

m

70mm

m

5m

20

mm

m 53m

101m

m

10

Size: 70mm widest point Weight: 9g 80mm

Size: 35mm widest point Weight: 5g

98m

m

Size: 40mm widest point Weight: 4g

100m

Size: 50mm widest point Weight: 6g

68mm

170mm

94

160mm

m 42m

mm

Size: 24mm widest point Weight: 3g

mm 67

68mm

Size: 71mm widest point Weight: 6g

50mm

Size: 13mm widest point Weight: 4g

Size: 20mm widest point Weight: 3g

Size: 15mm Weight: 3g Load: <1g

Size: 12mm widest point Weight: 4g m

93m

Size: 30mm Weight: 6g Load: 10g

Size: 24mm Weight: 5g Load: 9g

Size: 29mm Weight: 7g Load: 13g

Size: 63mm widest point Weight: 6g

101mm

44m

Size: 46mm widest point Weight: 7g

40m

70mm

m

63mm

m 44

mm

50mm

25

Size: 31mm widest point Weight: 6g

Size: 75mm widest point Weight: 14g

Size: 21mm widest point Weight: 4g

45mm

63m

70mm

Size: 9mm widest point Weight: 5g 96mm

m

Size: 11m widest point Weight: 3g

Size: 19mm widest point Weight: 5g

mm

68mm

71mm

73mm

40mm

48

13

0m

m

Size: 36mm widest point Weight: 6g

Size: 59mm widest point Weight: 12g

Size: 56mm widest point Weight: 10g m

61mm

70mm

140mm

36mm

m 13m

12.5mm

m 10.5m

43

m m

54mm

63mm

m

Identifying the connections of the hair and concrete pieces

The mould is elevated into an organic form before and is left for three hours held in this form before it is disturbed.

Breaking the mould after 3 hours of casting, before the concrete completely sets

The broken square mould before being lifted up

31

84

47m

Size: 40mm widest point Weight: 6g

41mm

46

m

m

94mm


85


hair reinforced concrete

86

Building sand: 1kg Cement: 400g Water: 900ml Hair: Synthetic hair, 700mm+ Amount: Approx. 900 strands

Building sand: 900g Cement: 400g Water: 900ml Hair: Synthetic hair, 700mm+ Amount: Approx. 1000 strands

Building sand: 1kg Cement: 600g Water: 900ml Hair: Synthetic hair, 700mm+ Amount: Approx. 700 strands

Play sand: 1.2kg Cement: 400g Water: 900ml Hair: Synthetic hair, 700mm+ Amount: Approx. 800 strands


24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

87

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

Drawing of grid cast with 150+mm hair length

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V


hair reinforced concrete. A family tree showing the evolution of the project.

88


89

Hair Reinforced Casting. concrete fragments.


90


Moldless Casting. concrete statues. The project is an investigation into partial mouldless vertical concrete casting. The cast is a result of the viscosity of concrete, and the paths are allowed to form in the layers of the casting device. The device is a vertical arrangement of multiple frames layered with filters of perforated stretched fabric. Concrete is poured vertically as a continuous extrusion through the filters. Depending on its viscosity and pouring velocity, each extrusion is unique, but the cast is guided and reinforced with both linear and undulating metal wire. Although the casting method is precise and determined, the result of each cast is unique and unpredictable. Ivy Jiang

91


liquid concrete

reference

Concrete Consistency Consistency affects workability of concrete. That is, wetter mixes are more workable than drier mixes, but concrete of the same consistency may vary in workability. FLOW TEST The flow test is a method to determine consistency of fresh concrete and identify transportable moisture limit of solid bulk cargoes. Application When fresh concrete is delivered to a site by a truck mixer, its consistency needs to be checked before it is poured into form work.

FLOW (%) =

Diameter of flow (cm) - 25 25

X 100

92

SLUMP TEST Slump test is a method used to determine the consistency of concrete. The consistency, or stiffness, indicates how much water has been used in the mix. The slump test result is a measure of the behaviour of a compacted inverted cone of concrete under the action of gravity. It measures the consistency or the wetness of concrete.

Sources: "Self Consolidating Concrete: 30" Slump Flow." YouTube. 2013. Accessed June 23, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x3JATc7gho8. "Coal Combustion By-Products." How To ... Concrete Testing Fly Ash and Cement. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.caer.uky.edu/kyasheducation/testing-concrete.shtml. Coull, Sarah. "Concrete Workability Measurements: The Slump Test." Concrete Thoughts. 2013. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://blog.kryton.com/2013/08/concrete-workability-measurements-the-slump-test/.


method Process

93

Pour the concrete from the top, allow it to go through the voids on the fabric all the way to the bottom.


moldless casting

94

It analysis the relationship between the concrete sliding behaviour to the experiment setup. The paths are guided by the voids on the each layer, the extrusion is the result of the concrete viscosity. The columns are more linear and elegant towards the top, because I use quick-setting concrete which sets in 30 minutes, so while the castingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s going on, the mix was getting thicker, which is a better consistency for the extrusion result.


95

A hugely scaled up experiment was taken in the new casting shelf. It is an investment on defining the velocity value to insure the mix can have enough height potential energy to travel through voids to the bottom layer, which the height of the model is around 0.8m tall and weighted 23kg


moldless casting

96

This is an analytical drawing of important factors to the project, the cast is a result of the viscosity of the concrete, and the paths are allowed to form in the layers of the casting device. The drawing include these information in four pours: 1. Basic layer reading of each pouring distance from the edge to the frame / consistency / weights / voids diameter 2 Velocity : Concrete movement direction vectors on both horizontal and vertical direction Moving speed / Pouring height 3 Viscosity : Consistency 4. Reinforcement 5. Pouring Force

A metal mesh is printed onto vertical steel reinforcement bar to form an angular curvature surface.


97

Mesh form work are printed in two apertures, the looser the inner face and tighter outer face. Therefore when concrete filled in from the top, the form work will lock the concrete in.


moldless concrete. A family tree showing the evolution of the project.

98


99

Moldless Casting. concrete statues.


100


Drip Casting. concrete stalactites. Characterized by a temporal process controlled by gravity, this project explores a technique by which a concrete cast is produced without a static mold, defying the basic principle of the need for a tangible template guiding the cast. Created through a dynamic analogue procedure, the formation of the concrete pieces borrows from the established process typically occuring in caves: the build up of stalactites and stalagmites. It condenses this ancient process into hours, and in some cases even minutes. The resulting casts are produced by the continuous dripping of liquid mortar along a decreasing circumference resulting in the growth of the cast downwards (stalactite) and upwards (stalagmite) until the two halves of the piece fuse into one. These small beads, therefore, become building blocks fabricating the cast. The concrete stalactite structure is formed as a result of including gelatin as an additive to the mortar, increasing the cohesive force of the mixture, enabling the concrete to â&#x20AC;&#x153;stretchâ&#x20AC;? more, to cling and finally to form an organic aggregate. Nnenna Itanyi

101


drip casting

reference

Stalactites

102

A stalactite from the Greek stalasso meaning ''that which drips'' is a type of formation that hangs from the ceiling of caves, hot springs, or manmade structures such as bridges and mines. Any material which is soluble, can be deposited as a colloid, or is in suspension, or is capable of being melted, may form a stalactite. Stalactites may be composed of amberat, lava, minerals, mud, peat, pitch, sand, and sinter. A stalactite is not necessarily a speleothem, though speleothems are the most common form of stalactite because of the abundance of limestone caves. The corresponding formation on the floor of the cave is known as a stalagmite. In caves, stalagmites grow rather slowly 0.00028-0.037 in/yr (0.007-0.929 mm/yr). Soda straw stalactites are the fastest growing (up to 1.57 in/yr, 40 mm/yr), but are the most fragile stalactites in caves. Soda straw stalactites form along a drop of water and continue growing down from the cave ceiling forming a tubular stalactite, which resembles a drinking straw in appearance. Their internal diameter is exactly equal to the diameter of the water drop.

3D Printing Featuring an industrial robot that aggregates material over distance and therefore exceeds its predefined workspace, this installation brings not only forward a novel scale of digital fabrication in architecture, it also takes a first step in characterizing a novel approach in digital fabrication, taking architecture beyond the creation of static forms to the design of dynamic material aggregation processes - Grammazio and Kohler, ETH Zurich. This process is a form of 3D printing with a clay cylinder constituting their architectural block.

Source: "Stalactite and Stalagmite." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.britannica.com/science/stalactite. "Remote Material Deposition." Gramazio Kohler Research. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://gramaziokohler.arch.ethz.ch/web/e/lehre/277.html


method Process

103

As the length of the cast increases, the circumference allowed for pouring decreases until it closes up. At this point the cast formation stops and the stalactite and stalagmite reach their maximum depth and length respectively.

The device helps define the circumference of the pouring path and keeps the pouring height the concrete is poured constant. The device is stopped after every rotation of 45o to refill and thus pours 5ml of concrete during each rotation.


concrete stalactites

104

Concrete Casts made by mesh molds.

Comparision of the subsequent lengths and diameters of concrete casts.


105


concrete stalactites

106

A drawing representing the process of creating of the concrete cast showing pouring paths. Each colour representing the lengths at different points in the cast after a specific revolution of the concrete pouring device.


107

Plan view of proposed field of elements.

Elevations of each of the four components.

A field of stalactite and stalagmite components


concrete stalactites A family tree showing the evolution of the project. PICTURE OF PROJECT WORK

108


109

Drip Casting. concrete stalactites.


110


Anti-Gravity Casting. concrete shells This project investigates into anti-gravity through gyroscopic casting. The process developed allows cavities to form within concrete casts, challenging conventional slip casting. A system of control points in tension against gravity is used to form cavities during rotation in fabric moulds. Zoe Tam

111


slip casting

reference

PolyMorph: Digital Ceramics

112

Generative Fabrication Jenny Sabin, Slip casting process and 3d prints. This casues a hollow space to be casted inside. Slip is poured into a mould, set and poured out, leaving the cast with a hollow cavity. This is used as a reference in the creation of the anti-gravity casting device.

Sources: Sabin, Jenny. "Generative Fabrication." Jenny Sabin Studio. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://jennysabin.com/?p=1035. "Data Clay :: Projects :: Â PolyMorph: Digital Ceramics." PolyMorph. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://data-clay.org/projects/PolyMorph/index.html.


method Process

113

Process of casting with a piping bag which causes less spillage and more precision in injecting concrete The gimble device allows the cast to be suspended in the middle and rotated on two axis in all directions. Gravity's force will pull from all directions and therefore be anti-gravity


anti gravity casting P4 180

P4 180

P2 45

P3 315

P0 0

P2 ANTI-CLOCKWISE ROTATION P3 45 315 P0 ON ONE AXIS ONLY 0

ANTI-CLOCKWISE ROTATION ON ONE AXIS ONLY

P3c

P1a

P2b

P3c

P2c

P2a

P1a

POSITION 1 0 TURNS

P2b

P4 180

P2c

POSITION 1 0 TURNS

P2 45

P0 0

P2a

P3 315

P0b

ANTI-CLOCKWISE ROTATION ON ONE AXIS ONLY

P3b P1b

P0c

P3a

P1c

P0a

P0b P3b

POSITION 2 60 TURNS

P1b

P0c

P3a

114

P0a

P1a

P3c

P1c

P2b

P2c

POSITION 2 60 TURNS

P2a

POSITION 1 0 TURNS

P0b P3b P1b P3a

P0c

P1c

P0a

POSITION 1 120 TURNS

POSITION 2 60 TURNS

POSITION 1 120 TURNS

POSITION 1 180 TURNS POSITION 1 120 TURNS

POSITION 1 180 TURNS

POSITION 1 180 TURNS

A cast gradually becoming hollow as it coats the half full fabric mould with concrete during rotation from the center to outwards. This occurs due to the high speed and if maintained constant, it will cast from the fabric mould.

OUTSIDE SHELL AND COATING IS CASTED 3D SCAN

CAST IS FLIPPED AND SITS ON 4 CORNERS

OUTSIDE SHELL AND COATING IS CASTED 3D SCAN

OUTSIDE SHELL AND COATING IS CASTED 3D SCAN

CAST IS FLIPPED AND SITS ON 4 CORNERS

CAST IS FLIPPED AND SITS ON 4 CORNERS


115

The process of casting utilises a system of 9 control points to register varying levels of tension against gravity in fabric moulds.


concrete shells A family tree showing the evolution of the project.

116


117

Anti-Gravity Casting. concrete shells.


118


Gravity Casting. concrete drapes. Structures created by fabric reinforced concrete. Dipping fabric into concrete and hanging them to create natural shapes formed by gravity. Amy Wu

119


caternary structures

reference

Arches with the form of a “transformed catenary.” for different heights of the load. Mathematical formula by Inglis(1951)

120

Gaudi’s Hanging modelmade for the church of the Colonia Guell

Hyperbolic paraboloid surfaces Sources: "Air Journal up to Part B." Issuu. Accessed June 23, 2016. https://issuu.com/11huisk/docs/air_journal-up_to_part_b.

Poleni’s hanging model constructed to check the stability of St. Peter’s dome

Hanging moderl of a gothic crass vault


method

Drawing the Pattern

Sawing the Pocket onto the Fabric

Tying Seperate Fabric Together

121 Pouring Concrete onto the Board

Sreading out the Concrete

Adding More Concrete on Top

Adjusting fabric


concrete drapes One Point

122

By hanging from one point, the fabric creates a lot of folds under gravity, giving it structural strength. As the fabric absorbs a lot of water so the mix must be very thin whilst the cement : sand ratio is of less significance. On the other hand, the rough fabric is harder to form a complex shape than the thinner ones. In this case it means the rougher ones has less folds.

Fabric Size Fabric Type Rough Cement to Sand Sand Type

1 20*10 cm Soft 1:1 Play

2 20*10 cm Soft 1:1 Play


150cm

123

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 20*10 cm 20*10 cm 20*10 cm 30*10 cm 30*10 cm 30*10 cm 30*10 cm 30*10 cm 40*10 cm 40*10 cm 40*10 cm 50*20 cm 50*20 cm 50*20 cm Soft Soft Rough Soft Soft Soft Soft Rough Soft Soft Rough Soft Soft Soft 1:4 1:1 1:4 1:1 1:1 1:4 1:1 1:4 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 Play Building Building Play Play Play Building Building Play Play Building Play Play Building


concrete drapes Two Points

Three Points

124

These experiments are controlled by the number of and distance between suspension points.

Four Points


125

Exploration of joining suspended casts to create new spatial typologies.


concrete drapes 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

P11

7

8

P1

1

L

P15 2

P8

G

3 P16

C

4

A

P6 5

D

P13 6

K P17

P2

7 P9

126

P4

8

H

P14 9 I

P7

B

P5

10 P18

The Movement of Unfolded Fabric

11 F P3 12 E

J

13 P12 14

P10

P1 (1,6) P2 (7,6) P3 (12,6) P4 (8,5) P5 (10,5) P6 (5,4) P7 (10,4) P8 (3,3) P9 (8,3) P10 (16,3) P11 (1,2) P12 (14,2) P13 (6,1) P14 (9,1) P15 (2,0) P16 (4,0) P17 (7,0) P18 (11,0) Distance per unit: 7cm


127

Plan of cast

Sequence of Casting


concrete drapes A family tree showing the evolution of the project.

128


129

Gravity Casting. concrete drapes.


130


Knitted Casting. concrete structures. An Investigation into the extent to which the complex geometries created by knitted fabric, can act as structural parameters in the reinforcement of concrete. The compressional qualities of concrete can in turn reciprocate with the fibrous, structural and visual qualities of a given knitted material.

Victoria Oshinusi

131


textile reinforced concrete.

132

Textilbeton

An investigation into the structural strengthening of open grid warp knitted fabrics by means of an in-situ polymer coating process. The research gave insight into the possible forms that the cast textiles could take, as well as the importance of the knit structure within the fabric. Considerations were taken to try and achieve the most effective stitch derived from a combination of industry standard, 3 dimensional, 'warp' patterns. Ideally, 6 layers of carbon fibre reinforced textile would be appropriate to achieve the appropriate load bearing capacity of the hung wall, once coated in 15mm of concrete.

Sources: "In-Situ Polymer Coating of Open Grid Warp Knitted Fabrics for Textile Reinforced Concrete Application." Sage. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://jit.sagepub.com/ content/40/2/157.abstract?rss=1.


method Process

133

1. Water

2. Sand

The method of casting was influenced by the process of developing film photography. In order to cast the knitted elements, the three components of concrete; cement, water and sand, were placed in separate baths, rather than mixed together. The experiment questioned how alterations within the sequence order, varied the structural capacity of the knitted textile.

3. Cement


swatch gauges

1

134

2

1

PVA applied to swatches before being hung. Aiming to reduce fabrics permeability to concrete, allowing a single surface to be cast similar to photography.

2

Structural Ribbing in Gauges


135

Changing Concrete Application Sequences Experiments to find the optimal material sequence and length of time in material bath.


strength through structure

136


137

Sequence of Analogue Photography as Casting Process Using knitted fabric as the basis for a positive, material application, this drawing shows the application sequence of concrete in conjunction with the physical and structural change of the knitted textile, throughout the casting process.


concrete structure A family tree showing the evolution of the project.

138


139

Knitted Casting. concrete structures.


140


Fabric Reinforced Casting. Concrete Cones 141 An exploration into the relationship between concrete and tensile fabric. Through experimenting with hybrid layers and structural thinness, an individual process has been realised. This project hopes to achieve a process which can ultimately become parametric, combining the technological basis for the formwork with the handcrafted appliance of concrete.

Harry Johnson


casting device An evolution of casting devices. An evolution of the casting device to increase the scale of the cast. Structural strength of the cast is determined by: 1 / The ratio of the thinnest part of the stem to the overall height of the cast 2/ The process of concrete pouring, changing the cast from solid to hollow places alot of weight on the thin walls leading breakage.

142


method

143

Process 1. Fabric mold is pulled into tension and pinned in a circle by steel bolts 2. The fabric mold is pulled upwards/downwards to create the tapering cone like fabric mold. 3. Concrete is poured into the fabric wall


initial experiments Initial experiments with different interventions to challenge the form of concrete

144


fragility

Hybrid Mold

Uniformity 145

Thinning Stone / Rock Embedded

Thinning

Cone


casting

146

Height: 1.92m Max Diameter: 0.71 m Min Diameter: 0.036 m

The drawing tracks the individual movement of the hand applying the concrete to the surface of the fabric

The coordinate and time frames allow an understanding of the physical casting process.


147

Fabric Stretched Upwards Interior Concrete Wall Fabric Stretched Downwards Exterior Concrete Wall Starting point of fabric coordinate Intermediate point of fabric coordinate Final Point of Fabric Coordinate Trackng movement between the ABC Time taken to move the fabric down Vertical distance from Ground


concrete structure A family tree showing the evolution of the project.

148


149

Fabric Reinforced Casting. concrete cones..


150


Fabric Casting. concrete 'seal, pulled, tight' Fabric formwork is a building technology that involves the use of structural membranes as the main facing material for concrete moulds, which can be flexible and also deflect under the pressure of liquid concrete. In addition to this, the resulting geometries exhibit natural curvature as well as excellent surface finishes that generally not associated with concrete structure. However, because of the flexibility of the material, when casting with a complex formwork, the resulting form can be unpredictable and might lead to casting failure. Therefore, in this project, the aim is to create registers of parameters that control the varied geometries. And then, by controlling these parameters, fabric molding can be parameterised and the result can be precise.

Ke Yang

151


fabric casting Types of Fabric Formwork:

i. Column

ii. Slab

iii. Branching Structure

Process of Casting in Fabric Formwork

152

i. Tailor the fabric;

ii. Attach the formwork on a rigid

Advantages of Fabric Forming: i. Material Reduction: Fabric forms use much less material than conventional rigid formwork. ii. Cost Savings: Fabric forms cost far less than rigid forms due to the efficiency of the tensile-only membrane. In addition, certain fabrics can be reused iii. Improved Concrete Quality: Permeable fabrics improve surface finish, compression, strength and impermeability by filtering air bubbles and excess mix water from the wet concrete; iv. Waterproof Concrete: Inexpensive plastic-coated fabric forms provide a permanent waterproof shield when left on a concrete cast â&#x20AC;&#x201C; useful, for example, in damp-proofing foundation footings.

Sources: Veenendaal, Diederik. History and Overview of Fabric Formwork: Using Fabrics for Concrete Casting. Report. 2011.


method Process

153

A variety of geometries were created by these three types of prestress move, and all of the results were represented by forming different pleat pattern on the surface and the thickness of the section.

This grid of the framed meshes provide hanging points and also the location of the points.


fabric casting

154

Diagram of Grid Points Tracing Between States Conctrolled Points Shown in Yellow and Red


155


concrete matrix walls

156

Elevtion View

Top View


A Growing System

157


fabric casting. A family tree showing the evolution of the project.

158


159

Fabric Casting. concrete 'seal, pulled, tight'


11

160

7

1

6

9

2


5

10

concrete. conclusion Beginning with the same basic ingredients of cement, water and sand the unit developed 14 radical methods of casting concrete.

4

From the thickness to the height, the structure to the form, These methods have produced concrete that has not been seen before, pushing us to reconsider this banal material and creating new possibilities of using concrete in architecture. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

3

Centrifugal Casting / Concrete Walls Slip Casting / Concrete Deposits Internally Inflatable Casting / Concrete Lattice Inflatable Casting / Concrete Domes Wind Casting / Concrete Palettes Layered Casting / Concrete Whispers Human Hair Reinforced Casting / Concrete Fragments Moldless Casting / Concrete Statues Drip Casting / Concrete Stalactites Anti-Gravity Casting / Concrete Shells Gravity Casting / Concrete Drapes Knitted Casting / Concrete Structures Fabric Reinforced Casting / Concrete Cones Fabric Casting / Concrete Sealed, Pulled, Tight.

161

12

13

8

14


162

Unit Trip, November 2015 Fiat Factory, Lingotto, Turin, Italy


163

ug11 Sofia Krimizi James Hampton

Alexandra Campbell Amy Wu Cherie Wong Harry Johnson Heidi Au Yeung Ivy Jing Zi Yu Justin Li Ke Yang Nnenna Itanyi Nour Al Ahmad Rupinder Gidr Sardonna Leung Victoria Oshinusi Zoe Tam

2015-16


164


165

many thanks to... Sponsor Arup Consultants + Critics Chris Carroll and ARUP, Costandis Kizis, Johanna Muszbek, Hseng Tai Ja Reng Lintner, Brendon Carlin, Francesca Hughes, Frederik Petersen, Sara Shafiei, Bob Sheil, Mollie Claypool, Elisabeth Dow, Yota Adilenidou, Delfina Fantini van Ditmar, Stefanos Levidis, Diony Kypraiou, Daniel Rea, Nick Browne, Jessica In, Manolis Stavrakakis, Ifigenia Liangi, Cristiana Chiorino, the Pier Luigi Nervi Project Association and from ETH Zurich: Achilleas Xydis, Sarah Nichols, Guillaume Habert, Nils Havelka

Cover Photo Victoria Oshinusi Editor Heidi Au Yeung


166


references.

167


Cement Mortar. http://www.123rf.com/photo_27426620_abstract-texture-of-the-stiffened-cementmortar-for-a-background-surface-and-for-wallpaper.html. "CIDADE DAS ARTES." 2013. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.christiandeportzamparc.com/en/ projects/cidade-das-artes/. "Gramazio Kohler Architects ETH SIA BSA." Kohler Architects. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www. gramaziokohler.com/. "Chapter 3. General Procedures." - Petrographic Methods of Examining Hardened Concrete: A Petrographic Manual, July 2006. July 2006. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ publications/research/infrastructure/pavements/pccp/04150/chapt3.cfm. Natural Cement. In 123rf. https://www.123rf.com/photo_30381067_vintage-or-grungy-white-backgroundof-natural-cement-or-stone-old-texture-as-a-retro-pattern-wall-it.html. "Brutalism." Brutalism. Accessed June 23, 2016. https://www.architecture.com/Explore/ArchitecturalStyles/ Brutalism.aspx. "Spun Concrete Columns." Building Design. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.bdonline.co.uk/spunconcrete-columns/5013936.article. "Spun Concrete Columns." Building Design. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.bdonline.co.uk/spunconcrete-columns/5013936.article. Cheng, Swee. Patches of Green in Concrete Jungle, Hong Kong # 2. February 8, 2010. https://www.flickr. com/photos/sweecheng/4381753655.

168

Nathalie Ramos. Concentrated Loads on Anticlastic Shells. Report. Delft University of Technology. June 14, 2013. Accessed June 23, 2016. Coull, Sarah. "Concrete Workability Measurements: The Slump Test." Concrete Thoughts. 2013. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://blog.kryton.com/2013/08/concrete-workability-measurements-the-slump-test/. "Stalactite and Stalagmite." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www. britannica.com/science/stalactite. "Remote Material Deposition." Gramazio Kohler Research. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://gramaziokohler. arch.ethz.ch/web/e/lehre/277.html. "Coal Combustion By-Products." How To ... Concrete Testing Fly Ash and Cement. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.caer.uky.edu/kyasheducation/testing-concrete.shtml. "Air Journal up to Part B." Issuu. Accessed June 23, 2016. https://issuu.com/11huisk/docs/air_journal-up_ to_part_b. "Ghent." Mathys BVBA. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://mathys.com/realisaties/gent.kapiteinstraat/index. htm. "Pre-stressed Concrete Lintels." McGrath Quarries Prestressed Concrete Lintels Comments. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.mcgrathquarries.com/?product_items=pre-stressed-concrete-lintels.


"Portland Cement." Natal Portland Cement. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.npc.co.za/. "Inflatable Concrete Housing." Phaidon. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.phaidon.com/agenda/architecture/articles/2014/july/31/inflatable-concrete-housing-who-knew/. "Data Clay :: Projects :: PolyMorph: Digital Ceramics." PolyMorph. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://data-clay. org/projects/PolyMorph/index.html. Sabin, Jenny. "Generative Fabrication." Jenny Sabin Studio. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://jennysabin. com/?p=1035. "In-Situ Polymer Coating of Open Grid Warp Knitted Fabrics for Textile Reinforced Concrete Application." Sage. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://jit.sagepub.com/content/40/2/157.abstract?rss=1. Schiller, Ben. "This Concrete Fixes Itself When Exposed To Sunlight." Co.Exist. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.fastcoexist.com/1681557/this-concrete-fixes-itself-when-exposed-to-sunlight. "Free Form Structures." Sprayed Concrete Association. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://sca.associationhouse. org.uk/case_study_list.php?id=36. Veenendaal, Diederik. History and Overview of Fabric Formwork: Using Fabrics for Concrete Casting. Report. 2011. "Self Consolidating Concrete: 30" Slump Flow." YouTube. 2013. Accessed June 23, 2016. https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=x3JATc7gho8. "Dirt and Broken Concrete." LuGher Texture Library. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.lughertexture. com/bricks-walls-textures-free-hires/concrete-walls-hires-textures. 169


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Ug 11 Concrete Laboratory  

A catalogue of research, investigation and experimentation into new methods of casting concrete, challenging this banal material's potential...

Ug 11 Concrete Laboratory  

A catalogue of research, investigation and experimentation into new methods of casting concrete, challenging this banal material's potential...

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